Color Psychology

How Colors Impact Moods, Feelings, and Behaviors

Color Psychology Colors, like features, follow the changes of the emotions. - Pablo Picasso

What Is Color?
In 1666, English scientist Sir Isaac Newton discovered that when pure white light passes through a prism, it separates into all of the visible colors. Newton also found that each color is made up of a single wavelength and cannot be separated any further into other colors. Further experiments demonstrated that light could be combined to form other colors. For example, red light mixed with yellow light creates an orange color. A color resulting from a mix of two other colors is known as a metamer. Some colors, such as yellow and purple, cancel each other out when mixed and result in a white light. These competing colors are known as complements.

Color Psychology - The Psychological Effects of Color
While perceptions of color are somewhat subjective, there are some color effects that have universal meaning. Colors in the red area of the color spectrum are known as warm colors and include red, orange and yellow. These warm colors evoke emotions ranging from feelings of warmth and comfort to feelings of anger and hostility. Colors on the blue side of the spectrum are known as cool colors and include blue, purple and green. These colors are often described as calm, but can also call to mind feelings of sadness or indifference.

Color Psychology as Therapy
Several ancient cultures, including the Egyptians and Chinese, practiced chromotherapy, or using colors to heal. Chromotherapy is sometimes referred to as light therapy or colourology and is still used today as a holistic or alternative treatment.

In this treatment:
y

Red was used to stimulate the body and mind and to increase circulation.

y

Yellow was thought to stimulate the nerves and purify the body.

y

Orange was used to heal the lungs and to increase energy levels.

y

Blue was believed to soothe illnesses and treat pain.

y

Indigo shades were thought to alleviate skin problems.

Most psychologists view color therapy with skepticism and point out that the supposed effects of color have been exaggerated. Colors also have different meanings in different cultures. Research has demonstrated in many cases that the mood-altering effects of color may only be temporary. A blue room may initially cause feelings of calm, but the effect dissipates after a short period of time.

Color Psychology
A very important aspect of our visual experience is color. The previous section on color described the color sensing mechanisms of the eye and brain. Yet the nervous impulses of the color channel don't only go to the brain. Some pulses travel to the pituitaryand pineal glands through the hypothalamusIt is logical to assume that what we see, especially color, can affect the systems of the body. Psychologists and physiologists belive this to be true and are investigating exactly what each color can do to our bodies.

Red
Physiological Effect: Red has been shown to increase blood pressure and stimulate the adrenal glands. The stimulation of the adrenals glands helps us become strong and increases our stamina. Pink, a lighter shade of red, helps muscles relax. Psychological Effect: While red has proven to be a color of vitality and ambition it has been shown to be associated with anger. Sometimes red can be useful in dispelling negative thoughts, but it can also make one irritable. Pink has the opposite effect of red. Pink induces feelings of

often making us calmer.calm. Yellow builds self-confidence and encourages optimism. . Yet. Yellow Physiological Effect: Yellow has proven to stimulate the brain. Psychological Effect: Orange has shown to have only positive affects on your emotional state. This deeper blue also has proved to help the skeletal structure in keeping bone marrow healthy. lack of self-worth and unwillingness to forgive. warmth and nurture. Red is sometimes associated with sexuality. Some attribute this to its connection with nature and our natural feelings of affiliation with the natural world when experiencing the color green. Orange opens your emotions and is a terrific antidepressant. blue proves to lower blood pressure. protection. laziness. Blue Physiological Effect: In contrast to red. These olive green colors remind us of decay and death and can actually have a detrimental effect on physical and emotional health. a dull yellow can bring on feelings of fear. Yellow is a happy and uplifting color. It can also be associated with intellectual thinking: discernment. Deep blue stimulates the pituitary gland. This stimulation can make you more alert and decisive. Psychological Effect: Green creates feelings of comfort. clear thinking. decision-making and good judgment. Blue also has a very cooling and soothing affect. calmness. Blue can be linked to the throat and thyroid gland. However. It helps us balance and soothe our emotions. whereas pink is associated with unselfish love. relaxation. On a physical and emotional. darker and grayer greens can have the opposite effect. Psychological Effect: Similarly to Orange. Note that sickened cartoon characters always turned green. Green relaxes our muscles and helps us breathe deeper and slower. This color relieves feelings of self-pity. memory. This color can be used to lessen irritation and aggression as it is connected with feelings of love. green helps your heart bring you physical equilibrium and relaxation. Also aiding organization. it can be benefitial to the digestive system and can strengthen the immune system. understanding of different points of view. This color makes muscles more energetic and activates the lymph system. which then regulates our sleep patterns. Orange Physiological Effect: Orange has proven to be a stimulus of the sexual organs. Green Physiological Effect: Green is said to be good for you heart. Also.

this color is related to sensitivity to beauty. White can be used to give yourself a feeling of freedom and uncluttered openness. a lighter purple. These colors can be useful in eliminating insomnia. Violet has a cleansing effect with emotional disturbances. Psychic power and protection has also been associated with violet. Indigo. Lighter blues make us feel quite and away from the rush of the day. However. Like yellow. Violet is associated with bringing peace and combating shock and fear. Sometimes brown can also be associated with withholding emotion and retreating from the world. too much dark blue can be depressing. high ideals and stimulates creativity.Psychological Effect: We usually associate the color blue with the night and thus we feel relaxed and calmed. has been used by doctors in Texas as an anesthesia in minor operations because its narcotic <"A soothing or numbing agent. stimulating intuition and imagination. blue inspires mental control. clarity and creativity. Black Psychological Effect: While comforting and protective. Indigo is often associated with the right side of the brain. This color brings feelings of stability and security. spirituality and compassion.">qualities Psychological Effect: Purples have been used in the care of mental of nervous disorders because they have shown to help balance the mind and transform obsessions and fears. Too much white can give feelings of separation and can be cold and isolation. This color also suppresses hunger and balances the body's metabolism. Also. Black is passive and can prevent us from growing and changing. This color brings feelings of peace and comfort while it dispels shock and despair. black is mysterious and associated with silence and sometimes death. . White Psychological Effect: White is the color of ultimate purity. Purple Physiological Effect: Violet has shown to alleviate conditions such as sunburn due to its purifying and antiseptic effect. Brown Psychological Effect: Brown is the color of the earth and ultimately home.

tranquility. conservatism. blue symbolizes holiness. In China. stability. confidence. technology. cleanliness. and reduce appetite. These are important to keep in mind in order to create the mood you are seeking. sky. blue is associated with soap. unity. truth. security. trust. lack of involvement and ultimately loneliness. Note: Blue is often considered to be the safest global color. In the Middle East blue is a protective color. Dr. How do colors affect our moods? Color. and depression. although usually thought of as a negative color. Below are some emotional associations that humans tend to have with certain colors. harmony. In Colombia. water. lower body temperature. without our realizing it. in his book The Power of Color. calm.Gray Psychological Effect: Gray is the color of independence and self-reliance. order. Morton Walker. Blue can "slow the pulse rate. cold. loyalty." Blue is considered a business color because it reflects reliability. can have a profound effect on how we feel both mentally and physically. Blue represents peace. suggested that the ancient Egyptians as well as the Native American Indians used color and colored light to heal. . It can be the color of evasion and non-commitment (since it is neither black nor white. For Hindus blue is the color of Krishna.) Gray indicates separation. For the Jews. blue is associated with immortality.

sophistication. mystery. good technical color. . In speech we say "Don't let a black cat cross your path". depth. style. underground. anger. of color. evil. wealth. anonymity. fear. It represents power.Black is the absence of light and therefore. remorse. unhappiness. formality. mourning and death. sadness. "Black Market" or "Black Monday". sexuality. evil. elegance.

pumpkins and Halloween. calms. vigor. It has luminous qualities and has been used for attention-getting purposes. inexperience. Orange brings up memories of fall leaves. envy. flamboyancy. Orange is considered a warm color like red. it is not a good color for packaging. misfortune. "Its cool quality soothes. fertility. jealousy. In China. vibrance. one of most-often cited favorite colors. but to a lesser extent. environment. In France studies have indicated green is not a good color choice for packaging either. youth. . health. and has great healing powers. It symbolizes balance. warmth.Green. Orange is a combination of yellow and red. enthusiasm." It is often worn in operating rooms by surgeons. In some tropical countries green is associated with danger. In Ireland green has religious significance (Catholic). and is demanding of attention. good luck. renewal. orange expresses energy. In India green is the color of Islam. spring. It represents nature. In Ireland orange has religious significance (Protestant). green hats mean a man's wife is cheating on him. such as on caution signs. generosity.

spirituality. arrogance. anger. cruelty. Today purple is a trendy color targeting creative types. Scott Lowe and his sports car. danger. prisons or a hospital. raise blood pressure and make the heart beat faster. transformation. ceremony. Red can evoke a fight-or-flight response. We associate red with love. It required thousands of snails to yield 1 gram of dye causing it to be a color only nobles could afford. wisdom. mystery. speed. violence. . Fall 2001 Red is the color that we pay the most attention to. valentines. nobility. emergency exit signs. Purple dye was made from the mucous gland of a snail. Digital image taken of Dr.Purple represents royalty. desire. stop signs and blood. It is the warmest and most energic color in the spectrum. enlightenment. Purple is considered an exotic color. Red would not be the color of choice for psychiatric wards. strength. mourning.

humility. In Asia yellow is sacred. innocence. . The yellow rose is a symbol of friendship. cleanliness. Digital image of sunflower Summer 2001 Yellow represents joy. White is what we see when all colors come together in perfect balance. summer. It represents reverence. hazard. deceit. idealism. covetousness. jealousy. illness. used in many cultural ceremonies that range from funerals to weddings. happiness. In India red is the color of purity (used in wedding outfits). gold. snow. betrayal. good. and imperial." We associate white with the good guy in old western movies. hope.In China red symbolizes celebration and luck. cowardice. In eastern cultures white symbolizes coldness and sterility. optimism. philosophy. and marriage. youth. precision. sunshine. In Japan. sterility. simplicity. purity. dishonesty. white carnations signify death. less passionate or threatening than red ones. spirtuality and inspiration. imagination. We use white in figures of speech like "pure as the driven snow" or "a white lie. peace. winter. birth.

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University of Virginia. and shows that among all patterns of the same length. Vikram K Jaswal Department of Psychology. ³She¶s not THAT great!´ http://www. Cogn Psychol. Bob. People tend to think that streaks in random sequential events are rare and remarkable. Dellinger is represented by the Greater Talent Network (GTN) of New York and Miami (1800-326-4211).Dr.O. She resides in Tampa. 102 Gilmer Hall. P. Charlottesville. The waiting time statistics may provide a quantitative measure to the psychological distance when people are expecting a probabilistic event. The present paper examines the time of pattern occurrences in sequences of Bernoulli trials. United States. Dr. TX. they tend to consider the underlying process as non-random. USA. Hongbin Wang University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.psychogeometrics.php cognitive psychology Cogn Psychol. 2010 Aug 19. In the words of Dr. VA 22904-4400. Yanlong Sun.com/aboutdrsusan. Florida with husband and seventh grade sweetheart. Houston. 2010 Jul 21. It is argued that when time is of essence. how often a pattern is to occur (mean time. We discuss some of the recent empirical findings and suggest that people's judgment and generation of random sequences may be guided by their actual experiences of the waiting time statistics. Bob. or.: 20650449 Believing what you're told: Young children's trust in unexpected testimony about the physical world. frequency) and when a pattern is to first occur (waiting time) are different questions and bear different psychological relevance. a streak is the most delayed pattern for its first occurrence.: 20728080 Perception of randomness: On the time of streaks. When they actually encounter streaks. and such measure is consistent with both of the representativeness and availability heuristics in people's perception of randomness. . Box 400400.

: 20638053 Effects of generic language on category content and structure. and for the acquisition of essentialized categories. University of Leicester.. or no-label (e. four-year-olds and adults learned a series of facts about a novel animal category. Leicester LE1 7RH. Felicia Kleinberg Department of Psychology. though the effects were weaker and required more extensive input. As predicted. We hypothesized that generic noun phrases ("Bears climb trees") would provide important input to children's developing concepts. specific-label (e. 2010 Jul 15. Andrew M Colman.g. Together. 2010 Jul 2. and the extent to which they treated the category as constituting an essentialized kind.. Thirty-month-olds believed testimony that conflicted with a naive bias (Study 1). 530 Church St. these studies demonstrate that toddlers have a robust bias to trust even surprising testimony. Children responded more skeptically if they could see that the testimony was wrong as it was being delivered (Study 3). United States. and they also repeatedly trusted testimony that conflicted with an event they had just seen (Study 2)-even when they had an incentive to ignore the testimony (Study 3). Children also showed effects of generic wording. . Ali Al-Nowaihi School of Psychology. or if they had the opportunity to accumulate evidence confirming their initial belief before hearing someone contradict it (Study 4). David Omtzigt. in one of three wording conditions: generic (e. for adults. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor.g.: 20599192 Learning to cooperate without awareness in multiplayer minimal social situations. Briony D Pulford.. In three experiments."This zarpie hates ice cream")."This hates ice cream"). We discuss the implications for language-thought relations. Elizabeth A Ware. Cogn Psychol. United Kingdom."Zarpies hate ice cream"). generics training resulted in tighter category-property links and more category essentialism than both the specific-label and no-label training. Susan A Gelman.How do children resolve conflicts between a self-generated belief and what they are told? Four studies investigated the circumstances under which toddlers would trust testimony that conflicted with their expectations about the physical world. MI 48109-1043. Cogn Psychol.g. Participants completed a battery of tasks assessing the extent to which they linked the category to the properties expressed.. but this trust can be influenced by how much confidence they have in their initial belief.

In this paper. and recommend an alternative approach based on the idea that some study events remind learners of other study events. The bottleneck in such theories lies in the assumption that mnemonic benefits arise from the increasing independence. . rather than interdependence. even when players were informed that they were interacting strategically and were allowed to communicate with one another but were not aware of the game's payoff structure. The advantages provided to memory by the distribution of multiple practice or study opportunities are among the most powerful effects in memory research. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. lose-shift decision rule.: 20580350 What makes distributed practice effective? Aaron S Benjamin. The reminding model accounts for many basic results in the literature on distributed practice. readily handles data that are problematic for encoding variability theories. Encoding variability theory encounters serious challenges in two important phenomena that we review here: superadditivity and nonmonotonicity. learning occurred slowly over 200 rounds in a dyadic minimal social situation but not in multiplayer groups. learning occurred rarely in multiplayer groups. In Experiments 2-4. Jonathan Tullis Department of Psychology and the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology. 2010 Jun 25. United States. In Experiment 1. of study opportunities.: 20573342 Word segmentation with universal prosodic cues. including superadditivity and nonmonotonicity. Cogn Psychol. 2010 Jun 21. and provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding the effects of repetition and the effects of associative relationships on memory. Cogn Psychol.Experimental and Monte Carlo methods were used to test theoretical predictions about adaptive learning of cooperative responses without awareness in minimal social situations-games in which the payoffs to players depend not on their own actions but exclusively on the actions of other group members. Monte Carlo simulation suggested that players approach minimal social situations using a noisy version of the win-stay. we critically review the class of theories that presume contextual or encoding variability as the sole basis for the advantages of distributed practice. deviating from the deterministic rule less frequently after rewarding than unrewarding rounds.

In both artificial and natural speech. USA. 2010 May 27. like beads on a string. these language-invariant prosodic cues provide a universally accessible mechanism for finding words in connected speech. Harvard University. This contrast reveals that there are language-specific cues to segmentation. Further. The present paper tests three theories of reorientation: a snapshot theory based on visual image-matching computations. United States. Sang Ah Lee. Cogn Psychol. cognitive accounts of this ability vary. however. as if there was only one bead on the same string. These cues may enable infants to start acquiring words in any language even before they are fine-tuned to the sound structure of their native language. we approach the acquisition problem by asking whether there are language-independent cues to segmentation that might be available to even adult learners who have already acquired a native language. readily recognized words in natural languages with critically different prosodic patterns. Cambridge. MA. is that infants must be endowed with a language-independent mechanism for segmentation.: 20570252 A modular geometric mechanism for reorientation in children. they carry universal prosodic characteristics. even though languages differ in their sound structures. including French. an adaptive combination theory proposing that diverse environmental cues to orientation are weighted according to their experienced reliability. Turkish and Hungarian. We show that adult learners recognize words in connected speech when only prosodic cues to word-boundaries are given from languages unfamiliar to the participants. motion. Seven experiments test these theories by manipulating four properties of objects placed within a cylindrical space: their size. in contrast. dimensionality. adult English speakers. and distance from the space's borders. When listening to a foreign language. and a modular theory centering on encapsulated computations of the shape of the extended surface layout. We suggest that. Elizabeth S Spelke Harvard University. Marc D Hauser Department of Psychology. with no prior exposure to the test languages. Although disoriented young children reorient themselves in relation to the shape of the surrounding surface layout. words seem almost impossible to extract. 2010 Jun 4.: 20553763 . and a beacon-guidance process based on the local features of objects and surface markings. The puzzle. Cogn Psychol. Their findings support the modular theory and suggest that disoriented search behavior centers on two processes: a reorientation process based on the geometry of the 3D surface layout. as they ultimately solve the segmentation problem for any native language.Ansgar D Endress. words seem to be well separated from one another. Here. When listening to speech from one's native language.

1503 E. Less is known. with research illustrating that both initial impressions and previous interactions impact the amount of trust people place in a partner. 2010 May 27. United States. The experiments varied the nature of the effect (motion vs. MA 02138. in terms of how much money players were willing to entrust to their partner and also in their post-game subjective ratings of trustworthiness. William James Hall. Luke J Chang.Seeing is believing: Trustworthiness as a dynamic belief. Infants were habituated to events in which a potential causal agent moved behind a screen. Paul Muentener. novel intentional agent). United States. These results suggest that trustworthiness is a belief about probability of reciprocation based initially on implicit judgments. and infants observed full events in which the potential agent either did or did not contact the box (contact vs. Recent efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying human cooperation have focused on the notion of trust. Michael J Frank. Tucson. after which a box partially visible on the other side of the screen underwent some change (motion or state change). AZ 85721. Both the nature of the effect and the nature of the possible agent influenced the likelihood of causal attribution. To further understand this interaction. hand. and then dynamically updated based on experiences. however. University Blvd. Mascha van 't Wout. University of Arizona. Alan G Sanfey Department of Psychology. Cambridge. Consistent with our hypotheses. The events involving motion of the patient replicated previous studies of infants' representations of . state change) and the nature of the possible causal agent (train. After habituation the screen was removed. Five experiments extended studies of infants' causal representations of Michottian launching events to 8-month-olds' causal representations of physical state changes. Infants were credited with causal representations of the events if their attention was drawn both to gap events in which the effect nonetheless occurred and to events with contact in which the effect did not happen. This study provides a novel quantitative framework to conceptualize the notion of trustworthiness. Bradley B Doll. gap events). Susan Carey Department of Psychology. Harvard University. about how these two types of information interact in iterated exchanges. Cogn Psychol. these two factors reliably influence behavior both independently and synergistically. The present study examined how implicit initial trustworthiness information interacts with experienced trustworthiness in a repeated Trust Game.: 20553762 Infants' causal representations of state change events. we used Reinforcement Learning models to test several distinct processing hypotheses.

CDP++ also accounts for a number of novel effects specific to disyllabic words. In terms of database performance. Most words in English have more than one syllable. These data address early developing causal schemata. and therefore shows full backwards compatibility. a very large database of several thousand of words. yet the most influential computational models of reading aloud are restricted to processing monosyllabic words. CDP++ is therefore a notable example of the successful scaling-up of a connectionist model to a size that more realistically approximates the human lexical system. and learns to assign stress in exactly the same way as it learns to associate graphemes with phonemes. a new version of the Connectionist Dual Process model (Perry.: 20510406 Beyond single syllables: Large-scale modeling of reading aloud with the Connectionist Dual Process (CDP++) model. Swinburne University of Technology. 2007). CDP++ is able to simulate the monosyllabic benchmark effects its predecessor could. CDP++ is able to simulate the reading aloud of mono. Cogn Psychol. Conrad Perry. T Florian Jaeger . including the effects of stress regularity and syllable number.& Zorzi. infants attributed the cause of the box's physical state change to a hand and novel self-moving entity with eyes. Here. With its lexicon of over 32. Ziegler. but not to a toy train. Cogn Psychol. we present CDP++. Johannes C Ziegler.000 words.and disyllabic words and nonwords.Michottian launching events: the toy train was taken as the source of the boxes motion. Marco Zorzi Faculty of Life and Social Sciences. 2010 May 24. 2010 Apr 28. In contrast.: 20434141 Redundancy and reduction: Speakers manage syntactic information density. Australia. and bring new information to bear on theories of the origin of human causal cognition. CDP++ accounts for over 49% of the reaction time variance on items selected from the English Lexicon Project.

Marina Nespor . Josefa N S Pandeirada Purdue University. United States. Meliora Hall. it follows that production is probability-sensitive. 2010 Feb 26. Rochester. those present in ancestral environments. 2010 Mar 5. participants remembered information better after processing its relevance in an ancestral environment (the grasslands). rather than by adaptive problems faced more commonly in modern environments. despite the fact that all scenarios described similar fitness-relevant problems.: 20189553 Cognitive systems struggling for word order. Evolutionary psychologists often propose that humans carry around "stone-age" brains. Information density emerges as an important predictor of speakers' preferences during production. This prediction was examined in four experiments using the survival processing paradigm. Alan Langus. Cogn Psychol. Cogn Psychol. ambiguity avoidance. A principle of efficient language production based on information theoretic considerations is proposed: Uniform Information Density predicts that language production is affected by a preference to distribute information uniformly across the linguistic signal. along with a toolkit of cognitive adaptations designed originally to solve hunter-gatherer problems. These data suggest that our memory systems may be tuned to ancestral priorities. Department of Computer Science.Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences. NY 14627-0268. In each of the experiments.: 20206924 Adaptive memory: Ancestral priorities and the mnemonic value of survival processing. and dependency processing accounts. in which retention is tested after participants process information in terms of its relevance to fitness-based scenarios. in that speakers' preferences are affected by the contextual probability of syntactic structures. A single multilevel logit model analysis of naturally distributed data from a corpus of spontaneous speech is used to assess the effect of information density on complementizer thatmentioning. As information is defined in terms of probabilities. compared to a modern urban environment (a city). United States. Box 270268. James S Nairne. The merits of a corpus-based approach to the study of language production are discussed as well. This perspective predicts that optimal cognitive performance might sometimes be induced by ancestrally-based problems. while simultaneously evaluating the predictions of several influential alternative accounts: availability. University of Rochester. This prediction is tested against data from syntactic reduction.

where participants comprehended strings of prosodically flat words in their native language.g.International School of Advanced Studies-SISSA. and theoretical arguments. red car: Developing efficiency in online interpretation of adjective-noun phrases. Thirty-month-olds did not make incremental use of informative adjectives. Italy. stability of order. 2010 Feb 15.g. grammaticalization. indicates a syntactic preference for SVO. Using online processing measures. . The results of a fourth experiment. In the younger children. shows that the computational system of grammar prefers the orthogonal VerbObject orders. difficulty in integrating prenominal adjectives with the subsequent noun was associated with slower processing speed across conditions. Cogn Psychol. children's gaze patterns were monitored as they heard the familiar adjective-noun phrases (e. The reason for the prominence of SOV languages is not as clear. 2010 Feb 26. In two gesture-production experiments and one gesture comprehension experiment. we show that SOV emerges as the preferred constituent configuration in participants whose native languages (Italian and Turkish) have different word orders. Virginia A Marchman Department of Psychology. blue car paired with red car or red house) or uninformative (e. orienting more quickly to the target picture on informative-adjective trials than on control trials. blue car) in visual contexts where the adjective was either informative (e. Via Beirut 2-4. Thirty-six-month-olds processed adjective-noun phrases incrementally as adults do.: 20159653 Is early word-form processing stress-full? How natural variability supports recognition. Anne Fernald. CA 94305. These findings provide evidence that skill in putting color word knowledge to use in real-time language processing emerges gradually over the third year. 34014 Trieste. Kirsten Thorpe. Cogn Psychol. Stanford University. Evidence from language change. We investigate the cognitive bases of the two most common word orders in the world's languages: SOV (Subject-Object-Verb) and SVO. We argue that the grammatical diversity observed among the world's languages emerges from the struggle between individual cognitive systems trying to impose their preferred structure on human language. Two experiments investigated the development of fluency in interpreting adjective-noun phrases in 30and 36-month-old English-learning children. We propose that improvised communication does not rely on the computational system of grammar.g. blue car paired with blue house). and experienced disruption on trials when the two potential referents were identical in kind. United States.: 20189552 Blue car. Stanford.

Four experiments tested this explanation in a speeded category-matching task. 2010 Feb 4. Xing Tian. Stress of target words (emphatic and nonemphatic) was systematically varied across familiarization and recognition phases of four experiments. United States. the cues were repeated category labels (FRUIT-APPLE) and responses gradually slowed for the repeated category.5-month-old infants on their ability to detect familiarized bisyllabic words in fluent speech. although infants generally prefer listening to words produced with emphatic stress. How is the meaning of a word retrieved without interference from recently viewed words? The ROUSE theory of priming assumes a discounting process to reduce source confusion between subsequently presented words. Randomly mixed across the list. United States. CT 062691020. Results indicated that. Unit 1020. we then tested 7. University of Maryland. .: 20138261 Beyond the mental number line: A neural network model of number-space interactions.Heather Bortfeld. CT 06511. Storrs. Haskins Laboratories. Cogn Psychol. James L Morgan Department of Psychology. We first collected samples of mothers' infant-directed speech using a technique that induced multiple repetitions of target words. Using the headturn preference procedure. 406 Babbidge Road. All experiments used lists of 20 trials that presented a cue word for 1s followed by a target word. the cues were repeated exemplars in a word matching task (APPLE-APPLE) and responses again remained faster for the repeated category. this theory predicted a loss of association between the lexical item and meaning. we examined how mothers naturally stress words across multiple mentions in speech to their infants and how this marking influences infants' recognition of words in fluent speech. In Experiments 1a and 1b. In Experiment 2. In a series of studies. New Haven. 2010 Feb 13. 10 trials used cues drawn from the same category whereas the other 10 trials used cues from 10 other categories. Cogn Psychol. University of Connecticut. David E Huber Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Program. recognition was enhanced when the degree of emphatic stress at familiarization matched the degree of emphatic stress at recognition. Department of Psychology. MD 20742. the cues were nonrepeated exemplars (PEAR-APPLE) and responses remained faster for the repeated category.: 20156620 Testing an associative account of semantic satiation. USA. In Experiment 3. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers systematically alternated between emphatic and nonemphatic stress when talking to their infants. College Park. As applied to semantic satiation.

In the field of cognitive psychology. 2006. Gail McKoon Department of Psychology.& Giraux. 1993. 1018 WB Amsterdam.. The Ohio State University. cultural factors establish ties between them.Qi Chen. Bossini. which prefers the model with the highest average likelihood. Caessens.& Stevens. aging. but that instead spatial and numerical representations are separate. Department of Psychology.22@osu. Himanshu Kuriyal. ratcliff. and IQ in two-choice tasks. It is commonly assumed that there is an interaction between the representations of number and space (e. and flexibility. Cogn Psychol. Verguts. Cogn Psychol. United States. Verguts. Roger Ratcliff. the authors present computer simulations showing that a model incorporating this idea can account for data from a series of studies. One of the main problems with this Bayesian hypothesis test. generality. This is unfortunate. An alternative and arguably more appropriate measure of evidence is conveyed by a Bayesian hypothesis test.g.edu . 2003). 2010 May . typically ascribed to a mental number line. the p-value hypothesis test has established a stranglehold on statistical reporting. Tom Verguts Ghent University. Walsh. Columbus. Dehaene. Eric-Jan Wagenmakers. By extending earlier models (Gevers. 2005) based on this hypothesis. however. Raoul Grasman University of Amsterdam. Tom Lodewyckx. Reynvoet. Here we propose that spatial aspects are not inherent to number representations. however. The exact nature of this interaction has remained elusive.: 20064637 Bayesian hypothesis testing for psychologists: A tutorial on the Savage-Dickey method. Practical examples demonstrate the method's validity. These results suggest that number-space interactions are emergent properties resulting from the interaction between different brain areas. as the p-value provides at best a rough estimate of the evidence that the data provide for the presence of an experimental effect. Here we draw attention to the Savage-Dickey density ratio method. Anjali Thapar. a method that can be used to compute the result of a Bayesian hypothesis test for nested models and under certain plausible restrictions on the parameter priors. The Netherlands. is that it often requires relatively sophisticated numerical methods for its computation.& Fias.60 (3):127-57 19962693 Individual differences. 2010 Jan 9. Belgium. Roetersstraat 15. However. Fias. OH 43210.

2009 Oct 29. and response time distributions. that is. 60-74.: 19879560 A rational analysis of the effects of memory biases on serial reproduction. The experimental data. Many human interactions involve pieces of information being passed from one person to another. the finding that age and IQ have larger effects on slower responses than faster responses. Applying the model to individual subjects. the components of processing identified by the model for individuals correlated across tasks.pl/pmid/journal/Cogn%20Psychol . raising the question of how this process of information transmission is affected by the cognitive capacities of the agents involved. the evidence upon which decisions were based. were well explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model. The components of processing identified by the model were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 83 to 146) and age (college students. We formally analyze serial reproduction using a Bayesian model of reconstruction from memory. Thomas L Griffiths Department of Psychology. and 75-90 year olds). giving a general result characterizing the effect of memory biases on information transmission. accuracy. Declines in performance with age were not significantly different for low compared to high IQ subjects. the model's predictions and the data were examined for the "worst performance rule". recognition memory. correct and error response times. IQ but not age had large effects on the quality of the evidence that was obtained from a stimulus or memory. but suggested that serial reproduction could transform information in a way that reflected the biases inherent in memory. We then test the predictions of this account in four experiments using simple onedimensional stimuli.bioinfo. in which one person's reconstruction of a stimulus from memory becomes the stimulus seen by the next person. Berkeley. Bartlett (1932) explored the influence of memory biases on the "serial reproduction" of information. and lexical decision. http://lib. In addition. University of California. Cogn Psychol. These experiments were done using relatively uncontrolled stimuli. Our results provide theoretical and empirical justification for the idea that serial reproduction reflects memory biases.The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in three two-choice tasks: numerosity discrimination. United States. Jing Xu.