PLANT LAYOUT

Sub: Operations Management Prof Nitin Kubde

INTRODUCTION
The step forward, in the sequence, after location and site decision. “The floor plan, indicating the location of the various work centres, plant, associated offices and supporting facilities.” Hence, The judicious selection of the location of the plants and machines should be in such a way, as to facilitate uninterrupted and quick movements of input material through pre-determined cycle of preoperations, till they are transformed as outputs, in the form of products and services, with minimum material handling and management, with maximum efficiency and quality of operation leading to minimum overall cost of the entire process/ operations.

IMPORTANCE OF LAYOUT
Facilitates: Manufacturing process. Facilitates quick movements by reduction of transportation & waiting time Minimises material movement & handling. Efficient utilisation of resources: Men, Materials, Machines. Achieves efficiency by effective planning. Improves quality of operations by proper selection of plant, machinery, operations & sequencing.

Factors Affecting the Plant Layout Decision 1. 2. 6. 8. Types of Production Production System Scale of Production Type of machines Type of Building Facilities Availability of Total Floor Area Possibility of Future Expansion Arrangement of Material Handling Equipment . 4. 7. 5. 3.

Short & Smooth Process Layout . Men 2. Machines 3.Material Flow System Manufacturing Process includes three basic inputs : 1.Long & Complex . Materials Flow of Material : Product Layout .

Material Flow System Material Flow System is divided in two parts : 1. Horizontal Flow System 2. Vertical Flow System .

the materials move from one work station to another for the processing. the starting point is the receiving (R) of raw material and the terminal point is shipment (S) of finished goods.Horizontal Flow System The Horizontal Flow Systems are devised in the single story building when the flat floor area is available. In between these two points. . In this system.

Absence of rushing of outside transportation. Unsuitable for longer production line. “I” type Flow :Shortest route . Difficulty in returning empty containers. Plant area has long lengths But short width. Must have roads on both side.Horizontal Flow System Is denoted by the alphabetic letters : 1. .

“L” type Flow :- .Horizontal Flow System Is denoted by the alphabetic letters 2.

. Requires square like floor area. Suitable for longer production line. Less difficulty in returning the empty containers. “U” type Flow :One side road link will be required.Horizontal Flow System 3. Possibility of rushing of outside transportation.

Requires square like floor area. Suitable for longer production lines.Horizontal Flow System 4. “S” or inverted “S” type of Flow :Requires roads on both side. . Absence of rushing of outside transportation. Difficulty in returning empty containers.

Heavy rush of outside transportation. “O” type Flow :One side road facility is required. Suitable for longer production line. Requires square like floor area. Easy in returning empty containers.Horizontal Flow System 5. .

“I” and “U” type Flow :- .Horizontal Flow System 6.

Horizontal Flow System 7. “I” and “S” type Flow :- .

Horizontal Flow System 8. “I” and “O” type Flow :- .

.Vertical Flow System The vertical Flow System arises in case of multi story buildings. Multi storey building are used where limited land area is available and the processing is done on light materials with the help of light machines.

Vertical Flow System Important Vertical Flow Systems :- .

3. . Product or Line layout Process or Functional layout Fixed Position or Project layout Combination layout (Mixed layout) 2.TYPES OF PLANT LAYOUTS 1. 4.

1. PRODUCT OR LINE LAYOUT .

5. 2.ADVANTAGES OF PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. 6. 4. 3. Low cost material handling Smooth and uninterrupted operations Continuous flow of work Optimum use of floor space Shorter processing time Simple and effective inspection of work .

3. 2.DISADVANTAGES: PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. High initial capital investment Heavy overhead charges Lesser flexibility .

PROCESS LAYOUT Product A : Product B : .2.

2. 3. Lower initial capital investment The overhead cost are relatively low Supervision can be more effective and specialised Greater flexibility . 4.ADVANTAGES OF PROCESS LAYOUT 1.

Material handling costs are high due to backtracking More skilled labour is required More frequent inspection is needed . 2.DISADVANTAGES OF PROCESS LAYOUT 1. 3.

Manufacturing time required is less 4. Manufacturing time required is more 4. Flexibility is less .COMPARISON BETWEEN PRODUCT AND PROCESS LAYOUT PRODUCT LAYOUT 1. Flexibility is high PROCESS LAYOUT 1. Material handling is maximum 5. Material handling is minimum 5. Space requirement is less 3. Investment is less 2. Investment is high 2. Space requirement is more 3.

COMPARISON BETWEEN PRODUCT AND PROCESS LAYOUT PRODUCT LAYOUT 6. Less skilled labours are required 8. More skilled labours are required 8. Supervision is not required 7. Supervision is required . Inspection is required PROCESS LAYOUT 6.Inspection is not required at every stage 7.

FIXED POSITION OR PROJECT LAYOUT .3.

MANUFACTURING OF SHIP .

2.ADVANTAGES OF FIXED POSITION LAYOUT 1. It saves time and cost involved on the movement of work from one work station to another The layout is flexible as change in job design and operation sequence can be easily incorporated It is more economical when several orders in different stages of progress are being executed simultaneously . 3.

2. capital investment is very heavy Very large space is required for storage of material and equipment near the product . Production period being very long.DISADVANTAGES OF FIXED POSITION LAYOUT 1.

COMBINATION LAYOUT A Lathe Drilling Milling Grinding Boring painting B Press C inspection Shaping D Milling packaging Cellular layout .4.

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dairyvideo3 .

sometimes from buffalo. sheep.mostly from cows.STUDY: DAIRY INDUSTRY A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal milk -.for human consumption Cream and butter Skim milk Cheese Whey Yogurt Milk powders Other milk products . horses or goats .