Chapter

Tinjar
Province
Mohd Idrus B. Ismail
and Redzuan B. Abu Hassan
INTRODUCTION
T
\ he onshore Tinjar Province is a wrench-
related foldbelt in the Sarawak Basin
which covers largely the offshore
Balingian, Central Luconia, West Baram Delta,
SW Luconia, Tatau and W. Luconia provinces
(see Fig. 16.1) The Tinjar Province, which is
uplifted relative to the offshore provinces , is
separated from the offshore Balingian by the NE-
SW to ENE-WSW Anau Nyalau fault. The Upper
Eocene to Upper Miocene sedimentary sequences
in the Tinjar Province were deposited after the
uplift of the Upper Cretaceous to Eocene
indurated sediments (Liechti et al. , 1960). Major
structures formed at the end of the Early Miocene
and Late Miocene are dominantly NE-SW
5'N
3'N
112'[
SEDIMENTARY ROCKS
D Pleistocene and Recent
D Neogene
D Palaeogene
IGNEOUS EXTRUSIVE
ROCKS
Dacitic and andesitic lava
(Tertiary to Oualernary)
D lavas
o 50 kin
---
SOUTH CHINA
BALINGIAN
PROVINCE
SEA
Tinjar Province
trending, with some NW-SE anticlinal structures
and faults, including the Tatau Horst, the Arip
Pelagau Anticline , and the Dulit Range. The
regional framework resulted from the
southeasterly plate movements due to rifting and
opening of the South China Sea Basin from the
Late Cretaceous to the Middl e Miocene Ceg
Doust , 1981; Scherer , 1981; James , 1984) .
Furthermore, part of its tectonic history was also
due to subduction of the South China Sea Plate
under Borneo.
Except in its northern part , the Tinjar
Province is not well explored, and recent reviews
of the onshore areas have excluded the Tinjar
Province. Further north are the Balingian, Central
114'[
p.Labuan{J
-, ,
, -
,
, ,
A(K'.
'; j
... _- I
,,' I .. ' I
'V
I
_ _ _ Nanga Merit
/'
..: :: = -- -- - - -.,-
Fig. 16.1 Tectonost rati graphic strati graphic subdivision in Ti njar Province based on structural characteri sti cs arising from end- Earl y
Miocene and Late Miocene deformati ons.
Luconia and West Baram Delta provinces. These
contain sedimentary sequences of post- Late
Eocene ages, and their producing horizons are
t he Oli gocene - Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII)
clastics, Middle Miocene carbonates (Cycles IVN)
a nd Upper Miocene deltaic sandstones
respectively. In the Tinj ar Province there are
wrench-related large complexly faulted anticlinal
traps. The structural closures are associated with
W -SE dextral faults and NNE-SSW sinistral
faults
The most comprehensi ve structural
anal ysis of onshore Sarawak was based on air
p hoto and synthetic aperture radar (SAR)
acquired in 1990 by PETRONAS. The regional
data were interpreted in 1993 (Intera , 1993).
Fu rther more the SAR interpretation was
calibrated with field checks (Tjia et al. , 1997). The
data shows many NE-SW anticlinal and synclinal
structures, NE-SW regional transform faults (e.g.
Tinjar Fault) and NNE-SSW faults (e.g. Tubau
Fault) Domes (e.g. the Ulu Suai Dome) and NW-
SE-tr ending anticlines were al so mapped.
Wrench -related structures, formed during the
Earl y Mioce n e, were react ivated in the Lat e
BLOCK
SK306
AMERADA HESS
M'SIA SHD !pess
BLOCK SK30B
SHEll EXPLORATION & PRODUcnON
MALAYSIA B.V.l PCSB
Tinjar Provi nce
Miocene in the northeastern part of the province.
Early Miocene wrench fau l ts dominate the
wes tern part of the Balingian Province
(Swinburn,1993), whereas Late Miocene
deformation occurred in the eastern Balingian
Province (Doust , 1981). However, the regional
deformation was mainly attributed to the end of
the Miocene phase (Liechti et al. , 1960) This
chapter describes the structural setting of
petroleum accumulations in the Tinj ar Province
with reference to the structural development in
both East and West Balingian provinces.
EXPLORATION HISTORY
The Anglo-Saxon Petroleum Company acquired
the rights under the Sarawak Oil Mining Lease to
explore the whole of onshore Sarawak in 1909.
The land exploration targeted several areas having
oil seepages around the Baram Delta. By 1910
the first oil field was discovered when the Miri-1
well penetrated hydrocarbon bearing intervals
wi thin Upper Miocene deltai c sands. Between the
SUBIS--1,2
-9-
SARAWAK
ONSHORE
WELL LOCATIONS
WELL SYMBOLS
... OIL
-¢- GAS
... OIL & GAS
SARAWAK
~ OIL & GAS SHOWS
-¢- GAS SHOWS
~ OIL SHOWS
-¢- ORY WELL
o 20 40 60 80 100 km
IwwM ! ! IwwM
Fig. 16.2 Map of onshore well locations in Tinjar Province and Baram Delta, including 11 wells in Tinjar Province. None of the wells in the
Tinjar Province to date was drilled in the southwestern part which falls in the oil/gas trend of offshore Balingian Province.
AGE
QUATER
HOLOMARINE
· NARY
PLEISTOCENE
W
Z
w
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Tgh
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w
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z
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CRETACEOUS
CYCLE
VIII
VII
VI
U
IV
III
II
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Pel
Pre I
FORMATION
Liang (L)
Begrih (Bg)
Bal ingian (Ba)
Bel ait (Be)
Lambir (La)
Sibuti (Si)
Tinjar Province
Tangap (Tg) Subis Limestone Member (Si)
Setap (S)
Nyalau (Ny)
Tubau (Tu)
Kakus Member (k)
Biban Sandstone Member (bs)
Buan (B)
Tatau (Tat)
Bawang Member (Bw)
Pelagus Member (Pel)
Metah Member (Mt)
Kapit Member (Kt)
Layar Member (Ly)
c
g
'"
E
o
LL
'"
CJ)
'"
Qi
III
Central Sarawak - Rajang -
Bali ngian - Tatau - Sibuti - Suai
FACIES
D
~
D
I==l
t=:::j
F --
{
Predominantly non-calcareous
Mari ne
Predominantly calcareous
Continental
Mixed continental and marine
Unconformity
Fault contact
Fig. 16.3 Generali sed strati graphic scheme of Central Sarawak. The I yalau Formation, the main outcrop in the Tinjar Province, consi sts of
shallow marine to paralic successi ons grading into marine clasti cs from SW to NE. It interfingers with the Set ap Shale FormatI on. Towards
the NE, the Lambir ancl Belait formati ons are posssibl e reservoirs.
1920-1950'5, geological mapping, acquisition of
land gravity and seismic were conducted around
the coastal areas. The belt between Suai and
Bulak was covered with 483 line-km of single-
fold land seismic in 1952/53. Several wells were
drilled in the onshore part of the Tertiary basin
around this coastal belt. The Suai 1-3 core holes
drilled in 1952-53 (see Fig. 162) reached Middle
Miocene (Cycles 1III) int erbedded shaks and
sandstones (see Fig. 16 .3) . The Suai- 3 well
produced oil at a rate of 27 BOPD from an
isol ated channel sandstone. Thi s well was
abandoned at total depth (TD) of 1286 fe et
within the Lower Miocene after a gas blow out.
Tinjar Province
Selungun - 1 Suai - 5 Subis - 2
Maximum flooding surface
Sequence boundary
SP IES
Maximum flooding surface
Sequence boundary
SP IES
SP IES
Fig. 16.4 Well correlation from Selungun-1, Suai-1 and Subis-2 showing the Subis Limestone. Due to erosion after strong uplift of the
structure, the Cycle II objective in Selungun -1 was never encoumered.
In 1955 three more wells (Suai-4, 5 and 6) were
drilled nearby. These penetrated deeper into
Lower Miocene (Cycles 1III) intervals comprising
the Subis Limestone, and interbedded sandstones
and shal es (see Fig. 16.4). The limestone
represent deep-marine and off-reef facies, whilst
the higher sec ti on are mi xed clastics and
carbonates comprising thinner, 30 foot limestone,
interbedded with a mixture of shale, sandstone
and calcareous sands. At well l ocations the
calcareous and argillaceous sandstone intervals '
s h ow only marginal r ese rvoir properties
(Porosity, 8-20%; permeability up to 2.8 mD) A
drill stem test (DST) within the reservoir intervals
recovered only traces of gas and water.
Located about 25 km northeast from the
Suai wells, the other onshore well in the near
coastal areas in the Tinjar Province, Subis-2, was
spudded in 1956. The Subis well encountered
several Lower Mioce n e int ervals of thinner
limestone in a mixed carbonate- clastic sequence
and two thick carbonate units of between 1200 to
4000 feet thickness. DSTs show that the amount
of hydrocarbons at Subis-2 was insignificant .
The final well , Selungun-1 , was drilled in
1956 in the area more towards Bintulu. The
Selungun-1 well drilled into an anticlinal feature
and spudded into Oligocene (Cycle 1) shales, silts
and thin sands and 150-400 feet thick shallow
marine and coastal plain sandstones. The porosity
of the sandstones varies between 3 to 10%, but
improves near the sur face to between 9 to 24%.
The former company, renamed Sarawak
Shell Berhad (SSB) in 1958, resumed exploration
activities around the coastal belt. In 1967 6-12
fold CDP stack seismic data in the area around
Suai were acquired in 1974 - in the area around
Bungai. An aeromagnetic survey of all offshore
Sarawak was extended landwards into a small belt
in the Tinj ar Province in 1965.
Since 1957 , the exploration company
re linquished several packages of its onshore
Sarawak concession. As the deformed and least
accessible hinterland areas were consi dered
unprospect i ve, these were the first to b e
relinquished, including the Rajang Accretionary
Prism and the Dulit Range. Exploration activities
continued in some of the the inland belt around
Pandan Kakus , Ulu Su ai Dome and Kelabu
Anticline (Fig. 165) but in 1971 this belt ,
including th e Grabit -Mentebai Syncline, was
released under a second relinquishment exercise.
Since 1960's, exploration moved offshore with
several successes , including the discovery of the
Temana Field. Consequently onshore exploration
became limited. In 1976 Shell Signed the
Production Sharing Contract, relinquished the
remaining areas around the coastal belt of the
Tinjar Province , but retained those around the
Miri Field. Several wells along the Miri-Tudan
trend in onshore Baram Delta were drilled, but
subsequently the remaining contract area was
relinquished.
STRATIGRAPHY AND
STRUCTURE
Stratigraphic scheme
In 1960 a review of the stratigraphy of onshore
Sarawak, Sabah and Brunei was conducted by
Liechti et al. (1960) and subsequentl y the
Tinjar Province
stratigraphic nomenclature based on both rock
stratigraphy and time stratigraphy (based on
foraminiferal parameters), was formalised. The
offshore Tertiary succession in the Sarawak shelf
is classifi ed into eight regressive cycles (Ho,
1978). Limited subsurface onshore stratigraphic
penetra tions and poor age control s make
recognition of sedimentary cycles difficult , and
hence the formation terminol ogy cannot be
dispensed with. The Sarawak strat igrap hic
scheme and its approximate age correlation to the
cycles is shown in Figure 16.3.
Formations
The Tatau Formation (Upper Eocene to
Oligocene) unconformabl y overlies the steeply
folded Bawang Member of the Belaga Formation
at the Arip Pelagau Anticline. At its base , the
Tatau Formation consists of mainly medium to
fine grained sandstones and siltstones with some
intervals of marls, thick shales and intercalated
limestone lenses. The formation is separated by
the Arip acid volcanics into a lower (Eocene or
Tb) and upper (Oli gocene or Tcd) part. The
depositional environment for the formation is
littoral to neritic.
Near Tatau and the Ar ip- Pelagau
Anticline the Tatau Formation passes gradually
up into the laminated marine shales of the Buan
Formation (Oligocene). Elsewhere , as at Bukit
Mersing, Buan Formation shales overstep the
Tatau Formation to unconformabl y overli e the
Belaga Formation. Tubau Formation shelfal shales
and marls occur in the Tubau Valley, ranging in
age fr om Oligocene to Lower Miocene (Te,.; to
early Tes). Along the Jelalong river, and towards
the coast, this formation merges into the
Oligocene-Miocene Setap Sh al e Formation.
Similar rocks occur in several of the onshore
wells (Subis-2, Selungun- 1 and Bulak Setap-3).
These intervals had been aSSigned to the Setap
Shale Formation. It has a conformable contact
with overlying Nyalau Formation.
Most of the out crops in the Tinj ar
Province belong to the Oli gocene -Mi ocene
Nyalau Formation (Cycles lIII) In the Subis-
Bi ntul u area the Nyalau Formation occurs as
interbedded offshore - subtidal - estuarine
sa ndstones, sa ndy shal es and sh ales with
dis persed lignite bands and marls. In the
Selungun well the interval consis ts of Silty
sandstones , partly calcareous, grading into sandy
limestone. In the Tatau-Bintulu area, the lower
part of the Nyalau Formation is distingUished as
the Biban Sandstone Me mber. This is of
Oli gocene - Miocene age (Tc d- Te) and is
Legend:
1 Dulil Range S Tatau Horst
2 Tinjar Fault 7 Pandan Kakus Subbasin
3 Tubau Faull 8 Ulu Sok Ant icli ne
4 Bukl! Marsi ng Une 9 Bakong Anticline
5 Ari p Pelagau Anticline 10 Mentagei Syncline
11 Grabil Syncli ne
12 Ulu Suai Dome
13 Kolabu Anticline
14 Aajang Accretionary Pr ism
15 Mlf i - Tuden Trend
o 50 km
Legend :
,;¥' Syncline
./ Anticline
;{' ~ ~ I ~ r s e
/
Normal
fault
""""'I ............
SW LUCONIA
GRABEN
c ;:- ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ;
synclinel
structure
.::: ::::- Sub-basin,
particularly
offshore
/"" Unspecified
fault
112
0
E
---
Tinjar Province
RAW A K
114'E
Fig. 16.5 Struct ural map of the Tinjar Province and sub-provinces (modifi ed after Lei chti , et. ai, 1960) and the offshore Balingian Province.
Offshore oi l and gas fields are shown.
predominantl y fine to medi um grained
sandstones, with some sil tstones interbeds and
contains calcareous nodules. Limestone beds and
calcareous sandstones in the Nyalau Formation
are present as the Oligocene (Tcd) Sarong
Limestone and Bekuyat Limestone. The 250 to
500 feet thick limestones are included within the
Biban Sandstone Member. In the Pandan Kakus
and Ulu Suai areas several intervals of massi ve
sandstone, laminated clays and brackish shales
and li gni t es, attr ibut ed to int erdistribut ary
environments, are deSignated the Kakus Member
(Lower-Middle Miocene, Tes to Tf,) :
The Lower to Middle Miocene (Te,.; to
Te5, and possibly Tf,), Setap Shale Formati on
consists of littoral to inner neritic clay- shales and
Silt y clays . These intervals are occaSionally
interbedded with sands tones, calca r eous
sandstones and thin to moderatel y thi ck
limestones (5-400 feet) This interval laterally
interfingers with the Nyalau Formation. The
boundary of this formation with the overlying
Belait and Lambir formations is most ly
conformable and diachronous , alt h ough an
occasional unconformable contact , described as
insignificant, has been observed in some places, as
in the Paroh anticline.
The Nyalau Formation grades into the
Tangap Formation (Oligocene-Lower Miocene) to
the north of Subis. The inner to outer neritic of
marls and shales include the Subis Limestone
Member. The limestones comprise coral-algal
reefoid growth and foraminiferal open shoal
limestone. The Nyalau Formation grades up into
the Sibuti Formation (Lower-Middle Miocene).
This consists of inner neritic clay-shales with
minor siltstones and limestone.
The Sibuti Formation grades up into the
Lambir Formation (Middle Miocene). Thi s
consists of alternating inner neritic to littoral
sandstones and shales, succeeded by clay shales,
marls , thin limestone l enses and cal careous
sands tones. Sandstones with so me impure
lignite layers occur in the uppermost intervals in
the Grabit Syncl ine. The Lambir Formation
grades up into the Belait Formation towards the
Dulit Range.
The Belait Formation (Middle to Upper
Miocene, Tf,) consists of intervals of thick
bedded, barren, massive, sometimes pure white,
and medium to coa rs e grained sandstones
interbedded with claystones. The formation is
the time stratigraphic equivalent of the Lambir,
Miri and Tukau formations.
Structure
Five sub-prOVinces have been recognised in the
Tinjar Province based on SAR data (Tj ia et al. ,
1997) (see Fig. 16.5) Structural styles in the
Tinjar Province are believed to result from two
phases of deformation in wrench-fault systems.
Major structures were formed at the end of the
Early Miocene and in the Late Miocene (Tjia et
al., 1997). Previously the deformation history of
the Tinjar Province was mainly attributed to a
Late Miocene regional event (e.g Liechti et al.,
1960). The Early Miocene wrenching is related
to southeasterly directed movements as a result
of Late Cretaceous-Miocene spreading and
opening of the South China Sea Basin. The Late
Miocene wrenching is related to the southwards
movement of the South China Sea Basin ,
which resulted in several N-S transform faults
such as the Morris Fault , Jerudong Line and
Tubau Fault.
Sub-provinces 1 and 3 are related to
Early Miocene deformation. Sub-provinces 2
and 4 show deformation during the Early and
Late Miocene. Several NE-SW trending
transpressional structures in East Balingian
Sub-province have large amplitude anticlines
with cutting cross faults and flanking reverse
faults (Doust , 1981). Sub-province 5 is related to
Late Miocene deformation. However , the
structural patterns are different from the rest of
the Tinjar Province, and are interpreted as a
conjugate fault system.
The sedimentary section in the Tinjar
Province is mostly Oligocene to Middle Miocene
in age (Nyalau , Setap Shale formations ).
Outcrops in the Sub-province 1 are older, and
include Upper Eocene-Oligocene outcrops of the
Tatau and Buan formations .
Sub-province 1
Sub-province 1 forms an area of convergent
wrenching in the western part of the Tinjar
Province. Lat e Eocene and Late Miocene
movements along the northward-opening fan of
dextral wrench faults produced a zone of strong
transpression and uplift of the Upper Cretaceous
-Lower Miocene sediments. This sub-province
contains a number of structural elements, the
Arip Pelagau Anticline (see Fig. 165) , the Tatau
Horst , NE-SW trending anticlines and NW-SE
dextral wrench faults. The NW-SE aligned Arip-
Pelagau Anticline is wedged tightly between NW
SE faults in Tinjar Province and the thrust
foldbelts in the south along the Bukit Mersing
Line.
Sub-province 2
Sub-province 2, mostly made up of the Dulit
Range (see Fig. 16.5), shows two distinctive
structural trends that are at right angles to
each other. The Dulit Range, which is located
Tinjar Province
in the southeastern part of the Tinjar Province,
is bounded on the east by Tinjar Fault, a major
transcurrent fault in Sarawak. Movement
along the Tinjar Fault , a dextral NE-SW trending
wrench fault, was active in the Early Miocene,
and was reactivated in the Late Miocene. The
structures consists of two NE-SW trending
tight shale-cored folds, sharply bending to
a NW- SE trend, the NW-SE Tinjar Fault
and NNE-SSW-trending Tubau Fault. This
is a sinistral wrench fault that was active in the
Late Miocene in the opposite part of the Dulit
Range.
The sense of movement of the dextral
Tinjar Fault was deduced from a number of
tension fractures that are left stepping around
several folds , near Tinjar Fault. NE-SW trending
faults are left lateral offsetting one anticline near
the sinistral Tubau Fault.
Tjia (1996) proposed that the Dulit
Syncline became refolded during the post-
Belait deformation (Late Miocene-Early
Pliocene) and developed into the right angle or
dog-leg pattern of the Sekiwa-Dulit ridges.
The deformation operated by detachment
tectonics that was facilitated by strike-slip motion
along the Tinjar , Dengan, Tubau and another
NE-SW, hitherto unknown zone of weakness,
just north of Bukit Selika. The term "frame-
folding" was used for this phenomenon. The
detachment of the Belait from older sequences
was lubricated b y shales of the Setap Shale
Formation.
Sub-province 3
Sub-province 3 is a large wrench fold zone
that was deformed and faulted along a few NW-
SE dextral wrench faults in the southern part
of the Tinjar Province (see Fig. 165) The
movement along the NW-SE wrench faults,
which are occaSionally WNW-ESE and almost
sub-parallel to the Bukit Mersing Line , was
active during the Early Miocene. There
are NW-SE wrench faults and NE-SW
transpressional structures. The large NW-SE
trending anticlines (see Figs. 16.6a, 166b) ,
which are often cut by several NW-SE faults
showing right lateral offsets, are up to 15 km
long and 5 km wide. The smaller anticline
which lies in the orientation of NW-SE major
wrench faults is considered to be a drag fold (see
Fig. 166c) The sub-province, which is less
uplifted than both sub-provinces in the east and
west, also forms an E-W trending, Pandan-Kakus
Sub-basin containing a relatively thick Oligocene
- Middle Miocene sedimentary section (see Fig.
166b). The sub-basin is located in the south and
measures about 18 km long and 8 km wide. Most
of the areas exhibit deformation mainly in Lower
Miocene sediments. Only a small northeastern
part of this sub-province, within which is the Ulu
Suai dome (see Fig. 16.5) which has N-S long
axis and E-W short axis may have been
reactivated by Late Miocene wrench movement.
Strong uplift in the southern part of the fold zone
exposed the Bekuya t and Sarong limestones
(Oligocene-Lower Miocene).
Sub-province 4
Sub-province 4 contains a wrench foldbelt in the
northeastern part of Tinjar Province which
developed due to Early Miocene NW-SE dextral
wrench faulting (Fig. 165) , and to Late Miocene
reactivation associated with NNE-SSW sinistral
wrench faulting. The structures include NE-SW
folds , NW-SE dextral wrench faults , NNE-SSW
sinistral wrench faults and possible rhombohedral
basins. Earl y Miocene deformation is more
prominent in the southwest. The NE-SW wrench
anticlines are cut by NW-SE dextral faults with
displacements of up to 5 km, measure about 14-
28 km long with wavelengths of about 6 km (Fig.
16.6d) The Late Miocene structural compression,
which is stronger towards the northeastern part
of the sub-province, resulted in NE-SW striking
structures cut by NNE- SSW sinistral faults.
These usually have flat crestal areas and steep
flanks. Tight folds and compression with low-
angle reverse faults were observed in outcrops
(Tjia et al., 1997). Furthermore certain parts of
Sub-province 4 underwent both Early Miocene
and the Late Miocene deformations which
resulted in superposed structures. In the
Balingian Province the Temana structure
(Doust, 1981) underwent deformation during
both times. Fault - bounded rhombohedral-
shaped basins in the southwestern part of the
onshore measure 24 km long by 12 km wide. In
the Balingian Province are several depreSSions
(Fig. 16.5).
Sub-province 5
Sub-province 5 consists of a wrench fold zone
in the eastern part of Tinjar Province that
was deformed in the Late Miocene (Fig. 165).
This sub-province of Oligocene to Upper
Miocene sediments is different from the rest of
the Tinjar Province since the Late Miocene
deformation is associated with a NW-SE
dextral wrench fault (Fig. 16.7a). The distribution
Tinjar Province
of the folds is controlled by the shear
zone. These structures include a major NW-SE
dextral wrench fault NNE-SSW minor faults ,
elongated synclines (e.g. the Mentebai, Ulu
Bok and Grabit synclines), transpressional
anticlines (e.g. the Ulu Bok and Bakong
anticlines), and broad NE-SW synclines (e.g. the
Jelalong Syncline) in the south. The orientation
of the fractured sandstones in the shear zone
is 290° (Fig. 167b). Transpressive NE-SW
synclines and narrow zones of anticlinal uplift
are situated north of the shear zone. Their
arrangement is en echelon with a dextral
sense. The cores of the anticlines are composed
of the Nyalau and Setap Shale formations
(0 ligocene- Lower Miocene). To the south of
the NW-SE shear zone is the broad Jelalong
syncline ( Fig. 16.7b) . It is 45 km long and 25
km wide. The NE-SW trend of the syncline bends
NNE-SSW near another possible shear zone
which is at its eastern limit that coincides with a
narrow N-S trending (OlOO) zone of steep beds.
It is thought that these structures
resulted from shearing that locally developed
conjugate faults within a system of a regional
N-S Late Miocene left lateral motion (Fig. 16.7b).
The maximum principal stress is oriented
3350. The conjugate faults developed close
to basement inhomogeneities across the
Tinjar Fault at Dulit Range. Furthermore, Tjia
(1996) concluded that the Setap Shale Formation
acted as a zone of detachment near the Dulit
Range.
HYDROCARBON
OCCURRENCES AND PLAY
TYPES
Hydrocarbon Occurrences
The principal reservoir plays in the Tinjar area
are the Oligocene-Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII)
clastics. These occur in the southwestern part
of the Tinjar , and are only partially tested by
the Selungun-l well (Fig. 16.2) Due to the uplift
at the core of the anticline, only Cycle I was
encountered. Hydrocarbons indicators in the
southwestern part include oil stained sandstones/
residual oil traces (Rahdon , 1974; Tjia et
al.,1997). Other occurrences support the
presence of h ydrocarbon expulSion in the
southwestern part of the province, where
carbonaceous matt er , believed to be heavy
hydrocarbons , fills cracks which are up to
2 metres in length and at right angles to coal
beds (Rahdon, 1974 ). The stains represent
immature to mature oils based on geochemical
signatures (see Table 16.1).
Oligocene -Lower Miocene carbonates
TOC (wt . %) 2.1 8
5, (mg HC/g rock) 0.46
52 (mg HC/g rock) 50urce 4.65
PI Pa rameters 0.09
HI 213
Tmax (OC) 430
VRo(%) 0.54
CPI 0.99
Tm/Ts 16.70
Cn Hopane 225/(225 + 22R) Maturity 0.59
C" Hopane 205/(205 + 20R) Parameters 0.47
MPI1 0.61
% Rc 0.77
Table 16.1 Selected geochemical data of the oil-stained
sandstone in the Tinjar Province.
(Cycles IIII) are secondary objectives occurring
mainly in the northern part of the province.
Minor gas shows were encountered in the
Cycle II limestones in several of the Suai and
Sub is wells.
Th e Lambir Formation clastics are
secondary plays in the northeastern part of the
province. Oi l in the shall ow clast ics of the
Lambir Formation were encountered in the Suai 3
wells (Fig. 16.2) in the northern parts.
TRAPSTYLES,RESERVOIR
AND SEAL
Trap Styles
Over 40 NE-SW oriented structures have
been mapped in Sub-provinces 3 and 4 (see
Fig. 16.5). Due to structural complexities and
erosion of the reservoir, Sub-provinces 1 and 2
are the least prospective. There are also Early
Miocene (end Cycle II) , Late Miocene (end Cycle
V) and superposed Late Miocene/ Early Miocene
traps .
Early Miocene (end Cycle II) traps are
formed by NE-SW elongated anticlines ,
occasional small NW -SE anticlines , and large
NE-SW structures. NE-SW to E-W anticlines
are often structurally compartmentalised by
NW-SE dextral faulting and oblique faulting
Tinjar Province
(see Figs. 16.6a and 16.5). They occur in
various parts of the Pandan Kakus Sub-prOVince
and Kelabu anticline. The NW-SE drag folds
(see Fig. 16.6b) are occaSionally found
along NW-SE transcurrent faults. Large
NW-SE structural complexes (see Fig 16.6c)
in the Pandan Kakus Sub -basin are
compartmentalised by NW- SE fau l ts into
several fault blocks cutting the central part
and the western flank. Individual fault
blocks may be prospective, although shallow
sandy intervals and struct u ral faulting
reaching the surface are the major risks .
Figure 16.8 shows the trapping model
for hydrocarbons in reservoirs within
basinal parts and over areas of structural highs,
based on similar examples in the Balingian
Province.
Late Miocene (end Cycle V) traps
are formed by elongated NE-SW anticlines.
These are compartmentalised by NE-SW
faults, and are characterised by flat to gently
dipping crests and steep flanks (see Fig. 16.6d)
(Tjia, 1996). These traps have been drilled in
Selungun, Suai and Subis. The Tiban structure is
as yet undrilled. Similar traps in the East
Balingian Sub-province have been described
(Doust , 1981).
Superposed Late Miocene/ Early Miocene
traps are formed by elongated anticlines
cut by two sets of wrench faults - one right
lateral NW-SE fault and the other left lateral
NE-SW fa u lt (see Fig. 16.6e). Several of
these anticlines occur around Bintulu, where
the faults are commonl y develope d on t he
eastern noses , and the zones of complex fault
intersections.
Reservoirs
Cycles I and II clastics and limestones
The Nyalau Formation (Cycles IIII) is the
main potential reservoir in the sout hwestern
part of Sub-provinces 3 and 4. The reservoirs
consist of offshore marine-subtidal to estuarine
clastics. The upper part is preserved in
the Pandan Kakus area. Near Bint u lu t he
reservoir grades into distributary channel
and in terdis tri bu tary sands tones, sil ty .
sandstones and shales/coals interbeds. Porosities
and permeabihties are between 12-30% and <1
to 1210 mD. The Kakus Member (Cycle II)
has higher porosity and permeability. Porosity
reduction is caused by calcareous cementation,
compaction and authigenic quartz.
Due to thicker overl ying shales
Tinjar Province
(a)
0 10 20 km
I I
(d)
0 10 20 km
I I
(e)
0 10 20 km
I I
(b) 0 10 20 km
I
I
Legend:
0
Lead
"-
Fault
Vit rinite Reflectance
0
0.3 - <0.4
0
0.4 - <0.5
0.5 - <0.6
(e )
0 10 20 km
0
0.6 - <0.7
I I
Fig. 16.6 SAR images of the Tinjar Province. a) End Cycle 11 anticlinal structures having major NW-SE faults on its western flank and
interpreted as wrench related, is also faulted oblique to axis and plunges to the SE. b) Rhombohedral basin cOnLaining end- Cycle II large
anticl ines, which are moderatel y folded. These anticlines are bounded and cut by NW-SE strike-slip faults and NE-SW extensional faults.
Fault compartmentalisation could be a positive factor in trap/ seal capacity for this trap type, c) Symmetrical, small anticline which are
associated wi th drag along major NW-SE transcurrent fault and has NW-SE trend. Such trap types are also found in ot her
tectonostratigraphic provinces such as in West Balingian, d) End- Cycle II anticlinal structures are symmetrical to asymmetrical, elongated
structures with flat to gentle core and steep flanks. These are often broken by large wrench related NE-SW faults and shows SW plunges.
Other areas with such structures include East Balingian Province, e) Mixed end- Cycle II/Cycle V anticlines are cut by two sets of wrench
related fault systems- NW-SE (right lateral) and NE-SW (left lateral). In the superposed structures, both ENE and SW structural plunges are
seen, and a rhombohedral basin is present to the south. Also plot of vitrini te renectance data on the SAR shows that mature shales and
organic matter have been sampled close to the rhombohedral basin.
preserving the objective section, the Nyalau
Formation in the rhombohedral basins could
have better potential. Major accumulations have
been found in several major depressions close to
the boundary between the West and East
Balingian sub-provinces , comprising the Central
Balingian Sub-basin, Acis and North Acis sub-
basins (see Fig. 165).
Lower Miocene (Cycles II1I) carbonates
are another play type in the northeastern part of
the province. The Suai and Subis wells tested off-
reef carbonate facies.
Cycles III and IV clastics.
The Lambir Formation (Cycle III) is regarded as a
secondary reservoirs play in the eastern part of
the province. The formation consists of shallow
marine to paralic sandstones. Porosities and
permeabilities range between 5-25% and <1 to
450mD. Porosity reduction is by cal ci te
cementation, and quartz cementation. Th e
Lambir Formation probably underlies the Belait
Formation in the Mentegal, Ulu Bok and Grabit
Synclines (see Fig. 16.7).

Sch ematic stress elipse
for subprovince 5
"
,
,
,
\:.
,
\
'\
=h.

290
0
0;=1550
TINJAR KNEE
Tinjar Province
o 20 40 km
I
I
STRESS INTERPRETATION
Subprovince 5
Fig. 16.7 SAR image (right) and interpretation (left). Structural patterns in Sub-province 5 comprise a) major NW-SE faults interpreted as
dextral wrench fault , and NNE-SSW minor faults, b) elongated synclines (in yellow), c) transpressional anticlines and d) in the south,
broad NE-SW synclines. Model for the area north of the Tinjar Knee involves N-S lateral motion, local stresses and shearing with
development of conjugate faults and compression. The maximum principal stress is oriented 335
0
Seal
Seals in the Tinjar Sub-provinces 3 and 4 are the
intraformational shales in Nyalau and Lambi r
format ions. Regional shales are largely absent. In
the Balingian Province Lower Miocene (Cycle II)
intraformational sh ales ar e importan t in the
Bayan Field, but generally Middle Miocene (Cycle
III) shales form the regional seal.
SOURCE ROCKS
Oligocene-Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) sediments
are the main source rocks in the southwestern
part of the Sub-provinces 3 and 4. These include
coals and shales that were both depOSited in
either interdistributaries, or in the floodplains of
the estuaries . Their equivalents are Cycles II and I
respectively.
Outcrop samples fro m coal and shale
in tervals of the Nyalau Formation within the
Tinj ar Province have been analysed. The coals
show excellent organic carbon richness (TOe up
to 78 wt. %) and excellent hydrocarbon-
generating potential. The coals also contain oil-
prone (Type II) and gas prone organic matter
(Type III), as suggested by the HI values of 21 9 -
475. A plot of Hydrogen Index against Tmax in
Figure 16.9 demonstrates the quality of selected
coals and shales from the Nyalau Formation. The
percentage of oil prone kerogens in the coals
ranges from a trace to 33%. Source facies are
only found in certain intervals of the Nyalau
Formation. The occasional shale samples from the
shale source facies deposited ma inly in the
southwestern part of the Sub-provinces 3 and 4
show excellent hydrocarbon generating potential
(S, up to 7.8 mg HC/g rock) Most of the shales
of the Nyalau Formation have fair to good organic
carbon r i chness (TOC up to 6.6 wt. %) but
generally poor hydrocarbon generating potential
(S, < 2 mg HC/g rock, HI < 100) .
The kitchen area is below the l ocal
depreSSion in the southwestern part of the
province Figure 16.6d provides thermal maturity
data for several sampli ng points, shOWing the
regional distribution of maturity for the Nyalau
Formation in the southwestern part of the
province, including these local depressions. In
some of the depreSSions the specimens are in the
early mature state with VRo: 0.62-065%
The Set ap Sh ale contains
generally poor source rock. The shales were
deposited in the north in an open marine setting.
Source rock studies have been carried out on both
outcrop and subsurface samples of the Setap Shale
For ma ti on The d at a sh ow that the shal es
possess fa ir organic carbon richness and poor
hydrocarbon generating potential. The samples
contain Type III organic matter with potential to
generate predominantly gas. All the Setap samples
ar e t h er mall y i mmature t o early mat ur e .
.""- SE
Tinjar Province
Biomarker assemblages are characterized by the
presence of moderately high TmlTs, moderate C 9
ex!) hopane, low oleanane, high bicadinanes, and
C29 pr eference (Fig. 16. 11) . Generall y, these
feat ures suggest that t h e source rocks were
deposited within a lower coastal plain setting with
con siderable terres trial or gani c matter
inputlhigher land-plant (resins)
The Setap Sh al e and t h e Nyal au

I+- Leads over structural high-.j 1 ..... 1------- Leads in depression
Possible Well Location Possible Well Location Possible Well Locat ion
PRE CYCLE I
<1>
--------I '-
E
Cij a. lL
",'"
ZQ;
(f)
Fig. 16.8 Trapping model in Tinjar Province. Reservoirs in the basinal parts and structural hi ghs are bel ieved to be similar to the
hydrocarbon accumulati ons in offshore tectonostrati graphi c provinces such as West Balingian Sub-province.
o
o
1000
Nyal au
• (Coal s)
900 - • Nyalau
• Setap
800 -
f- 700-
0>
Type II
"-
Type I
I
I
I
I
0.5% Vitrinite
• Iso reflectance
600 -
0>
E
.. 500 -

TI
.!: 400 -
c
OJ
0>

.
\
,
. '
, .
,
I •
• I ·
I •
300 -
>-
I
200 -
I
·1·
, . 1.2% Vitrinite
\ ,so/eflectance
, . ,
i
• •
100 -
a
400 420 460 I 480 500
I I
1 Immat ure I Oil Window I Gas Window 1
Tmax : deg C
Fig. 16.9 Hydrogen Index against Tmax plot showing the quality
of selected Cycles VII coals and shales from the Nyalau and Setap
Shale formations.
formations in Cycle I at Selungun- l have poor to
good organi c carbon ri chness (TOC: 0.40-1.41
wt. %) . Since the analyzed samples from 769m to
2212m ar e thermall y ma ture t o pos t mature
(VRo: 0.76-1.50 %, Fig. 16 12), the S2 values « 2
mg HC/g rock) merely indicat e their residual
hydrocarbon potential. The HI's are generally less
than 100 , indica t in g t h e abili ty to gen er ate
predominantly gas . The kerogen types are mainly
Type III/ IV of terrigenous origin.
More detailed biomarker analyses show
tha t the Nyal au Formati on coals and shal es
display cert ain similari ties in their bi omarker
assembl ages moder ate to very high Tm/Ts,
moderate to extremely high C29 ex!) hopane, trace
to low oleanane, moderate to high bicadinanes,
and C29 preference (Figures 16.13 and 16.1 4) .
These features are gener all y ch aracterized as
coas t al plain (lower an d upper) depositi on al
setting with substantial terrestrial organic matter
input and also higher land-plant inputs (resins) .
The degree of the input (espeCially oleanane and
bicadinanes) varies from location to location The
bi omarker assemblages observed in the r ock
extract s in the Tinj ar Pr ovince also sh ow a
"
t
"
1,000
~
C,)
o
a:
Ol
'- 10
u
I
Ol 5
E
~ 2.5
N
(f)
V. Good
Good
Fair
Poor
"
' @
r..
Figure a
0
0
C
(
ro
0
°c
""
0
""
0
0 C!l
0
:> C!l
0.1
0,1 0,5 1 2
TOe (wt %)
.• i

Legend
@ shale
• coal
100
Tinjar Province
Figure b
40 ,---------------------,----------.
""
C,)
o
a:
Ol
30
" 20
u
I
N
(f)
10
II
II
III
o
0 -""---"-'--'='---'------=---'------'-------'
o 2 4 6 8
TOe (wt %)
f ig. 16.10 Source pOlemial summary diagram (S \s I'UL) I" l' t he selecled Cyeles III I nKli, .tliel ,I!.dl" lrum the NY<ll<lll hl

lll<lllllll
positive correlation with the biomarker characters
displayed by the Balingian oils (see Bali ngian
Province Chapter 14),
In the Balingian Province , Cycles 1111
coals have oil and gas potential and shales have
poor oil-prone potential. All the best source rocks
occur wit hin lower coastal plain deposi ts, The
kerogens are Type III with some Types Ill/IV gas
prone, Some intervals of Cycle I in the D35 fi eld
is liptinitic,
Coals from the Meri t-Pila coalfiel d of
cen tral Sarawak was stu died by Wan Hasiah
(1997) who focused on the petrographic details
of the early generation of oil-like substances from
the precursor suberinit e (coal), The Merit -Pila
coalfield forms an east-west elongated, block-
faulted, erosional outlier of the Miocene Nyalau
Format ion which rests unconformabl y on the
Eocene Belaga Formation, The st u dy of these
coals clearly demonstrates the early generation of
liqUid hydrocarbon from the maceral suberinite,
and establishes a model for a possible pathway
for which liquid hydrocarbon could be naturally
expelled from coal source rocks
PLAY TYPES
The main play types are a) Oligocene- Lower
Miocene (Cycles IlII) clastics, b) Oligocene -
Lower Miocene limestones in the northeastern
part , and c) Lambir Formation in the eastern part
of the province,
The dominant play in the Tinjar Province
is the Oligocene- Lower Miocene Nyalau (Cycles
IIII) The play occurs in the southwest of the
Tinjar Province where the traps include Lower
Miocene structural traps and superposed Upper
Mi ocen e/Lower Mi ocene struct u ral traps,
R
..
Setap Formation
Shale
m/z 191
Setap Formati on
Shale
mlz 217
so 000
fig. 16. 11 Typical bi omar ker distribut ions of the shale extract
from [he Setap Shale Formati on ,
o
2,00011
(609.76m
li 4,000ft
t3 (1 219.51m
6,00011
(lB29.27m
-
)
-
)
-
)
B,OOOf!
(2429.02m) 0.2
Oil Window
\





I I I I I
0.3 0.4 0. 5 0.6 1 1.2 1. 6 2
VRo %
Fig. 16.12 Depth-vitrinite reflectance relationship showing the
maturity profi le of the analyzed samples from the Selungun-l
well.
Numerous structures are found in Sub-provinces
3 and 4 (see Fig. 166) Half of the 40 untested
leads are found in the southwestern part of the
Tinjar Province where possible rhombohedral
basins may be present. These structures are
generall y shall ow, but Nyalau Formation is
thicker in the local depressions due to
subsidence. The factors that determine the
success of this t yp e of prospect include a)
thickness of intraformational shales, b) amount of
fault throw and position of fault with respect to
structure and c) preservation of Oligocene -Lower
Miocene (Cycles II/I) target intervals (see Fig
16.S). Porosities and permeabilities are good.
The depositional pattern and structural trend
seen in West Balingian are believed to extend to
the southwestern part of the Tinjar Province. In
the 1970-S0's, drilling in East and West Balingian
led to the discoveri es of several fields (Temana,
Bayan, D21 , DIS, D30 and D35) Oil migrated
laterally into structures on the flanks of the local
sub-basins from kitchens such as the Central
Balingian Sub-basin, and the Acis and North Acis
sub-basins (Fig. 165)
The clastic and carbonate plays in the
Tinjar Province are mutuall y excl usive In the
nort heast , the play is in the Oligocene-Lower
Miocene car bonat es, where Late Miocene
structural traps are present. Drilling at Suai and
'"
"
'"
R
38.000
.,"'"
42.000
Tinjar Province
Nyalau Formation
Cool
mtz 191
Nyalau Formation
Cool
m!z217
«6000 48.000
Fig. 16.13 Typical biomarker distributions of the coal extract
from the Nyalau Formation.
..
Nyalau Formation
Shale
m/ z191
Nyalau Formati on
Shale
m/z 217
Fig. 16.14 Typical biomarker distributions of the shale extract
from the Nyalau Formation.
Subis found sub-commercial gas shows
Hydrocarbon traps in the Lambir
Formation, a secondary play in the eastern part of
the Tinjar Province, is difficult to define without
seismic data. The traps are possibl y present
underneath the Upper Miocene sandy Belait
Formation in synclines (see Fig. 16.7a). The
presence of effective intraformational shales
separating the reservoir from the extensive and
porous Belait sandstones is critical to the success
of the Lambir Formation play. In the Balingian
Province oil and gas have been found in the
Lower Cycle III reservoirs at Temana, D12 and
Patricia. Coals and coaly shales are present in the
northern and eastern part of Tinjar Province and
could provide internal hydrocarbon sourcing for
the play.
Extensive land seismic work is necessary
to explore for these three main play types in the
future. Seismic acquisition selectively over some
structur es is critical to upgrade leads into
prospects for drilling. In addition, aerogravity in
the Tinjar Province was acquired in September
1998. Sequence stratigraphy may also be useful
in predicting the continuity of reservoirs in the
subsurface.
SUMMARY
The Tinjar Province has been studied geologically
to find petroleum. Three main play types in the
province have been identified. There are nearly
40 leads in Sub-Provinces 3 and 4 within the
Oli gocene- Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) main
clastic and limestone plays. The Lambir
Formation in the eastern part of the province is a
secondary play. The reservoirs in the main
Nyalau clastic play are the subtidal to estuarine
and interdistributary intervals. These are the
Cycles IIII eqUivalents of the hydrocarbon prolific
West Balingian Sub-Province. The interbedded
shales are generall y thick enough to act as
effective seals. Oils could migrate laterally from
kitchens in local depressions into structures on
the flanks of adjacent sub-basins. In the Balingian
Province such local depressions include the
Central Balingian, Acis and North Acis sub-
basins.
Current seismic coverage is too sparse to
develop leads into prospects. Further exploration
efforts should certainly include seismic and
potential field data acquisition in order to
upgrade some of the leads.
Tinjar Province
REFERENCES
Doust, H., 1981. Geology and exploration history
of offshore central Sarawak. In: Energy resources
of the Pacific region (Ed. Halbouty M T ),
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Studies in Geology 12, 117-132.
Ho Kiam Fui, 1978. Stratigraphic framework for
oil exp loration i n Sarawak . Bu ll et in of the
Geological Society of Malaysia, lO, 1-13.
Intera, 1993. Radar Geologic Intepretation of
Sarawak, Ma lays ia (Unpub lished report:
PETRONAS)
James, D.M.D. , (Ed.), 1984. "The geology and
h yd rocarbon potential of Negara Brunei
Darussalam". Muzium Brunei Special Publication,
169 pp
Leichti, P. , Roe, F.N., Haile, N.S. and Kirk,
H.j.C., 1960. The Geology of Sarawak, Brunei and
wes tern part of Nort h Borneo. British Borneo
Geological Survey, Bulletin 3.
Rahdon, A.E. , 1974. Geologica l fi eld
investigations-NW Borneo (Nov 1969 - July 1974)-
Summary of data (Unpubli shed report: Sarawak
Shell Berhad)
Sarawak Shell Berhad, 1955. Resume of deep
coreholes Suai # 1,2 and 3. (Unpublished report :
Sarawak Shell Berhad).
Sarawak Shell Berhad, 1971. Sarawak Basin
Study (Unpublished report: Sarawak Shell Berhad)
Scherer, F.C., 1981. Exploration in East Malaysia
over the past decade. In: Giant oil and gas fi elds of
the decade 1968- 1978 (Ed. by Halbouty MT),
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Bulletin, 30, 423-440.
Tinjar Province
Swinburn, P. M., 1993. Tectonic styles of the
Balingian Province. Geological Society of Malaysia
Petroleum Geology Seminar 1993, Programmes and
Abstracts, 15 pp.
Tjia, H.D., 1996. Tectonics of the Sarawak Basin.
Warta Geologi, 22, 6.
Tjia, H.D., Mohd Idrus Ismail and Othman Ali
Mahmud, 1997. Bintulu-Ulu Suai and Lambi r
Geological Fieldtrip (3-8 Nov, 1997). (Unpubli shed
report PETRONAS).
Wan Hasiah A. , 1997. Evidence o f ear ly
generation of liquid hydrocarbon from suberinite
as visib le under t he microscope. Organic
Geochemistry, 27, 591-596.

Central Luconia . Furthermore. _ - A(K '. including the Tatau Horst. 1984 ) . part of its tectonic history was also due to subduction of the South China Sea Plate under Borneo....1) The Tinjar Province.-. .~ ~ -.' .... West Baram Delta. Further north are the Balingian. and recent reviews of the onshore areas have excluded the Tinjar Province.Labuan{J IGNEOUS EXTRUSIVE ROCKS Dacitic and andesitic lava (Tertiary to Oualernary) D o --- ~~T. Except in its northern part . the Tinjar Province is not well explored.. . '.-.~ctoar.Early Miocene and Late Miocene deform ations.- /' Fig.Tinjar Province INTRODUCTION \ he onshore Tinjar Province is a wrenchrelated foldbelt in the Sarawak Basin which covers largely the offshore Balingian..gu~~~~~~) lavas 50 kin SOUTH CHINA SEA 'V I BALINGIAN PROVINCE . 16. . ___ Nanga Merit . with some NW-SE anticlinal structures and faults.: :: =~.. 1960). the Arip Pelagau Anticline . and the Dulit Range. The Upper Eocene to Upper Miocene sedimentary sequences in the Tinjar Province were deposited after the uplift of the Upper Cretaceous to Eocene indurated sediments (Liechti et al. is separated from the offshore Balingian by the NE SW to ENE-WSW Anau Nyalau fault. . Tatau and W. 1981. j I I ~ I . James . The regional framework resulted from the sou theasterly plate movements due to rifting and opening of the South China Sea Basin from the eg Late Cretaceous to the Middl e Miocene C Doust . 1981. which is uplifted relative to the offshore provinces .1 Tectonostratigraphic stratigraphic subdivision in Ti njar Province based on structural characteristi cs arising from end. 16. ' .. SW Luconia. Central 114'[ 112'[ SEDIMENTARY ROCKS D D D 5'N Pleistocene and Recent Neogene Palaeogene p. Luconia provinces (see Fig. Major structures formed at the end of the Early Miocene and Late Miocene are dominantly NE-SW T trending. Scherer . ~. 3'N -.

Wrench -related structures. formed during the Ea rly Mioce n e. EXPLORATION HISTORY The Anglo -Saxon Petroleum Company acquired the rights under the Sarawak Oil Mining Lease to explore the whole of onshore Sarawak in 1909.l PCSB BLOCK SK306 AME RADA HESS M'SIA SHD !pess SUBIS--1.. Middle Miocene carbonates (Cycles IVN) a nd Uppe r Miocene deltaic sandstones re spectively. OIL & GAS ~ OIL & GAS SHOWS SARAWAK o -¢- GAS SHOWS ~ OIL SHOWS -¢- OR Y WELL 40 ! IwwM 20 60 ! 80 100 km IwwM Fig. Between the BLOCK SK30B SHEll EXPLORATION & PRODUcnON MALAYSIA B.. 1960) This chapter describes the structural setting of petroleum accumulations in the Tinjar Province with reference to the structural development in both East and West Balingian provinces. By 1910 the first oil field was discovered when the Miri-1 well penetrated h ydrocarbon bearing intervals within Upper Miocene deltai c sands .. Tinjar Fault) and NNE-SSW faults (e. including 11 wells in Tinjar Province. w hereas Late Miocene deformation occurred in the eastern Balingian Province (Dous t .2 Map of onshore well locations in Tinjar Province and Baram Delta. .g. the regional deformation was mainly attributed to the end of the Miocene phase (Liechti et al.. . the Ulu Suai Dome) and NWSE-tr en ding anticlines were a lso mapped. 1993).V.Lo wer Miocene (Cycles IIII) clastics. OIL -¢- GAS . 1997). NE-SW regional transform faults (e.Late Eocene ages. Early Miocene wre nch fau l ts dominate the wes tern part of the Balingian Pro vince (Swinburn.g. 1981).g. . None of the wells in the Tinjar Province to date was drilled in the southwestern part which falls in the oil/gas trend of offshore Balingian Province. F u rther more the SAR interpretation was calibrated with field checks (Tjia et al. Tubau Fault) Domes (e. The land exploration targeted several areas having oil seepages around the Baram Delta.1993). The data shows many NE-SW anticlinal and synclinal structures.2 -9- SARAWAK ONSHORE WELL LOCATIONS WELL SYMBOLS . and their producing h orizons are the O li gocene . The structural closures are associated with W -SE dextral faults and NNE -SSW sinistral faults The most comprehens ive structural analysis of onshore Sarawak was based on air p hoto and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquired in 1990 by PETRONAS. The regional da ta were interpreted in 1993 (Intera . These contain sedim entary seque n ces of post. However. 16. were react ivated in the Lat e Miocene in the north eastern part of the province. In the Tinj ar Province there are wrench-related large complexly faulted anticlinal traps.Tinjar Province Luconia and West Baram Delta provinces.

The Suai. 0 0 w VII Tgh VI U Begrih (Bg) Bal ing ian (Ba) z W 0 w TI Be lait (Be) IV III Lambir (La) Sibuti (Si) Tangap (Tg) Setap (S) Nyalau (Ny) Tubau (Tu) Kakus Member (k) Biban Sandstone Member (bs) Subis Limestone Member (Si) Q :Ii >Er: Te s <c IEr: W II I- Ted w 0 0 w z w U~ Pel Buan (B) Tatau (Tat) Bawang Member (Bw) Pelagus Member (Pe l) Tb 6 WW Q. the main outcrop in the Tinjar Province. .Suai FACIES D ~ Mari n e { Predominantly non-calcareous Predominantly calcareous D I==l t=:::j F -- Continental M ixed continental and marine Unconformity Fault contact Fig. Several wells were drilled in the onshore part of the Tertiary basin around this coastal belt. geological mapping .3 w ell produced oil at a rate of 27 BOPD from a n iso l ated channel sa ndston e. the Lambir ancl Belait formations are posssible reservoirs.Jw <CZ Ta Pre I Metah Member (Mt) g '" E o LL c <co '" Kapit Member (Kt) Layar Member (Ly) Qi III CJ) '" CRETACEOUS Central Sarawak .3 Generalised stratigraphic scheme of Central Sarawak. 16.Tatau . The Suai 1-3 core holes drilled in 1952-53 (see Fig.Rajang Bali ngian . 162) reached Middle Miocene (Cycles 1III) int erbedded shaks and sandstones (see Fig. 16 . . The I yalau Formation .Sibuti .. Q.Tinjar Province FOR MATION AGE QUATER HOLOMARINE · NARY PLEISTOCENE CYC LE VIII Liang (L) W Z :::. Towards the NE. consists of shallow marine to paralic successions grading into marine clastics from SW to NE. It interfingers with the Set ap Shale FormatI on. The belt between Suai and Bulak was covered with 483 line-km of singlefold land seismic in 1952/53. This well wa s abandoned at total depth (TD) of 12 86 fe e t within the Lower Miocen e after a gas blow out.3) . acquisition of land gravity and seismic were conducted around the coasta l areas. 1920-1950'5.

4 ). These penetrated deeper into Lower Miocene (Cycles 1III) intervals comprising the Subis Limestone. sandstone and calcareous sands. 30 foot limestone. Suai-1 and Subis-2 showing the Subis Limestone. Due to erosion after strong uplift of the structure. the Cycle II objective in Selungun -1 was never encoumered.4 Well correlation from Selungun-1. The limeston e represent deep-marine and off-reef facies. 16. whilst the higher sec ti on are mi xed clastics and carbonates comprising thinner.1 Suai .Tinjar Province Selungun . In 1955 three more wells (Suai-4.5 Subis . Located about 25 km northeast from the . interbedded with a mixture of shale. 5 and 6) were drilled n earby. 16. and interbedded sandstones and shal es (see Fig.2 Maximum flooding surface Sequence boundary SP IES Maximum flooding surface Sequence boundary SP IES SP IES Fig. At well locations the calcareous and argillaceous sands tone intervals ' s h ow only marg in a l r ese rvoir properties (Porosity.8 mD) A drill stem test (DST) within the reservoir intervals recovered only traces of gas and water. permeability up to 2. 8-20%.

As the deformed and least acce ssible hinterland areas were cons idered unprospect ive. silts and thin sands and 150-400 feet thick sh allow marine and coastal plain sandstones. (1960) and sub sequen tl y th e . Limited subsurface onshore stratigraphic penetra tion s and poor age con trol s make recognition of sedimentary cycles difficult . Buan Formation sh ales overste p the Tatau Fo rmation to uncon formabl y overli e the Belaga Formation. was drilled in 1956 in the area more towards Bintulu. including the Rajang Accretionary Prism and the Dulit Range. Formations The Tatau Formation (Upper Eocene to Oligocene) unconformably overlies the steeply folded Bawang Member of the Belaga Formation at the Arip Pelagau Anticline. exploration moved offshore with several successes . These intervals had been aSSigned to the Se tap Shale Formation . relinquish ed the remaining areas around the coastal belt of the Tinjar Province .Pelagau Anticline the Tatau Formation p asses gradually up into the laminated marine shales of the Buan Formation (Oligocene). was forma lised. The porosity of the sandstones varies between 3 to 10 %. Along the Jelalong river. Since 1957 .. Near Ta ta u an d the Ar ip . Subis-2. Several wells along th e Miri-Tudan trend in onshore Baram Delta were drilled . as at Bukit Mersing. Elsewhere . Tubau Formation shelfal shales and marls occur in the Tubau Valley. the other onshore well in the near coastal areas in the Tinjar Province . thick sh ales and intercalated limestone lenses.. Consequently onshore exploration became limited. sa nd y sha les a nd sh ales with dis p ersed lignite band s and marls. but subsequently the remaining contract area was relinquished. DSTs show that the amount of hydrocarbons at Subis-2 was insignificant.Te ) and is STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE Stratigraphic scheme In 1960 a review of the stratigraphy of onshore Sarawa k . these were th e first to b e relinquished. the exploration company re linquished seve ral packages of its onsho re Sarawak concession. the lower part of the Nyalau Formation is distingUished as the Biban Sandstone Me mb er. was released under a second relinquishment exercise.clastic sequence and two thick carbonate units of between 1200 to 4000 feet thickness. to early Tes). The offshore Tertiary succession in the Sarawak shelf is class ifi ed into eight regressive cycles (Ho. ranging in age fr om Oligocene to Lower Miocene (Te . partly calcareous. This is of O li gocene . 1978). and towards the coast. including th e Grabit -Me ntebai Synclin e. The Subis well encountered severa l Lower Mioce n e int erva ls of thinner limestone in a mixed carbonate. Selungun-1 . Exploration activities continued in some of the the inland belt around Pandan Kakus . In the Tatau -Bintulu area. th is formation merges into the Oligocene-Miocene Setap Sh ale Formation.Tinjar Province Suai wells.3. Since 1960's. In 1967 6-12 fo ld CDP stack seismic data in the area around Suai were acquired in 1974 .Miocene age (Tc d. The former company.in the area around Bungai. but retained those around the Miri Field. was spudded in 1956. Most of the ou t crops in the Tinj ar Province belong to the O li gocene -Miocene Nyalau Formation (Cycles lIII) In the SubisBintulu area the Nyalau Formation occurs as interbedded offshore . The Sarawak stratigrap hic scheme and its approximate age correlation to the cycles is sh own in Figure 16. including the discovery of the Temana Field. and hence th e formation terminol ogy cannot be dispensed with. Similar ro cks occur in several of the onshore wells (Subis-2. grading into sandy limestone.estuarine sa nd stones. 165) but in 1971 this be lt . but improves near the sur face to between 9 to 24%. An aeromagnetic survey of all offshore Sarawak was extended landwards into a small belt in the Tinj ar Province in 1965.subtidal . stratigraphic nomenclature based on both rock stratigraphy and tim e stratigraphy (based on foraminiferal parame ters). Ulu Su ai Dome and Kelabu Anticline (F ig . At its base . resumed exploration activities around the coastal belt. The Selungun-1 well drilled into an anticlinal feature and spudded into Oligocene (Cycle 1) shales. The final well . The depositional environment for the form atio n is littoral to neritic.1 and Bulak Setap-3). Saba h and Brunei was conducted by Liec hti et al. It has a conformable contact with overlying Nyalau Formation. In the Se lun gun we ll the interval consis ts of Silty sandstones . The formation is separated by the Arip acid volcanics into a lower (Eocen e or Tb) and upper (O li gocene or Tcd) part. the Ta tau Formation consists of mainly medium to fine grained sandstones and siltstones with some intervals of marls. Selungun. In 1976 She ll Signed the Production Sh aring Con tract. renamed Sarawak Shell Berhad (SSB) in 1958.

The Nyalau Formation grades up into the Sibuti Formation (Lower-Middle Miocene). 1997) (see Fig... and medium to coa rs e gra in ed sandstones interbedded with claystones. predomina ntl y fine to m edi um gra in ed sandston es. described as insignificant.Tuden Trend o """"'I 50 km ..) : The Lower to Middle Miocene (Te. The Lambir Formation grades up into the Belait Formation towards the Dulit Range..~~~~e~. This consists of inner n eritic clay-shales with minor siltstones and limestone. calca r eous san dston es and thin to mod erate ly th ick limestones (5 -400 feet) This interval laterally inte rfin gers w ith the Nya lau Formation..shales and Silty clays . The Sibuti Formation grades up into the Lambir Formation (Middle Miocene). and possibly Tf. to Te 5. ... laminated clays and brackish shales and li gni t es. Thi s con sists of alternating inner neritic to littoral sandstones and shales. 1960) and the offshore Balingian Province. sometimes pure white. barren. with some siltstones interbeds and contains calcareous nodules. massive . et. The Belait Formation (Middle to Upper Miocene. Structure Five sub -prOVinces have been recognised in the Tinjar Province based on SAR data (Tj ia et al. thin lim estone len ses and ca lcareous sands to nes. Miri and Tukau forma tions. 16. ai. succeeded by clay shales. The fo rmation is the time stratigraphic equivalent of the Lambir.5 Structural map of the Tinjar Province and sub -provinces (modified after Leichti . a ttr ib ut e d to int erd istribut ary environments.{' Syncline c .Tinjar Province Le gend: 1 2 3 4 5 Dulil Range Tinjar Fa ult Tubau Faull Bukl! Marsi ng U ne Ari p Pelagau Anticline S 7 8 9 10 Tatau Horst Pandan Kakus Subbasin Ulu Sok Ant icli ne Bakong Anticline Mentage i Sync line 11 12 13 14 15 Grabil Syncli ne Ulu Suai Dome Kolabu Anticline Aajang Accre tionary Pr ism Mlf i . The Nyalau Formation grades into the Tangap Formation (Oligocene-Lower Miocene) to the north of Subis. as in the Paroh anticline. Offshore oi l and gas fields are shown.:.. partic ularly offshore / /"" Unspecified fault RAW A K 112 E 0 114'E Fig.¥' .Sub-basin .5) Structural styles in the Tinjar Province are believed to result from two phases of deformation in wren ch-fault systems. Tes to Tf. The boundary of this formation with the overlying Be lait and Lam bir formations is mo st ly conformable and diachronous . The limestones comprise coral-algal reefoid grow th and foraminiferal open shoal limestone. Setap Shale Formation consists of littoral to inner n eritic clay. Th ese inte rva ls are occaSionally interbedded w ith sands tone s.) consists of intervals o f thick bedded.. Sandstones with so m e impure lignite layers occur in the uppermost intervals in the Grabit Synclin e. .. SW LUCONIA GRABEN --- Legen d : .. Tf. In the Pandan Kakus and Ulu Suai areas several intervals of massive sandstone. / Anticline synclinel structure ~~I~rse Normal fault . The inner to outer neritic of m arls and shales include the Subis Limestone Member. has been observed in some places. marls .. Th e 250 to 500 feet thick limestones are included within the Biban Sandstone Member. alt h ough an occasional unconformable contact . 16..).:::::::. are deSignated the Kakus Member (Lower-Middle Miocene.. Limestone beds and calcareous sandstones in the Nyalau Formation are present as th e Oligocene (Tcd) Sarong Limeston e and Bekuya t Limes tone. Major structures were formed at the end of the .

This sub-province contains a number of structural elements. This is a sinistral wrench fault that was active in the Late Miocene in the opposite part of the Dulit Range. which is less uplifted than both sub-provinces in the east and west. 166b) . 1960). Several NE-SW trending transpressional structures in East Balingian Sub-province have large amplitude anticlines with cutting cross faults and flanking reverse faults (Doust . 16 . 165) . Setap Shale formations ). Dengan . NE-SW trending anticlines and NW-SE dextral wrench faults. Pandan-Kakus Sub-basin containing a relatively thick Oligocene . The smaller anticline which lies in the orientation of NW-SE major wrench faults is considered to be a drag fold (see Fig. The deformation operated by detachment tectonics that was facilitated by strike-slip motion along the Tinjar . Outcrops in the Sub-province 1 are older. 166c) The sub-province. th e structural patterns are different from the rest of the Tinjar Province. was active during the Early Miocene. Tubau and another NE-SW.g Liechti et al. The Late Miocene wrenching is related to the southwards movement of the South China Sea Basin . near Tinjar Fault. was active in the Early Miocene. Lat e Eoc e ne and Late Miocene movements along the northward-opening fan of dextral wrench faults produced a zone of strong transpression and uplift of the Upper Cretaceous -Lower Miocene sediments . hitherto unknown zone of weakness. 16. which are occaSionally WNW-ESE and almost sub-parallel to the Bukit Mersing Line . shows two distinctive structural trends that are at right angles to each other. Sub-province 3 Sub -province 3 is a large wrench fold zone that was deformed and faulted along a few NWSE dextral wrench faults in the southern part of the Tinjar Province (see Fig. Previously the deformation history of the Tinjar Province was mainly attributed to a Late Miocene regional event (e. Sub-province 5 is related to Late Miocene deformation. in the southeastern part of the Tinjar Province. Sub -provinces 1 and 3 are related to Early Miocene deformation. mostly made up of the Dulit Range (see Fig . The sense of movement of the dextral Tinjar Fault was deduced from a number of tension fractures that are left stepping around several folds . the NW-SE Tinjar Fault and NNE -SSW-trending Tubau Fault. and include Upper Eocene-Oligocene outcrops of the Tatau and Buan formations . which resulted in several N-S transform faults such as the Morris Fault . The Early Miocene wrenching is related to southeasterly directed movements as a result of Late Cretaceous-Miocene spreading and opening of the South China Sea Basin. Jerudong Line and Tubau Fault.6a .Tinjar Province Early Miocene and in the Late Miocene (Tjia et al. Sub -provinces 2 and 4 show deformation during the Early and Late Miocene. the Tatau Horst . The Dulit Range. a dextral NE-SW trending wrench fault. a major transcurrent fault in Sarawak. The structures consists of two NE -SW trending tight shale-cored folds. Sub-province 1 Sub-province 1 forms an area of convergent wrenching in the western part of the Tinjar Province.SE trend. Sub-province 2 Sub-province 2 . The detachment of the Belait from older sequences was lubricated b y shales of the Setap Shale Formation. is bounded on the east by Tinjar Fault. There are NW-SE wrench faults and NE-SW transpressional structures. the Arip Pelagau Anticline (see Fig. just north of Bukit Selika.Middle Miocene sedimentary section (see Fig. which is located . 165) The movement along the NW-SE wrench faults.5). However . and are interpreted as a conjugate fault system. 1997). The NW-SE aligned AripPelagau Anticline is wedged tightly between NW SE faults in Tinjar Pro vince and the thrust foldbelts in the south along the Bukit Mersing Line. The term "framefolding " was used for this phenomenon. NE-SW trending faults are left lateral offsetting one anticline near the sinistral Tubau Fault. Movement along the Tinjar Fault.. which are often cut b y several NW-SE faults showing right lateral offsets. Tjia (1996) proposed that the Dulit Syncline became refolded during the postBelait deformation (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) and developed into the right angle or dog-leg pattern of the Sekiwa-Dulit ridges. The large NW-SE trending anticlines (see Figs. 1981). and was reactivated in the Late Miocene. also forms an E-W trending.. are up to 15 km long and 5 km wide. The sedimentary section in the Tinjar Province is mostly Oligocene to Middle Miocene in age (Nya lau . sharply bending to a NW .

1974. transpressional anticlines (e. within which is the Ulu Suai dome (see Fig.2) Due to the uplift at the core of the anticline. The orientation of the fractured sandstones in the shear zone is 290 ° (Fig. In the Balingian Province are several depreSSions (Fig. Tjia (1996) concluded that the Setap Shale Formation acted as a zone of detachment near the Dulit Range. 165). 165) .1997). where carbonaceous matt e r . Fault -bounded rhombohedralshaped basins in the southwestern part of the onshore measure 24 km long by 12 km wide. 16.7a).7b). The NE-SW trend of the syncline bends NNE-SSW near another possible shear zone which is at its eastern limit that coincides with a narrow N-S trending (OlOO) zone of steep beds. Furthermore . and to Late Miocene reactivation associated with NNE-SSW sinistral wrench faulting.Lower Miocene). Tight folds and compression with lowangle reverse faults were observed in outcrops (Tjia et al. Earl y Miocene deformation is more prominent in the southwest. believed to be heav y h ydrocarbons . 16. The ma x imum principal stress is oriented 3350. Furthermore certain parts of Sub-province 4 underwent both Early Miocene and the Late Miocene deformations which resulted in superposed structures. Hydrocarbons indicators in the southwestern part include oil stained sandstones/ residual oil traces (Rahdon . the Ulu Bok and Bakong anticlines). These occur in the southwestern part of the Tinjar .. This sub-province of Oligocene to Upper Miocene sediments is different from the rest of the Tinjar Pro vinc e since the Late Miocene deformation is associated with a NW-SE dextral wrench fault (Fig.. the Mentebai.5) which has N-S long axis and E-W short axis may ha ve been reactivated by Late Miocene wrench movement. NNE-SSW sinistral wrench faults and possible rhombohedral basins. 16. fills cracks which are up to 2 metres in length and at right angles to coal Sub-province 5 Sub-province 5 consists of a wrench fold zone in the eastern part of Tinjar Province that was deformed in the Late Miocene (Fig. The NE-SW wrench anticlines are cut by NW-SE dextral faults with displacements of up to 5 km. To the south of the NW-SE shear zone is the broad Jelalong syncline ( Fig. 16. The cores of the anticlines are composed of the Nyalau and Setap Shale formations (0 ligocene. the Jelalong Syncline) in the south. 16. Strong uplift in the southern part of the fold zone exposed the Beku ya t and Sarong limestones (Oligocene-Lower Miocene). Transpressive NE-SW synclines and narrow zones of anticlinal uplift are situated north of the shear zone. These structures include a major NW-SE dextral wrench fault NNE -SSW minor faults . The structures include NE-SW folds .g. It is thought that these structures resulted from shearing that locally developed conjugate faults within a system of a regional N-S Late Miocene left lateral motion (Fig. Most of the areas exhibit deformation mainly in Lower Miocene sediments. and broad NE-SW synclines (e. The conjugate faults de veloped close to basement inhomogeneities across the Tinjar Fault at Dulit Range. Tjia et al. 16. Sub-province 4 Sub-province 4 contains a wrench foldbelt in the northeastern part of Tinjar Province which developed due to Early Miocene NW-SE dextral wrench faulting (Fig. The distribution . elongated synclines (e. 1981) underwent deformation during both times. NW-SE dextral wrench faults . resulted in NE-SW striking structures cut b y NNE .g. Only a small northeastern part of this sub-province.6d) The Late Miocene structural compression. 16.Tinjar Province 166b). Their arrangement is en echelon with a dextral sense. 167b). of the folds is controlled by the shear zone. and are only partially tested by the Selungun-l well (Fig. only Cycle I was encountered. Other occurrences support the presence of h yd rocarbon expulSion in the southwestern part of the province. HYDROCARBON OCCURRENCES AND PLAY TYPES Hydrocarbon Occurrences The principal reservoir plays in the Tinjar area are the Oligocene-Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) clastics. In the Balingian Province the Temana structure (Doust.SSW sinistral faults. 1997).7b) . The sub-basin is located in the south and measures about 18 km long and 8 km wide. which is stronger towards the northeastern part of the sub-province. measure about 1428 km long with wavelengths of about 6 km (Fig. These usually have flat crestal areas and steep flanks. Ulu Bok and Grabit synclines).g.5). It is 45 km long and 25 km wide.

Several of these anticlines occur around Bintulu.SE fau l ts into se veral fault blocks cutting the central part and the western flank. based on similar examples in the Balingian Province . s il ty .1 8 0. 1981). although shallow sandy intervals and struct u ral faulting reaching the surface are the major risks . 1974 ). Sub-provinces 1 and 2 are the least prospective. Near Bin tu lu t he reservoir grades into distributary channel and in terdis tri bu tary sands tones.59 0. occasional small NW -SE anticlines .46 4. %) 5. 16. Th e Lambir Formation clastics are secondary plays in the northeastern part of the province.6a and 16. and are characterised by flat to gently dipping crests and steep flanks (see Fig.1).6b) are occaSionally found along NW-SE transcurrent faults.Tinjar Province beds (Rahdon . Due to thicker overl ying shales .8 shows the trapping model for hydrocarbons in reservoirs within basinal parts and over areas of structural highs. and large NE -SW structures . Oligocene -Lower Miocene carbonates TOC (wt.6e). Superposed Late Miocene/ Early Miocene traps are formed by elongated anticlines cut by two sets of wrench faults .61 0. and the zones of complex fault intersections. Late Miocene (end Cycle V) traps are formed b y elongated NE-SW anticlines. (see Figs. Minor gas shows were encountered in the Cycle II limestones in several of the Suai and Sub is wells. Oi l in the sha ll ow clastics of the Lambir Formation were encountered in the Suai 3 wells (Fig. Due to structural complexities and erosion of the reservoir.70 Maturity Pa rameters 0. These are compartmentalised by NE-SW faults. The reservoirs consist of offshore marine-sub tidal to estu arine clastics. compaction and authigenic quartz. Late Miocene (end Cycle V) and superposed Late Miocene/ Early Miocene traps .54 0. TRAPSTYLES. 16.65 0. The stains represent immature to mature oils based on geochemical signatures (see Table 16. 16. Suai and Subis.5). (mg HC/g rock) 52(mg HC/g rock) PI HI Tmax (OC) VRo(%) CPI Tm/Ts 50u rce Pa ra meters 2. 16. Similar traps in the East Balingian Sub -province have been described (Doust .99 16.47 0. Figure 16.RESERVOIR AND SEAL Trap Styles Over 40 NE-SW oriented structures have been mapped in Sub-provinces 3 and 4 (see Fig.5). sandstones and shales/coals interbeds.77 Cn Hopane 225/(225 + 22R) C" Hopane 205/(205 + 20R ) MPI1 % Rc Table 16. The Tiban structure is as yet undrilled. The Kakus Member (Cycle II) has higher porosity and permeability. 1996). There are also Early Miocene (end Cycle II) . Early Miocene (end Cycle II) traps are formed by NE-SW elongated anticlines . The NW -SE drag folds (see Fig. These traps have been drilled in Selungun. Porosities and permeabihties are between 12-30% and <1 to 1210 mD.6d) (Tjia. Large NW-SE structural complexes (see Fig 16. NE-SW to E-W anticlines are often structurally compartmentalised b y NW-SE dextral fau lting and oblique faulting Reservoirs Cycles I and II clastics and limestones The N yalau Formation (Cycles IIII) is the main potential reservoir in the so uthwes tern part of Sub-provinces 3 and 4. where the faults are commonly develope d on the eastern noses . (Cycles IIII) are secondary objectives occurring mainly in the northern part o f the province. 16. Individual fault blocks may be prospective .2) in the northern parts.one right lateral NW-SE fault and the other left lateral NE-SW fa u lt (see Fig. The upper part is preserved in the Pandan Kakus area.1 Selec ted geochemical data of the oil-stained sandstone in the Tinjar Province.6c) in the Pandan Kakus Sub -basin are compartmentalised by NW . The y occur in various parts of the Pandan Kakus Sub-prOVince and Kelabu anticline. 16.09 213 430 0. Porosity reduction is caused by calcareous cementation .

Porosities and permeabilities range between 5-25% and <1 to 450mD. a) End Cycle 11 anticlinal structures having major NW-SE faults on its western flank and interpreted as wrench related. b) Rhombohedral basin cOnLaining end . Cycles III and IV clastics.Cycle II large anticl ines.Cycle II anticlinal structures are symmetrical to asymmetrical. 16. 165). Fault compartmentalisation could be a positive factor in trap/ seal capacity for this trap type. which are moderately folded.7).Cycle II/Cycle V anticlines are cut by two se ts of wrench related fault systems. These are often broken by large wrench related NE-SW faults and shows SW plunges.4 <0 . .Tinjar Province (a) 0 10 20 km I I (d) 0 10 20 km I I (e) (b ) 0 10 20 km 0 10 I Legend : 20 km I I I 0 "0 0 (e ) 0 10 20 km Lead Fault Vitrinite Reflectance I I 0 0. Ulu Bok and Grabit Synclines (see Fig. and a rhombohedral basin is present to the south.6 SAR images of the Tinjar Province. Such trap types a re a lso found in ot her tectonostratigraphic provinces such as in West Balingian.4 0. The formation consists of shallow marine to paralic sandstones. both ENE and SW structural plunges are seen. small anticline which are associate d wi th drag along major NW-SE transcurrent fault and has NW -SE trend. The Suai and Subis wells tested offreef carbonate facies. e) Mixed end. Also plot of vitrinite renectance data on the SAR shows that mature shales and organic matter have been sampled close to the rhombohedral basin. These anticlines are bounded and cut by NW-SE strike-slip faults and NE-SW extensional faults. The Lambir Formation (Cycle III) is regarded as a secondary reservoirs play in the eastern part of the province.3 0.NW-SE (right lateral) and NE-SW (left lateral). comprising the Central Balingian Sub-basin. 16. Other areas with such structures include East Balingian Province. d) End. In the superposed structures. and quartz cementation.5 0. Porosity reduction is by ca lc i te cementation. Lower Miocene (Cycles II1I) carbonates are another play type in the northeastern part of the province. Major accumulations have been found in several major depressions close to the boundary between the West and East Balingian sub-provinces .5 <0. elongated structures with flat to gentle core and steep flanks.6 - <0. Acis and North Acis sub basins (see Fig.6 <0 . is also faulted oblique to axis and plunges to the SE. the Nyalau Formation in the rhombohedral basins could have better potential.7 Fig. preserving the objective section. c) Symmetrical. Th e Lambir Formation probably underlies the Belait Formation in the Mentegal.

local stresses and shearing with development of conjugate faults and compression .6 wt. \:. < 2 mg HC/g rock. \ " =h. Regional shales are largely absent. The coals sh ow excellent organic carbon richness (TOe up to 78 wt.9 demonstrates the quality of selected coals and shales from the Nyalau Formation. In some of the depreSSions the specimens are in the early mature state with VRo: 0. b) elongated synclines (in yellow).8 mg HC/g rock) Most of the shales of the Nyalau Formation have fair to good organic carbon r ichness (TOC up to 6.6d provides thermal maturity data for several samp ling points. The occasional shale samples from the shale source facies deposited ma inly in the southwestern part of the Sub -provinces 3 and 4 show excellent hydrocarbon generating po tential (S. Model for the area north of the Tinjar Knee involves N-S lateral motion. as suggested by the HI values of 21 9 475 . and NNE-SSW minor faults. 16. or in the floodplains of the estuaries . %) and excellen t hydrocarbon gen erating po tential. Structural patterns in Sub-province 5 comprise a) major NW-SE faults interpreted as dextral wrench fault . but generally Middle Miocene (Cycle III) shales form the regional seal. Their equivalents are Cycles II and I respectively.=155 0 o 20 40 km I I STRESS INTERPRETATION Subprovince 5 TINJAR KNEE Fig. SOURCE ROCKS Oligocene-Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) sediments are th e m ain source rocks in the southwestern part of the Sub-provinces 3 and 4. %) b ut generally poor hydrocarbon generating potential (S. The kitchen area is below the l ocal depreSSion in the southwestern part of the province Figure 16. broad NE-SW synclines. The sh ales were . . Outcrop samp les fro m coal and shale in tervals of the Nyalau Formation w ithin th e Tinj ar Province h ave been analysed. including these local depressions. HI < 100) . A plot of Hydrogen Index against Tmax in Figure 16.62 -065% The Se t ap Sh ale Forrna~ contains generally poo r source rock.Tinjar Province ~&d~~-=. up to 7. c) transpressional anticlines and d) in the south.7 SAR image (right) and interpretation (left). Th e coals also contain oil- prone (Type II) and gas prone organic matter (Type III). In the Balingian Province Lower Miocen e (Cycle II) intraformatio n al sh ales ar e importa n t in the Bayan Field. . Source facies are only found in certain inte rvals of the Nyalau Formation.. Sch ematic stress elipse fo r sub provin ce 5 . These include coals and sh ales that were bo th depOS ited in eith er in terdistributaries. The percentage of oil prone kerogen s in the coals ranges from a trace to 33%. shOWing the regional distribution of maturity for the Nyalau Formation in the southwestern part of the province. The maximum principal stress is oriented 335 0 Seal Seals in the Tinjar Sub-provinces 3 and 4 are the intraformational sha les in Nyalau and Lambir formations. ~ '\ 290 0 ~ 0.

50 %. 16. .'.SE I+. 420 I • • '-~ ~ 460 I I a 480 500 Immat ure I Oil Window I Gas Window 1 Tmax : deg C Fig. The degree of the input (espeCially oleanane and bicadinan es) varies from location to location The b iom ark er assemb lages observe d in the r ock extrac ts in th e Tinj ar Pr ovince also sh ow a .Tinjar Province dep osited in the north in an open marine setting. Possible Well Location Possible We ll Locat ion --------I '.41 wt. . The samples contain Type III organic matter with potential to generate predominantly gas.~ ~U') <1> E Cij a.76-1.. 16 . moderate to extremely high C2 ex!) h opan e.Leads in depression --------1. these feat ures suggest that th e s ou rce roc k s were deposited within a lower coastal plain setting with co n siderable terres trial o r ga ni c m atter inputlhigher land-plant (resins) T he Seta p Sh a le and th e Nya lau NW~ ..Leads over structural high-. All the Setap samples a r e th er m all y i m m ature t o early m at ur e . ". Genera lly . 16. Source rock studies have been carried out on b oth outcrop and subsurface samples of the Setap Shale F o r ma ti on Th e d a t a sh ow that th e sha les possess fa ir organic carb on rich ness and poor h ydrocarb on gen eratin g poten tial. low oleanan e. 500 ~ 400 OJ 0> . m odera te to high bicadin anes. and C29 p r eference (Fig . 16 12). high bicadinan es. Fig. 1000 900 800 Nyal au • (Coal s) • Nyalau • Setap Type I 0. an d C29 preference (Figures 16 .2% Vitrinite \ . moderate C 9 ex!) h opane.8 Trapping model in Tinjar Province . 11 ) .'" (f) PRE CYCLE I Fig.5% Vitrinite • Iso reflectance I o f0> o I 700- I "~ 0> Type II 600 - I TI E .!: c ~ I 300 - >- \ • I • I · I • ·1· I 200 100 - T~ ..40-1.j Possib le We ll Location 11---.9 Hydrogen Index against Tmax plot showing the quality of se lected Cycles VII coals and shales from the Nyalau and Setap Shale form ations.~1 . Since the analyzed sam ples from 769m to 2212m ar e th erm ally ma tu re to pos t m a tu re (VRo: 0.. lL ZQ. %) .13 and 16. More detaile d biom arker analyses sh ow tha t th e Nya lau Forma ti on coa ls an d sha les d isplay ce rtain similari ties in th eir bi om ark er asse mbl ages mo d er ate to very h igh Tm/Ts. trace 9 to low oleanan e . ind ica tin g th e ab ili ty to ge n e r ate predominan tly gas .l have poor to good organic carb on richness (TOC: 0.1 4) . 400 1 . • ."". Biomarker assemblages are characterized by the presence of moderately high TmlTs. The kerogen types are mainly Type III/IV of terrigenous origin.. These features are gene r ally ch aracterized as coas tal p la in (lower an d up pe r) depositi on al setting with substantial terrestrial organic matter input and also higher land-plant inputs (resins) .so/eflectance i . the S2 values « 2 m g H C/g rock) m erely indica te their residual hydrocarbon potential. formations in Cycle I at Selungun. The HI's are gen erally less tha n 10 0 ... 1.. Rese rvoirs in th e basinal parts and structural highs are bel ieved to be similar to the hydrocarbon accumulati ons in offshore tectonostratigraphic provinces such as West Balingian Sub-province..

.---------------------. Coals from the Meri t-Pila coa lfiel d o f ce n tral Sarawa k was stu d ied by Wa n H asiah (1997) who foc u sed on th e petrographic details of the early generation of oil-like su bstances fro m the precursor sub erinite (coal)...) Ol I 'u Ol 10 5 2.) "" o a: C. and c) Lambir Formation in the eastern part of the province .•i II • 30 ~ o a: C. Some intervals of Cycle I in the D35 field is lip tinitic. 11 Typical bi omar ker d istributions of the shale extract from [he Setap Shale Formation .10 Sou rce pOlemia l summary d iagram (S \s I'UL ) I" l' the selecled Cyeles III I nKli. Setap Formation Shale m/z 191 R Setap Formation Shale mlz 2 17 . " t .5 V.000 Figure b 40 .----------. Cycles 1111 coals have oil an d gas po tential and shales h ave poor oil-prone potential. In the Balingian Pro vin ce . erosional outlier of the Miocene Nyalau Form ation wh ich rests u n conform ably on the Eocen e Belaga Forma tion .tliel . Good Good Fair C Ol 0 0 " 20 u I II III ~ N (f) E N (f) Poor ro °c ( 10 0 Legend o @ shale • coal 0.dl" lrum the " positive correlation with the biomarker characters d isplayed b y the Balingian oils (see Balingian Province Chapter 14).1 0. 16. PLAY TYPES The main play typ es are a) Oligocene.I!.Lower Miocene Nyalau (Cycles IIII) The play occurs in the southwes t of the Tinjar Province where the traps inclu de Lower Miocene structural traps and su perposed Upper Mi o c en e/Low e r Mi ocene struct u ra l traps.Lowe r Miocene (Cycles IlII) clastics.1 " "" r.5 100 0 -""---"-'--'='---'------=---'------'-------' o 2 4 6 8 TOe (wt %) NY<ll<lll hl

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lll<lllllll TOe (wt %) f ig. 16. Th e stu d y o f these coals clearly demon strates the early generation of liqUid h ydrocarbon fro m the maceral suberinite . The Merit -Pila coalfie ld forms an east-west elonga ted . C!l '@ 0 0 "" C!l 0 0 :> 1 2 0. The kerogens are Type III with some Types Ill/IV gas prone . and establish es a model for a possible pathway for which liquid hydrocarbon could be naturally expelled from coal source rocks The dominant play in the Tinjar Province is the Oligocene. b ) Oligo cen e Lower Mio cen e limesto n es in the northeastern part . so 000 fig. All th e best source rocks occur within lower coastal plain deposits. .Tinjar Province Figure a 1. b lockfaulted .

b) amount of fault throw and position of fault with respect to structure and c) preservation of Oligocene -Lower Miocen e (Cycles II/I) target intervals (see Fig 16.000ft (1 219.000 Fig. .14 Typical biomarker distributions of the shale extract from the Nyalau Formation. Drilling at Suai and Nya lau Formation Shale m/ z191 . Th ese struc tures are genera ll y sha ll ow .3 I 0.51m ) • '" R • 6.. 16.2 VRo % Fig. but Nyalau Formation is thicker in the loca l depressions due to subsidence.2 • I 1. where Late Miocene structural traps are present. the p lay is in the Oligocene-Lower Miocene car bonat es.OOOf! (2429 . drilling in East and West Balingian led to the discoveries of several fields (Temana.Tinjar Province o Oil Window '" Nyalau Formation Cool mtz 191 2.000 «6000 48. The d epositional p attern and structural trend seen in West Balingian are believed to extend to the southwestern part of the Tinjar Province .4 0. 166) Half of the 40 untested leads are found in the southwestern part of the Tinjar Province where possible rhombohedral b as in s ma y be present. 16. Nyalau Formation Shale m/z 217 Fig.02m) 0. In the 1970-S0's.S).. The factors th at determine the success of this typ e of pro spect include a) thickness of intraformational shales.0001 1 (lB29.12 Depth-vitrin ite reflectance relationship showing the maturity profi le of the ana lyze d samples from the Selungun-l well. . 165) The clastic and carbona te plays in the Tinjar Province are mutually excl usive In the nort heas t . D30 and D35) Oil migrated laterally into structures on the flan ks of the local sub -b asins from kitchens suc h as the Central Balingian Sub-basin . 5 I 0."'" 42.00011 (609.000 I 0. DIS .27m ) Nyalau Formation Cool m!z217 • • B.76m ) " \ t3 li 4. D21 .6 I 1 1. Porosities and permeabilities are good. Bayan. Numerous structures are found in Sub-provinces 3 and 4 (see Fig.6 2 38. 16. and the Acis and North Acis sub-basins (Fig.13 Typica l biomarker distributions of the coal extract from the Nya lau Formation.

Further exploration efforts should certainly include seismic and potential field data acq uisition in order to upgrade some of the leads. Acis and No rth Acis subbasins. D12 and Patricia. a secondary play in the eastern part of the Tinjar Province. Sequence stratigraphy may also be useful in predicting the continuity of reservoirs in the subsurface. The traps are possibl y present underneath the Upper Miocene sandy Belait Formation in synclines (see Fig.7a). These are the Cycles IIII eqUivalents of the hydrocarbon prolific West Balingian Sub-Province.Tinjar Province Subis found sub-commercial gas shows Hydrocarbon traps in the Lambir Formation. The reservoirs in the main Nyalau clastic play are the subtidal to estuarine and interdistributary intervals. 16. In the Balingian Province such lo ca l depressions include the Central Balingian . In the Balingian Pro vince oil and gas have been found in the Lower Cycle III reservoirs at Temana. In addition . The interbedded shales are genera ll y thick enough to act as effective seals. There are nearly 40 leads in Sub-Provinces 3 and 4 within the Oli gocene . Coals and coaly shales are present in the northern and eastern part of Tinjar Province and could provide internal hydrocarbon sourcing for the play. SUMMARY The Tinjar Province has been studied geologically to find petroleum. Oils could migrate laterally from kitchens in local depressions into structures on the flanks of adjacent sub-basins. Extensive land seismic work is necessary to explore for these three main play types in the future. is difficult to define without seismic data. . Th e presence of effective intraformational shales separating the reservoir from the extensive and porous Belait sandstones is critical to the success of the Lambir Formation play. The Lambir Formation in the eastern part of the province is a secondary pla y . Seismic acquisition selectively over some structu r es is critical to upgrade leads into prospects for drilling. Current seismic coverage is too sparse to develop leads into prospects. aerogravity in the Tinjar Province was acquired in September 1998.Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) main clastic and limestone plays. Three main play types in the province have been identified.

1993.. 27 .Tinjar Province REFERENCES Doust. Wan Hasiah A . Ma lays ia (Unpub lished report: PETRONAS) James. 1981.1978 (Ed. lO. 1960. American Association of Petroleum Geo lo gists Studies in Geology 12. . (Unp ublished report PETRONAS). Geologica l fi eld investigations-NW Borneo (Nov 1969 . 169 pp Leichti. Roe. 423-440.. 30. Tjia.. Exploration in East Malaysia over the past decade. 1984. 591-596.. 1997.C. by Halbouty MT).. P. Radar Geo logic Intepretation of Sarawak. 1993. D. Halbouty M T ). 1978. Swinburn. Tectonic styles of the Balingian Province. Ho Kiam Fui. Brunei and wes tern part o f Nort h Borneo. Mohd Idrus Ismail and Othman Ali Mahmud. In: Energy resources of the Pacific region (Ed. . H. Bulletin 3. (Ed. Rahdon. Tectonics of the Sarawak Basin.. 1981. N. 117-132. Intera. Organ ic Geochemistry. Tjia.S. Programmes and Abstracts. M.j.. H.E . Muzium Brunei Special Publication . 1997). 1955 . H. P . 1-13. Sarawak Basin Study (Un published report: Sarawak Shell Berhad) Scherer. 22 . Warta Geologi. Stratigraphic framework for oil exp loration i n Sarawa k . Ev id ence o f ear ly generation of liquid hydrocarbon from suberinite as visib le under t h e microscope.July 1974)Summary of data (U npubli shed report: Sarawak Shell Berhad) Sarawak Shell Berhad. 15 pp. 6. 1971. Resume of deep coreholes Suai # 1.C.2 and 3. Geology and exp loration history of offshore central Sarawak. 1974.D .D . F. The Geology of Sarawak. British Borneo Geological Survey. . American Association of Petro leum Geo lo gists Bulletin. In: Giant oil and gas fields of the decade 1968.N. Geological Society of Malaysia Petroleum Geology Semina r 1993. F.).D . A. and Kirk. H. 19 97 . Bintu lu-Ulu Suai and Lambir Geological Fieldtrip (3-8 Nov. Haile. 1996.M. Sarawak Shell Berhad.. (U npublished report : Sarawak Shell Berhad). "The geology and h yd rocarbon potential of Negara Brunei Darussalam".. Bu ll et in of the Geological Society of Malaysia.

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lll<lllllll
positive correlation with the biomarker characters
displayed by the Balingian oils (see Bali ngian
Province Chapter 14),
In the Balingian Province , Cycles 1111
coals have oil and gas potential and shales have
poor oil-prone potential. All the best source rocks
occur wit hin lower coastal plain deposi ts, The
kerogens are Type III with some Types Ill/IV gas
prone, Some intervals of Cycle I in the D35 fi eld
is liptinitic,
Coals from the Meri t-Pila coalfiel d of
cen tral Sarawak was stu died by Wan Hasiah
(1997) who focused on the petrographic details
of the early generation of oil-like substances from
the precursor suberinit e (coal), The Merit -Pila
coalfield forms an east-west elongated, block-
faulted, erosional outlier of the Miocene Nyalau
Format ion which rests unconformabl y on the
Eocene Belaga Formation, The st u dy of these
coals clearly demonstrates the early generation of
liqUid hydrocarbon from the maceral suberinite,
and establishes a model for a possible pathway
for which liquid hydrocarbon could be naturally
expelled from coal source rocks
PLAY TYPES
The main play types are a) Oligocene- Lower
Miocene (Cycles IlII) clastics, b) Oligocene -
Lower Miocene limestones in the northeastern
part , and c) Lambir Formation in the eastern part
of the province,
The dominant play in the Tinjar Province
is the Oligocene- Lower Miocene Nyalau (Cycles
IIII) The play occurs in the southwest of the
Tinjar Province where the traps include Lower
Miocene structural traps and superposed Upper
Mi ocen e/Lower Mi ocene struct u ral traps,
R
..
Setap Formation
Shale
m/z 191
Setap Formati on
Shale
mlz 217
so 000
fig. 16. 11 Typical bi omar ker distribut ions of the shale extract
from [he Setap Shale Formati on ,
o
2,00011
(609.76m
li 4,000ft
t3 (1 219.51m
6,00011
(lB29.27m
-
)
-
)
-
)
B,OOOf!
(2429.02m) 0.2
Oil Window
\





I I I I I
0.3 0.4 0. 5 0.6 1 1.2 1. 6 2
VRo %
Fig. 16.12 Depth-vitrinite reflectance relationship showing the
maturity profi le of the analyzed samples from the Selungun-l
well.
Numerous structures are found in Sub-provinces
3 and 4 (see Fig. 166) Half of the 40 untested
leads are found in the southwestern part of the
Tinjar Province where possible rhombohedral
basins may be present. These structures are
generall y shall ow, but Nyalau Formation is
thicker in the local depressions due to
subsidence. The factors that determine the
success of this t yp e of prospect include a)
thickness of intraformational shales, b) amount of
fault throw and position of fault with respect to
structure and c) preservation of Oligocene -Lower
Miocene (Cycles II/I) target intervals (see Fig
16.S). Porosities and permeabilities are good.
The depositional pattern and structural trend
seen in West Balingian are believed to extend to
the southwestern part of the Tinjar Province. In
the 1970-S0's, drilling in East and West Balingian
led to the discoveri es of several fields (Temana,
Bayan, D21 , DIS, D30 and D35) Oil migrated
laterally into structures on the flanks of the local
sub-basins from kitchens such as the Central
Balingian Sub-basin, and the Acis and North Acis
sub-basins (Fig. 165)
The clastic and carbonate plays in the
Tinjar Province are mutuall y excl usive In the
nort heast , the play is in the Oligocene-Lower
Miocene car bonat es, where Late Miocene
structural traps are present. Drilling at Suai and
'"
"
'"
R
38.000
.,"'"
42.000
Tinjar Province
Nyalau Formation
Cool
mtz 191
Nyalau Formation
Cool
m!z217
«6000 48.000
Fig. 16.13 Typical biomarker distributions of the coal extract
from the Nyalau Formation.
..
Nyalau Formation
Shale
m/ z191
Nyalau Formati on
Shale
m/z 217
Fig. 16.14 Typical biomarker distributions of the shale extract
from the Nyalau Formation.
Subis found sub-commercial gas shows
Hydrocarbon traps in the Lambir
Formation, a secondary play in the eastern part of
the Tinjar Province, is difficult to define without
seismic data. The traps are possibl y present
underneath the Upper Miocene sandy Belait
Formation in synclines (see Fig. 16.7a). The
presence of effective intraformational shales
separating the reservoir from the extensive and
porous Belait sandstones is critical to the success
of the Lambir Formation play. In the Balingian
Province oil and gas have been found in the
Lower Cycle III reservoirs at Temana, D12 and
Patricia. Coals and coaly shales are present in the
northern and eastern part of Tinjar Province and
could provide internal hydrocarbon sourcing for
the play.
Extensive land seismic work is necessary
to explore for these three main play types in the
future. Seismic acquisition selectively over some
structur es is critical to upgrade leads into
prospects for drilling. In addition, aerogravity in
the Tinjar Province was acquired in September
1998. Sequence stratigraphy may also be useful
in predicting the continuity of reservoirs in the
subsurface.
SUMMARY
The Tinjar Province has been studied geologically
to find petroleum. Three main play types in the
province have been identified. There are nearly
40 leads in Sub-Provinces 3 and 4 within the
Oli gocene- Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) main
clastic and limestone plays. The Lambir
Formation in the eastern part of the province is a
secondary play. The reservoirs in the main
Nyalau clastic play are the subtidal to estuarine
and interdistributary intervals. These are the
Cycles IIII eqUivalents of the hydrocarbon prolific
West Balingian Sub-Province. The interbedded
shales are generall y thick enough to act as
effective seals. Oils could migrate laterally from
kitchens in local depressions into structures on
the flanks of adjacent sub-basins. In the Balingian
Province such local depressions include the
Central Balingian, Acis and North Acis sub-
basins.
Current seismic coverage is too sparse to
develop leads into prospects. Further exploration
efforts should certainly include seismic and
potential field data acquisition in order to
upgrade some of the leads.
Tinjar Province
REFERENCES
Doust, H., 1981. Geology and exploration history
of offshore central Sarawak. In: Energy resources
of the Pacific region (Ed. Halbouty M T ),
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Studies in Geology 12, 117-132.
Ho Kiam Fui, 1978. Stratigraphic framework for
oil exp loration i n Sarawak . Bu ll et in of the
Geological Society of Malaysia, lO, 1-13.
Intera, 1993. Radar Geologic Intepretation of
Sarawak, Ma lays ia (Unpub lished report:
PETRONAS)
James, D.M.D. , (Ed.), 1984. "The geology and
h yd rocarbon potential of Negara Brunei
Darussalam". Muzium Brunei Special Publication,
169 pp
Leichti, P. , Roe, F.N., Haile, N.S. and Kirk,
H.j.C., 1960. The Geology of Sarawak, Brunei and
wes tern part of Nort h Borneo. British Borneo
Geological Survey, Bulletin 3.
Rahdon, A.E. , 1974. Geologica l fi eld
investigations-NW Borneo (Nov 1969 - July 1974)-
Summary of data (Unpubli shed report: Sarawak
Shell Berhad)
Sarawak Shell Berhad, 1955. Resume of deep
coreholes Suai # 1,2 and 3. (Unpublished report :
Sarawak Shell Berhad).
Sarawak Shell Berhad, 1971. Sarawak Basin
Study (Unpublished report: Sarawak Shell Berhad)
Scherer, F.C., 1981. Exploration in East Malaysia
over the past decade. In: Giant oil and gas fi elds of
the decade 1968- 1978 (Ed. by Halbouty MT),
American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Bulletin, 30, 423-440.
Tinjar Province
Swinburn, P. M., 1993. Tectonic styles of the
Balingian Province. Geological Society of Malaysia
Petroleum Geology Seminar 1993, Programmes and
Abstracts, 15 pp.
Tjia, H.D., 1996. Tectonics of the Sarawak Basin.
Warta Geologi, 22, 6.
Tjia, H.D., Mohd Idrus Ismail and Othman Ali
Mahmud, 1997. Bintulu-Ulu Suai and Lambi r
Geological Fieldtrip (3-8 Nov, 1997). (Unpubli shed
report PETRONAS).
Wan Hasiah A. , 1997. Evidence o f ear ly
generation of liquid hydrocarbon from suberinite
as visib le under t he microscope. Organic
Geochemistry, 27, 591-596.

Central Luconia . Furthermore. _ - A(K '. including the Tatau Horst. 1984 ) . part of its tectonic history was also due to subduction of the South China Sea Plate under Borneo....1) The Tinjar Province.-. .~ ~ -.' .... West Baram Delta. Further north are the Balingian. and recent reviews of the onshore areas have excluded the Tinjar Province.Labuan{J IGNEOUS EXTRUSIVE ROCKS Dacitic and andesitic lava (Tertiary to Oualernary) D o --- ~~T. Except in its northern part . the Tinjar Province is not well explored.. . '.-.~ctoar.Early Miocene and Late Miocene deform ations.- /' Fig.Tinjar Province INTRODUCTION \ he onshore Tinjar Province is a wrenchrelated foldbelt in the Sarawak Basin which covers largely the offshore Balingian..gu~~~~~~) lavas 50 kin SOUTH CHINA SEA 'V I BALINGIAN PROVINCE . 16. . ___ Nanga Merit . with some NW-SE anticlinal structures and faults.: :: =~.. 1960). the Arip Pelagau Anticline . and the Dulit Range. The Upper Eocene to Upper Miocene sedimentary sequences in the Tinjar Province were deposited after the uplift of the Upper Cretaceous to Eocene indurated sediments (Liechti et al. is separated from the offshore Balingian by the NE SW to ENE-WSW Anau Nyalau fault. . Tatau and W. 1981. j I I ~ I . James . The regional framework resulted from the sou theasterly plate movements due to rifting and opening of the South China Sea Basin from the eg Late Cretaceous to the Middl e Miocene C Doust . 1981. which is uplifted relative to the offshore provinces .1 Tectonostratigraphic stratigraphic subdivision in Ti njar Province based on structural characteristi cs arising from end. 16. ' .. SW Luconia. Central 114'[ 112'[ SEDIMENTARY ROCKS D D D 5'N Pleistocene and Recent Neogene Palaeogene p. Luconia provinces (see Fig. Major structures formed at the end of the Early Miocene and Late Miocene are dominantly NE-SW T trending. Scherer . ~. 3'N -.

Wrench -related structures. formed during the Ea rly Mioce n e. EXPLORATION HISTORY The Anglo -Saxon Petroleum Company acquired the rights under the Sarawak Oil Mining Lease to explore the whole of onshore Sarawak in 1909.l PCSB BLOCK SK306 AME RADA HESS M'SIA SHD !pess SUBIS--1.. Middle Miocene carbonates (Cycles IVN) a nd Uppe r Miocene deltaic sandstones re spectively. OIL & GAS ~ OIL & GAS SHOWS SARAWAK o -¢- GAS SHOWS ~ OIL SHOWS -¢- OR Y WELL 40 ! IwwM 20 60 ! 80 100 km IwwM Fig. Between the BLOCK SK30B SHEll EXPLORATION & PRODUcnON MALAYSIA B.. 1960) This chapter describes the structural setting of petroleum accumulations in the Tinjar Province with reference to the structural development in both East and West Balingian provinces. By 1910 the first oil field was discovered when the Miri-1 well penetrated h ydrocarbon bearing intervals within Upper Miocene deltai c sands .. Tinjar Fault) and NNE-SSW faults (e. including 11 wells in Tinjar Province. w hereas Late Miocene deformation occurred in the eastern Balingian Province (Dous t .2 Map of onshore well locations in Tinjar Province and Baram Delta. .g. the regional deformation was mainly attributed to the end of the Miocene phase (Liechti et al.. . the Ulu Suai Dome) and NWSE-tr en ding anticlines were a lso mapped. 1993).V.Lo wer Miocene (Cycles IIII) clastics. OIL -¢- GAS . 1997). NE-SW regional transform faults (e.Late Eocene ages. Early Miocene wre nch fau l ts dominate the wes tern part of the Balingian Pro vince (Swinburn.g. 1981).g. . None of the wells in the Tinjar Province to date was drilled in the southwestern part which falls in the oil/gas trend of offshore Balingian Province. F u rther more the SAR interpretation was calibrated with field checks (Tjia et al. Tubau Fault) Domes (e. The land exploration targeted several areas having oil seepages around the Baram Delta.1993). The data shows many NE-SW anticlinal and synclinal structures.2 -9- SARAWAK ONSHORE WELL LOCATIONS WELL SYMBOLS . and their producing h orizons are the O li gocene . The structural closures are associated with W -SE dextral faults and NNE -SSW sinistral faults The most comprehens ive structural analysis of onshore Sarawak was based on air p hoto and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) acquired in 1990 by PETRONAS. The regional da ta were interpreted in 1993 (Intera . These contain sedim entary seque n ces of post. However. 16. were react ivated in the Lat e Miocene in the north eastern part of the province. In the Tinj ar Province there are wrench-related large complexly faulted anticlinal traps.Tinjar Province Luconia and West Baram Delta provinces.

The Suai. 0 0 w VII Tgh VI U Begrih (Bg) Bal ing ian (Ba) z W 0 w TI Be lait (Be) IV III Lambir (La) Sibuti (Si) Tangap (Tg) Setap (S) Nyalau (Ny) Tubau (Tu) Kakus Member (k) Biban Sandstone Member (bs) Subis Limestone Member (Si) Q :Ii >Er: Te s <c IEr: W II I- Ted w 0 0 w z w U~ Pel Buan (B) Tatau (Tat) Bawang Member (Bw) Pelagus Member (Pe l) Tb 6 WW Q. the main outcrop in the Tinjar Province. .Suai FACIES D ~ Mari n e { Predominantly non-calcareous Predominantly calcareous D I==l t=:::j F -- Continental M ixed continental and marine Unconformity Fault contact Fig. Several wells were drilled in the onshore part of the Tertiary basin around this coastal belt. geological mapping .3 w ell produced oil at a rate of 27 BOPD from a n iso l ated channel sa ndston e. the Lambir ancl Belait formations are posssible reservoirs.Jw <CZ Ta Pre I Metah Member (Mt) g '" E o LL c <co '" Kapit Member (Kt) Layar Member (Ly) Qi III CJ) '" CRETACEOUS Central Sarawak .3 Generalised stratigraphic scheme of Central Sarawak. 16.Tatau . The Suai 1-3 core holes drilled in 1952-53 (see Fig.Rajang Bali ngian . 162) reached Middle Miocene (Cycles 1III) int erbedded shaks and sandstones (see Fig. 16 . . The I yalau Formation .Sibuti .. Q.Tinjar Province FOR MATION AGE QUATER HOLOMARINE · NARY PLEISTOCENE CYC LE VIII Liang (L) W Z :::. Towards the NE. consists of shallow marine to paralic successions grading into marine clastics from SW to NE. It interfingers with the Set ap Shale FormatI on. The belt between Suai and Bulak was covered with 483 line-km of singlefold land seismic in 1952/53. This well wa s abandoned at total depth (TD) of 12 86 fe e t within the Lower Miocen e after a gas blow out.3) . acquisition of land gravity and seismic were conducted around the coasta l areas. 1920-1950'5.

4 ). These penetrated deeper into Lower Miocene (Cycles 1III) intervals comprising the Subis Limestone. sandstone and calcareous sands. 30 foot limestone. Suai-1 and Subis-2 showing the Subis Limestone. Due to erosion after strong uplift of the structure. the Cycle II objective in Selungun -1 was never encoumered.4 Well correlation from Selungun-1. The limeston e represent deep-marine and off-reef facies. 16. whilst the higher sec ti on are mi xed clastics and carbonates comprising thinner.1 Suai .Tinjar Province Selungun . In 1955 three more wells (Suai-4.5 Subis . Located about 25 km northeast from the . interbedded with a mixture of shale. 5 and 6) were drilled n earby. 16. and interbedded sandstones and shal es (see Fig.2 Maximum flooding surface Sequence boundary SP IES Maximum flooding surface Sequence boundary SP IES SP IES Fig. At well locations the calcareous and argillaceous sands tone intervals ' s h ow only marg in a l r ese rvoir properties (Porosity.8 mD) A drill stem test (DST) within the reservoir intervals recovered only traces of gas and water. permeability up to 2. 8-20%.

As the deformed and least acce ssible hinterland areas were cons idered unprospect ive. silts and thin sands and 150-400 feet thick sh allow marine and coastal plain sandstones. (1960) and sub sequen tl y th e . Limited subsurface onshore stratigraphic penetra tion s and poor age con trol s make recognition of sedimentary cycles difficult . Buan Formation sh ales overste p the Tatau Fo rmation to uncon formabl y overli e the Belaga Formation. was drilled in 1956 in the area more towards Bintulu. including the Rajang Accretionary Prism and the Dulit Range. Formations The Tatau Formation (Upper Eocene to Oligocene) unconformably overlies the steeply folded Bawang Member of the Belaga Formation at the Arip Pelagau Anticline. exploration moved offshore with several successes . These intervals had been aSSigned to the Se tap Shale Formation . relinquish ed the remaining areas around the coastal belt of the Tinjar Province .Pelagau Anticline the Tatau Formation p asses gradually up into the laminated marine shales of the Buan Formation (Oligocene). was forma lised. The porosity of the sandstones varies between 3 to 10 %. Along the Jelalong river. Since 1957 .. Near Ta ta u an d the Ar ip . Subis-2. Several wells along th e Miri-Tudan trend in onshore Baram Delta were drilled . as at Bukit Mersing. Elsewhere . Tubau Formation shelfal shales and marls occur in the Tubau Valley. the other onshore well in the near coastal areas in the Tinjar Province . thick sh ales and intercalated limestone lenses.. Consequently onshore exploration became limited. sa nd y sha les a nd sh ales with dis p ersed lignite band s and marls. but subsequently the remaining contract area was relinquished. DSTs show that the amount of hydrocarbons at Subis-2 was insignificant.Te ) and is STRATIGRAPHY AND STRUCTURE Stratigraphic scheme In 1960 a review of the stratigraphy of onshore Sarawa k . these were th e first to b e relinquished. the exploration company re linquished seve ral packages of its onsho re Sarawak concession. the lower part of the Nyalau Formation is distingUished as the Biban Sandstone Me mb er. was released under a second relinquishment exercise.clastic sequence and two thick carbonate units of between 1200 to 4000 feet thickness. to early Tes). The offshore Tertiary succession in the Sarawak shelf is class ifi ed into eight regressive cycles (Ho. ranging in age fr om Oligocene to Lower Miocene (Te . partly calcareous. This is of O li gocene . 1978). and towards the coast. including th e Grabit -Me ntebai Synclin e. The Subis well encountered severa l Lower Mioce n e int erva ls of thinner limestone in a mixed carbonate. Selungun-1 . Exploration activities continued in some of the the inland belt around Pandan Kakus . In the Tatau -Bintulu area. th is formation merges into the Oligocene-Miocene Setap Sh ale Formation.Tinjar Province Suai wells.3. Since 1960's. In 1967 6-12 fo ld CDP stack seismic data in the area around Suai were acquired in 1974 .Miocene age (Tc d. The former company.in the area around Bungai. but retained those around the Miri Field. was spudded in 1956. Most of the ou t crops in the Tinj ar Province belong to the O li gocene -Miocene Nyalau Formation (Cycles lIII) In the SubisBintulu area the Nyalau Formation occurs as interbedded offshore . The Sarawak stratigrap hic scheme and its approximate age correlation to the cycles is sh own in Figure 16. including the discovery of the Temana Field. and hence th e formation terminol ogy cannot be dispensed with. Similar ro cks occur in several of the onshore wells (Subis-2. grading into sandy limestone.estuarine sa nd stones. 165) but in 1971 this be lt . but improves near the sur face to between 9 to 24%. An aeromagnetic survey of all offshore Sarawak was extended landwards into a small belt in the Tinj ar Province in 1965.subtidal . stratigraphic nomenclature based on both rock stratigraphy and tim e stratigraphy (based on foraminiferal parame ters). Ulu Su ai Dome and Kelabu Anticline (F ig . At its base . resumed exploration activities around the coastal belt. The Selungun-1 well drilled into an anticlinal feature and spudded into Oligocene (Cycle 1) shales. The final well . The depositional environment for the form atio n is littoral to neritic.1 and Bulak Setap-3). Saba h and Brunei was conducted by Liec hti et al. It has a conformable contact with overlying Nyalau Formation. In the Se lun gun we ll the interval consis ts of Silty sandstones . The formation is separated by the Arip acid volcanics into a lower (Eocen e or Tb) and upper (O li gocene or Tcd) part. the Ta tau Formation consists of mainly medium to fine grained sandstones and siltstones with some intervals of marls. Selungun. In 1976 She ll Signed the Production Sh aring Con tract. renamed Sarawak Shell Berhad (SSB) in 1958.

The Nyalau Formation grades up into the Sibuti Formation (Lower-Middle Miocene). 1997) (see Fig... and medium to coa rs e gra in ed sandstones interbedded with claystones. predomina ntl y fine to m edi um gra in ed sandston es. described as insignificant.Tuden Trend o """"'I 50 km ..) : The Lower to Middle Miocene (Te. The Lambir Formation grades up into the Belait Formation towards the Dulit Range..~~~~e~. This consists of inner n eritic clay-shales with minor siltstones and limestone. calca r eous san dston es and thin to mod erate ly th ick limestones (5 -400 feet) This interval laterally inte rfin gers w ith the Nya lau Formation..shales and Silty clays . The Sibuti Formation grades up into the Lambir Formation (Middle Miocene). and possibly Tf. to Te 5. ... laminated clays and brackish shales and li gni t es. Thi s con sists of alternating inner neritic to littoral sandstones and shales. 1960) and the offshore Balingian Province. sometimes pure white. barren. with some siltstones interbeds and contains calcareous nodules. massive . et. The Belait Formation (Middle to Upper Miocene. Structure Five sub -prOVinces have been recognised in the Tinjar Province based on SAR data (Tj ia et al. thin lim estone len ses and ca lcareous sands to nes. Miri and Tukau forma tions. 16. ai. succeeded by clay shales. The fo rmation is the time stratigraphic equivalent of the Lambir.5 Structural map of the Tinjar Province and sub -provinces (modified after Leichti . a ttr ib ut e d to int erd istribut ary environments.{' Syncline c .Tinjar Province Le gend: 1 2 3 4 5 Dulil Range Tinjar Fa ult Tubau Faull Bukl! Marsi ng U ne Ari p Pelagau Anticline S 7 8 9 10 Tatau Horst Pandan Kakus Subbasin Ulu Sok Ant icli ne Bakong Anticline Mentage i Sync line 11 12 13 14 15 Grabil Syncli ne Ulu Suai Dome Kolabu Anticline Aajang Accre tionary Pr ism Mlf i . The Nyalau Formation grades into the Tangap Formation (Oligocene-Lower Miocene) to the north of Subis. as in the Paroh anticline. Offshore oi l and gas fields are shown.:.. partic ularly offshore / /"" Unspecified fault RAW A K 112 E 0 114'E Fig.¥' .Sub-basin .5) Structural styles in the Tinjar Province are believed to result from two phases of deformation in wren ch-fault systems. Tes to Tf. The boundary of this formation with the overlying Be lait and Lam bir formations is mo st ly conformable and diachronous . The limestones comprise coral-algal reefoid grow th and foraminiferal open shoal limestone. Setap Shale Formation consists of littoral to inner n eritic clay. Th ese inte rva ls are occaSionally interbedded w ith sands tone s.) consists of intervals o f thick bedded.. Sandstones with so m e impure lignite layers occur in the uppermost intervals in the Grabit Synclin e. .. SW LUCONIA GRABEN --- Legen d : .. Tf. In the Pandan Kakus and Ulu Suai areas several intervals of massive sandstone. / Anticline synclinel structure ~~I~rse Normal fault . The inner to outer neritic of m arls and shales include the Subis Limestone Member. has been observed in some places. marls .. Th e 250 to 500 feet thick limestones are included within the Biban Sandstone Member. alt h ough an occasional unconformable contact . 16..).:::::::. are deSignated the Kakus Member (Lower-Middle Miocene.. Limestone beds and calcareous sandstones in the Nyalau Formation are present as th e Oligocene (Tcd) Sarong Limeston e and Bekuya t Limes tone. Major structures were formed at the end of the .

This sub-province contains a number of structural elements. This is a sinistral wrench fault that was active in the Late Miocene in the opposite part of the Dulit Range. which is less uplifted than both sub-provinces in the east and west. 166b) . 1960). Several NE-SW trending transpressional structures in East Balingian Sub-province have large amplitude anticlines with cutting cross faults and flanking reverse faults (Doust . 16 . 165) . Setap Shale formations ). Dengan . NE-SW trending anticlines and NW-SE dextral wrench faults. Pandan-Kakus Sub-basin containing a relatively thick Oligocene . The smaller anticline which lies in the orientation of NW-SE major wrench faults is considered to be a drag fold (see Fig. The deformation operated by detachment tectonics that was facilitated by strike-slip motion along the Tinjar . Outcrops in the Sub-province 1 are older. 166c) The sub-province. th e structural patterns are different from the rest of the Tinjar Province. was active during the Early Miocene. Tubau and another NE-SW.g Liechti et al. The Late Miocene wrenching is related to the southwards movement of the South China Sea Basin . near Tinjar Fault. was active in the Early Miocene. Lat e Eoc e ne and Late Miocene movements along the northward-opening fan of dextral wrench faults produced a zone of strong transpression and uplift of the Upper Cretaceous -Lower Miocene sediments . hitherto unknown zone of weakness. 16. which are occaSionally WNW-ESE and almost sub-parallel to the Bukit Mersing Line . shows two distinctive structural trends that are at right angles to each other. Sub-province 3 Sub -province 3 is a large wrench fold zone that was deformed and faulted along a few NWSE dextral wrench faults in the southern part of the Tinjar Province (see Fig. Previously the deformation history of the Tinjar Province was mainly attributed to a Late Miocene regional event (e. Sub-province 5 is related to Late Miocene deformation. in the southeastern part of the Tinjar Province. Sub -provinces 1 and 3 are related to Early Miocene deformation. mostly made up of the Dulit Range (see Fig . The sense of movement of the dextral Tinjar Fault was deduced from a number of tension fractures that are left stepping around several folds . the NW-SE Tinjar Fault and NNE -SSW-trending Tubau Fault. and include Upper Eocene-Oligocene outcrops of the Tatau and Buan formations . which resulted in several N-S transform faults such as the Morris Fault . The Early Miocene wrenching is related to southeasterly directed movements as a result of Late Cretaceous-Miocene spreading and opening of the South China Sea Basin. Jerudong Line and Tubau Fault.6a .Tinjar Province Early Miocene and in the Late Miocene (Tjia et al. Sub -provinces 2 and 4 show deformation during the Early and Late Miocene. the Tatau Horst . The Dulit Range. a dextral NE-SW trending wrench fault. a major transcurrent fault in Sarawak. The structures consists of two NE -SW trending tight shale-cored folds. Sub-province 1 Sub-province 1 forms an area of convergent wrenching in the western part of the Tinjar Province.SE trend. Sub-province 2 Sub-province 2 . The detachment of the Belait from older sequences was lubricated b y shales of the Setap Shale Formation. is bounded on the east by Tinjar Fault. There are NW-SE wrench faults and NE-SW transpressional structures. the Arip Pelagau Anticline (see Fig. just north of Bukit Selika.Middle Miocene sedimentary section (see Fig. which is located . 165) The movement along the NW-SE wrench faults.5). However . and are interpreted as a conjugate fault system. 1997). The NW-SE aligned AripPelagau Anticline is wedged tightly between NW SE faults in Tinjar Pro vince and the thrust foldbelts in the south along the Bukit Mersing Line. The term "framefolding " was used for this phenomenon. NE-SW trending faults are left lateral offsetting one anticline near the sinistral Tubau Fault. Movement along the Tinjar Fault.. which are often cut b y several NW-SE faults showing right lateral offsets. Tjia (1996) proposed that the Dulit Syncline became refolded during the postBelait deformation (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) and developed into the right angle or dog-leg pattern of the Sekiwa-Dulit ridges. The large NW-SE trending anticlines (see Figs. 1981). and was reactivated in the Late Miocene. also forms an E-W trending.. are up to 15 km long and 5 km wide. The sedimentary section in the Tinjar Province is mostly Oligocene to Middle Miocene in age (Nya lau . sharply bending to a NW .

1974. transpressional anticlines (e. within which is the Ulu Suai dome (see Fig.2) Due to the uplift at the core of the anticline. The orientation of the fractured sandstones in the shear zone is 290 ° (Fig. In the Balingian Province are several depreSSions (Fig. Tjia (1996) concluded that the Setap Shale Formation acted as a zone of detachment near the Dulit Range. 165). 165) .1997). where carbonaceous matt e r . Fault -bounded rhombohedralshaped basins in the southwestern part of the onshore measure 24 km long by 12 km wide. 16.7a).7b). The NE-SW trend of the syncline bends NNE-SSW near another possible shear zone which is at its eastern limit that coincides with a narrow N-S trending (OlOO) zone of steep beds. Furthermore . and to Late Miocene reactivation associated with NNE-SSW sinistral wrench faulting.Lower Miocene). Tight folds and compression with lowangle reverse faults were observed in outcrops (Tjia et al. Earl y Miocene deformation is more prominent in the southwest. believed to be heav y h ydrocarbons . 16. The ma x imum principal stress is oriented 3350. Furthermore certain parts of Sub-province 4 underwent both Early Miocene and the Late Miocene deformations which resulted in superposed structures. Hydrocarbons indicators in the southwestern part include oil stained sandstones/ residual oil traces (Rahdon . the Ulu Bok and Bakong anticlines). These occur in the southwestern part of the Tinjar .. This sub-province of Oligocene to Upper Miocene sediments is different from the rest of the Tinjar Pro vinc e since the Late Miocene deformation is associated with a NW-SE dextral wrench fault (Fig.. the Mentebai.5) which has N-S long axis and E-W short axis may ha ve been reactivated by Late Miocene wrench movement. NNE-SSW sinistral wrench faults and possible rhombohedral basins. 16. fills cracks which are up to 2 metres in length and at right angles to coal Sub-province 5 Sub-province 5 consists of a wrench fold zone in the eastern part of Tinjar Province that was deformed in the Late Miocene (Fig. The NE-SW wrench anticlines are cut by NW-SE dextral faults with displacements of up to 5 km. To the south of the NW-SE shear zone is the broad Jelalong syncline ( Fig. 16. The cores of the anticlines are composed of the Nyalau and Setap Shale formations (0 ligocene. the Jelalong Syncline) in the south. 16. Strong uplift in the southern part of the fold zone exposed the Beku ya t and Sarong limestones (Oligocene-Lower Miocene). Transpressive NE-SW synclines and narrow zones of anticlinal uplift are situated north of the shear zone. These structures include a major NW-SE dextral wrench fault NNE -SSW minor faults . The structures include NE-SW folds .g. It is thought that these structures resulted from shearing that locally developed conjugate faults within a system of a regional N-S Late Miocene left lateral motion (Fig. Most of the areas exhibit deformation mainly in Lower Miocene sediments. and broad NE-SW synclines (e. The conjugate faults de veloped close to basement inhomogeneities across the Tinjar Fault at Dulit Range. Tjia et al. 16. Sub-province 4 Sub-province 4 contains a wrench foldbelt in the northeastern part of Tinjar Province which developed due to Early Miocene NW-SE dextral wrench faulting (Fig. The distribution . elongated synclines (e. 1981) underwent deformation during both times. NW-SE dextral wrench faults . resulted in NE-SW striking structures cut b y NNE .g. Only a small northeastern part of this sub-province.6d) The Late Miocene structural compression. 16.Tinjar Province 166b). Their arrangement is en echelon with a dextral sense. 167b). of the folds is controlled by the shear zone. and are only partially tested by the Selungun-l well (Fig. only Cycle I was encountered. Other occurrences support the presence of h yd rocarbon expulSion in the southwestern part of the province. HYDROCARBON OCCURRENCES AND PLAY TYPES Hydrocarbon Occurrences The principal reservoir plays in the Tinjar area are the Oligocene-Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) clastics. In the Balingian Province the Temana structure (Doust.SSW sinistral faults. 1997).7b) . The sub-basin is located in the south and measures about 18 km long and 8 km wide. which is stronger towards the northeastern part of the sub-province. measure about 1428 km long with wavelengths of about 6 km (Fig. These usually have flat crestal areas and steep flanks. Ulu Bok and Grabit synclines).g.5). It is 45 km long and 25 km wide.

Several of these anticlines occur around Bintulu.SE fau l ts into se veral fault blocks cutting the central part and the western flank. based on similar examples in the Balingian Province . s il ty .1 8 0. 1981). although shallow sandy intervals and struct u ral faulting reaching the surface are the major risks . 1974 ). Sub-provinces 1 and 2 are the least prospective. Near Bin tu lu t he reservoir grades into distributary channel and in terdis tri bu tary sands tones.59 0. occasional small NW -SE anticlines .46 4. %) 5. 16. Th e Lambir Formation clastics are secondary plays in the northeastern part of the province.6a and 16. and are characterised by flat to gently dipping crests and steep flanks (see Fig.1).6b) are occaSionally found along NW-SE transcurrent faults.Tinjar Province beds (Rahdon . Due to thicker overl ying shales .8 shows the trapping model for hydrocarbons in reservoirs within basinal parts and over areas of structural highs. and large NE -SW structures . Oligocene -Lower Miocene carbonates TOC (wt.6e). Superposed Late Miocene/ Early Miocene traps are formed by elongated anticlines cut by two sets of wrench faults .61 0. and the zones of complex fault intersections. Late Miocene (end Cycle V) traps are formed b y elongated NE-SW anticlines. (see Figs. Minor gas shows were encountered in the Cycle II limestones in several of the Suai and Sub is wells. Oi l in the sha ll ow clastics of the Lambir Formation were encountered in the Suai 3 wells (Fig. Due to structural complexities and erosion of the reservoir.70 Maturity Pa rameters 0. These are compartmentalised by NE-SW faults. The reservoirs consist of offshore marine-sub tidal to estu arine clastics. compaction and authigenic quartz. Late Miocene (end Cycle V) and superposed Late Miocene/ Early Miocene traps .54 0. TRAPSTYLES. 16.65 0. The stains represent immature to mature oils based on geochemical signatures (see Table 16. 16. Suai and Subis.5). (mg HC/g rock) 52(mg HC/g rock) PI HI Tmax (OC) VRo(%) CPI Tm/Ts 50u rce Pa ra meters 2. 16. Similar traps in the East Balingian Sub -province have been described (Doust .99 16.47 0. Figure 16.RESERVOIR AND SEAL Trap Styles Over 40 NE-SW oriented structures have been mapped in Sub-provinces 3 and 4 (see Fig.5). sandstones and shales/coals interbeds.77 Cn Hopane 225/(225 + 22R) C" Hopane 205/(205 + 20R ) MPI1 % Rc Table 16. The Tiban structure is as yet undrilled. The Kakus Member (Cycle II) has higher porosity and permeability. 1996). There are also Early Miocene (end Cycle II) . Early Miocene (end Cycle II) traps are formed by NE-SW elongated anticlines . The NW -SE drag folds (see Fig. These traps have been drilled in Selungun. Porosities and permeabihties are between 12-30% and <1 to 1210 mD.6d) (Tjia. Large NW-SE structural complexes (see Fig 16. NE-SW to E-W anticlines are often structurally compartmentalised b y NW-SE dextral fau lting and oblique faulting Reservoirs Cycles I and II clastics and limestones The N yalau Formation (Cycles IIII) is the main potential reservoir in the so uthwes tern part of Sub-provinces 3 and 4. where the faults are commonly develope d on the eastern noses . (Cycles IIII) are secondary objectives occurring mainly in the northern part o f the province. 16. Individual fault blocks may be prospective .2) in the northern parts.one right lateral NW-SE fault and the other left lateral NE-SW fa u lt (see Fig. The upper part is preserved in the Pandan Kakus area.1 Selec ted geochemical data of the oil-stained sandstone in the Tinjar Province.6c) in the Pandan Kakus Sub -basin are compartmentalised by NW . The y occur in various parts of the Pandan Kakus Sub-prOVince and Kelabu anticline. 16.09 213 430 0. Porosity reduction is caused by calcareous cementation .

Porosities and permeabilities range between 5-25% and <1 to 450mD. a) End Cycle 11 anticlinal structures having major NW-SE faults on its western flank and interpreted as wrench related. b) Rhombohedral basin cOnLaining end . Cycles III and IV clastics.Cycle II large anticl ines.Cycle II anticlinal structures are symmetrical to asymmetrical. 16. 165). Fault compartmentalisation could be a positive factor in trap/ seal capacity for this trap type. which are moderately folded.7).Cycle II/Cycle V anticlines are cut by two se ts of wrench related fault systems. These are often broken by large wrench related NE-SW faults and shows SW plunges.4 <0 . .Tinjar Province (a) 0 10 20 km I I (d) 0 10 20 km I I (e) (b ) 0 10 20 km 0 10 I Legend : 20 km I I I 0 "0 0 (e ) 0 10 20 km Lead Fault Vitrinite Reflectance I I 0 0. Ulu Bok and Grabit Synclines (see Fig. and a rhombohedral basin is present to the south.6 SAR images of the Tinjar Province. Such trap types a re a lso found in ot her tectonostratigraphic provinces such as in West Balingian.4 0. The formation consists of shallow marine to paralic sandstones. both ENE and SW structural plunges are seen. small anticline which are associate d wi th drag along major NW-SE transcurrent fault and has NW -SE trend. The Suai and Subis wells tested offreef carbonate facies. e) Mixed end. Also plot of vitrinite renectance data on the SAR shows that mature shales and organic matter have been sampled close to the rhombohedral basin. These anticlines are bounded and cut by NW-SE strike-slip faults and NE-SW extensional faults. The Lambir Formation (Cycle III) is regarded as a secondary reservoirs play in the eastern part of the province.3 0.NW-SE (right lateral) and NE-SW (left lateral). comprising the Central Balingian Sub-basin. 16. Other areas with such structures include East Balingian Province. d) End. In the superposed structures. and quartz cementation.5 0. Porosity reduction is by ca lc i te cementation. Lower Miocene (Cycles II1I) carbonates are another play type in the northeastern part of the province. Major accumulations have been found in several major depressions close to the boundary between the West and East Balingian sub-provinces .5 <0. elongated structures with flat to gentle core and steep flanks.6 - <0. Acis and North Acis sub basins (see Fig.6 <0 . is also faulted oblique to axis and plunges to the SE. the Nyalau Formation in the rhombohedral basins could have better potential.7 Fig. preserving the objective section. c) Symmetrical. Th e Lambir Formation probably underlies the Belait Formation in the Mentegal.

local stresses and shearing with development of conjugate faults and compression .6 wt. \:. < 2 mg HC/g rock. \ " =h. Regional shales are largely absent. The coals sh ow excellent organic carbon richness (TOe up to 78 wt.9 demonstrates the quality of selected coals and shales from the Nyalau Formation. In some of the depreSSions the specimens are in the early mature state with VRo: 0. b) elongated synclines (in yellow).8 mg HC/g rock) Most of the shales of the Nyalau Formation have fair to good organic carbon r ichness (TOC up to 6.6d provides thermal maturity data for several samp ling points. The occasional shale samples from the shale source facies deposited ma inly in the southwestern part of the Sub -provinces 3 and 4 show excellent hydrocarbon generating po tential (S. Model for the area north of the Tinjar Knee involves N-S lateral motion. as suggested by the HI values of 21 9 475 . and NNE-SSW minor faults. 16. or in the floodplains of the estuaries . %) and excellen t hydrocarbon gen erating po tential. Structural patterns in Sub-province 5 comprise a) major NW-SE faults interpreted as dextral wrench fault . but generally Middle Miocene (Cycle III) shales form the regional seal. Their equivalents are Cycles II and I respectively.=155 0 o 20 40 km I I STRESS INTERPRETATION Subprovince 5 TINJAR KNEE Fig. SOURCE ROCKS Oligocene-Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) sediments are th e m ain source rocks in the southwestern part of the Sub-provinces 3 and 4. %) b ut generally poor hydrocarbon generating potential (S. The kitchen area is below the l ocal depreSSion in the southwestern part of the province Figure 16. broad NE-SW synclines. The sh ales were . . Outcrop samp les fro m coal and shale in tervals of the Nyalau Formation w ithin th e Tinj ar Province h ave been analysed. including these local depressions. HI < 100) . A plot of Hydrogen Index against Tmax in Figure 16.62 -065% The Se t ap Sh ale Forrna~ contains generally poo r source rock.Tinjar Province ~&d~~-=. up to 7. c) transpressional anticlines and d) in the south.7 SAR image (right) and interpretation (left). Th e coals also contain oil- prone (Type II) and gas prone organic matter (Type III). In the Balingian Province Lower Miocen e (Cycle II) intraformatio n al sh ales ar e importa n t in the Bayan Field. . Source facies are only found in certain inte rvals of the Nyalau Formation.. Sch ematic stress elipse fo r sub provin ce 5 . These include coals and sh ales that were bo th depOS ited in eith er in terdistributaries. The percentage of oil prone kerogen s in the coals ranges from a trace to 33%. shOWing the regional distribution of maturity for the Nyalau Formation in the southwestern part of the province. The maximum principal stress is oriented 335 0 Seal Seals in the Tinjar Sub-provinces 3 and 4 are the intraformational sha les in Nyalau and Lambir formations. ~ '\ 290 0 ~ 0.

50 %. 16. .'.SE I+. 420 I • • '-~ ~ 460 I I a 480 500 Immat ure I Oil Window I Gas Window 1 Tmax : deg C Fig. The degree of the input (espeCially oleanane and bicadinan es) varies from location to location The b iom ark er assemb lages observe d in the r ock extrac ts in th e Tinj ar Pr ovince also sh ow a .Tinjar Province dep osited in the north in an open marine setting. Possible Well Location Possible We ll Locat ion --------I '.41 wt. . The samples contain Type III organic matter with potential to generate predominantly gas.~ ~U') <1> E Cij a.76-1.. 16 . moderate to extremely high C2 ex!) h opan e.Leads in depression --------1. these feat ures suggest that th e s ou rce roc k s were deposited within a lower coastal plain setting with co n siderable terres trial o r ga ni c m atter inputlhigher land-plant (resins) T he Seta p Sh a le and th e Nya lau NW~ ..Leads over structural high-. All the Setap samples a r e th er m all y i m m ature t o early m at ur e . ". Genera lly . 16. Source rock studies have been carried out on b oth outcrop and subsurface samples of the Setap Shale F o r ma ti on Th e d a t a sh ow that th e sha les possess fa ir organic carb on rich ness and poor h ydrocarb on gen eratin g poten tial. low oleanan e. 500 ~ 400 OJ 0> . m odera te to high bicadin anes. and C29 p r eference (Fig . 16 12). high bicadinan es. Fig. 1000 900 800 Nyal au • (Coal s) • Nyalau • Setap Type I 0. an d C29 preference (Figures 16 .2% Vitrinite \ . moderate C 9 ex!) h opane.8 Trapping model in Tinjar Province . 11 ) .'" (f) PRE CYCLE I Fig.5% Vitrinite • Iso reflectance I o f0> o I 700- I "~ 0> Type II 600 - I TI E .!: c ~ I 300 - >- \ • I • I · I • ·1· I 200 100 - T~ ..40-1.j Possib le We ll Location 11---.9 Hydrogen Index against Tmax plot showing the quality of se lected Cycles VII coals and shales from the Nyalau and Setap Shale form ations.~1 . Since the analyzed sam ples from 769m to 2212m ar e th erm ally ma tu re to pos t m a tu re (VRo: 0.. lL ZQ. %) .13 and 16. More detaile d biom arker analyses sh ow tha t th e Nya lau Forma ti on coa ls an d sha les d isplay ce rtain similari ties in th eir bi om ark er asse mbl ages mo d er ate to very h igh Tm/Ts. trace 9 to low oleanan e . ind ica tin g th e ab ili ty to ge n e r ate predominan tly gas .l have poor to good organic carb on richness (TOC: 0.1 4) . 400 1 . • ."". Biomarker assemblages are characterized by the presence of moderately high TmlTs. The kerogen types are mainly Type III/IV of terrigenous origin.. These features are gene r ally ch aracterized as coas tal p la in (lower an d up pe r) depositi on al setting with substantial terrestrial organic matter input and also higher land-plant inputs (resins) .so/eflectance i . the S2 values « 2 m g H C/g rock) m erely indica te their residual hydrocarbon potential. formations in Cycle I at Selungun. The HI's are gen erally less tha n 10 0 ... 1.. Rese rvoirs in th e basinal parts and structural highs are bel ieved to be similar to the hydrocarbon accumulati ons in offshore tectonostratigraphic provinces such as West Balingian Sub-province..

.---------------------. Coals from the Meri t-Pila coa lfiel d o f ce n tral Sarawa k was stu d ied by Wa n H asiah (1997) who foc u sed on th e petrographic details of the early generation of oil-like su bstances fro m the precursor sub erinite (coal)...) Ol I 'u Ol 10 5 2.) "" o a: C. and c) Lambir Formation in the eastern part of the province .•i II • 30 ~ o a: C. Some intervals of Cycle I in the D35 field is lip tinitic. 11 Typical bi omar ker d istributions of the shale extract from [he Setap Shale Formation .10 Sou rce pOlemia l summary d iagram (S \s I'UL ) I" l' the selecled Cyeles III I nKli. Setap Formation Shale m/z 191 R Setap Formation Shale mlz 2 17 . " t .5 V.000 Figure b 40 .----------. Cycles 1111 coals have oil an d gas po tential and shales h ave poor oil-prone potential. In the Balingian Pro vin ce . erosional outlier of the Miocene Nyalau Form ation wh ich rests u n conform ably on the Eocen e Belaga Forma tion .tliel . Good Good Fair C Ol 0 0 " 20 u I II III ~ N (f) E N (f) Poor ro °c ( 10 0 Legend o @ shale • coal 0.dl" lrum the " positive correlation with the biomarker characters d isplayed b y the Balingian oils (see Balingian Province Chapter 14).1 0. 16. PLAY TYPES The main play typ es are a) Oligocene.I!.Lower Miocene Nyalau (Cycles IIII) The play occurs in the southwes t of the Tinjar Province where the traps inclu de Lower Miocene structural traps and su perposed Upper Mi o c en e/Low e r Mi ocene struct u ra l traps.Lowe r Miocene (Cycles IlII) clastics.1 " "" r.5 100 0 -""---"-'--'='---'------=---'------'-------' o 2 4 6 8 TOe (wt %) NY<ll<lll 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lll<lllllll TOe (wt %) f ig. 16. Th e stu d y o f these coals clearly demon strates the early generation of liqUid h ydrocarbon fro m the maceral suberinite . The Merit -Pila coalfie ld forms an east-west elonga ted . C!l '@ 0 0 "" C!l 0 0 :> 1 2 0. The kerogens are Type III with some Types Ill/IV gas prone . and establish es a model for a possible pathway for which liquid hydrocarbon could be naturally expelled from coal source rocks The dominant play in the Tinjar Province is the Oligocene. b ) Oligo cen e Lower Mio cen e limesto n es in the northeastern part . so 000 fig. All th e best source rocks occur within lower coastal plain deposits. .Tinjar Province Figure a 1. b lockfaulted .

b) amount of fault throw and position of fault with respect to structure and c) preservation of Oligocene -Lower Miocen e (Cycles II/I) target intervals (see Fig 16.000ft (1 219.000 Fig. .14 Typical biomarker distributions of the shale extract from the Nyalau Formation. Drilling at Suai and Nya lau Formation Shale m/ z191 . Th ese struc tures are genera ll y sha ll ow .3 I 0.51m ) • '" R • 6.. 16.2 VRo % Fig. but Nyalau Formation is thicker in the loca l depressions due to subsidence.2 • I 1. where Late Miocene structural traps are present. the p lay is in the Oligocene-Lower Miocene car bonat es.OOOf! (2429 . drilling in East and West Balingian led to the discoveries of several fields (Temana.Tinjar Province o Oil Window '" Nyalau Formation Cool mtz 191 2.000 «6000 48. The d epositional p attern and structural trend seen in West Balingian are believed to extend to the southwestern part of the Tinjar Province .4 0. 166) Half of the 40 untested leads are found in the southwestern part of the Tinjar Province where possible rhombohedral b as in s ma y be present. 16. Nyalau Formation Shale m/z 217 Fig.02m) 0. In the 1970-S0's.S).. The factors th at determine the success of this typ e of pro spect include a) thickness of intraformational shales.0001 1 (lB29.12 Depth-vitrin ite reflectance relationship showing the maturity profi le of the ana lyze d samples from the Selungun-l well. . 165) The clastic and carbona te plays in the Tinjar Province are mutually excl usive In the nort heas t . D30 and D35) Oil migrated laterally into structures on the flan ks of the local sub -b asins from kitchens suc h as the Central Balingian Sub-basin . 5 I 0."'" 42.00011 (609.000 I 0. DIS .27m ) Nyalau Formation Cool m!z217 • • B.76m ) " \ t3 li 4. D21 .6 I 1 1. Porosities and permeabilities are good. Bayan. Numerous structures are found in Sub-provinces 3 and 4 (see Fig.6 2 38. 16. and the Acis and North Acis sub-basins (Fig.13 Typica l biomarker distributions of the coal extract from the Nya lau Formation.

Further exploration efforts should certainly include seismic and potential field data acq uisition in order to upgrade some of the leads. Acis and No rth Acis subbasins. D12 and Patricia. a secondary play in the eastern part of the Tinjar Province. Sequence stratigraphy may also be useful in predicting the continuity of reservoirs in the subsurface. The traps are possibl y present underneath the Upper Miocene sandy Belait Formation in synclines (see Fig.7a). These are the Cycles IIII eqUivalents of the hydrocarbon prolific West Balingian Sub-Province.Tinjar Province Subis found sub-commercial gas shows Hydrocarbon traps in the Lambir Formation. The reservoirs in the main Nyalau clastic play are the subtidal to estuarine and interdistributary intervals. 16. In the Balingian Province such lo ca l depressions include the Central Balingian . In the Balingian Pro vince oil and gas have been found in the Lower Cycle III reservoirs at Temana. In addition . The interbedded shales are genera ll y thick enough to act as effective seals. There are nearly 40 leads in Sub-Provinces 3 and 4 within the Oli gocene . Coals and coaly shales are present in the northern and eastern part of Tinjar Province and could provide internal hydrocarbon sourcing for the play. SUMMARY The Tinjar Province has been studied geologically to find petroleum. Oils could migrate laterally from kitchens in local depressions into structures on the flanks of adjacent sub-basins. Extensive land seismic work is necessary to explore for these three main play types in the future. is difficult to define without seismic data. . Th e presence of effective intraformational shales separating the reservoir from the extensive and porous Belait sandstones is critical to the success of the Lambir Formation play. The Lambir Formation in the eastern part of the province is a secondary pla y . Seismic acquisition selectively over some structu r es is critical to upgrade leads into prospects for drilling. Current seismic coverage is too sparse to develop leads into prospects. aerogravity in the Tinjar Province was acquired in September 1998.Lower Miocene (Cycles IIII) main clastic and limestone plays. Three main play types in the province have been identified.

1993.. 27 .Tinjar Province REFERENCES Doust. Wan Hasiah A . Ma lays ia (Unpub lished report: PETRONAS) James. 1981.1978 (Ed. lO. 1960. American Association of Petroleum Geo lo gists Studies in Geology 12. . (Unp ublished report PETRONAS). Geologica l fi eld investigations-NW Borneo (Nov 1969 . 169 pp Leichti. Roe. 423-440.. 30. Tjia.. Exploration in East Malaysia over the past decade. 1984. 591-596.. 1997.C. by Halbouty MT).. P. Radar Geo logic Intepretation of Sarawak. 1993. D. Halbouty M T ). 1978. Swinburn. Tectonic styles of the Balingian Province. Ho Kiam Fui. Brunei and wes tern part o f Nort h Borneo. Mohd Idrus Ismail and Othman Ali Mahmud. In: Energy resources of the Pacific region (Ed. . H. Bulletin 3. (Ed. Rahdon. Tectonics of the Sarawak Basin.. 1981. N. 117-132. Intera. Organ ic Geochemistry. Tjia.S. Programmes and Abstracts. M.j.. H.E . Muzium Brunei Special Publication . 1997). 1955 . H. P . 1-13. Sarawak Basin Study (Un published report: Sarawak Shell Berhad) Scherer. 22 . Warta Geologi. Stratigraphic framework for oil exp loration i n Sarawa k . Ev id ence o f ear ly generation of liquid hydrocarbon from suberinite as visib le under t h e microscope.July 1974)Summary of data (U npubli shed report: Sarawak Shell Berhad) Sarawak Shell Berhad. 15 pp. 6. 1971. Resume of deep coreholes Suai # 1.C.2 and 3. Geology and exp loration history of offshore central Sarawak. 1974.D .D . F. The Geology of Sarawak. British Borneo Geological Survey. . American Association of Petro leum Geo lo gists Bulletin. In: Giant oil and gas fields of the decade 1968.N. Geological Society of Malaysia Petroleum Geology Semina r 1993. F.).D . A. and Kirk. H. 19 97 . Bintu lu-Ulu Suai and Lambir Geological Fieldtrip (3-8 Nov. Haile. 1996.M. Sarawak Shell Berhad.. (U npublished report : Sarawak Shell Berhad). "The geology and h yd rocarbon potential of Negara Brunei Darussalam".. Bu ll et in of the Geological Society of Malaysia.

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