D5W (Dextrose 5%) Class Water solution and carbohydrate source

Pharmacological Effects 1. Provides calories for some metabolic needs. Each 100 mL provides 5 gm of Dextrose. Depending on the presence of insulin, glucose enters cells and is broken down to pyruvate. With adequate oxygen, it enters the Kreb's cycle in the mitochondria and is converted into energy (A.T.P.), CO2 and H2O. The brain and gonads do not require insulin for glucose metabolism. 2. Supplies body water for hydration. 3. Spares body protein by providing carbohydrate for metabolism. 4. Osmolarity of D5W is 252 mOsm/L. The fluid is isotonic when in the container. After administration, the dextrose is quickly metabolized in the body, leaving only water - a hypotonic fluid. 5. The pH range is 3.5 - 6.5. 6. Capable of producing diuresis depending on clinical state of the patient.

Uses 1. Adult I.V. solution to keep vein open. 2. Vehicle for mixing medications for I.V. delivery for all age groups. 3. It may be the primary adult I.V. fluid for medical emergencies, though many services use only L.R. or N.S.

Duration of Action 1. Glucose use depends on metabolic rate. It is stored in the liver and muscle as glycogen. 2. Water use depends on clinical state of patient, body temperature and renal function. Excreted through the skin, lungs, and kidney.

Side Effects 1. Hyperglycemia. 2. Fluid overload.

Contraindications 1. Patients at risk for increased I.C.P. 2. Patients who have an acute neurological dysfunction. 3. Hypovolemic states. 4. Patients at risk for third-space fluid shifts. 5. Elevated blood glucose concentrations.

Precautions/Information 1. Since the tonicity is low, avoid using in head injury patients. 2. Use sterile technique in venipuncture and equipment assembly, with all venipunctures 3. Do not administer quantity in excess of that required to keep vein open or administer appropriate dose of medication. 4. Do not use solution if outdated, cloudy or the seal is not intact, as with all IV solutions. 5. Monitor E.C.G. continuously. 6. Monitor blood pressure, pulse rate and respiratory rate frequently.

Definition
By Mayo Clinic staff

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) refers to a group of lung diseases that block airflow and make it increasingly difficult for you to breathe.

See your doctor regularly. a condition in which stomach acid or. Clear your airways. Talk to your doctor if you have frequent heartburn. http://www. but COPD can also refer to damage caused by chronic asthmatic bronchitis. Also be sure to discuss breathing positions and relaxation techniques that you can use when you're short of breath. drinking plenty of water and using a humidifier may help. If you're underweight. especially during times of exertion. Eat healthy foods. A healthy diet can help you maintain your strength. In addition to quitting smoking. bile flows back into your food pipe (esophagus). Exercise regularly. Pay attention to frequent heartburn. Constant heartburn can indicate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). but regular exercise can improve your overall strength and endurance and strengthen your respiratory muscles. it's important to avoid places where others smoke. you can take steps to feel better and slow the damage to your lungs: y y y y y y y Control your breathing. even if you're feeling fine. your doctor may recommend nutritional supplements.mayoclinic. occasionally. damage to your airways eventually interferes with the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your lungs. If you're overweight. Lifestyle and home remedies If you have COPD. Avoid smoke. Most COPD is caused by long-term smoking and can be prevented by not smoking or quitting soon after you start. Talk to your doctor or respiratory therapist about techniques for breathing more efficiently throughout the day. but treatments for GERD can help. mucus tends to collect in your air passages and can be difficult to clear. It may seem difficult to exercise when you have trouble breathing. In all cases. In COPD. Stick to your appointment schedule. It's important to steadily monitor your lung function. losing weight can significantly help your breathing. so treatment focuses on controlling symptoms and minimizing further damage. This constant backwash of acid can aggravate COPD.Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are the two main conditions that make up COPD.com/health/copd/DS00916/DSECTION=lifestyle-and-home-remedies Tests and diagnosis Spirometer . Controlled coughing. COPD is a leading cause of death and illness worldwide. Damage to your lungs can't be reversed. Secondhand smoke may contribute to further lung damage.

This machine measures how much air your lungs can hold and how fast you can blow the air out of your lungs.mayoclinic. This condition is a severe form of acid reflux the backflow of acid and other stomach contents into your esophagus.If you have symptoms of COPD and a history of exposure to lung irritants ² especially cigarette smoke ² your doctor may recommend these tests: y y y y y Pulmonary function tests. During this test. Spirometry can detect COPD even before you have symptoms of the disease. the greater your risk. Genetics. A rare genetic disorder known as alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the source of a few cases of COPD. An X-ray can also rule out other lung problems or heart failure. Pipe smokers. It can also be used to track the progression of disease and to monitor how well treatment is working. Spirometry is the most common lung function test. A CT scan is an X-ray technique that produces moredetailed images of your internal organs than those produced by conventional X-rays. Analysis of the cells in your sputum can help identify the cause of your lung problems and help rule out some lung cancers. The more years you smoke and the more packs you smoke.com/health/copd/DS00916/DSECTION=tests-and-diagnosis Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Risk factors for COPD include: y y y y y Exposure to tobacco smoke. Chest X-ray. COPD develops slowly over years. you'll be asked to blow into a large tube connected to a spirometer. vapors and dusts can irritate and inflame your lungs. Sputum examination. Arterial blood gas analysis. cigar smokers and people exposed to large amounts of secondhand smoke also are at risk. http://www. Long-term exposure to chemical fumes. A CT scan of your lungs can help detect emphysema and help determine if you might benefit from surgery for COPD. Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals. The most significant risk factor for COPD is long-term cigarette smoking. Symptoms of COPD usually appear about 10 years after you start smoking. Age. This blood test measures how well your lungs are bringing oxygen into your blood and removing carbon dioxide. http://www. A chest X-ray can show emphysema one of the main causes of COPD. so most people are at least 40 years old when symptoms begin.com/health/copd/DS00916/DSECTION=risk-factors DUAVENT Classification .mayoclinic. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Researchers suspect that other genetic factors may also make certain smokers more susceptible to the disease. GERD can make COPD worse and may even cause it in some people. Computerized tomography (CT) scan.

Salbutamol and other drugs for obstructive airway diseases . Belongs to the class of adrenergics and other inhalants used in the treatment of obstructive airway diseases .R03AK04 .