7 Enoch 80:2-8 (67:5-7) and Jude 12-13

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BY WAY OF COMMENTARY upon the ascription of doom in ν ll, 1 Jude appends several brief statements, of which the last four are metaphorical. Jude's complaint is that the intruders, in spite of their mistaken thinking and aberrant life-style, still participate in gatherings of the Christian community, where their insidiousness undermines the faith and behavior of sincere Chris­ tians. Following the descriptive assertions in ν 12a, Jude posits in rapid succession four metaphors, which drive in the wedge concerning the fate ascribed to these intruders in vv 11-12. The background of the symbolism in Jude 12-13, however, has never been satisfactorily clarified. Magass,2 in his treatment of these two verses, unfortunately examines only the semiotic construction of the text, neglecting the origin of the symbolism. Noting the 3 unified cosmic symbolism in the four metaphorical denunciations, Reicke posits the construction of these vehement castigations by Jude from various texts. Yet the question remains as to precisely what texts, if any, influenced Jude's formulation of these verses.

1 See G. H. Boobyer, "The Verbs in Jude 11," NTS 5 (1958) 45-47. Cf. Ν. Turner, Grammar of New Testament Greek (Edinburgh: Clark, 1976) 4. 140. See also T. Y. Mullins, "Ascription as a Literary Form," NTS 19 (1973) 194-205, esp. p. 197. 2 W. Magass, "Semiotik einer Ketzerpolemik am Beispiel von Judas 12f.," Linguistica Biblica 19 (1972) 36-47. 3 Β. Reicke, The Epistles of James, Peter, and Jude (AB 37; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1964) 107.


1913)2.245. It seems to me that 1 Enoch 80:2-8 actually provides the essential frame­ work for Jude's metaphorical construction. . Knibb8 notes the attempt of Halévy to explain the difficulty on the basis of an assumed Hebrew Vorlage in which myn και wn^n ηκν was misread as ΠΚΊ*» njnn κηη D^u/n. Charles7 notes the obvious discrepancy in Ethiopie Enoch at 80:4-5. since those paragraphs follow immediately upon the text Jude quotes in 5 vv 14-15 and treat the contrast between the regular order of nature and the disorder of the ungodly. Der zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas (Halle: Waisenhaus. Charles. 5 See C. However. 186. 1885) 396. "Recherches sur la langue de la rédaction primitive du livre d'Enoch. an observation that must be taken seriously. This depiction of the perversion of nature and the heavenly bodies owing to the sinfulness of men concludes in ν 8 with the warning that "punishment shall come upon them so as to destroy all. it must be noted that such cosmic sym­ bolism occurs elsewhere in the Enochic literature (e. Halévy. However.15. (2) "the fruits of the earth shall be backward and shall not grow in their time and the fruits of the trees shall be withheld in their time". The Ethiopie Book of Enoch (Oxford: Clarendon." Jude's third metaphor is not apparent in the extant text of 1 Enoch 80.1 ENOCH 80:2-8 (67:5-7) AND JUDE 12-13 297 As long ago as Spitta. First. Jude'sfirst(waterless clouds). Spitta..-J. Secondly. 69:16-21). 6 F.9 in Jude 14. 2-5 the cosmic symbolism denotes the proper functioning of creation according to God's order. Two principal reasons may be adduced in this regard. C. second (unfruitful trees). in which the reference to the sun is intrusive and breaks the tristich pattern.** NTS 23 (1977)334-41. 17-18. Osburn. in 80:2-8 the symbolism is comparable to Jude's in that the order of nature is more conspicuous in its breach than in its obser­ vance.6 Enoch specifies (1) "the rain shall be kept back and the heaven shall withhold it" (v 2). (3) "many chiefs of the stars shall transgress the prescribed order and these shall alter their orbits and tasks" (v 6). Knibb. whereas in chaps. 8 M. 7 R. Burkitt. The Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon.g. 1914) 70-71. Jewish and Christian Apocalypses (London: British Academy. it has been noted that Jude 12-13 bears a close resemblance to 1 Enoch 2-5.9 Alternatively it is in the realm of possibility that Jude's 4 4 F." JA 6/9(1867)389. raising the question whether it was actually / Enoch 2-5 which provides the basis for Jude's metaphors. 9 M. D. "The Christological Use of I Enoch 1. and fourth (wandering stars) metaphors occur in precisely that order in this Enochic text. 1978) 2. H. I Enoch 80:2-8 occurs in a section that treats the impending punishment of the ungodly.

But he concludes that the imagery. 3d ed. P. 190-92 in Jude 13. 1902) 335.24.298 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY | 47. 2. in his ref­ erence to 1 Enoch 80:2-8 that the sea will be rendered unnavigable. however.12 who has suggested that Jude was con­ sciously alluding to a pagan account of the birth of Aphrodite in Hesiod's Theogony13 According to the legend. α δε θά­ λασσα κυρτον έπαφρίζη. Peter and St. where they gathered foam (αφρός). Edinburgh: Clark. Bigg. 851. for it cannot rest. (2) that Jude was con­ sciously alluding to this grotesque pagan myth in Hellenizing fashion for the Lactantius. Schelkle. 12 J. Bigg11 noted terminological parallels in Moschus. A divergent understanding of the origin of Jude's third metaphor has been proposed by J. Oleson. Here. about to voyage over raging waves calls upon a piece of wood more fragile than the ship which carries him. and the foam was supposedly washed up on the south shore of Cyprus.3. C. has to do with tumult rather than with licentiousness. "One . 636). for thus both the honors and festivals connected with her are performed with shameful deeds and sensuousness and harlotry. "An Echo of Hesiod's Theogony vv. . 2." 14 Although the only direct verbal echo between Theogony 190-92 and Jude 13 is αφρός. P. deor. PseudoNonnos notes. rather than being reliant upon Greek poetic expression. Bigg's successors have suggested that the κύματα άγρια derive from Wis 14:1. 1971) 181 (64). "But the wicked are like the violent sea. The Epistles of St. Idyll V.16 (CSEL 19. καί θάλασσαν άγρίαν έξημερώσας. Kronos cut off his father's testicles with a sickle and threw them into the sea. whatever the resolution of the textual problem at 1 Enoch 80:4-5. 11 10 ." Not infrequently. 14 S. Oleson nevertheless postulates (1) that the heretics are the waves that buoy up the lusty organs of Uranos in explicit licentious imagery.. 13 See Plato. Ultimately. and Euripides. Fur. Jude (ICC. like that in Jer 49:23 and James 1:16. however. Freiburg: Herder.63-64. 1985 third metaphor reflects an independent text-form no longer traceable in the Enochic tradition other than in the mention by Lactantius. See also K. Brock. de not. it seems that the metaphor of the foam on the violent sea in Jude must be accounted for on some basis other than 1 Enoch 80. 1970) 163. ." It is important. 2d ed. Divine Institutions 7. Rep. Die Petrusbriefe. 10 viz. to note that the imagery of the violent sea in Isa 57:20 and Wis 14:1..337E-378A. The Syriac Version of the Pseudo-Nonnos Mythological Scholia (Cambridge: Cambridge University." NTS 25 (1979) 492-503. Accordingly it may be questioned whether Jude's third metaphor does. Oleson. 2. Aphrodite was said to have been born from that foam (hence her name). rest upon Isa 57:20 or Wis 14:1.. was probably suggested by Isa 57:20. in fact. "Because of this he says that she is born and honored shame­ fully. and Cicero. 5. and its waters toss up mire and dirt. Der Judasbrief (HTKNT 12.

"And the moon shall alter her order. Zahn. and fourth references required no alteration. However. B. It is important to remember that in vv 12-13 Jude is creating his own live metaphors. second. Jude and the Second Epistle of St. Now the enigmatic intruders of Jude 4 are said to have been marked out είς τούτο το κρίμα and are termed ασεβείς. Accordingly. any assessment of the precise intent of Jude's third metaphor and of its origin must accord with that literary thrust. which reads. T. Reasoning that a reference to the sea would round out a cosmic symbolism. resulting in an offensive effusion of sulphuric fumes (67:5-6). and (3) that the specific motivation for the use of the legend of Aphrodite's birth lies in the proposal that Jude's epistle was directed to the Cypriot community of Nea Paphos. and not appear at her time. which was quite near the legendary location of Aphrodite's birth. E Spitta. Titus 1:12. which begins in ν 12. Now Oleson's proposal has in its favor the unmistakable reference to the evident licentiousness among the intruders of Jude's concern (vv 4. takes τούτο with reference to παρεισέδυσαν and understands it to mean a judgment upon the church." Obviously. Jude's κρίμα. however. the presence of such a disgusting Hellenistic legend in the midst of a section dominated by quotations of and allusions to intertestamental Jewish apocalyptic literature (vv 5-16) is decidedly strange and requires more than an apparent verbal echo in order to establish itself as the textual basis for Jude's metaphor. but the singu­ lar reference to the moon was not immediately applicable to Jude's castigation of the intruders. and observe the "convulsion of the waters" connected with hot lava. In view of Acts 17:28.. 1 Cor 15:33. Mayor. It may be suggested that the more appropriate question to be asked just here is why Jude did not use the moon metaphor in 1 Enoch 80:4-5. relying upon the apocalyptic imagery of 1 Enoch 80:2-8. 80. where ν 10 had provided the point d'appui for his epistle (v 4). Spitta15 rightly under­ stands the τούτο with reference to the judgment Jude is about to declare. the first. it is not permissible to argue that Jude could not have had reference to Hesiod's Theogony. 1909) 2. Intro­ duction to the New Testament (Edinburgh: Clark. . Peter (London: Macmillan. providing a decisive denoue­ ment to the ascription of doom. J. The Epistle of St. seeing the sin itself as its own judgment. and shall shine more brightly than accords with the order of light. 310-15.23). 67. 15 .1 ENOCH 80:2-8 (67:5-7) AND JUDE 12-13 299 purposes of evangelism and pastoral discipline. .8. Jude had only to turn back his Enochic scroll a few turns to chap. is one that hands over the opponents themselves. carries the thought back to the opponents in ν 3. raising the question of which written source Jude has in mind with προγεγραμμένοι. Der zweite Brief des Petrus und der Brief des Judas. . and the Talmudic reference in Sota 49b. The literary focus of these metaphors is to underscore the rebelliousness and inevitable fate of the intruders of Jude's concern. viz. 1907) 25.

D Kelly. 1985 the condemnation inherent in ασεβείς in some ancient writer. N. 1980) 19-30 20 See Τ Y Mulhns. The Second Epistle General of Peter and the General Epistle of Jude (Cambridge Cambridge University. argues in favor of M Black's date of "the early Roman period.'" Text. Character. Bigg16 notes that the nature of the doom is not specified. James 1 7 and J. The General Epistles of St. 1969) 249 19 J W C Wand. N. which is so prominent in 1 Enoch. 326 M R James. "Petition as a Literary Form. This particular characteristic is referred to again at vv 8 and 23 with refer­ ence to Jude's opponents." ΝονΤ 5 (1962) 48-54 21 See J A. While πάλαι in ν 4 could refer to a recent past. but an adaptation in which the ancient message is retained while the wording is adjusted in view of Jude's historical concern and theo­ logical understanding. against which the exhortation to faithfulness in vv 20-23 stands in bold relief. 1912) 37 18 J.300 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY | 47. The reference to 67:10 in Jude 4 is neither an explicit quotation nor a mere allusion. 1976) 96 Jude's use of 67 10. and his accusation here. In this vein. "The Use of Explicit Old Testament Quotations in Qumran Litera­ ture and in the New Testament. mentioned this text without comment Mihk's earlier proposal of a first or second century A D date for the "parables" ("Towards a Date for the Similitudes of Enoch. "For the judgment shall come upon them because they believe in the lust of their body and deny the spirit of the Lord. however. but is hardly correct in supposing Jude to have been hastily quoting 2 Peter. 1934) 199. that they have altered C Bigg. Kelly18 are more convincing in suggesting that 1 Enoch 1:9 is already in mind as Jude anticipates the very stern penalties that God has reserved for sinners such as those in vv 5-16. probably pre-70 A D ". Fitzmyer. literally pervades Jude's epistle and surely provides the essential understanding of τούτο here. Peter and St Jude (London Methuen. Now the eschatological judgment. for the Enochic text to which Jude refers in προγεγραμμένοι is rather 67:10." NTS 7 (1961) 297-333. (1) In lieu of Enoch's simple statement of lust. Berlin de Gruyter. and Date of the 'Second Vision of Enoch. The Epistles of St Peter and St Jude. M. D." NTS 14 [1968] 551-65) was revised to A D 270 in his The Books of Enoch (Oxford Clarendon. 21 Jude's embellishment of the two items in 67:10 is not easily attributed to lapsus memoriae or to carelessness. Jude adduces that the intruders have rationalized the doctrine of the grace of God so as to permit a life-style of licentiousness. as in Mark 15:44. R. see his "The Composition." 1 9 Functioning as the concluding portion of the παρακαλώ formula in ν 4.Wort-Glaube Kurt Aland gewidmet {ta M Brecht. London Black. who already preoccupy his mind. reference to 1 Enoch 1:9 is oblique in this instance. However. esp pp 316-25 17 16 . The Epistles of Peter and of Jude (Black's NT Commentaries. 20 the historical aspects of this apocalyptic reference provide the aforementioned point d'appui for Jude's castigation of the opponents.

7. Adv. However. Moreover. Albin. The Epistle of St. See P. haer. See C. Josephus. Knopf. an erratic third or fourth century text which has two unique and three rare readings in its four verses. D. Also. For brief discussions see R. 1. Of course. the meaning of which hinges upon the presence or absence of the article. Judasbrevit (Lund: Hakan Ohlssons. The Oxyrhynchus Papyri (London: Egypt Exploration Society. Preisker: Tübingen: Mohr [Siebeck]. "deny our only Master and Lord Jesus Christ. is coherent with the general picture emerging in the epistle of their character. J. 1912) 305. for the textual sup­ port. J.24 Further. but whether Christ will be followed as Lord. 1951) 39-40. The use of μόνον δεσπότην with refer­ ence to Christ in 2 Pet 2:1 is certainly sufficient to preclude viewing Jude's usage as an impossible anomaly. Kelly. 252. B.8.26. and H. A.4-6. Jude reads. Peter. " Ρ 7 8 ein neuer Textzeuge für den Judasbrief. Jude's description of Jesus as both Lord and Master can hardly be called pleonastic. "They deny the Lord of Spirits and his Anointed. N. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. eds. and (2) that Jude may well have drawn from the remarkably similar passage in I Enoch 48:10. Rom 16:27. 3d ed. 1 Tim 1:17. Windisch. the point under considera­ tion in the epistle is not polytheism..1 ENOCH 80:2-8 (67:5-7) AND JUDE 12-13 301 basic Christian teaching to accommodate their practices. The Epistles of Peter and of Jude. 7. The omission of καί in Ρ 7 8 . Mayor. haer. In this respect. 1962) 596. Parsons et al. by H. Die Briefe Petri und Judä (MeyerK 12. 1968) 34. 22). is not demonstrated to be stemmatically related to the similar omission in 38 vulg cop s a eth. the reading θεόν after δεσπότην in the Byzantine manuscripts has no claim to authenticity since transcriptional probability is decidedly in favor of its addition rather than its omission. in biblical Greek one article is usually sufficient when two substantives occur together when complementary and comprising parts of a whole.." Taking μόνον δεσπότη ν with reference to 22 God. Die katholischen Briefe (HNT 15. 23 24 22 . certain considerations substantiate the traditional understanding of Christ as Master. On the other hand. Jude and the Second Epistle of St. Adv. but a separate article is expected when the J. (2) Whereas 67:10 notes a simple denial of the spirit of the Lord. it is always hazardous to venture an opinion upon a text. Philo. Kelly23 adds (1) that "only Master" here expresses distinctive monotheism as opposed to polytheism or Caesar-worship (citing John 5:44. the postulation that Jude alludes here to an incipient Gnosticism in which the aeon Christ descended upon Jesus at baptism and withdrew prior to the crucifixion is incapable of proof." Orient-Press 1 (1970) 7-9. nom. W. Mayor observes that δεσπότης in the NT and early Christian litera­ ture is used predominantly of the Father and that the phrase might refer to the heresy attributed to Cerinthus in Hippolytus. 26-27.23 and Irenaeus. and M." Kelly also notes that the depiction of Christ as both Master and Lord is both pleonastic and unprecedented. Mees.6 §323. Mut.

there was produced a smell of sul­ phur. Relying upon the strong imagery of / Enoch 80:2-8." which Enoch so poignantly specified as the "waters of judgment" upon the imprisoned angels. To the waterless clouds. Robertson 25 notes that one article suffices when more than one epithet is applied to the same person and that the genitive can occur with either substantive. Michl. where these angels are punished who had led astray those who dwell upon the earth. and (2) originating from an Enochic context to which Jude had already made reference in ν 4. 26 See J. And when all this took place. Jude both specifies the character of the opponents 26 and provides the reason for his vigorous exhortation. T." A. and that valley of the angels who had led astray (mankind) burned beneath that land. This suggestion of the origin of Jude's third metaphor has the advantages of (1) maintaining the metaphorical imagery of the violent sea in a context of eschatological judgment upon the imprisoned angels who are sexually aber­ rant. Die katholischen Briefe (RNT 8/2. Jude underscores the rebelliousness and inevitable fate of the τίνες άνθρωποι (ν 4) with metaphors designed to drive home the ascription of fate which began in ν 12. In this connection. In adapting 67:10. it seems most probable that Jude's third metaphor in vv 12-13 derives from 1 Enoch 67:5-7: And I saw in that valley in which there was a great convulsion and a convulsion of the waters. but upon 67:10. which was undoubtedly open before him. 25 . and shooting stars of 80:2-8. Jude formulated his expression that the intruders were "tumul­ tuous waves of the sea. 1968) 78. Finding in the "convulsion of waters. 1985 substantives denote separate or independent entities. Robertson. and it was connected with those waters. Regensburg: Pustet. from that fiery molten metal and from the convulsion thereof in that place.. not upon 1 Enoch 48:10. (3) it avoids the perplexing dilemma of how to account for the presence of a grotesque pagan legend in a section domi­ nated by Jewish apocalyptic. It seems clear enough that Jude 4 is based. 1934) 785.302 THE CATHOLIC BIBLICAL QUARTERLY | 47. Rather than consciously Hellenizing for evangelistic and pastoral pur­ poses by alluding to a revulsive pagan myth. A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in the Light of Historical Research (Nashville: Broadman. splashing up like foam their shame. yet apply to both. With this principal text very much in mind. The suggestion of Oleson that its use by Jude was occasioned by the destination of the epistle to Nea Paphos must be judged tenuous at best. Moreover. the imagery for his castigationcontinuum. Jude added the vital element from 67:1-10. unfruitful trees. And through its valleys proceed streams of fire. Jude has continued his utiliza­ tion of Jewish apocalyptical imagery from the text of 1 Enoch. 2d ed.

74. Milik. to return the scroll to 1:9 and set out in vv 14-15 that the very Jesus whom these reject is precisely the one who (like the "waters of convulsion") will ulti­ mately destroy them. The Books of Enoch. sur­ facing not only in Jude 12-13 but also in Mark 13:20 and Matt 24:22. it was only natural for Jude. T. calling attention to the aforementioned eschatological judgment upon the ασεβείς. enjoyed a certain popularity. with its astronomical meaning reinterpreted in apocalyptical significance.1 ENOCH 80:2-8 (67:5-7) AND JUDE 12-13 303 With 67:10 before him. . / Enoch 80:2-8 itself. then. as well as in Lactantius and the later medieval apocalypses.27 27 J.

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