Describe the types of joints in the body

Definition: A joint is an articulation ie The site of junction or union between two or more rigid components These components may be: bones, cartilages, or even parts of the same bone Joints exhibit a variety of function and forms. Wrt movement some have no movement, others allow only slight movement, and some are freely moveable. Classification Joints are classified according to the type of material and the manner by which the articulating bones are attatched There are three 3 types of joints: Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial 1) Fibrous Joints The articulating surfaces are connected to each other by fibrous tissue The amount of movement depends on the length of the fibres Three 3 types Suture Found only in the skull Articulating surfaces, often interlocking are united by a thin layer of fibrous tissue At an older age there is direct union between the bones leading to partial/ total obliteration of the joint Syndesmosis The bones of the joint are united by a sheet of fibrous tissue from which minimal movement is allowed. May be a ligament or a membrane The dense interosseous membrane in the forearm joins the radius and the ulna in a syndesmosis Gomphosis Peglike process fits into a socket Root of the tooth and the alveolar process

intervertebral joints 3) Synovial joints Features: Articulating surfaces of the bones are covered with hyaline cartilage A fibrous capsule holds the bones in apposition and forms a joint cavity The joint is lined by a synovial membrane (except the articular cartilages) which is a vascular connective tissue. that produces synovial fluid Synovial fluid 1) nourishes the articular cartilage and 2) lubricates the joint surfaces Synovial joints are usually reinforced by accessory ligaments which may be 1) are thickening of the fibrous capsule or 2) may be separate and located outside or within the capsule Some joints have fibrocartilaginous articular discs which are present when the articulating surfaces of the bones are incongruous Movement is always possible Most of the joints of the body belong to this group Especially those of the limbs Important in facilitating locomotion Synovial joints may be classified upon 1) the types of movements permitted and 2)the form of the articulating surface Hinge joints: uniaxial movement of flexion and extension (elbow) Pivot joints: uniaxial allowing rotation (atlantoaxial joint) Saddle joints: biaxial which are concave and convex where the bones articulate ( carpo metacarpal joints) Ball and Socket: multiaxial (hip joint) Plane joint: gliding movements (acromioclavicular joint) . pubic symphysis.2) Cartilaginous joints The articulating surfaces are united by cartilage (hyaline) or fibrocartilage (a combination of cartilage and fibrous tissue Two types Primary cartilaginous joint ( Synchondrosis) Interposing tissue is hyaline cartilage No movement is allowed Usually found in developing long bones as the physis (epiphyseal plate) facilitating growth Secondary cartilaginous joint (Symphysis) The articulating surfaces of the bone are covered with hyaline cartilage and are interconnected to each by fibrocartilage Some movement is permitted Joints: sternal angle.