ELEMENTS OF MECHANICAL DESIGN

Over the past several centuries, many specific elements have evolved, which cover the majority of the situations which occur in mechanical design. These elements are grouped in categories, most of which are listed in Machinery’s Handbook. • Fasteners • Gears and Sprockets • Bearings and Bushings • Shaft Couplings • Brakes and Clutches • Actuators (motors, solenoids, pneumatics, and hydraulics) • Sensors This list may not (yet) be exhaustive. However, it provides 90% coverage. If you master all of these elements, you know everything you need to know to be a mechanical designer. (That’s a little sarcasm, but you will be on your way.)

SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering

1

Power Transmission and Timing
A frequent task which arises in design is to transfer power from a driving source (usually a rotational source) and a drive source. This task is called power transmission. A task related to power transmission is timing. In the internal combustion engine, fuel and air delivery to the piston cylinder and the spark had to be timed mechanically. A timing belt or chain was used for this purpose. In modern systems, sensors usually determine the timed information. However, sometimes these sensors must be mechanically coupled to the driving source, usually through the same mechanical mechanisms of days gone by. The difference between power transmission and timing are slight. In power transmission, the forces are larger than in timing, and the methods for shaft coupling require more robust design techniques. Timing requires greater accuracy. This usually translates into less back-lash and more expensive components. Methods for achieving power transmission include: • • • • Gears Belts and Pulleys Sprocket and Chain Timing Belt and Gears

SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering

2

the designer should always refer to manufacturer design information where it exists. Although machinery handbook gives design tables and equations for belt calculations. Belt and pulley must be pretensioned. SYEN4399.g. water pump. the belt and pulley has many disadvantages. the belt that drives the A/C.Belts and Pulleys (pg.) Lift-o-matic I on the Phoenix Lift-o-matic II on Buford (the removed version) Wall-crawler on Johnny #5 Although straight-forward. Remember the difficulty with the Lift-o-matic II on Buford. Examples of the belt and pulley system: • • • • Power distribution belts in an automobile (e. 2372-2409) The basic concepts of power transmission are best illustrated through the belt and pulley. Improvements in belt technology and automatic tensioners have reduced this problem. This adds to bearing loads in a system. Belt slip determines the maximum power transmission. Belts wear over time and must be replaced. etc. FIRST in Engineering 3 . V-belts alleviate this problem by increasing the effective surface area over which contact is maintained.

· · · r2 θ1 Differentiating this equation yields r 1 θ 1 = r 2 θ 2 which may be rearranged to determine the gear ratio. The second pulley must move through this same length. any set of pulleys can be devised which give an output speed in any range desired.= --. assuming the belt does not bunch or slip. FIRST in Engineering 4 . The first pulley has radius r 1 and the second pulley has a different radius.. r 2 .Different Pulley Diameters One use for belts is to apply an increase in torque between the driving element and the driven element. Consider two pulleys driven by a belt. the ratio of output speed to input speed is the inverse ratio of the pulley radii. SYEN4399. s 1 = r 2 θ 2 and r1 θ1 = r2 θ2 . This provides a powerful tool for matching conditions. ---. The belt moves through an arc length. Assume the first pulley turns through an angle. Let us perform some rudimentary analysis on this system. θ 1 . Hence. · r1 θ2 In words. If the driving torque is fixed. s1 = r 1 θ 1 .

When α reaches the pitch circle.Gears The problems with pulleys include slip (which limits maximum power transmission). As the string is unrolled (while remaining taught) it traces out a curve in space. This curve forms the tooth form. SYEN4399. The pitch diameter relates the number of teeth on a gear and the diametral pitch. the line traces out the tooth form. The pressure angle is defined as the angle between the lin-of-action and a perpendicular to the line of centers. and set up time are solved by gears. If two cylinders of different diameters were to maintain string contact while the string were unwinding on one circle and winding onto the other. As α is varied. load on bearings (which increases losses). it takes on the value of the pressure angle. Pretend that a string is rolled up on a cylinder whose diameter is called the base diameter. The gear tooth form is created by an involute curve. where α is the angle through which the string is unwrapped. line of centers eo lin fa ion ct φ base circle The involute function is inv ( α ) = tan ( α ) – α . wear (which limits maximum life). φ . FIRST in Engineering 5 . called the involute curve. the rate of winding/unwinding would be uniform and not depend on center distance. The equation relating pressure angle and base circle diameter is D b = D cos φ where D is the pitch diameter.

the conversion is: P d = ( 25.7 mm of arc length. ing occurs.Gear Terminology The diametral pitch of a gear determines how many teeth per inch a gear contains. the same concept is called module. it is as if two cylinders. For metric gears. a 0. For instance. were rolling on each other without slip. Since module and pitch are linked to a specific unit. Note that the linear distance in this measurement is one of arc length for spur gears. 32 pitch means that a gear has 32 teeth per inch. Pitch diameter can be calculated from pitch and number of teeth (Z) by D = Z ⁄ P d = mZ . each with the pitch diameter of its gear. –1 (1) The pitch diameter is the circle along which gear meshReprinted from Machinery’s Handbook.4mm/inch ) ( m ) . SYEN4399. However. module is the inverse concept.7 module means that one tooth occupies 0. 26th ed. For instance. FIRST in Engineering 6 . It is the number of millimeters per tooth. As two gears whose centers are correctly placed mesh.

This means that most of the force will be directed towards turning the gear and little will be pushing against the bearing support.° is being phased out and should not be used unless abso2 lutely necessary. This results in a lessening of the unused force and strenthens the tooth at the same time. the thicker the tooth and the more normal the force. As an example. and the pitting wear on the teeth was 2 excessive. 25° . their centers must be spaced at the distance: ( D 1 + D2 ) ( Z1 + Z2 ) m ( Z1 + Z2 ) L = -----------------------. 14 -.Geometry of Gears In order for gears to roll properly along each other. 14 -. 2 20° . 1 1 The larger the pressure angle. the original teeth on Johnny #5’s drive system were 14 -. The only down-side is that the fewest number of teeth available on a gear is larger than for a smaller pressure angle.° . Pressure angles for readily available gears (English or metric) are usually quantized into the following bins. Although it is still readily available. 2 2P d 2 (1) Forces between gear teeth will be directed along the pressure angle. FIRST in Engineering 7 1 . SYEN4399. However.= ---------------------. the force will be mostly perpendicular to the gear tooth face. this is done at the expense of much design time and design of tooling. In a well designed gear. Custom pressure angles can be made..= --------------------------.° .

·  Z out  Z1  θ in This formula can be replicated ad infinitum. The normal use is to have smaller gears mesh with larger gears. A large gear and a small gear at a middle stage will share a shaft. FIRST in Engineering 8 . 1. where D is the pitch diameter and Z is the number ·  D out  Z out θ in of teeth on a gear. where the direction remains the same. Gears which share a common shaft have the same rotational speed.=  ---------  ------- . Note the negative sign in these formulas. Meshing gears have the speed ratio --------.= – ---------- = –  --------- . It indicates that direction is reversed for each gear stage. SYEN4399. · Z 2 Z in θ out Hence. · D in Z in θ out 2. This is a difference from pulleys. for a two stage gear train --------. This formula comes from the same geometric consideration as two pulleys.Gear Train Calculations The classic spur gear train involves two geometric rules. where Z 1 and Z 2 share a common shaft.

the dynamic aspect of gears can be neglected. Thus. the resulting linear accelerations and Coriolis terms will be very small compared to both the forces and moments encountered in a gear system. Two components of forces are considered: • • forces tangent to the pitch circle. such as when a gear train is locked up due to an external failure. During starting and stopping. except under extreme circumstances. This can be accommodated by applying a safety factor. In other words. Small gears have small moments of inertia. SYEN4399. The product of these two factors. Except for dramatic stoppages.Forces in Spur Gears Assume that gears are moving at constant velocity. even though the gear system may be moving in space. Also. a static analysis will be fairly accurate under all circumstances. the tolerances in materials will affect the calculations more than accelerations. but occur because the pressure angle is not “perfect” -Wt B2 τM B1 Wt φ Wn τG2 -Wn τB2 τB1 Consider the free body diagram of the gears and note the implied direction of W t . angular accelerations will be moderate. there will be inertial “forces” due to the gear’s moment of inertia. In fact. which serve no useful purpose. FIRST in Engineering 9 . except when locking up the gear system (an unusual circumstance). will be negligible when compared with the actual moments. which transmit motion from one gear to the next normal forces.

we can sum forces in the x and y directions. τ G2 + τ B2 + r 2 W t = 0 .7 to account for friction at the bearings. B 1x = W t . For planetary gears.8. τM r1 Z1 (3) For spur gears.= – --. B 2y = W n τ M + τ B1 – r 1 W t = 0 . r2 Z2 τ G2 ------. B 1y = – W n .Static Analysis of Spur Gears This is a planar problem. Z2 τM ------. B 2x = – W t . This yields six equations for the two gears. and sum moments in the z direction. So.9. 0. FIRST in Engineering 10 . 0. This might also be a function of the actual bearings. Hence. And for worm gears. Note: the y direction is always aligned with the line of action and the x direction is aligned perpendicular to this..= – ----. (1) (2) Unless you prepare a model for bearing torques (ie as a function of angular speed or bearing forces) it is best to neglect them in the analysis and develop an experiential model for the friction. I normally use a fudge factor of 0.= ( – f ) ----Z1 τ G2 (4) SYEN4399.

the horizontal component of the force is: W n = W t tan φ (2) It is often useful to treat gears through the power that they transmit. FIRST in Engineering 11 (3) ω . However. the power at the first stage is P = T stall ω1  1 – ----------------- . This is actually a dot product and.Calculating the Forces From equation 2 on the previous slide (neglecting friction). since the entire velocity is tangentially directed at the circumference of a circle.     ω no load ω no load SYEN4399. by neglecting the friction torque. τM = T stall  1 – ----------------- . Consider the work rate done at the point of contact. for DC motors. This occurs because power encapsulates both the torque and the velocity. only the tangential force enters into the equation: P = Wt vt = Wt r1 ω 1 = W t r2 ω2 = τM ω1 . Because the force acts along the pressure line. This is the force acting at that point multiplied by the velocity of the point. this is erring in the direction of conservatism for failure criteria and is a good thing. ω 1 Noting that. this force will be larger than the actual force. the tangent force is: τM W t =  ------  r1  (1) Since this force will be used in failure calculations.

Do not make the pinion too large or interference will result. In the second case.Internal Gearing An internal gear is a spur gear (or helical gear if you have some extra cash) turned inside out. In the first case. the pinion rolls around the inside of the internal gear (relatively speaking). the margin for error (ie with number of teeth) must be considered more carefully than with conventional spur gear meshes. Standard spur gears will mate with internal gears. and usually the internal gear is cut deeper and the pinion tooth is lengthened. Internal Gear. In internal gear meshes. From Stock Drive Products Design Manual In most cases. FIRST in Engineering 12 . SYEN4399. the internal gear will rotate about its axis. either the internal gear will be pinned to avoid rotation or the center of the pinion will be pinned to avoid rotation. the pinion’s axis will rotate. However. The addendum and dedendum are reversed.

D = r I – r P = -----------------. D = r s + r P = ------------------. Planet Gear rP D rI D –D 2 Z –Z 2P d m(Z – Z ) 2 Internal (or ring) gear s P s P s P Also.= ----------------.= ----------------.= --------------------------- D +D 2 Z +Z 2P d m(Z + Z ) 2 In a planetary gear system. I P I P I P Hence. FIRST in Engineering 13 . r P + D = r I . I P s P This yields the first constraint on planetary gear teeth. ----------------.= --------------------------. the center distance between the Planet gear (shown) and the sun gear (not shown) follows the same rules as for ordinary spur gears.. In order for the two circles to be tangent.Center Distance for Internal Gears The geometry of internal gears involves a small circle inscribed in a larger circle.= ----------------- Z –Z 2P d Z +Z 2P d Z I = Z s + 2Z P SYEN4399.

2P d ˆ ˜ Since the planet gear is both revolving around a center and rotating. The ring gear can be fixed. The velocity of the center is v p = ---------------------.Planetary Gear Systems A planetary gear system involves a ring gear (ZI). the pitch velocity is v s = ---------.u t . where k points out p s . FIRST in Engineering 14 . This unit vector rotates with angular velocity θ p k . moving. counter· Z s θs clockwise). where u t is the unit vector in the direction of travel.u r . determining its surface velocities is not as p s -ˆ easy. several planet gears (Zp). 2P · (Z + Z ) · d ˜ SYEN4399. The position of the center of the planet is r p = ---------------------. 2P d ˆ ˜ · Planet Gear Internal (or ring) gear ut ur The velocity of the point of contact between the ring gear and · ZI θI the planet gear is : v I = --------. and a sun gear (Zs). The sun gear serves as the input element.u t . Assuming the sun gear is being driven at a rate θ s (i.e.ˆ ˆ of the page. where u r is the unit vector directed from the center ˆ 2P (Z + Z ) d ˜ ˆ ˆ of the sun to the center of the moving planet. or driven at a desired speed.θ p u t . The planet gears are constrained to move between the sun and the ring gear and serve as the output motion.

ut = ---------------------.Planetary Gear Speed Ratio The relative velocity of the point of contact of the planet in contact with the sun is v s/p ˜ · Zp · =  – -------- θ s/p u t where θ s/p is the angular velocity of the planet gear about its axis.ˆ ˆ v s = ---------. ˆ  2P d Zp · v s/p ˜ vp ˜ · θ s/p ˆ The relative velocity of the planet point of contact with the ring gear is vI/p =  -------- θ s/p u t .ˆ ˆ v I = --------. when substituted into Equation (2) yields:   Z p Z p · · · ZI θI + Zs θs --------------------------.which.θ p ut –  -------- θ s/p u t or Z s θs = ( Z p + Z s )θ p – Zp θ s/p 2P d 2P d  2P d ˜ (1) The velocity of the point of contact is the same for the ring gear and the planet gear: · ZI θI ( Z p + Zs ) · Zp · · · · -ˆ .θ p u t +  -------- θs/p u t or Z I θ I = ( Z p + Zs )θ p + Zp θ s/p 2P d 2P d  2P d ˜ · Z · Zs · (2) s Equation (1) can be solved to determine θ s/p =  1 + ----- θ p –  ----- θ s .u t = ---------------------.  2P d ˜ Planet Gear v I/p ˜ The velocity of the point of contact is the same for the sun gear and the planet gear: · Zs θs ( Zp + Z s ) · Zp · · · · -ˆ .= θ p 2 ( Z p + Zs ) (3) SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering 15 .

= -------------.= θs ZI + Zs · · (2) If the internal gear is turned such that θ I = kθ s .= θ p ZI + Zs · θp 1 The most common situation pins the ring gear. on the other hand. · · · ZI θI + Zs θs --------------------------.or ---. + 1 θp kZ I + Zs  Z s θp ---. which yields. ---.+ 1 Zs SYEN4399.. then ZI · · k  ---.∈ ··ZI + Z s ZI θs θs ---.+ 1 Zs 16 (3) . the ring gear is free to move. ·ZI θs ---. 1 ] . FIRST in Engineering · · 1 -------------. where k ∈ [ 0.= ------------------..Planetary Gear Ratio Since Z I = Z s + 2Z P .= ----------------------.+ 1 Zs (1) If. it will turn with θ I = θ s and equation (1) becomes: · · · · ZI θs + Zs θs θp = --------------------------. 1 ZI ---.

this may result in imbalance in the design and care must also be taken to insure that gear tooth stresses are calculated more carefully. Although it is not necessary to have the planets in mesh simultaneously. a restriction on the number of teeth in the ring gear. N Planet Gear Internal (or ring) gear where N is the number of planets (usually 3 or 4). Just don’t make the planet gears too big. ( Zs + ZI ) --------------------.= an integer . It will be ignored here. This condition isn’t unbreakable. failure to satisfy it will result in the gear teeth not meshing smoothly and correctly and can result in excessive stresses and poor fit. and sun gear occurs. However. Note: there is a third law regarding interference among the planet gears themselves. However. planetary gears. FIRST in Engineering 17 . SYEN4399.Second Law of Planetary Gearing In order for the planetary gears to be in mesh simultaneously. if you are pushing that limit. you might want to rethink your overall design.

By symmetry. FIRST in Engineering 18 . the sun gear is in contact with three or four planet gears. the magnitudes of the forces are equal.Forces in Planetary Systems In a planetary system. A free body diagram of the sun gear shows that the tangent forces of contact with the N planetary gears (3 are shown in the FBD). it does not provide any load on the bearings. the magnitude of the tangential force is divided by a factor equal to the number of planetary gears. The moment equation is the only one required to determine the magnitude Solving yields the following relations: τ M = 3r p W t Wt ˜ j ˜ i ˜ Wt ˜ Wt ˜ τM ˜ rp Hence. The net force created by the tangential component of the force is also zero. In other words. are evenly distributed around the circumference. SYEN4399.

This information may also be available from gear manufacturers themselves. is created. SYEN4399. It is convenient to remove the difficult to handle variables and incorporate a fudge factor which accounts for the tooth’s non-rectangular geometry. FP d (2) Note: in the modern age. Tables for this factor for many conditions can be obtained in American Gear Manufacturer Association (AGMA) standards.. F. t. considerable literature exists based on this assumption and it gives a more conservative failure estimate than the actual worst case contact point. FIRST in Engineering 19 .Stresses in Spur Gears An estimate for the maximum stress in a gear tooth can be formed by treating the tooth as a rectangular beam of tooth thickness. and L is the theoretical length of the tooth. these approximations can be replaced by using a Finite Element Model of the gear tooth. However. Equation (1) can be rewritten as: 6W t Y σ = -------------. Y. the Lewis Form Factor. This last assumption is known to be bad. the mid-point of the tooth. 6W t L σ = ------------2 Ft (1) where σ is the axial stress at the base of the tooth. To this end. W t is the tangential force (computed earlier). where the force acts. and tooth width.

In the AGMA standard for designing gear teeth. However. this is a smaller than the tooth thickness at the 2P d 2 root. Note.= ------------------------------------2 π 2 Fπ F  --------  2P d (1) Although this last equation is not standard. it will predict a more conservative value of the maximum stress and somewhat compensates for the fact that the tooth is not a rectangular beam. SYEN4399.= πm . Normally. safety factors are applied based on loading conditions. which is determined by the yield stress of the material. it can give an estimate of the actual stress in a gear tooth. L = ----. Using these values in equation (1) on the previous page yields: Z+1 6W t  ------------ 24P d W t ( Z + 1 )  Pd  σ = ---------------------------.If you don’t have a Lewis Factor chart Z 1 Z+1 The tooth length is approximately the pitch diameter plus the addendum. FIRST in Engineering 20 .= m ( Z + 1 ) . Pd Pd Pd π ------The tooth thickness at the pitch diameter is t = -------.= -----------. The maximum stress in a gear tooth must not exceed the allowable stress. there are about 10 different safety factors.+ ----. lacking more accurate documentation.

Worm and worm gear systems come in either right hand or left hand varieties. FIRST in Engineering 21 . or four threads. the diametral pitch. two. You cannot mix a right hand worm with a left hand worm gear! Worms usually have one.Worm Gearing A worm mesh is composed of a worm gear and a worm.= -----------P dn sin λ sin λ (1) where z w is the number of thread starts (or teeth) and λ is the lead angle. The lead for a worm is L = -------------------. SYEN4399. The worm is similar to a rotating rack. πz P dn cos λ w In English gears. It is similar to a helical gear with a very high helix angle. z P d tan λ Normally the pitch diameter for both worm and worm gear will be given and calculating it is not necessary. the pitch diameter of the worm is ( Pdn is normal diametral pitch. Pd = Pdn cos λ .. The number of thread starts can be seen by looking down the axis of the worm. is normally used and d w = ----------------. This angle represents the back-drivabilw ity of a worm/gear mesh. m n is normal module) zw zw mn d w = ------------------.. For calculating center distances.

= ----------Pd cos λ (1) The center distance for a worm/gear mesh is: mn z z zg 1 1 . they are not as efficient as spur gear systems.= ----·zw θw (3) SYEN4399. FIRST in Engineering 22 .( d w + d g ) = -------. which may not be present in planar gear systems. since the axis is rotated. ---------. The velocity (gear) ratio of a worm/gear mesh is · zg θg g = ----. are significant. m n is normal module) zg mn zg d g = ----.+ z g = -----.w.+ ----------- 2 2P d  tan λ 2  sin λ cos λ  (2) Worm/gear meshes can generate tremendous gear ratios in a compact space.wD = -. This increases the requirements on the bearing system in a worm/gear mesh. Because worm/gear meshes involve both rolling contact (to transmit the loads) and sliding contact. They also allow the turning of the drive axis through 90° . thrust loads. ---------. Further.Worm Gear Quantities The pitch diameter for the helical worm gear is ( Pd is diametral pitch.

” In the case of drive systems. Lead angle. Since the normal condition is for the worm to drive the worm gear. was rather high and did not “self-lock. 30° ). must be chosen.20 (poorly lubricated). and better self-locking capabilities. φ n . this is nice. Therefore. λ . fewer teeth results in P d  d w zw smaller lead angles. The gears in the Stock Drive catalog have lead angles of 3° – 10° . µ . but the wheel cannot drive the motor. because the motor can drive the wheel. the worm/gear mesh will possess self-locking capability.” SYEN4399.g. This means that the worm gear cannot drive the worm. with a four tooth worm. This number is usually kept small (especially with lubrication) and varies between values of 0. 20° . 25° . self-locking is usually expressed as the inability of the system to be “back-driven. Buford’s lead angle. is the normal pressure angle (e. FIRST in Engineering 23 . λ = tan – 1  ------------ . The formula indicates that for self-locking.01 (well lubricated) to 0. small lead angle.Self-locking of Worm/Gear mesh If cos φ n sin λ – µ cos λ ≤ 0 . is the coefficient of friction between the worm and the worm gear. is directly proportional to the number of teeth. The variable. The variable.

summing the components of Fn and µFn in the driving direction gives the relevant driving force: F a1 = F 1 cos λ – µF n sin λ = F n cos φ n cos λ – µF n sin λ = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n . Fn . F u2 = F a1 = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n . Because the worm is a helical shape. (2) The driving force on the worm gear is provided by the worm’s thrust force.Forces is Worm/Gear Meshes In a worm tooth. SYEN4399. µF n . then the normal force has components F 1 = F n cos φ n and F r1 = F n sin φ n . If the pressure angle is φ n . F a2 = F u1 = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n . Note: γ is the lead angle. The thrust force is F u1 = F 1 sin λ + µF n cos λ = F n cos φ n sin λ + µF n cos λ = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n . FIRST in Engineering 24 . and a friction force. The thrust load on the worm gear’s bearings is provided by the worm’s axial force. which is φn in these notes. (1) Worm and Worm Gear Teeth Forces (from Stock Drive Design Catalog) Note: αn is the pressure angle. per Newton’s third law. Note that directions are reversed between the worm and worm gear. which is λ in the notes. there is a normal force.

the bearing loads can be estimated as the usually 90% loss (ie f=.9).= --------------. The torque on the driven gear is τ D =  ---. z w pn zw dw -------------π sin λ (2) Thus. (1)  d w ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )F n  d w ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) τM dw dg For determining the worm/gear mesh efficiency. and the loss due to tooth-tooth sliding can be computed directly. ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) τM SYEN4399.= ( fg ) ---------------------------------------------------.Driving Forces of Worm Gears The relation between the driving torque and the worm’s force is τM =  ----. zg pn --------------z g tan λ dg π cos λ ----.= ---------------.tan λ .=  ----.. ---------------------------------------------------------. Fu1 . F u2 . The coefficient of friction can be estimated. ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) τD -----.  2  2 d g ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n d g ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) τD -----.=  ----. ---------------------------------------------------. Using the definitions of pitch diameter and gear ratio.= g tan λ . FIRST in Engineering (3) Worm and Gear (reprinted from Stock Drive Design Guide) 25 .

- dw 2τ ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )d w z P d tan λ w w n Using the expressions for pitch diameter. F u1 . d w = ----------------. FIRST in Engineering 26 .or d w = ------------.Normal Force The normal force can be calculated in terms of the driving torque.. the normal force is: z m sin λ 2τ M ( P d tan λ ) F n = ----------------------------------------------------------( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )z w (1) or 2τ M sin λ F n = ----------------------------------------------------------------------( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ ) ( z w m n ) (2) SYEN4399.. τ M =  ----.  2 M Since Fu1 = ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )Fn . Fn = ----------------------------------------------------------.

43° ) ( cos φ sin λ + µ cos λ ) τ τM cos ( 25° ) cos ( 18.tan λ = ( 0.= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. FIRST in Engineering 27 . maximum drive torque: τD = 10inlb Assume a coefficient of sliding friction of 0. Tangential force: F 1 = F n cos φ n = ( 120lb ) cos ( 25° ) = 110lb · Worm Gear Axial load: F a2 = ( cos φn sin λ + µ cos λ )F n = ( cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.43° ).43° ) = 3.= ( fg ) ---------------------------------------------------. 4 ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ ) n D Drive ratio: -----.05 sin ( 18.= 120lb ( cos φ n sin λ + µ cos λ )z w ( cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.05 cos ( 18.43° ) + ( 0.05.43° ) + 0.05 ) cos ( 18.8 .43° ) M d Normal force: F n = ----------------------------------------------------------. cos ( 25° ) sin ( 18.05 cos ( 18. SYEN4399. lead angle ( λ = 18.43° ) – 0.43° ) 2 ( 10inlb ) ( 24in ) tan ( 18.05 sin ( 18.tan ( 18. which hardly seems worth it.43° ) – 0.9 ) ( 5 ) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.43° ) )120lb = 100lb .Example: Worm/Gear Mesh Consider a left handed worm/gear from the Stock Drive Catalog which has the following parameters: General: pressure angle ( φ n ) = 25° .43° ) + 0.43° ) ) ( 4 ) 2τ ( P tan λ ) –1 Worm Axial load: Fa1 = ( cos φ n cos λ – µ sin λ )F n = ( cos ( 25° ) cos ( 18.43° ) )120lb = 40lb . pitch ( P d = 24 ). Worm: 4 threads Worm Gear: 20 teeth ----Velocity ratio: g = 20 = 5 .