Submitted by: submitted to: Name: sandeep kaur k.sreekanth Section:e1001 reddy

we also would like to thank him for showing us some example that related to the topic of our project. . First and foremost . Without them . Finally . Without the help of the particular that mentioned above . Besides. His willingness to motivate us contribute tremendously to our project. For the valuable guidance and advice .no: 11006842 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We wish to thank all those who helped us.Roll no: re1001 a21 Reg. we could not have completed this project. an honorable mention goes to our families and friends for their understanding and support on us in completing this project. we would like to thank the authority of LPU for providing us with a good environment and facilities to complete this project . He inspired us greatly to work on this project . we would face many difficulties while doing this project. ……………………………. we would like to thank to our supervisor MR.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1 : Introduction Part 2 : What is a semiconductor? Part 3 : Semiconductor device application Part 4 : Transistors and integrated circuits Part 5 : Part 6: Conclusions References .

The UK has a vibrant semiconductor . from mobile phones and laptops. to traffic lights and trainers. They are in a staggering array of products. Their ubiquitous nature makes them big business.ABSTRACT Modern life pulses to the rhythm set by semiconductors.

technology. Equally the industry has an important impact at the regional level. these companies make an important contribution towards the UK’s economic success. the family car (a recent model will have 50 processors). software and manufacturing. Their presence in the very fabric of modern life has only come about due to remarkable advances in science. to the fridge. In doing so. Part 1: Introduction Semiconductors are an invisible part of the fabric of modern life Semiconductors are ubiquitous in modern life. UK companies compete in global semiconductor markets by combining technological innovation with business model innovation. with the UK semiconductor market worth $6 billion in 2009 – third in Europe. behind France and Germany. the traffic lights on the way to work – and of course. every computer and mobile phone. encountered in a huge array of products: from the alarm clock.industry. and the South West semiconductor cluster is one of the largest silicon design clusters in the world. .

demanding customers such as smartphone manufacturers drive constant product innovation.The semiconductor industry has been intimately connected to the story of technological progress over the past half a century. the internet. digital cameras and mobile phones – has been driven by innovation and competition in the semiconductor industry. The early years of the industry in California are credited with the birth of Silicon Valley. The cost of a transistor has fallen.1 and saw the first venture capital investments.2 In the past couple of decades.3 Moore’s Law (taken from a statement made by Gordon E. As semiconductors become an essential part of an ever wider range of goods. on average. with fierce price competition and a focus on process innovation. and pressure to incorporate the latest technology advances. Moore4 in 1965) states that the number of transistors that can fit into an integrated circuit at minimum cost doubles every two years. At the other end of the industry. virtually every aspect of technological progress – including the spread of personal computers. . and this part of the industry behaves somewhat like a commodity industry. This predicts exponential growth for the number of transistors in a circuit. standard designs in areas like memory chips have emerged to serve large parts of the market. Future technological and economic progress also appears to be dependent on improvements in semiconductor technology. by 35 per cent every year over the past 50 years (when adjusted for inflation).

Semiconductors can also react to exposure to light. a current can flow. creating the capacity for a switch that acts as a logic gate or for a sensor. The pure silicon crystals are ‘doped’ with impurities. Electronic components made from semiconductor materials A semiconductor is a material that has an electrical conductivity between that of a conductor and an insulator.Part 2: What is a semiconductor? them so useful is that the behaviour of the material can be easily manipulated. pressure and heat. These properties allow current to flow only under certain conditions. Then by introducing an electric field. What makes .

Silicon is used to create most semiconductors. and a very high level of chemical purity is required to avoid defects. for instance. they respond to a continuous range of inputs with a continuous range of . solar cells. In digital circuits like microprocessors. which are fundamental in the design of digital circuits. many types of diode(LEDs) and digital and analogue integrated circuits (ICs). in the MOSFET. the voltage applied to the gate determines whether the switch is on or off. rather. Transistors used for analog circuits do not act as on-off switches.include transistors. Part 3: Semiconductor device applications All transistor types can be used as the building blocks of logic gates. transistors act as on-off switches.

these are sometimes referred to as "smart" power devices. Part 4: transistors and integrated circuits .outputs. Several companies specialize in manufacturing power semiconductors. Power integrated circuits combine IC technology with power semiconductor technology. Circuits that interface or translate between digital circuits and analog Power semiconductor devices are discrete devices or integrated circuits intended for high current or high voltage applications. Common analog circuits include amplifiers and oscillators. circuits are known as mixed-signal circuits.

as of 2009. Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling appliances and machinery. along with diodes. capacitors and other electronic components. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor device fabrication) that achieves astonishingly low per-transistor costs. for [each] man. and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device. can use as many as 2. "About 60 million transistors were built this year [2002] .. and child on Earth." The transistor's low cost. Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical control function.3 billion transistors (MOSFETs). resistors. microchips or simply chips). and is considered by many to be one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century. the vast majority of transistors now produced are in integrated circuits (often shortened to IC.. . woman. flexibility. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor.The transistor is the key active component in practically all modern electronics. to produce complete electronic circuits.

states that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years. and the expected progress over the next few years. Since these speed and power consumption gains are apparent to the end user. is well described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). . in its modern interpretation. as the feature size shrinks. In general.ICs have consistently migrated to smaller feature sizes over the years. and the speed goes up. almost everything improves—the cost per unit and the switching power consumption go down. This process. This increased capacity per unit area can be used to decrease cost and/or increase functionality—see Moore's law which. principal among which is leakage current (see subthreshold leakage for a discussion of this). allowing more circuitry to be packed on each chip. although these problems are not insurmountable and will likely be solved or at least ameliorated by the introduction of high-k dielectrics. there is fierce competition among the manufacturers to use finer geometries. ICs with nanometer-scale devices are not without their problems. However.

They jointly seek a world environment devoid of barriers to trade and investment. and are critical to raising global standards of living and contributing to sustainable economic growth. including the elimination of tariffs. and support and co-ordinate initiatives in the World Trade Organization (WTO) – including the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) – to achieve this objectiveThese policies are intended to expand the global demand for semiconductors. scientific research. transportation. . including communications.Part 5: conclusions Semiconductors are the building blocks of the information age. education and commerce. The Parties to this Joint Statement have achieved virtually barrier-free trade in semiconductors among themselves. They are making possible continuing revolutionary progress in all facets of life. health care.

ISBN 0-13090996-3 • • It is pleasure that you have read my project report . D. Rabaey. J.. and Saleh.scribd.com/ Hodges. http://CMOSedu.M. ISBN 978-0-47088132-3.semits. B. Richard S. Analysis and Design of Digital Integrated Circuits. McGraw-Hill. John Wiley and Sons. and Nikolic..Part 6: References • • • • • Muller. and Theodore I. Kamins (1986).A.. J. 2nd Edition.. R. A. CMOS: Circuit Design. Jackson H. ISBN 0-07-228365-3. (2003). Third Edition. Chandrakasan. Wiley-IEEE. Layout.com Intel 65-Nanometer Technology Baker. www. (2010). and Simulation.. Digital Integrated Circuits. R.G.com www. (2003). Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits.