CBIP MANUAL ON TRANSFORMERS- Publication No-295 1.2.

12 Provision shall be made to fix safety fence around top cover of transformers of rating 100 MVA and above, for safe working during installation and servicing for large capacity transformers. 2.2.4 The transformer may be operated without danger on any particular tapping at the rated kVA provided that the voltage does not vary by more than + 10 percent of the voltage corresponding to the tapping. 2.2.5 The transformer shall be suitable for continuous operation with a frequency variation of ± 3% from normal 50 Hz. Combined voltage and frequency variation should not exceed the rated V/f ratio by 10% 2.4.2 Auto connected and star/star-connected transformers shall have delta connected stabilizing windings if specified in the order. Two leads from one open corner of the delta connection shall be brought out to separate bushings. Links shall be provided for joining together the two terminals so as to complete the delta connection and earthing it external to the tank. 2.6.1 If specified in the order, the stabilizing winding shall be capable of carrying continuously the load specified therein. 2.6.2 The design of stabilizing winding shall be such as to take care of the effect of transferred surges and the tenderer shall offer suitable surge protection wherever necessary. 2.9.1 The maximum flux density in any part of the core and yokes, of each transformer at normal voltage and frequency shall be such that the flux density in over-voltage condition as per clause 2.2.5 shall not exceed 1.9 Tesla (19,000 lines per cm2) However, in case of transformers with variable flux voltage variation, which would affect flux density at every tap, shall be kept in view while designing transformers. 3.1.7 For consideration of overfluxing the transformer shall be suitable for continuous operation for values of overfluxing factor upto 1.1, this factor being v/vm X fn/f. The manufacturer shall state the overfluxing capability and corresponding withstand durations for the transformers for factors 1.1, 1.25 and 1.4. 11.0 BUSHING INSULATORS AND TERMINALS The bushing should comply with IS 2099, IS 12676 and section P of this specification. The over voltage power frequency test level or the BIL of bushings should be one step higher than that of the windings

to provide the nominal voltage of 33 kV on the low-voltage side would require the high-voltage winding to have a tapping for plus 10% volts. Thus the volts per turn within the transformer will be: 100/87 = 1. The magnitude of this allowance depends on the application and more will be said on this subject in Chapter 7 when specific types of transformers are described. which may occur in practice. In the former the transformer HV tapping has been varied to keep the volts per turn constant as the voltage applied to the transformer varies. or off-circuit in the case of smaller distribution or auxiliary transformers. so that the 33 kV system voltage will be boosted overall by the required 15%. Both double wound and auto-connected . in the case of larger more important transformers. It is important to recognize the difference between the two operations described above.4 TAPPINGS Transformers also provide the option of compensating for system regulation. In fixing this value of nominal flux density some allowance is made for the variations. by the use of tappings which may be varied either on-load. 275 or 132 kV. In the UK they will have nominal HV voltages of 400.The J & P Transformer Book 2. At times of light system load when the 132 kV system might be operating at 132 kV plus 10%. a transformer used to step down the 132 kV grid system voltage to 33 kV. Except in very exceptional circumstances transformers are always designed as if they were intended for operation at constant flux density. 7. in the latter it could be described as having HV tappings for LV voltage variation. At times of high system load when the 132 kV system voltage has fallen to nominal it might be desirable to provide a voltage higher than 33 kV on the low-voltage side to allow for the regulation which will take place on the 33 kV system as well as the regulation internal to the transformer.3 TRANSMISSION TRANSFORMERS AND AUTOTRANSFORMERS Transmission transformers are used to provide bulk supplies and to interconnect the separate EHV transmission systems. The essential difference is that the former implies operation at constant flux density whereas the latter implies variable flux density. as well as the regulation which they themselves introduce. In the former case the transformer is described as having HV tappings for HV voltage variation.15 approx. Consider. for example. In order to provide the facility to output a voltage of up to 10% above nominal with nominal voltage applied to the high-voltage winding and allow for up to 5% regulation occurring within the transformer would require that a tapping be provided on the high-voltage winding at about -13%. In the latter the HV tapping has been varied to increase the volts per turn in order to boost the output voltage with nominal voltage applied to the transformer.

transmission transformers are installed in two. forming one corner of the delta. if provided. For larger more important transformers.7 tesla nominal flux density. and for connection to earth via protection current transformers. then two connections from the phases. such that. because of the high cost of line-end tapchangers. 275 and 132 kV systems. In the UK the 66 kV system is in phase with the 400. with the HV neutral solidly earthed and thus employing non-uniform insulation. Earthing of this 13 kV system is provided by means of an interconnected-star earthing transformer (see Section 7 of this chapter). On autotransformers tappings. Autotransformers and the HV windings of double wound transformers are. in the UK.6 tesla. Autotransformer tertiary windings are usually rated 13 kV and are brought out to external bushing terminals to enable these to be connected to 60 MVAr reactive compensation equipment. some transmission autotransformers do not have on-load tapchangers. The 275 kV system voltages can rise to +10% above nominal so for 275 kV transformers the flux density is limited to a nominal 1. Because the upper voltage limit on the 400 kV system under normal operating conditions is restricted to +5%. the load can be carried by the remaining transformers. The ratings of the main windings are not increased to allow for the loading of the tertiary winding. autotransformers and double wound transformers with this primary voltage are allowed to operate at up to 1. However. All autotransformers and the majority of star/star-connected double wound transformers have delta-connected tertiary windings. Any decision to omit the tertiary winding from a star/star-connected transmission transformer would only be taken following careful consideration of the anticipated third-harmonic current in the neutral. are brought out for linking externally to close the delta.types are used and these are usually of three-phase construction having three limb or five-limb cores and dual ONAN/ODAF cooling. Tappings are provided on the HV winding of double wound transformers. All other windings have uniform insulation. To ensure security of supply. will generally be at the line end of the lower voltage winding. so that double wound transformers stepping down to 66 kV from any of these voltages will be star/star connected. This might. The ONAN rating is usually 50% of the ODAF rating. almost exclusively star connected. in the event of one transformer being unavailable for whatever reason. on occasions involve some modest degree of overloading within the limits permitted in IEC 354. At 132 kV the transformer tap changer can be used to boost the voltage of the lower voltage system as explained in Section 6 of . the overload capability will generally be made a requirement of the specification so that this can be accurately determined at the time of the transformer design. Should these transformers not be required to supply reactive compensation equipment. the third-harmonic voltage at the secondary terminals and the resultant zero sequence impedance to ensure that all of these were within the prescribed values for the particular installation. three or four transformer substations. The maximum permitted value of nominal core flux density varies according to the rated HV voltage.

4. The degree of sophistication of the system of tap selection depends on the frequency with which it is required to change taps and the size and importance of the transformer. On generator and interbus transformers to assist in the control of system VAR flows. At the start. For 132 kV transformers flux density is thus restricted to a nominal value of 1.Chapter 4. All the above represent sound reasons for the provision of tappings and. It should also be noted that in most transformers and throughout this book. in particular. To allow for compensation for factors not accurately known at the time of planning an electrical system. the power capability of the tapping is equal to rated power so that on plus tappings the rated current for the tapped winding must be reduced and on minus tappings the rated current for the winding is increased. by means of an off-circuit switch. the use of tappings is so commonplace that most users are unlikely to consider whether or not they could dispense with them. losses are increased. 3. This adjustment may be made on-load. Transformer users require tappings for a number of reasons: 1. Uses of tapchangers Before considering the effects of tappings and tapchangers on transformer construction it is first necessary to examine the purposes of tapchangers and the way in which they are used. but the basic principles apply to all transformer types and are described below. indeed. that is. although this need not always be the case. 2.6 TAPPINGS AND TAPCHANGERS Almost all transformers incorporate some means of adjusting their voltage ratio by means of the addition or removal of tapping turns. To compensate for regulation within the transformer and maintain the output voltage constant on the above types. two definitions from the many which are set out in BS 171. This used to be known as normal tapping and the term is still occasionally used. 4.55 tesla. or by the selection of bolted link positions with the transformer totally isolated. because losses are proportional to current squared. Aspects of tapchanger use relating to particular types of transformers will be discussed further in Chapter 7. so the nominal flux density needs to be low enough to ensure that saturation will not be reached at the highest system volts applied to the lowest likely tap position. To allow for future changes in system conditions. or perhaps limit the . This usually means that at minus tappings. A more complete discussion of this subject will be found in a work dealing with the design and operation of electrical systems. the rated voltage ratio. Part 1: principal tapping is the tapping to which the rated quantities are related and. as is the case for many large transformers. except where expressly indicated otherwise. It should be avoided since it can easily lead to confusion. 5. To compensate for changes in the applied voltage on bulk supply and other system transformers. tappings are full-power tappings.

where this is not possible. despite the regulation occurring within the many Supply transformers and cables. Although in many industrial systems. 2. Most domestic consumers are equally desirous of receiving a supply voltage at all times of day and night which is high enough to ensure satisfactory operation of television sets. 3. represents a significant source of unreliability. it must not be so high when the system is unloaded as to give rise to damaging over voltages on. Losses will vary with tap position. hence the cooler provided must be large enough to cater for maximum possible loss. There will inevitably be some conditions when parts of windings are not in use. particularly if of the on-load type. personal computers. electrolytic plants. the use of tappings should be avoided and. to allow for the condition when it might be increased. transformers having on-load tapchangers are used in the provision of supplies to arc furnaces. leading to less than ideal electromagnetic balance within the transformer which in turn results in increased unbalanced forces in the event of close-up faults. However. One of the main requirements of any electrical system is that it should provide a voltage to the user which remains within closely defined limits regardless of the loading on the system. washing machines and the like. the extent of the tapping range and the number of taps should be restricted to the minimum. the supply voltage must be high enough to ensure satisfactory starting of large motor drives. but not so high as to shorten the life of filament lighting.extent of the tapping range specified. The increased number of leads within the transformer increases complexity and possibility of internal faults. The transformer impedance will vary with tap position so that system design must allow for this. sensitive electronic equipment. in particular. The tapchanger itself. In industry. 4. Their use almost invariably leads to some variation of flux density in operation so that the design flux density must be lower than the optimum. 6. and despite the reservations concerning the use of tapchangers expressed above. therefore. transformers without taps are simpler. which will vary greatly from conditions of light load to full load. . therefore. many of the transformers within the public supply network must be provided with on-load tapchangers without which the economic design of the network would be near to impossible. The following represent some of the disadvantages of the use of tappings on transformers: 1. 5. for example. chemical manufacturing processes and the like. cheaper and more reliable. In this situation. The presence of tappings increases the cost and complexity of the transformer and also reduces the reliability. Whenever possible. which is often the first equipment to fail if the supply voltage is excessive. Some industrial processes will not operate correctly if the supply voltage is not high enough and some of these may even be protected by under voltage relays which will shut down the process should the voltage become too low.

This cannot be achieved without the ability to change taps on load. The subject is fairly complex and will be described in more detail in Section 1 of Chapter 7 which deals specifically with generator transformers. However. which will vary due to several factors. in addition to the requirement of the generator to produce megawatts. Generation of VArs will be effected by tapping-up on the generator transformer.Figure 4. system conditions and required power transfer. typically.40 shows. Variation of the ratio of transformation cannot therefore be easily arranged since adding or removing tapping turns at the neutral end changes the number of turns in both windings. increasing the number of HV turns for a given 400 kV system voltage. This mode of operation leads to variation in flux density which must be taken into account when designing the transformer. for example. the transformations which might appear on a section of public electricity supply network from the generating station to the user. to a 400 kV system which normally may vary independently by ±5% and up to +10% for up to 15 minutes. that is. in the case of a 400/132 kV autotransformer it were required to maintain volts per turn and consequently 132 kV output voltage constant for a 10% increase . although voltage levels may differ to some degree. The generator transformer is used to connect the generator whose voltage is probably maintained within ±5% of nominal. If. The voltage levels and stages in the distribution are those used in the UK but. 275 and 132 kV systems are most likely to be auto connected. for example time of day. according to the system conditions. there may also be a requirement to generate or absorb VArs. the arrangement is similar to that used in many countries throughout the world. Absorption of VArs will occur if the transformer is tapped down. Interbus transformers interconnecting 400.

Most practical schemes therefore utilize the latter arrangement. as explained below. Hence 275/33 kV and the more usual 132/33 kV bulk supplies transformers must have tapchangers. But this would be equivalent to 10 x 400/132 = 30. In the UK the 400 kV system is normally maintained within ±5% of its nominal value. i. Alternatively these transformers may be used without tapchangers thereby avoiding the high cost of the tapchanger itself as well as all the other disadvantages associated with tapchangers identified above. it is necessary to provide a tapping range extending to lower than -10%. The former alternative requires the tapchanger to be insulated for 400 kV working but maintains flux density constant for 400 kV system voltage variations. If the transformers interconnecting with the 275 and 132 kV systems are not provided with taps then the variation of these systems will be greater than this because of the regulation within the interbus transformers.2% of the total turns. Since 10% additional volts applied to 17. The 275 and 132 kV systems are thus normally maintained to within ±10% of nominal.3% additional turns in the 132 kV winding which would increase its output from 132 to 172 kV. but still results in some flux density variation.2% fewer turns would result in about 33% increase in flux density this would require a very low flux density at the normal condition to avoid approaching saturation under overvoltage conditions. the latter allows the tapchanger to operate at a more modest 132 kV. so it is common for these transformers to have tapping ranges of +10% to -20%. Tappings must therefore be provided either at the 400 kV line end or at the 132 kV common point as shown in Figure 4.in 400 kV system voltage then the additional turns required to be added to the common winding would be 10% of the total. in addition. these transformers are required to boost the 33 kV system volts at times of heavy loading on the system as described in Chapter 2.41. which allow for this condition. which would result in a very uneconomical design. The ‘cost’ of this simplification of the transformer is some slightly reduced flexibility in the operation of the 275 and 132 kV systems but this can be compensated for by the tappings on the 275/33 or 132/33 kV transformers. If.e. This runs counter . to maintain a constant 132 kV output from this winding would require the removal of about 17. when the 275 or 132 kV system voltage is less than nominal. In fact.

identified earlier. Clearly tappings at the earthed neutral point of a star-connected 275 or 132 kV winding are likely to be more reliable and less costly than those operating at the 275 or 132 kV line end of a 400/275 or 132 kV interbus transformer.to the aim of limiting the extent of the tapping range for high reliability in transformers. but represents another of the complexities resulting from the reduced system flexibility caused by omitting tappings on the 400/132 kV transformers. however. The greater degree of control which can be maintained over the 33 kV system voltage compared with that for the 132 kV system means that 33/11 kV transformers normally need to be provided with tapping ranges of only ±10%. the HV taps can still be used as a means of boosting the LV output voltage to compensate for system . As in the case of 132/33 kV transformers.

. This arrangement enables the voltage ratio to be adjusted to suit the local system conditions. usually at ±2. These small low-cost units do not warrant the expense and complexity of on-load tapchangers and are thus normally provided with off-circuit taps. normally have a rating of 1600 kVA or less. i. for example. necessitate this. providing the 11/0. usually when the transformer is initially placed into service. The final transformers in the network.e. at no load and with nominal voltage applied to the HV the output voltage is higher than nominal LV system volts.5 kV.voltage regulation. although the facility enables adjustments to be made at a later date should changes to the local system loading. In this case this is usually achieved by the use of an open circuit voltage ratio of 33/11.5% and ±5%.433 kV transformation.