Gas Lift

Types of Gas Lift Systems Continuous – Mainly used for the production of oil. Intermittent – Used for the removal of slugs fluid in oil and gas wells. Commonly used to de water gas wells. Open systems, The tubing and annulus are open to each other, no packer is used. Semi closed system, The tubing and annulus are connected only through the gas lift valves, packer is used. Closed system, A standing valve is set in the tubing, closing off flow from the tubing to the formation. Gas Injection Rates There are four significant gas injection rates 1) Injection rate of no flow – the amount of gas that is injected is insufficient to lift the fluid. 2) Injection rate of maximum efficiency – the minimum volume of gas is required to lift a barrel of fluid. 3) Injection rate of maximum flow – the maximum production is achieved. 4) Injection rate of no flow due to excess gas – the friction of the gas prevents fluid from entering the tubing.

000 bbls per day and less than 500 bbls per day for intermittent. . A Productivity Index of > . Injection GLR of 50 to 250 ft3 /bbl for 1000 ft of lift for continuous and for intermittent it is 250 to 300 ft3/bbl for 1000 ft of lift.45 for intermittent lift. The intermittent lift is the only method possible for good producers with very low bottom hole pressures.Limitations of Continuous and Intermittent gas Lift Liquid output for continuous is 200 to 20.45 bbls/day/psi for continuous and < .

int. closed . open and semi open cont. closed cont. int.Well Characteristics that effect behavior of producing well 1) Bottom hole pressure 2) Productivity Index 3) Formation gas oil ratio 4) Water cut 5) Depth 6) Size of the tubulars 7) Type of producing mechanisms Equipment Characteristics 1) Back pressure held on the formation 2) Gas consumption Four Categories of Wells and systems High PI and High BHP High PI and Low BHP Low PI and High BHP Low PI and Low BHP cont. semi and closed int.

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The other type is when the production fluid is in contact with the bellows. If the injected gas is the main factor in controlling the valve it is called an injection pressure operated valve. In this cased the injected gas is in contact with the bellows (largest area of influence). therefore the valve should fully open rapidly and closed rapidly. the injected gas pressure and the production pressure. Continuous Flow valves Valves used for continuous flow should throttle the gas throughput. . The injected gas volume is controlled from the surface. production pressure or fluid controlled valve. Intermittent Lift Intermittent lift requires a large volume of gas for a short period of time.Gas Lift Valves Classification by Applications Gas lift valves have 2 pressures acting to open the valve.

A large port with a close control over the valve spread.Basic Valve Designs Unbalanced Pressure Charged Valve This valve uses a nitrogen charged dome as the loading element to cause the valve to close. The force of the spring is given in psi and is known as the Spring Pressure Effect. This unbalanced valve has a charged dome and a spring to supply the closure force for the valve. There is a control valve in combination with the main valve. These valves are very good for intermittent flow systems. Unbalanced Spring Valve This valve uses a spring as the loading element to cause the valve to close. A lower spring effect is the advantage here. The pilot Valve. Combination of Charged and Spring Valve. When the control vavle opens it causes the main valve to open and let the injected gas into the tubing. . The advantage here is that there is no temperature effects to consider when setting the valves opening pressure. |By having smaller ports on the control valve a better control can be maintain on the opening and closing of the main valve that has a large port.

This will aid in calculating the rack pressures for the valves. . 2) Plot the bottom hole pressure point at depth. Where this line intersects the flow gradient line is the depth that the casing and tubing pressures are equal. from this point draw a line that is parallel to the static gradient line. 4) Calculate the casing pressure at mid depth of the well. 3) Using the PI of the well plot the pwf for the desired production rate. using the static gradient of the fluid plot a pressure vs depth point up the hole. this is the static gradient line. Draw a line from the surface casing pressure on the top of the graph through this point. and that is the depth that the valve is set. find the depth that has a 100 psi difference in these 2 lines. 5) Assume a Δp across the valve of 100 psi. 8) Calculate the pvo @ 60oF as before.Design of a Continuous-Flow System Graphical method 1) On graph paper set the y-axis to depth and the x to pressure. This is the flowing gradient line. 7) Calculate the position of the unloading valves as before. using the closing pressures. 6) To the side on the graph plot the temperature gradient by connecting the surface temperature to the bottom hole temperature. Connect these point and extend to the y-axis.