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all the discipline of knowledge, leading to industrial and technological growth. In other words nano-sized structure needs to be magnified over 10 million times before we can easily appreciate its fine detail with the naked eye. Nanotechnology is already having its impact on products as diverse as novel foods, medical devices, chemical coatings, personal health testing kits, sensors for security systems, water purification units for manned space craft, displays for hand-held computer games, and high-resolution cinema screens. Nanotechnology is expected to have an impact on nearly every industry. The U.S. National Science Foundation has predicted that the global market for nanotechnologies will reach $1 trillion or more within 20 years. WHAT IS NANO TECHNOLOGY? Nanotechnology is a catch-all phrase for materials and devices that operate at the nanoscale. In the metric system of measurement, "Nano" equals a billionth and therefore a nanometer is one-billionth of a meter. References to nano materials, nanoelectronics, nano devices and nanopowders simply mean the material or activity can be measured in nanometers. To appreciate the size, a human red blood cell is over 2,000 nanometers long, virtually outside the nanoscale range! Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science that has its roots in fields such as colloidal science,device physics and supramolecular chemistry. NANOTECHNOLOGY is a fundamental, enabling technology, allowing us to do new things in almost every conceivable technological discipline. Nano means small (10^-9 m) but of high potency, and emerging with large applications piercing through all the discipline of knowledge, leading to industrial and technological growth. As the prefix nano indicates extreme smallness. So small, in fact, that a nano-sized structure needs to be magnified over 10 million times before we can easily appreciate its fine detail with the naked eye. Nanotechnology refers to technologies in which matter is manipulated on the atomic and molecular scale to create novel materials and processes. It is not just the study of the very small; it is the practical application of that knowledge. There are two main routes of entry to the nano-world: Molecular manufacturing involves the manipulation of individual atoms (working from the bottom up); and ultra-miniaturization results in smaller and smaller devices (building from the top down). 1.1 Its Applications Nanotechnology and its development is defined by key policy makers, as the development of nanotechnology as the latest mega trend in science and engineering which will bring a wave of radical innovation and perhaps, because of its potentially broad impact, spark new industrial revolution in various application areas1.Areas of applications include immediate impact - drug delivery to treat tumor, cancer (without using radiotherapy & chemotherapy), solar energy, batteries, display technologies, opto-electronic devices, semiconductor devices
Under the motto 'how to make use of the intrinsic properties of molecules for doing calculations'.Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science that has its roots in fields such as colloidal science. Benefits includes . These range from car tires and sports equipment to electronics.. current tests are both expensive and time-consuming. These will become fully automated diagnostic systems able to detect defective CF genes quicker and more cheaply. leading to an imbalance of charges that creates bolts of nano-lightning. but at significantly smaller size-scales. NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY Combining nanoscale engineering with biology to manipulate either living systems or to build biologically inspired materials at the molecular level. They could also be adapted for the diagnosis of any genetic disease. clothing and cosmetics as mentioned earlier. NAN WORLD Three major sectors are listed as below: y y y Nanoelectronics Nanobiotechnology Nanomaterials. the new technique generates electrically charged atoms that ionize the air. NANOELECTRONICS Continuing the development in microelectronics. MYTHS ABOUT NANOTECHNOLOGY Consumers must fully understand nanotechnology to have opinions and attitudes towards it. can be confirmed by genetic testing. Nanotechnology is a Science Project whose commercial products will emerge some years in the future. and luminous paints. Using electrodes placed close to one another on a computer chip.in nanoelectronics. which is opposed to current thinking of 'how to mimic transistors with molecules'. biosensors. a debilitating lung disease. In fact there are currently more than 370 products on the market utilizing nanotechnology. the BUN project is synthesizing and studying designer molecules to be used as future mono-molecular devices. catalysis. CNT's etc. especially for computers.1.device physics and supramolecular chemistry. 1.1 Detecting Disease Quicker Although cystic fibrosis (CF). Future information processing devices may possibly require a paradigm shift in the way calculations are made. nanocomposites such as Al2O3 oxides. A European Commission project is developing improved and very high throughput test methods using a DNA chip format.
nanotechnology will have a significant impact. There are many other future applications of nanotechnology and more possibilities will come to light as it is developed further. When the sun shines on these windows. will spread evenly over the panel and wash away the broken down dirt. a chemical reaction is triggered which breaks down dirt. instead of forming droplets. impermeable to liquid. Bouncy tennis balls are coated in nanosized material. nanotechnology may be used to build artificial muscle and 'lab on a chip' technology will develop more efficient drug discovery processes. Critics of nanotechnology insist that a strict regulatory system should be introduced to ensure risks are minimised and it is the government's responsibility to ensure that procedures are put in place to ensure that this happens. New nanomaterials will mean that computers will have a much longer life. NANOMATERIALS Precisely controlling the morphology at nanoscale dimensions of substances or particles to produce nanostructure materials. In the future nanotechnology will be used to tackle environmental problems. nanometer sized solar cells could be developed to provide much of the energy needed around the world and nanomaterials will increase the efficiency of fuel cells and batteries. A molecular barrier is formed by the tiny particles that trap air molecules making the balls extra bouncy. This makes lotions transparent and smooth as opposed to sticky and white which will therefore make it more appealing to the consumer. binding the tiny fibres to the cotton threads. the nano-scale resolution microscopes. The cotton is then dried in an oven. Further ahead. The thickness of this layer is controlled at the nanoscale. For the environment and energy. Self cleaning windows are coated with a material which has unique chemical properties. In health care and medicine biological nanosensors are being developed in the next 5 years and will be used for fast and accurate diagnostics. Nanotechnology offers major opportunities for the UK economy and it is key that it is allowed to thrive. Stain repellent fabrics are made by immersing rolls of woven cotton fabric in liquids containing trillions of nanotech fibres. Rain. building upon the countries excellence in its science and technology base. The cotton appears to be unchanged but is. . New 'green' processing technologies will minimise the generation of undesirable by-product effluents by curbing emissions. in fact. nanotechnology will allow the construction of smaller circuits and computers.In the area of nanoelectronics and computer technology. For instance. Smaller circuits will run faster enabling far greater computer speeds. Future The possibilities seem endless. A laptop computer could therefore have its efficiency increased by millions living longer and working faster to give far better value for money.y y y y Sunscreens which use nanosized zinc oxide particles to absorb and reflect UV rays. Encompassing all these overlapping fields are the tools used to measure and manipulate ultra small structures.
The Department of Science & Technology (DST) assessed the importance of this emerging. electronics. the Department of Science and Technology. Government of India's Nanomaterials Science and Technology Initiative (NSTI). New materials are the foundation of major technological advances. are evolving. engineering.S. academia. of India. Education and training in nanotechnology is supported by the Commission via a system of Research Training Networks. metals. multilateral or regional framework. primarily in the fields of science and technology with specific focus on areas of common interest. 2. 1: Future Information Processing Nanotechnology researchers inside the European Union and worldwide. and biomaterials. without this new approach. polymers. has been encouraging tremendous thrust on Nonmaterial. This has been achieved through a systematic attempt in promoting interaction between governments. This powerful combination of materials science and biotechnology will create entirely new processes and industries and put India among the world leaders thus leads to a nanotechnological revolution. and bionanotechnology.Considering the importance of research and development of this new frontier area. as well as strong collaboration across traditional scientific borders between Fig. Nan electronics. As the paper unveils the commercial application of nanotechnology. The research community is actively pursuing hundreds of applications in Nan materials. Nanotechnology affects all materials: ceramics. The Indo-US joint forum on Science and Technology has identified this area of research for intense cooperation.These advances are providing the means for nanotechnology to progress and for researchers to expand their expertise into new application fields. institutions and industries. materials sciences. biotechnology and environmental science. National Science Foundation has predicted that the global market for nanotechnologies will reach $1 trillion or more within 20 years. Hence a clear perceptive will give clarity to . as applicable. combining nanotechnologies. The decision of the consumer whether to accept it or reject it remains vital to the future of Nan technological industry and in pace with the world economy. IT and communications technology making previous technology redundant and leading to applications which could not have been developed or even thought about. information technologies. with activities aimed towards generating mutual benefit. highly interdisciplinary field and launched a national programme titled 'Nan science & Technology Initiative (NSTI)' Nanotechnology is expected to have an impact on nearly every industry. The U. In the coming decade nanotechnology will have an enormous impact. Future advances could change our approaches to manufacturing. Govt. New hybrid technologies.0 CONCLUSION The Department of Science & Technology is vested with the mandate to identify. Nanotechnology has the potential to change every part of our lives. facilitate and promote international cooperation in the emerging and frontier areas of science and technology under a bilateral. This evolution requires such multidisciplinary networks over a wide range of research areas. the consumer may appreciate the potential behind it.
.the consumers to make the right decision in terms of accepting what technology that nano offers.
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