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Over the past several centuries, many specific elements have evolved, which cover the majority of the situations which occur in mechanical design. These elements are grouped in categories, most of which are listed in Machinery’s Handbook. • Fasteners • Gears and Sprockets • Bearings and Bushings • Shaft Couplings • Brakes and Clutches • Actuators (motors, solenoids, pneumatics, and hydraulics) • Sensors This list may not (yet) be exhaustive. However, it provides 90% coverage. If you master all of these elements, you know everything you need to know to be a mechanical designer. (That’s a little sarcasm, but you will be on your way.)

SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering

1

**Power Transmission and Timing
**

A frequent task which arises in design is to transfer power from a driving source (usually a rotational source) and a drive source. This task is called power transmission. A task related to power transmission is timing. In the internal combustion engine, fuel and air delivery to the piston cylinder and the spark had to be timed mechanically. A timing belt or chain was used for this purpose. In modern systems, sensors usually determine the timed information. However, sometimes these sensors must be mechanically coupled to the driving source, usually through the same mechanical mechanisms of days gone by. The difference between power transmission and timing are slight. In power transmission, the forces are larger than in timing, and the methods for shaft coupling require more robust design techniques. Timing requires greater accuracy. This usually translates into less back-lash and more expensive components. Methods for achieving power transmission include: • • • • Gears Belts and Pulleys Sprocket and Chain Timing Belt and Gears

SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering

2

Belts wear over time and must be replaced. the belt and pulley has many disadvantages. FIRST in Engineering 3 .g.) Lift-o-matic I on the Phoenix Lift-o-matic II on Buford (the removed version) Wall-crawler on Johnny #5 Although straight-forward. Although machinery handbook gives design tables and equations for belt calculations. water pump. Improvements in belt technology and automatic tensioners have reduced this problem. V-belts alleviate this problem by increasing the effective surface area over which contact is maintained.Belts and Pulleys (pg. Belt slip determines the maximum power transmission. SYEN4399. etc. Examples of the belt and pulley system: • • • • Power distribution belts in an automobile (e. This adds to bearing loads in a system. the designer should always refer to manufacturer design information where it exists. Remember the difficulty with the Lift-o-matic II on Buford. Belt and pulley must be pretensioned. the belt that drives the A/C. 2372-2409) The basic concepts of power transmission are best illustrated through the belt and pulley.

. Let us perform some rudimentary analysis on this system. The belt moves through an arc length. Assume the first pulley turns through an angle. SYEN4399. any set of pulleys can be devised which give an output speed in any range desired.Different Pulley Diameters One use for belts is to apply an increase in torque between the driving element and the driven element. If the driving torque is fixed. · · · r2 θ1 Differentiating this equation yields r 1 θ 1 = r 2 θ 2 which may be rearranged to determine the gear ratio. Consider two pulleys driven by a belt. The second pulley must move through this same length. The first pulley has radius r 1 and the second pulley has a different radius. This provides a powerful tool for matching conditions.= --. ---. s 1 = r 2 θ 2 and r1 θ1 = r2 θ2 . assuming the belt does not bunch or slip. s1 = r 1 θ 1 . r 2 . FIRST in Engineering 4 . the ratio of output speed to input speed is the inverse ratio of the pulley radii. · r1 θ2 In words. Hence. θ 1 .

Gears The problems with pulleys include slip (which limits maximum power transmission). As the string is unrolled (while remaining taught) it traces out a curve in space. the rate of winding/unwinding would be uniform and not depend on center distance. The equation relating pressure angle and base circle diameter is D b = D cos φ where D is the pitch diameter. where α is the angle through which the string is unwrapped. The gear tooth form is created by an involute curve. φ . This curve forms the tooth form. the line traces out the tooth form. Pretend that a string is rolled up on a cylinder whose diameter is called the base diameter. SYEN4399. The pressure angle is defined as the angle between the lin-of-action and a perpendicular to the line of centers. load on bearings (which increases losses). and set up time are solved by gears. If two cylinders of different diameters were to maintain string contact while the string were unwinding on one circle and winding onto the other. The pitch diameter relates the number of teeth on a gear and the diametral pitch. called the involute curve. When α reaches the pitch circle. FIRST in Engineering 5 . wear (which limits maximum life). it takes on the value of the pressure angle. As α is varied. line of centers eo lin fa ion ct φ base circle The involute function is inv ( α ) = tan ( α ) – α .

It is the number of millimeters per tooth. As two gears whose centers are correctly placed mesh. –1 (1) The pitch diameter is the circle along which gear meshReprinted from Machinery’s Handbook. were rolling on each other without slip. module is the inverse concept. Note that the linear distance in this measurement is one of arc length for spur gears. the same concept is called module. ing occurs. However. the conversion is: P d = ( 25.Gear Terminology The diametral pitch of a gear determines how many teeth per inch a gear contains. Since module and pitch are linked to a specific unit.4mm/inch ) ( m ) . it is as if two cylinders.7 mm of arc length. For instance. FIRST in Engineering 6 . 26th ed. each with the pitch diameter of its gear. Pitch diameter can be calculated from pitch and number of teeth (Z) by D = Z ⁄ P d = mZ . 32 pitch means that a gear has 32 teeth per inch. For instance.7 module means that one tooth occupies 0. a 0. SYEN4399. For metric gears.

1 1 The larger the pressure angle. This means that most of the force will be directed towards turning the gear and little will be pushing against the bearing support.. FIRST in Engineering 7 1 . This results in a lessening of the unused force and strenthens the tooth at the same time. 14 -. SYEN4399.° is being phased out and should not be used unless abso2 lutely necessary. The only down-side is that the fewest number of teeth available on a gear is larger than for a smaller pressure angle.Geometry of Gears In order for gears to roll properly along each other.= ---------------------. and the pitting wear on the teeth was 2 excessive. the thicker the tooth and the more normal the force. 2 20° . the force will be mostly perpendicular to the gear tooth face.= --------------------------. the original teeth on Johnny #5’s drive system were 14 -. However.° . 25° . their centers must be spaced at the distance: ( D 1 + D2 ) ( Z1 + Z2 ) m ( Z1 + Z2 ) L = -----------------------. Pressure angles for readily available gears (English or metric) are usually quantized into the following bins. this is done at the expense of much design time and design of tooling. In a well designed gear.° . Custom pressure angles can be made. Although it is still readily available. As an example. 2 2P d 2 (1) Forces between gear teeth will be directed along the pressure angle. 14 -.

for a two stage gear train --------. FIRST in Engineering 8 .Gear Train Calculations The classic spur gear train involves two geometric rules.= – ---------- = – --------- . where D is the pitch diameter and Z is the number · D out Z out θ in of teeth on a gear. This is a difference from pulleys. This formula comes from the same geometric consideration as two pulleys. A large gear and a small gear at a middle stage will share a shaft. · Z 2 Z in θ out Hence.= --------- ------- . It indicates that direction is reversed for each gear stage. SYEN4399. Meshing gears have the speed ratio --------. where the direction remains the same. Gears which share a common shaft have the same rotational speed. The normal use is to have smaller gears mesh with larger gears. · D in Z in θ out 2. · Z out Z1 θ in This formula can be replicated ad infinitum. Note the negative sign in these formulas. where Z 1 and Z 2 share a common shaft. 1.

a static analysis will be fairly accurate under all circumstances. which transmit motion from one gear to the next normal forces. angular accelerations will be moderate. In fact. Two components of forces are considered: • • forces tangent to the pitch circle. FIRST in Engineering 9 . the resulting linear accelerations and Coriolis terms will be very small compared to both the forces and moments encountered in a gear system. which serve no useful purpose. the tolerances in materials will affect the calculations more than accelerations. During starting and stopping. such as when a gear train is locked up due to an external failure. even though the gear system may be moving in space. the dynamic aspect of gears can be neglected. there will be inertial “forces” due to the gear’s moment of inertia. Thus. In other words.Forces in Spur Gears Assume that gears are moving at constant velocity. Small gears have small moments of inertia. except when locking up the gear system (an unusual circumstance). but occur because the pressure angle is not “perfect” -Wt B2 τM B1 Wt φ Wn τG2 -Wn τB2 τB1 Consider the free body diagram of the gears and note the implied direction of W t . This can be accommodated by applying a safety factor. will be negligible when compared with the actual moments. except under extreme circumstances. Except for dramatic stoppages. SYEN4399. The product of these two factors. Also.

0. B 2x = – W t . Hence. This yields six equations for the two gears. Z2 τM ------.9.= – ----.Static Analysis of Spur Gears This is a planar problem. So. we can sum forces in the x and y directions. B 1x = W t .7 to account for friction at the bearings. For planetary gears. Note: the y direction is always aligned with the line of action and the x direction is aligned perpendicular to this. 0.= – --. I normally use a fudge factor of 0.8. And for worm gears. B 2y = W n τ M + τ B1 – r 1 W t = 0 .= ( – f ) ----Z1 τ G2 (4) SYEN4399. τ G2 + τ B2 + r 2 W t = 0 . τM r1 Z1 (3) For spur gears. (1) (2) Unless you prepare a model for bearing torques (ie as a function of angular speed or bearing forces) it is best to neglect them in the analysis and develop an experiential model for the friction. B 1y = – W n .. r2 Z2 τ G2 ------. FIRST in Engineering 10 . and sum moments in the z direction. This might also be a function of the actual bearings.

τM = T stall 1 – ----------------- . This is the force acting at that point multiplied by the velocity of the point. ω 1 Noting that. only the tangential force enters into the equation: P = Wt vt = Wt r1 ω 1 = W t r2 ω2 = τM ω1 . Consider the work rate done at the point of contact. by neglecting the friction torque. this is erring in the direction of conservatism for failure criteria and is a good thing. the power at the first stage is P = T stall ω1 1 – ----------------- . This is actually a dot product and. However. since the entire velocity is tangentially directed at the circumference of a circle. ω no load ω no load SYEN4399. for DC motors. the tangent force is: τM W t = ------ r1 (1) Since this force will be used in failure calculations. This occurs because power encapsulates both the torque and the velocity. this force will be larger than the actual force. Because the force acts along the pressure line. FIRST in Engineering 11 (3) ω . the horizontal component of the force is: W n = W t tan φ (2) It is often useful to treat gears through the power that they transmit.Calculating the Forces From equation 2 on the previous slide (neglecting friction).

FIRST in Engineering 12 .Internal Gearing An internal gear is a spur gear (or helical gear if you have some extra cash) turned inside out. the pinion rolls around the inside of the internal gear (relatively speaking). Do not make the pinion too large or interference will result. Internal Gear. In the first case. and usually the internal gear is cut deeper and the pinion tooth is lengthened. SYEN4399. either the internal gear will be pinned to avoid rotation or the center of the pinion will be pinned to avoid rotation. In internal gear meshes. the pinion’s axis will rotate. The addendum and dedendum are reversed. the margin for error (ie with number of teeth) must be considered more carefully than with conventional spur gear meshes. the internal gear will rotate about its axis. From Stock Drive Products Design Manual In most cases. Standard spur gears will mate with internal gears. However. In the second case.

= ----------------. D = r s + r P = ------------------.. FIRST in Engineering 13 .= --------------------------- D +D 2 Z +Z 2P d m(Z + Z ) 2 In a planetary gear system.= ----------------- Z –Z 2P d Z +Z 2P d Z I = Z s + 2Z P SYEN4399. In order for the two circles to be tangent. I P I P I P Hence. D = r I – r P = -----------------. ----------------. the center distance between the Planet gear (shown) and the sun gear (not shown) follows the same rules as for ordinary spur gears. Planet Gear rP D rI D –D 2 Z –Z 2P d m(Z – Z ) 2 Internal (or ring) gear s P s P s P Also.= --------------------------. r P + D = r I .Center Distance for Internal Gears The geometry of internal gears involves a small circle inscribed in a larger circle.= ----------------. I P s P This yields the first constraint on planetary gear teeth.

The sun gear serves as the input element.u t . the pitch velocity is v s = ---------.e. counter· Z s θs clockwise). 2P d ˆ ˜ · Planet Gear Internal (or ring) gear ut ur The velocity of the point of contact between the ring gear and · ZI θI the planet gear is : v I = --------. or driven at a desired speed.u t . several planet gears (Zp). where u t is the unit vector in the direction of travel. where k points out p s . 2P · (Z + Z ) · d ˜ SYEN4399.u r . Assuming the sun gear is being driven at a rate θ s (i. The planet gears are constrained to move between the sun and the ring gear and serve as the output motion.θ p u t .Planetary Gear Systems A planetary gear system involves a ring gear (ZI). FIRST in Engineering 14 . determining its surface velocities is not as p s -ˆ easy. and a sun gear (Zs). 2P d ˆ ˜ Since the planet gear is both revolving around a center and rotating.ˆ ˆ of the page. The ring gear can be fixed. moving. This unit vector rotates with angular velocity θ p k . The position of the center of the planet is r p = ---------------------. where u r is the unit vector directed from the center ˆ 2P (Z + Z ) d ˜ ˆ ˆ of the sun to the center of the moving planet. The velocity of the center is v p = ---------------------.

FIRST in Engineering 15 .ut = ---------------------. 2P d ˜ Planet Gear v I/p ˜ The velocity of the point of contact is the same for the sun gear and the planet gear: · Zs θs ( Zp + Z s ) · Zp · · · · -ˆ .ˆ ˆ v s = ---------. when substituted into Equation (2) yields: Z p Z p · · · ZI θI + Zs θs --------------------------.which.θ p u t + -------- θs/p u t or Z I θ I = ( Z p + Zs )θ p + Zp θ s/p 2P d 2P d 2P d ˜ · Z · Zs · (2) s Equation (1) can be solved to determine θ s/p = 1 + ----- θ p – ----- θ s .θ p ut – -------- θ s/p u t or Z s θs = ( Z p + Z s )θ p – Zp θ s/p 2P d 2P d 2P d ˜ (1) The velocity of the point of contact is the same for the ring gear and the planet gear: · ZI θI ( Z p + Zs ) · Zp · · · · -ˆ .Planetary Gear Speed Ratio The relative velocity of the point of contact of the planet in contact with the sun is v s/p ˜ · Zp · = – -------- θ s/p u t where θ s/p is the angular velocity of the planet gear about its axis. ˆ 2P d Zp · v s/p ˜ vp ˜ · θ s/p ˆ The relative velocity of the planet point of contact with the ring gear is vI/p = -------- θ s/p u t .= θ p 2 ( Z p + Zs ) (3) SYEN4399.ˆ ˆ v I = --------.u t = ---------------------.

∈ ··ZI + Z s ZI θs θs ---.= -------------.Planetary Gear Ratio Since Z I = Z s + 2Z P ..= θ p ZI + Zs · θp 1 The most common situation pins the ring gear. then ZI · · k ---. · · · ZI θI + Zs θs --------------------------.or ---.= ----------------------. + 1 θp kZ I + Zs Z s θp ---..+ 1 Zs (1) If. on the other hand. FIRST in Engineering · · 1 -------------. where k ∈ [ 0.+ 1 Zs SYEN4399. 1 ] . 1 ZI ---.= ------------------.+ 1 Zs 16 (3) . ---. which yields.= θs ZI + Zs · · (2) If the internal gear is turned such that θ I = kθ s . ·ZI θs ---. it will turn with θ I = θ s and equation (1) becomes: · · · · ZI θs + Zs θs θp = --------------------------. the ring gear is free to move.

this may result in imbalance in the design and care must also be taken to insure that gear tooth stresses are calculated more carefully. Just don’t make the planet gears too big. N Planet Gear Internal (or ring) gear where N is the number of planets (usually 3 or 4). However. FIRST in Engineering 17 . SYEN4399. It will be ignored here. and sun gear occurs. Note: there is a third law regarding interference among the planet gears themselves. you might want to rethink your overall design. a restriction on the number of teeth in the ring gear. This condition isn’t unbreakable.Second Law of Planetary Gearing In order for the planetary gears to be in mesh simultaneously. Although it is not necessary to have the planets in mesh simultaneously. failure to satisfy it will result in the gear teeth not meshing smoothly and correctly and can result in excessive stresses and poor fit. if you are pushing that limit. planetary gears. ( Zs + ZI ) --------------------. However.= an integer .

In other words. The moment equation is the only one required to determine the magnitude Solving yields the following relations: τ M = 3r p W t Wt ˜ j ˜ i ˜ Wt ˜ Wt ˜ τM ˜ rp Hence. SYEN4399. it does not provide any load on the bearings. By symmetry. The net force created by the tangential component of the force is also zero. FIRST in Engineering 18 . the sun gear is in contact with three or four planet gears. the magnitude of the tangential force is divided by a factor equal to the number of planetary gears. the magnitudes of the forces are equal. A free body diagram of the sun gear shows that the tangent forces of contact with the N planetary gears (3 are shown in the FBD).Forces in Planetary Systems In a planetary system. are evenly distributed around the circumference.

is created. To this end. the Lewis Form Factor. 6W t L σ = ------------2 Ft (1) where σ is the axial stress at the base of the tooth.. This last assumption is known to be bad. This information may also be available from gear manufacturers themselves.Stresses in Spur Gears An estimate for the maximum stress in a gear tooth can be formed by treating the tooth as a rectangular beam of tooth thickness. the mid-point of the tooth. Tables for this factor for many conditions can be obtained in American Gear Manufacturer Association (AGMA) standards. FIRST in Engineering 19 . W t is the tangential force (computed earlier). and L is the theoretical length of the tooth. However. considerable literature exists based on this assumption and it gives a more conservative failure estimate than the actual worst case contact point. It is convenient to remove the difficult to handle variables and incorporate a fudge factor which accounts for the tooth’s non-rectangular geometry. where the force acts. and tooth width. t. Equation (1) can be rewritten as: 6W t Y σ = -------------. F. Y. FP d (2) Note: in the modern age. SYEN4399. these approximations can be replaced by using a Finite Element Model of the gear tooth.

= -----------.If you don’t have a Lewis Factor chart Z 1 Z+1 The tooth length is approximately the pitch diameter plus the addendum.= m ( Z + 1 ) . FIRST in Engineering 20 . In the AGMA standard for designing gear teeth. Normally. this is a smaller than the tooth thickness at the 2P d 2 root. safety factors are applied based on loading conditions. The maximum stress in a gear tooth must not exceed the allowable stress. Note. there are about 10 different safety factors. Using these values in equation (1) on the previous page yields: Z+1 6W t ------------ 24P d W t ( Z + 1 ) Pd σ = ---------------------------.+ ----. it can give an estimate of the actual stress in a gear tooth.= ------------------------------------2 π 2 Fπ F -------- 2P d (1) Although this last equation is not standard. which is determined by the yield stress of the material. Pd Pd Pd π ------The tooth thickness at the pitch diameter is t = -------.= πm . However. L = ----. SYEN4399. it will predict a more conservative value of the maximum stress and somewhat compensates for the fact that the tooth is not a rectangular beam. lacking more accurate documentation.

You cannot mix a right hand worm with a left hand worm gear! Worms usually have one. the pitch diameter of the worm is ( Pdn is normal diametral pitch. or four threads. the diametral pitch. This angle represents the back-drivabilw ity of a worm/gear mesh. For calculating center distances. Worm and worm gear systems come in either right hand or left hand varieties. is normally used and d w = ----------------. m n is normal module) zw zw mn d w = ------------------. The number of thread starts can be seen by looking down the axis of the worm. two. SYEN4399. πz P dn cos λ w In English gears.= -----------P dn sin λ sin λ (1) where z w is the number of thread starts (or teeth) and λ is the lead angle. FIRST in Engineering 21 . z P d tan λ Normally the pitch diameter for both worm and worm gear will be given and calculating it is not necessary... Pd = Pdn cos λ . It is similar to a helical gear with a very high helix angle.Worm Gearing A worm mesh is composed of a worm gear and a worm. The lead for a worm is L = -------------------. The worm is similar to a rotating rack.

since the axis is rotated.+ ----------- 2 2P d tan λ 2 sin λ cos λ (2) Worm/gear meshes can generate tremendous gear ratios in a compact space. are significant. They also allow the turning of the drive axis through 90° .= ----·zw θw (3) SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering 22 . m n is normal module) zg mn zg d g = ----.( d w + d g ) = -------.Worm Gear Quantities The pitch diameter for the helical worm gear is ( Pd is diametral pitch. ---------. Further. This increases the requirements on the bearing system in a worm/gear mesh. The velocity (gear) ratio of a worm/gear mesh is · zg θg g = ----.wD = -.+ z g = -----. which may not be present in planar gear systems. thrust loads.w.= ----------Pd cos λ (1) The center distance for a worm/gear mesh is: mn z z zg 1 1 . they are not as efficient as spur gear systems. ---------. Because worm/gear meshes involve both rolling contact (to transmit the loads) and sliding contact.

g. 25° . and better self-locking capabilities.20 (poorly lubricated).” In the case of drive systems. small lead angle. The formula indicates that for self-locking. fewer teeth results in P d d w zw smaller lead angles. with a four tooth worm. self-locking is usually expressed as the inability of the system to be “back-driven. Buford’s lead angle. is directly proportional to the number of teeth. µ . this is nice. is the normal pressure angle (e.Self-locking of Worm/Gear mesh If cos φ n sin λ – µ cos λ ≤ 0 . Since the normal condition is for the worm to drive the worm gear. The gears in the Stock Drive catalog have lead angles of 3° – 10° . This number is usually kept small (especially with lubrication) and varies between values of 0. Therefore. was rather high and did not “self-lock. This means that the worm gear cannot drive the worm. λ . FIRST in Engineering 23 . φ n . 30° ). but the wheel cannot drive the motor. The variable. λ = tan – 1 ------------ . the worm/gear mesh will possess self-locking capability. 20° . must be chosen.01 (well lubricated) to 0. Lead angle. because the motor can drive the wheel. The variable. is the coefficient of friction between the worm and the worm gear.” SYEN4399.

Forces is Worm/Gear Meshes In a worm tooth. The thrust force is F u1 = F 1 sin λ + µF n cos λ = F n cos φ n sin λ + µF n cos λ = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n . Because the worm is a helical shape. The thrust load on the worm gear’s bearings is provided by the worm’s axial force. Note: γ is the lead angle. (1) Worm and Worm Gear Teeth Forces (from Stock Drive Design Catalog) Note: αn is the pressure angle. there is a normal force. SYEN4399. then the normal force has components F 1 = F n cos φ n and F r1 = F n sin φ n . Note that directions are reversed between the worm and worm gear. F u2 = F a1 = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n . which is λ in the notes. FIRST in Engineering 24 . which is φn in these notes. If the pressure angle is φ n . µF n . Fn . and a friction force. (2) The driving force on the worm gear is provided by the worm’s thrust force. per Newton’s third law. F a2 = F u1 = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n . summing the components of Fn and µFn in the driving direction gives the relevant driving force: F a1 = F 1 cos λ – µF n sin λ = F n cos φ n cos λ – µF n sin λ = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n .

2 2 d g ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n d g ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) τD -----. ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) τM SYEN4399. the bearing loads can be estimated as the usually 90% loss (ie f=. The torque on the driven gear is τ D = ---.tan λ .= ( fg ) ---------------------------------------------------. zg pn --------------z g tan λ dg π cos λ ----.= ----. (1) d w ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n d w ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) τM dw dg For determining the worm/gear mesh efficiency.= ---------------. The coefficient of friction can be estimated. ---------------------------------------------------. and the loss due to tooth-tooth sliding can be computed directly. ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) τD -----.= --------------. z w pn zw dw -------------π sin λ (2) Thus.= ----. ---------------------------------------------------------. Using the definitions of pitch diameter and gear ratio. F u2 .Driving Forces of Worm Gears The relation between the driving torque and the worm’s force is τM = ----..9). FIRST in Engineering (3) Worm and Gear (reprinted from Stock Drive Design Guide) 25 . Fu1 .= g tan λ .

or d w = ------------. the normal force is: z m sin λ 2τ M ( P d tan λ ) F n = ----------------------------------------------------------( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )z w (1) or 2τ M sin λ F n = ----------------------------------------------------------------------( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) ( z w m n ) (2) SYEN4399.. Fn = ----------------------------------------------------------. FIRST in Engineering 26 . F u1 . 2 M Since Fu1 = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )Fn . d w = ----------------. - dw 2τ ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )d w z P d tan λ w w n Using the expressions for pitch diameter. τ M = ----.Normal Force The normal force can be calculated in terms of the driving torque..

= ( fg ) ---------------------------------------------------.43° ) 2 ( 10inlb ) ( 24in ) tan ( 18.9 ) ( 5 ) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. 4 ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) n D Drive ratio: -----.05 ) cos ( 18.43° ). FIRST in Engineering 27 .05 sin ( 18. pitch ( P d = 24 ).= 120lb ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )z w ( cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.Example: Worm/Gear Mesh Consider a left handed worm/gear from the Stock Drive Catalog which has the following parameters: General: pressure angle ( φ n ) = 25° .8 .43° ) ( cos φ sin λ + µ cos λ ) τ τM cos ( 25° ) cos ( 18. Worm: 4 threads Worm Gear: 20 teeth ----Velocity ratio: g = 20 = 5 . which hardly seems worth it. cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18. Tangential force: F 1 = F n cos φ n = ( 120lb ) cos ( 25° ) = 110lb · Worm Gear Axial load: F a2 = ( cos φn sin λ + µ cos λ )F n = ( cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.43° ) + ( 0. maximum drive torque: τD = 10inlb Assume a coefficient of sliding friction of 0. SYEN4399.43° ) ) ( 4 ) 2τ ( P tan λ ) –1 Worm Axial load: Fa1 = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n = ( cos ( 25° ) cos ( 18. lead angle ( λ = 18.43° ) – 0.43° ) – 0.05 sin ( 18.43° ) )120lb = 40lb .43° ) )120lb = 100lb .43° ) + 0.43° ) + 0.= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.tan λ = ( 0.43° ) = 3.tan ( 18.43° ) M d Normal force: F n = ----------------------------------------------------------.05 cos ( 18.05.05 cos ( 18.

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