As of 2005, one half of energy in Japan is produced from petroleum, a fifth from coal, and 14% from natural

gas.[86] Nuclear power produces a quarter of Japan's electricity.[87]

High speed Shinkansen or Bullet trains are a common form of transportation in Japan. Japan's road spending has been large.[88] The 1.2 million kilometers of paved road are the main means of transportation.[89] Japan has left-hand traffic. A single network of high-speed, divided, limited-access toll roads connects major cities and are operated bytoll-collecting enterprises. New and used cars are inexpensive. Car ownership fees and fuel levies are used to promote energy-efficiency. However, at just 50% of all distance travelled, car usage is the lowest of all G8 countries.[90] Dozens of Japanese railway companies compete in regional and local passenger transportation markets; for instance, 7 JR enterprises, Kintetsu Corporation, Seibu Railway and Keio Corporation. Often, strategies of these enterprises contain real estate or department stores next to stations. Some 250 high-speed Shinkansen trains connect major cities. Japanese trains are known for their punctuality.[91] There are 173 airports and flying is a popular way to travel between cities. The largest domestic airport, Haneda Airport, is Asia's busiest airport. The largest international gateways are Narita International Airport (Tokyo area), Kansai International Airport (Osaka/Kobe/Kyoto area) and Ch bu Centrair International Airport (Nagoya area). The largest ports include Nagoya Port.

Japan has one of the highest life expectancy rates in the world, at 81.25 years of age as of 2006.[116] The Japanese population is rapidly aging, the effect of a post-war baby boom followed by a decrease in births in the latter part of the twentieth century. In 2004, about 19.5% of the population was over the age of 65.[117] The changes in the demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in the workforce population and increases in the cost of social security benefits such as the public pension plan. Many Japanese youth are increasingly preferring not to marry or have families as adults.[118] Japan's population is expected to drop to 100 million by 2050 and to 64 million by 2100.[117] Demographers and government planners are currently in a heated debate over how to cope with this problem.[118] Immigration and birth incentives

[100] Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Bureau. In secondary schools. junior college. compulsory education in Japan consists of elementary school and middle school.[134] especially for entrance to institutions of higher education.[121][122] In 2009. the number of sui ides exceeded 30.000 for the twelfth straight year. and Mandarin language education has been increasing. a three-year junior secondary education. [123] Suicide is the leading cause of death for people under 30. healthcare services are provided by national and local governments. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten.9% of high school graduates attend a university. Since 1973. followed by a compulsory six-year primary education. secondary schools and universities were introduced into Japan in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. according to the MEX .[133] Japan's education is very competitive. with fees set by a government committee. about 75. or other post-secondary institution in 2005. a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health care insurance system that provides relative equality of access.[135][136] The Programme for International Student Assessment coordinated by the OEC . trade school. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. 'biliterate and trilingual' proficiency is emphasised. currently ranks Japanese knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds as the 6th best in the world. and. The two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University.[98] with written Chinese and English.[101] .are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support t e nation's aging population. The government maintains a policy in which the medium of instruction is Cantonese ( ).[99] The Programme for International Student Assessment ranked Hong Kong's education system as the second best in the world. Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school. [119][120] Japan suffers from a very high sui ide rate.[97] although international systems exist.[139] Hong Kong's education system roughly follows the system in England.[137] In Japan. all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance.[138] Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice.[124] Primary.[132] Since 1947. which lasts for nine years (from age 6 to age 15).

[128] Hong Kong Tramways.QS World University Rankings.[133] In Central and Western district. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme and private international schools. which has served the territory since 1904. and private schools. other higher diplomas and associate degree courses. the more common subsidised schools. Travel writer Ryan Levitt considered the main Tsim Sha Tsui to Central crossing one of the most picturesque in the world. covers the northern parts of Hong Kong Island and is the only tram system in the world run exclusively with double deckers. founded in 1888. master's. respectively. and a number of private higher institutions. in Asia. Hong Kong is also famous for its junks traversing the harbour. ¡¡  .[131] Other ferry services are provided by operators serving outlying islands.[125] making it the highest percentage in the world. the first public transport system in Hong Kong. steeply ascending the side of a mountain. which is now widely accepted on railways. Over 90% of daily travels (11 million) are on public transport. particularly areas where standard bus lines cannot reach or do not reach as frequently. buses and ferries. hilly terrain calls for some unusual ways of getting up and down the slopes. MTR. and doctoral degrees. The Star Ferry service.[126] Payment can be made using the Octopus card.However. Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: the rarer public schools. and are now almost exclusively used.[103] making it 1st in Asia.[127] The city's rapid transit system. single-decker buses remain in use for routes with lower demand or roads with lower load capacity.000 daily passengers. [130] It acquired iconic status following its use as a setting on The World of Suzie Wong. Most normal franchised bus routes in Hong Kong operate until 1 a. It was initially served by sedan chair. has 150 stations. which serve 3. quickly or directly. Hong Kong Island's steep.[129] Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong in 1949.[132] The Peak Tram. often run by Christian organisations and having admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. making them rank 2nd and 4th. and small kai-to ferries which serve remote coastal settlements. a stored value system introduced by the MTR.[104] Hong Kong has a highly developed transportation network. The University of Hong Kong. has provided vertical rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888. including government aids and grant schools. Public light buses serve most parts of Hong Kong. Macau and cities in mainland China.4 million people a day. the oldest institution of tertiary education in the territory. and well as accepted for cash at other outlets. starting with Form 1 students of 2006. There are nine public universities in Hong Kong. new towns.m. offering various bachelor's. all students receive 3 years of compulsory junior and 3 years compulsory senior secondary education. respectively.[104] The Hong Kong University of Science & Technology and Chinese University of Hong Kong are ranked 35 and 46. operates four lines across Victoria Harbour and provides scenic views of Hong Kong's skyline for its 53. was referred by Quacquarelli Symonds as a "world-cl comprehensive research university"[102] and was ranked 24th on the 2009 THES .

4 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005. in fact.[6] The remaining 1000 or some public hospitals account for the majority of hospital beds and. the Mid-Levels escalator. a significant increase in health care personnel over the previous decade but again below the O CD averages for these indicators. Some authorities have noted that while Mexico has some 3000 private hospitals.S. and Mexico has shown a faster acceleration to lower mortality rates than the U. and Canada in the last 10 years. or even nurses.S.000 live births in 2005. Private financing in Mexico is almost entirely in the form of out-of-pocket payments.1 percent of total expenditures on he alth are funded through private health insurance.74 million tonnes of cargo in 2007.[5] Consistent with every other major industrialized country (except the U. making private programs' health insurance unnecessary except for use in private hospitals. some private ³hospitals´ could hardly be considered hospitals at all. y y y y y y Aggregate health statistics for Mexico have improved greatly since the 1970s.000 population.8 doctors and 2. government healthcare in Mexico is universal. as only 3. Over 85 airlines operate at the two-terminal airport and it is the primary hub of Cathay Pacific. Cuba. Air Hong Kong. Mexico had 1. Hong Kong Airlines and Hong Kong xpress.. 45. Dragonair.[5] Total health care spending accounted for 6. part of Grupo mpresarial Los Angeles. the largest private hospital chain in Mexico During 2005. radiography equipment.there is an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements. and has [136] been rated as the world's best airport in a number of surveys.2 nurses per 1.[135] It replaced the overcrowded Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon in 1998. However.5 percent of health spending was paid from public sources ²comparable to the share of public spending in the United States but significantly below the O CD average. the bulk of private hospitals are institutions with less than 20 beds. per capita spending on health care was US$675 (adjusted for purchasing power parity)²about a quarter of the O CD average. In 2005. The mortality rate for children younger than five years was 17 per 1. since they have no laboratories. Mexico lags well behind other O CD countries in health status and health care availability. serving more than 47 million passengers and handling 3. including the longest outdoor covered escalator system in the world.[134] Hong Kong International Airport is a leading air passenger gateway and logistics hub in Asia and one of the world's busiest airports in terms of international passenger and cargo movement. Ninety-seven percent .).[5] y y y y y y The Hospital Angeles in Mexico City.

at 11.000 deaths/year vs.[7] .of the population had direct access to potable water and 80 percent to sanitation.000/year in the U..3 percent.[5] However.S. 22. this represents a 50% lower per capita death rate than the United States. Also in 2005 the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among persons aged 15 to 49 was 0.