TIROS N

Tiros-N Credit: NASA

American earth weather satellite. 6 launches, 1978.10.13 (Tiros N) to 2002.06.24 (NOAA 17). Tiros N was part of the ongoing US series of polar-orbiting weather satellites. These were preceded by the TIROS series and the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series. These satellites made measurements of atmospheric temperature and humidity, surface temperature, cloud cover, water-ice-moisture boundaries, and space proton and electron fluxes. They could receive, process, and retransmit data from free-floating balloons, buoys, and remote automatic stations around the globe. These satellites were managed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and NASA was

responsible for developing and launching the spacecraft. The NOAA spacecraft used a letter designator (NOAA G) before launch, and received a numeric designator after reaching orbit. TIROS-N through NOAA-D were called the TIROS-N series. NOAA-E through NOAA-N were called the TIROS ATN series (Advanced TIROS N). NOAA-D was launched out of sequence and later became NOAA 12. The spacecraft were 3-axis stabilized, nadir pointing with control to 0.1 deg using reaction wheels. The TIROS-N series incorporated significant design heritage from DMSP. A hydrazine propulsion system was used for orbit maintenance. A single solar panel generated over 1 kW (EOL). NiCd batteries provided power during eclipse. The structure was an elongated 5-sided box constructed of aluminum and titanium. S-Band communications were used with NOAA/NESDIS ground stations located in Redwood City, CA; Wallops, VA; and Fairbanks, AK. Payloads included: UL>            AVCS (Advanced Vidicon Camera System) APT (Automatic Picture Transmission system) FPR (Flat Plate Radiometer) SPM (Solar Proton Monitor) VTPR (Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer) VHRR (Very High Resolution Radiometer) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) ASS (Atmospheric Sounding System) SEM (Space Environment Monitor) TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) TIP (TIROS Information Processor)

 MIR (Manipulated Information Rate processor)  CSU (Cross-Strap Unit). Gross mass: 1,416 kg (3,121 lb). Height: 3.70 m (12.10 ft). First date: 1978-10-13. Last date: 2002-06-24. Number: 6 .

Associated Launch Sites

Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More... Vandenberg SLC3W Delta, Atlas launch complex. First designated LC1-1 and used to launch Atlas Agena B with Samos payloads. After Samos cancellation, rebuilt in 1963 to support launch of KH-4 Corona spysats atop Thor-Agena. Refurbished in

.. The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system. . and then the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series. TIROS was followed by the TOS (TIROS Operational System) series. Atlas launch complex. From 1988 used to launch refurbished surplus Titan 2 ICBM's in space launch role.1973 to accomodate surplus Atlas ICBM's in space launch role.. • Vandenberg SLC4W Titan.. More... and later the NOAA series. Rebuilt in 1966 to handle Titan 3B with various military payloads. Associated Programs • Tiros TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. TIROS spacecraft were developed by GSFC and managed by ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration). More. More. First designated PALC2-3 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats.

It launched America's first astronaut into orbit. Titan American orbital launch vehicle.. More. Martin American manufacturer of rockets. was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful mediumlift commercial launch vehicle. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. the first probes to Venus. the first generations of spy satellites. USA. Mars. USA. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. USA. The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. USA. Astro Space American manufacturer of spacecraft. RCA. NOAA American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. and rocket engines. and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. CO. spacecraft. Astro Space. USA. and Saturn. USA. the first lunar orbiters and landers.. Martin Marietta Astronautics Group (1956). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. RCA American manufacturer of spacecraft. • • • • Associated Launch Vehicles • Atlas The Atlas rocket. Jupiter. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. Mercury. Denver. The • . originally developed as America's first ICBM.Associated Manufacturers and Agencies • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft.

.designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Final operational version of Atlas ICBM. Differed in guidance systems. • • • • Atlas The Atlas rocket. the ICBM's were refurbished and used for over thirty years as space launch vehicles. More... Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up .... Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. More. After retirement. originally developed as America's first ICBM. After retirement. Titan 2 American intercontinental ballistic missile. the first generations of spy satellites. Deployed as missiles from 1960 to 1966. Titan 2G American intercontinental ballistic orbital launch vehicle.More. the ICBM's were refurbished and used over twenty years as space launch vehicles. More.. More. ICBM. quickreaction system.the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. Atlas F American intercontinental ballistic missile. • Atlas E American intercontinental ballistic missile... was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful mediumlift commercial launch vehicle. Differed in guidance system from Atlas F.. obtained through minimal refurbishment of decommissioned ICBM's. Although conceived as a low-cost. Initial fully operational version of Atlas ICBM. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters. developed also as the launch vehicle for the manned Gemini spacecraft in the early 1960's. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. When the ICBM's were retired in the 1980's they were refurbished and a new series of launches began. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit. the Atlas V and Delta IV. . Deployed as missiles from 1961 to 1966. Space launch version.

It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters. quick-reaction system. More. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Mercury. Associated Countries • USA Tiros N Chronology .. the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost.the first lunar orbiters and landers.the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space. More. Mars. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career... Jupiter. and Saturn.. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up . the first probes to Venus. • • • • Earth weathersat Earth Sun synchronous orbit Titan The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's.

Perigee: 829 km (515 mi). Perigee: 785 km (487 mi). Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. Launch Vehicle:Atlas F. LV Family: Atlas. USAF Sat Cat: 11060 .. Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. Spacecraft: Tiros N.. LV Configuration: Atlas F 19F / Star-37S-ISS.618 lb). 10:53 GMT . 1979 June 27 .593 lb). Period: 101. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. Program: Tiros. Launch Site: Vandenberg. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Inclination: 98. LV Family: Atlas. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch Vehicle:Atlas F. Agency: NOAA.. Period: 100.1978 October 13 .. Spacecraft: Tiros N. 15:51 GMT ..70 min. 1980 May 29 . FAILURE: . Payload: NOAA A. Agency: NASA Greenbelt.7000 deg. Apogee: 845 km (525 mi). Type: Weather satellite. Cla ss: Earth. • NOAA 6 . Class: Earth. LV Family: Atlas. Type: Weather satellite. Mass: 734 kg (1. Tiros N .6000 deg. Mass: 723 kg (1.. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Nation: USA. 11:23 GMT . LV Configuration: Atlas F 25F / Star-37S-ISS. LV Configuration: Atlas F 29F / Star-37S-ISS. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. COSPAR: 1978-096A...70 min. Inclination: 98. USAF Sat Cat: 11416 . Nation: USA.. Launch Site: Vandenberg. COSPAR: 1979057A. Program: Tiros..

Decay Date: 1981-05-03. Spacecraft: Tiros N. At engine start up. Mass: 1.> .Atlas sustainer engine under-thrust resulted in 50 second extended burn time. USAF Sat Cat: 11819 . Apogee: 1. The mission was a total loss. causing it to run at about 80% thrust.445 km (897 mi).2000 deg.Failed Stage: P. Program: Tiros. and unaware of the booster problem. Cla ss: Earth.. Inclination: 92.10 min. would have been NOAA 7. COSPAR: 1980-043A. As a result the booster was low on velocity and heavy on propellant over much of its flight and ran an incredible 50 seconds longer than the nominal burn. Nation: USA.097 lb). and spacecraft attempted to separate and fired apogee kick motor while booster was still thrusting. it blew the top of the booster's liquid oxygen tank off. Type: Weather satellite. • NOAA B . The booster's continued thrusting defeated the payload's attempt to perform the required pitch maneuver. Agency: NOAA. The spacecraft survived all this. The NOAA Advanced TIROS payload was designed with no direct communication with the booster. but the resultant orbit was highly elliptical rather than the desired circular sun-synchronous. one of the booster engines suffered an internal fuel leak. Payload: NOAA B.. at 375 sec after liftoff attempted to separate with the booster still firing.405 kg (3. Officially: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Perigee: 264 km (164 mi). When the payload fired its apogee kick motor. Period: 102. Unusable orbit.

Launch Site: Vandenberg. Agency: NOAA. Launch Vehicle:Atlas F. 10:52 GMT . • NOAA 7 . LV Family: Atlas. Mass: 1. Cla ss: Earth. LV Configuration: Atlas F 87F / Star-37S-ISS.097 lb).. LV Family: Atlas. Nation: USA. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Inclination: 98. 18:23 GMT . USAF Sat Cat: 21263 . 2002 June 24 . Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. Apogee: 847 km (526 mi). Perigee: 805 km (500 mi). Type: Weather satellite. COSPAR: 1981059A.. USAF Sat Cat: 12553 .. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B).121 lb). LV Configuration: Atlas E 50E / Star-37S-ISS. COSPAR: 1991032A. Apogee: 824 km (512 mi). Program: Tiros. . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Inclination: 98. Payload: NOAA D. Launch Complex: Vandenberg . Nation: USA. Cla ss: Earth. Launch Site: Vandenberg. Type: Weather satellite.405 kg (3. 15:52 GMT ..416 kg (3. Spacecraft: Tiros N. Program: Tiros.9000 deg. 1991 May 14 . Launch Vehicle:Atlas E. Agency: NOAA. Spacecraft: Tiros N. • NOAA 12 ... Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3W. Period: 101.6000 deg.70 min. Mass: 1. Payload: NOAA C. Period: 101...1981 June 23 . Perigee: 828 km (514 mi).20 min..

Inclination: 98. USAF Sat Cat: 27453 . Class: Earth. Program:Tiros. Payload: NOAA-M. It had an on-orbit mass of 1475 kg. • NOAA 17 . Nation: USA.8 deg operational orbit. Launch delayed from August 2001. Built by Lockheed Martin. LV Family: Titan. at 1829 UTC. COSPAR: 2002-032A. NOAA M carried weather imagers and microwave and infrared sounders.SLC4W. At 1837 UTC the NOAA M propulsion module fired its ATK/Thiokol Star 37XFP solid motor for the orbit insertion burn.8000 deg.251 lb). Agency: NOAA.. LV Configuration: Titan II SLV 23G-14 / M68B-72 + M68B92 + M68B-71. Type: Weather satellite. supplementing the NOAA 16 afternoon satellite. The refurbished Titan 2 missile put the NOAA M satellite on a suborbital trajectory of about -2500 x 820 km x 98 deg. the free encyclopedia . Spacecraft: Tiros N.475 kg (3. Manufacturer: Lock heed. as well as a SARSAT search-and-rescue package. Launch Vehicle:Titan 2G. Mass: 1. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 807 km (501 mi). followed by a hydrazine trim burn to put the satellite in an 807 x 822 km x 98. NOAA M became NOAA 17 on entering service with the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration as the primary morning weather satellite. Television Infrared Observation Satellite From Wikipedia.

causing people to question the need for many of the military spy apparatus that were in development or use at the . or Television Infrared Observation Satellite. is a series of early weather satellites launched by NASA. perhaps considered to be too successful. beginning with TIROS-1 in1960. The program was extremely successful in proving the usefulness of satellite weather observation and in its time.1960 graphic of TIROS meteorological satellite system showing components. First TV image of Earth from space TIROS.

The camera shutters made possible the series of still pictures which were stored and transmitted back to earth via 2watt FMtransmitters as the satellite approached one of its ground command points.8 and had a 10 to 12 power telephoto effect over the wide angle camera.6 (focal length) that could view 800 miles of the earth. the TIROS satellite carried two 6 inch long television cameras with it as it entered its nearly circular low earth orbit. Drum shaped with a 42 inch diameter. and was eventually succeeded by the NOAA ITOS (Improved TIROS Operational System). To take unblurred photographs. The other camera had a telephoto lens with an f/1.time. One of the cameras had a wide-angle lens with an f/1. the United States Weather Bureau. The naming of the satellite becomes a little confusing because the satellites share the same name as the over-seeing organization. When it first separated from the rockets third stage. TIROS demonstrated at that time that "the key to genius is often simplicity. . or TIROS-M. The satellite itself was stabilized in its orbit by spinning like a gyroscope. and then by the TIROS-N and Advanced TIROS-N series of satellites. and height of 19 inches. After transmission. it was spinning at about 136 revolutions per minute (rpm). Participants in this satellite project included the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration. United States Army Signal Research and Development Lab. Radio Corporation of America." [1] The 270 lb satellite was launched into orbit by a Thor Able rocket. and the United States Naval Photographic Interpretation Center [2]. a de-spin mechanism slowed the satellite down to 12 rpm after the orbit was accomplished. the tape was erased or cleaned and readied for more recording. TIROS continued as the ESSA TIROS Operational System. such as ESSA& ESSA 1 and NOAA & NOAA M.

launched July 12 1961. failed January 22. 1962  TIROS-4 (D).[1] TIROS Operational System         ESSA-1 (OT-3) ESSA-2 (OT-2) ESSA-3 (TOS-A) ESSA-4 (TOS-B) ESSA-5 (TOS-C) ESSA-6 (TOS-D) ESSA-7 (TOS-E) ESSA-8 (TOS-F) . 1965.launched December 21 1963. 1966  As of June 2009. 1968  TIROS-8 (H). deactivated July 1. deactivated February 28. all TIROS satellites lauched between 1960 and 1965 (with the exception of TIROS-7) are still in orbit.launched April 1. First Tiros satellite in near-polar orbit  TIROS-10 (OT-1). 1961  TIROS-3 (C). failed on June 30 1962 (both cameras failed earlier)  TIROS-5 (E).launched June 19 1963.launched January 1.launched February 8 1962. failed February 15 1967. deactivated June 3. suffered electrical system failure on June 15 1960  TIROS-2 (B).TIROS-1 (A).launched November 23.launched September 18 1962. 1960. 1967  TIROS-9 (I). 1963  TIROS-6 (F). failed on May 13. deactivated July 31.launched June 19 1962.launched July 2 1965. failed October 21 1963  TIROS-7 (G). 1960.

1973 launch. 1976 launch TIROS-N     TIROS-N October 13. 1972 launch ITOS-E July 16. 1970 launch NOAA-1 (ITOS-A) December 11. 1971 launch. failed to orbit NOAA-3 (ITOS-F) November 6. 1970 launch ITOS-B October 21. ESSA-9 (TOS-G) ITOS/TIROS-M          TIROS-M (ITOS-1) January 23. 1973 launch NOAA-4 (ITOS-G) November 15. unusable orbit ITOS-C NOAA-2 (ITOS-D) October 15. 1974 launch NOAA-5 (ITOS-H) July 29. 1978 launch NOAA-6 (A) NOAA-B NOAA-7 (C) Advanced TIROS-N             NOAA-8 (E) NOAA-9 (F) NOAA-10 (G) NOAA-11 (H) NOAA-12 (D) NOAA-13 (I) NOAA-14 (J) NOAA-15 (K) NOAA-16 (L) NOAA-17 (M) NOAA-18 (N) NOAA-19 (N Prime) .

Since satellites were a new technology. Weather forecasting was deemed the most promising application of space-based observations. TIROS began continuous coverage of the Earth's weather in 1962.. data and operational parameters. At that time. The Television Infrared Observation Satellite Program (TIROS) The TIROS Program (Television Infrared Observation Satellite) was NASA's first experimental step to determine if satellites could be useful in the study of the Earth. the TIROS Program also tested various design issues for spacecraft: instruments.gov/QuickLoo ks/ti. and was used by meteorologists worldwide.jpl. TIROS proved extremely successful. . such as "should we evacuate the coast because of the hurricane?". the effectiveness of satellite observations was still unproven.. The program's success with many instrument types and orbital configurations lead to the development of more sophisticated meteorological observation satellites. The TIROS Program's first priority was the development of a meteorological satellite information system. providing the first accurate weather forecasts based on data gathered from space. 1960 Mission Project Home Page:http://msl. The goal was to improve satellite applications for Earth-bound decisions.TIROS Television Infrared Observation Satellite Program Phase: Past Launch Date: April 01.nasa.

but proved that satellites could be a useful tools for surveying global weather conditions from space. the cameras were only operated while they were pointing at the Earth when that portion of the Earth was in sunlight. Participants: NASA. Two television cameras were housed in the craft. RCA. TIROS-I was operational for only 78 days. A magnetic tape recorder for each camera was supplied for storing photographs while the satellite was out of range of the ground station network. US Weather Bureau. TRIOS-1 Stats: • • Launch Date: April 1. The antennas consisted of four rods from the base plate to serve as transmitters and one vertical rod from the center of the top plate to serve as a receiver. Early photographs provided information concerning the structure of large-scale cloud regimes. 19 inches high and weighed 270 pounds. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel which was then covered by 9200 solar cells. The video systems relayed thousands of pictures containing cloud-cover views of the Earth. 1960 Operational Period: 78 days . US Naval Photographic Interpretation Center. one low-resolution and one high-resolution. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. US ARMY Signal Research and Development Lab. Therefore.TIROS-1 Objectives: To test experimental television techniques designed to develop a worldwide meteorological satellite information system. To test Sun angle and horizon sensor systems for spacecraft orientation. The craft was spin-stabilized and space-oriented (not Earth-oriented). Three pairs of solid-propellant spin rockets were mounted on the base plate. The solar cells served to charge the on-board batteries.

The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. In addition. In addition. The video systems relayed thousands of pictures containing cloud-cover views of the Earth. a direction indicator for picture orientation. two infrared radiation experiments. an infrared horizon sensor for attitude control. the experiment to partially control the orientation of the satellite spin axis was . Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. The solar cells served to charge the nicad batteries. and a magnetic orientation control experiment were included. one lowresolution and one high-resolution. two infrared radiation experiments. Two television cameras were housed in the craft. one low-resolution and one high-resolution. To evaluate a new attitude control system for spacecraft orientation which utilizes the Earth's magnetic field.• • • Launch Vehicle: Standard Thor-Able Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel which was then covered by 9260 solar cells. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel which was then covered by 9260 solar cells. Two television cameras were housed in the craft. A magnetic tape recorder for each camera was supplied for storing photographs while the satellite was out of range of the ground station network. an infrared horizon sensor for attitude control. In addition. The solar cells served to charge the nicad batteries. Early photographs provided information concerning the structure of large-scale cloud regimes. A magnetic tape recorder for each camera was supplied for storing photographs while the satellite was out of range of the ground station network. a direction indicator for picture orientation. and a magnetic orientation control experiment were included. 19 inches high and weighed 280 pounds. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-2 Objectives: To test the experimental television techniques and infrared equipment designed to develop a worldwide meteorological satellite information system. 19 inches high and weighed 280 pounds. The antennas consisted of four rods from the base plate to serve as transmitters and one vertical rod from the center of the top plate to serve as a receiver.

23. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-3 Objectives: Continued development of the experimental television techniques and infrared equipment leading to a worldwide meteorological information system. RCA. The antennas were of the same configuration as both previous TIROS models. reflected and emitted by the Earth. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel then covered by 9260 solar cells. Although one of the cameras failed 12 days into the mission. 19 inches high and weighed 285 pounds. One scanning and two non-scanning radiometers were also on board. US ARMY Signal Research and Development Lab. 1960 Operational Period: 376 days Launch Vehicle: Three-stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. A new infrared experiment and improved remote control programmers were also new additions. as was the experiment with infrared sensors. The solar cells served to charge the nickel-cadmium batteries. TIROS-3 . A magnetic tape recorder was still provided for each camera to store photographs while the satellite was out of range of the ground station network.successful. US Weather Bureau. Two wide-angle television cameras were housed in the craft in place of one high-resolution and one low-resolution camera. This craft contained an electronic clock to control the operations of the infrared horizon sensor as well as the magnetic orientation system. photograph quality from the other camera was excellent and many tropical storms during the 1961 hurricane season were photographed. US Naval Photographic Interpretation Center. TIROS-2 Stats: • • • • • Launch Date: November. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. To obtain infrared measurements of the solar energy absorbed. Participants: NASA. Three major changes were made from the previous TIROS models.

The transmitting and receiving antennas were of the same configuration as the previous TIROS models. Barnes Engineering. US Weather Bureau. RCA. 1961 Operational Period: 230 days Launch Vehicle: Three-stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel and was then covered by 9260 solar cells.was also credited with the discovery of Hurricane Esther. A new lens system was implemented for this launch. allowing the US Weather Bureau to initiate an international facsimile transmission network in order to share the cloud pictures with weather services around the world. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. This craft also contained an electronic clock to control the operations of the infrared horizon sensor as well as the magnetic orientation control system. TIROS-3 Stats: • • • • • Launch Date: July 12. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-4 Objectives: Continued research into and development of the meteorological satellite information system. 19 inches high and weighed 285 pounds. The lens was designed to reduce distortion and improve resolution. One scanning and two non-scanning radiometers were also on board. RCA. The solar cells served to charge the 63 on-board batteries. This mission was designed to maintain an operational TIROS in orbit for an extended period of time and to obtain improved data for operational use in weather forecasting during the northern hemisphere hurricane season. TIROS-4 pictures were the best to date. US Weather Bureau. Barnes Engineering . Participants: NASA. Participants: NASA. A magnetic tape recorder was still provided for each camera to store photographs while the satellite was out of range of the ground station network.

This craft contained all of the instrumentation of TIROS-4 as well as a north direction indicator. The solar cells served to charge the 63 on-board batteries. and despin weights and spinup rockets in an attempt to improve the craft's longevity. 1962 Operational Period: 161 days . FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-5 Objectives: Continued research into and development of the meteorological satellite information system. TIROS-5 pictures were the best to date. TIROS-5 was also launched at a higher inclination (58 degrees vs. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. The orbitwas elliptical instead of circular due to a Delta ground guidance failure. including the observation ofice break-up at northern latitudes Participants: NASA. RCA. 1962 Operational Period: 161 days Launch Vehicle: Three-stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. In addition the three radiation sensors had to be disconnected prior to launch when they failed preflight checks. 48 degrees on all previous flights) to provide better observations at higher latitudes. 22 inches high and weighed 285 pounds. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel and was then covered by 9260 solar cells. This mission was designed to maintain an operational TIROS in orbit for an extended period of time and to obtain improved data for operational use in weather forecasting during the northern hemisphere hurricane season. US Weather Bureau TIROS-5 Stats: • • Launch Date: June 19.TIROS-4 Stats: • • • • • Launch Date: February 8.

The craft contained the same instrumentation as TIROS-5. TIROS-6 conducted the first satellite experiments to detect snow cover from space. 19 inches high and weighed 270 pounds. obtain improved data for use in weather forecasting during hurricane season. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel then covered by 9200 solar cells.• • • Launch Vehicle: Three-stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Participants: NASA. TIROS-6 lasted the longest of the TIROS series thus far. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-6 Objectives: Continue research and development of the meteorological satellite information system. 1962. In addition. RCA. The solar cells served to charge the nickel-cadmium (nicad) batteries. 1962 Operational Period: 389 days Launch Vehicle: Three-stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. prove TIROS could stay in orbit for an extended period of time. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-7 . US Weather Bureau TIROS-6 • • • • • Launch Date: September 18. being operational for all of its 389 days. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. provide operational support for the Mercury-Atlas 8 launch on October 3. Three pairs of solid-propellant spin rockets were mounted on the base plate. TIROS-6's launch date was moved up 2 months in order to work with TIROS-5 in helping form an accurate forecast during hurricane season.

despin weights and spinup rockets. and the magnetic attitude control system. The spacecraft operating system still included the infrared horizon scanner. TIROS-7 • • • • • Launch Date: June 19. especially during hurricane season. RCA. 1963 Operational Period: 1809 days before being deactivated by NASA on June 3.Objectives: Continue research and development of the meteorological satellite information system. TIROS-7 was deactivated after furnishing over 30. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-8 . The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel then covered by 9200 solar cells. a magnetic tape recorder. The electron density and temperature probes were the same as the ones flown on board Explorer 17. University of Wisconsin. 19 inches high and weighed 270 pounds. 1809 days. TIROS-7 was also designed to make infrared measurements of reflected solar and terrestrial radiation over selected spectrum ranges and gather data on electron density and temperature in space. Three pairs of solid-propellant spin rockets were mounted on the base plate. University of Michigan. To accomplish this new expanded mission. the north direction indicator. Participants: NASA. 1968 Launch Vehicle: Three-Stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. US Weather Bureau. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. The solar cells served to charge the nickel-cadmium (nicad) batteries.000 cloud photographs. obtain improved data for use in weather forecasting. TIROS-7 carried two wide-angle camera systems. it lasted the longest of the TIROS series thus far. and infrared experimentation equipment.

Because of the APT flight test objective of this mission. Participants: NASA. forming the first body of wide-angle imagery ever assembled. one with the standard TIROS wide-angle lens and one with an APT lens designed to photograph an area 800 miles on a side (the largest field of view to date). a principle similar to the transmission of radio photographs. TIROS-8 Stats: • • • • • Launch Date: December 23. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel then covered by 9200 solar cells. perform a polar orbit in . Each APT ground station was designed to receive three pictures per orbit. Three pairs of solid-propellant spin rockets were mounted on the base plate. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. Forty-seven ground stations around the world were able to ingest satellite images. US Weather Bureau. 1967 Launch Vehicle: Three-Stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. flight test the Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) camera system and ground stations. True space-based study of the Earth had begun. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-9 Objectives: Test the "cartwheel" configuration. 19 inches high and weighed 270 pounds. RCA. The solar cells served to charge the nickel-cadmium (nicad) batteries. TIROS-8's APT system exceeded its 90-day expected lifetime and was a great success. 1963 Operational Period: 1287 days before being deactivated by NASA on July 1. no radiometers were flown aboard TIROS-8. This craft contained two wide-angle camera systems. APT pictures were transmitted using a slow-scan principle (four lines per second). and the fact that TIROS-7 was still operational.Objectives: Continued research and development of the meteorological satellite information system. Fairchild Stratos.

Three pairs of solid-propellant spin rockets were mounted on the base plate. 1965. 19 inches high and weighed 270 pounds. The craft was placed in its planned. The satellite spin axis was rotated using the magnetic attitude control system into an alignment perpendicular to the orbital plane. rather than in the base plate parallel to the rotation axis. eliptical orbit instead of a circular one. and tangent to. 1965 Operational Period: 1238 days before being deactivated by NASA on June 12. The two cameras were mounted 180 degrees opposite each other along the side of the craft. TIROS-9's camera configuration was different than any previous TIROS craft.238 days until deactivated by NASA. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. RCA. US Weather Bureau TIROS-9 Stats: • • • • • Launch Date: January 22. Participants: NASA. TIROS-9 was operational for 1. This configuration proved successful and was eventually adopted for the ESSA operational series of civilian weather satellites. FL Type: Weather Satellite . First complete view of the world's weather The first photomosaic of the entire world's cloud-cover was achieved via a composite of 450 photos taken on February 13. Thus the "cartwheel" configuration was achieved. 1968 Launch Vehicle: Three-stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. a camera could be pointed at some point on Earth every time the satellite rotated along its axis. but a Delta malfunction caused a wide. the Earth's surface. This was the heaviest satellite launched at this time. Sun-synchronous 82-degree retrograde orbit. Thus.preparation for the Weather Bureau's completely operational TOS (TIROS Operational Satellites) system. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel then covered by 9200 solar cells. The solar cells served to charge the nickel-cadmium (nicad) batteries.

drifting westward about 1 degree per day (the same rate and direction as the Earth moves around the Sun). which provided maximum lighting for photography and battery charging. The configuration of the TIROS-10 was similar to that of TIROS-8. The craft was placed in its planned Sun-synchronous retrograde orbit. Three pairs of solid-propellant spin rockets were mounted on the base plate. 1967 Launch Vehicle: Three-stage Delta Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. RCA. each of a 640. The solar cells served to charge the nickel-cadmium (nicad) batteries. TIROS-10 was the last of the experimental TIROS series and provided more than 400 images daily. The craft was made of aluminum alloy and stainless steel then covered by 9200 solar cells. and to privde maximum satellite coverage during the 1965 hurricane season. 19 inches high and weighed 270 pounds.TIROS-10 Objectives: Further the testing of the TIROS system in preparation of the weather Bureau's completely operational TOS (TIROS Operational Satellite) system. Description: The spacecraft was 42 inches in diameter. Technological improvements integrated into . with the cameras mounted on the base plate. Participants: NASA.Next-generation) was NASA's next step in improving the operational capability of the TIROS system first tried in the 1960's and the ITOS/NOAA system of the 1970's.000-square mile area with 2mile resolution at the center. FL Type: Weather Satellite TIROS-N/NOAA Program -.1978-1986 The TIROS-N/NOAA Program (Television InfraRed Operational Satellite . US Weather Bureau TIROS-10 Stats: • • • • • • Launch Date: July 2. 1965 Operational Period: 730 days before being deactivated by NASA along with TIROS-8 on July 1. This was the heaviest satellite launched at this time.

The AVHRR provided day and night cloud-top and sea surface temperatures. Like earlier TIROS systems.TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) which provided vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor from the Earth's surface to the top of the atmosphere. and more day and night quantitative environmental data on local and global scales than seen with the two earlier generations of TIROS. The TIROS-N/NOAA satellite series carried the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). process and store information from free floating balloons and buoys worldwide for transmission to one central processing facility.the satellite system provided higher resolution imaging. The TIROS-N/NOAA satellite series continue to provide daily observations of the world's weather.1981 * TIROS-N/NOAA B 1980 Failed * TIROS-N/NOAA 7 1981 . For the first time.1985 . The satellite also carried an atmospheric sounding system (TOVS . NASA took responsibility for the satellite only until proven operational. and a solar proton monitor to detect the arrival of energetic particles for use in solar storm prediction. Once operational the satellite's name was changed to 'NOAA' with day to day use under the direction of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.1986 * TIROS-N/NOAA 8 1983 . • TIROS-N/NOAA Program Satellites: * TIROS-N 1978 . as well as ice and snow conditions. this satellite carried a data collection platform used to receive.1981 * TIROS-N/NOAA 6 1978 .

1993.1998 * TIROS-N/NOAA 10 1986 .Present * TIROS-N/NOAA 12 1991 . For the first time. and a solar proton monitor to detect the arrival of energetic particles for use in solar storm prediction.1991 * TIROS-N/NOAA 11 1988 .TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) to provide vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor from the Earth's surface to the top of the atmosphere. TIROS-N was an experimental satellite which carried an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to provide day and night cloud top and sea surface temperatures.* TIROS-N/NOAA 9 1984 . this satellite also carried a data collection platform used to receive.1994.Present * TIROS-N/NOAA 13 1993 Failed * TIROS-N/NOAA 14 1994 . Description: The spacecraft was rectangularly shaped (146" long by 74" high) with one large solar panel attached. .Present Check the individual Satellite pages for specific details. process and store information from free floating balloons and buoys worldwide for transmission to one central processing facility. [+ more] Objectives: To provide higher resolution. three-axis stabilized and weighed 1594 pounds. as well as ice and snow conditions. 1997 . day and night quantitative environmental data on local and global scales with technologically superior instrumentation than that which was available on the earlier ITOS/NOAA satellites. an atmospheric sounding system (TOVS .Present * TIROS-N/NOAA 15 1998 . 1997 . The satellite was Earth oriented.

NOAA. US Weather Bureau TIROS-N Stats: • • • • • Launch Date: October 13. (470nm) polar orbit. 1978 Operational Period: Operational for 868 days until deactivated by NOAA on February 27. providing high-resolution scanned images and vertical temperature and moisture profiles to both operational meteorologists and private interests with APT and HRPT capability. CA Type: Weather Satellite . RCA AstroElectronics. 1981 Launch Vehicle: Atlas E/F Launch Site: Vandenberg Air Force Base.TIROS-N was placed in a near circular. Participants: NNASA. The craft and its systems operated successfully.