Dynamic Transmission Line Rating

Technology Review

208478-CR-001 30 July 2009

Dynamic Transmission Line Rating - Technology Review 208478-CR-001

Revision No: 1 30 July 2009

Document information
Title Dynamic Transmission Line Rating Technology Review Client organisation Client contact Document number Project manager Project reference Electricity Commission of New Zealand John Gleadow 208478-CR-001 Angus Ketley / Geoff McDougall 208478

Revision history
Revision 1 Revision description Prepared by Reviewed by Approved by Distributed to Adonis Dino/Angus Ketley Geoff McDougall Donald Vaughan
(name) (signature) (date)

John Gleadow

Electricity Commission of New Zealand
(organisation) (date)

The concepts and information contained in this document are the property of Hydro Tasmania Consulting. This document may only be used for the purposes for which, and upon the conditions, the report is supplied. Use or copying of this document in whole or in part for any other purpose without the written permission of Hydro Tasmania Consulting constitutes an infringement of copyright.


Dynamic Transmission Line Rating - Technology Review 208478-CR-001

Revision No: 1 30 July 2009

Executive Summary
The line rating represents the line current which corresponds to the maximum allowable conductor temperature for a particular line without clearance infringements or significant loss in conductor tensile strength due to annealing. This report deals primarily with the provision of ratings which ensure that the required clearances are not violated. However, this can be extended to other applications such as the management of annealing. Transmission of electric power has traditionally been limited by conductor thermal capacity defined in terms of a static line rating, which is based on a predetermined set of conditions. These conditions are incorporated into the design of the line to take into account statutory vertical clearances. In the last two decades, technologies and strategies have emerged to allow the real-time or pseudo-real-time measurement of transmission line characteristics and environmental conditions which enabled calculation of a real-time rating. Transmission line ratings are determined using the conductor’s heat balance and are dependent on the cooling effect of wind, warming due to line current, air temperature and solar heating. By accurately monitoring these conditions, a corresponding line current limit can be determined, thereby enabling the system operator to ensure that conductor temperature does not exceed the design limit, and maximises line utilisation under all conditions. Dynamic line rating methods can be broken down into two main categories: Weather based (indirect) The line rating is determined by measurement of ambient climatic conditions, and by means of the heat balance equation, to obtain the instantaneous conductor temperature rise available, and hence, the allowable current that can be transferred. Field data includes the following (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Wind speed measured by an anemometer; Wind direction; Air temperature; Solar heat intensity; and Conductor parameters


clearly understood. Wind speed measured by an anemometer. This method still requires the indirect parameters to be measured. reduced and or deferred capital expenditure. However. Wind direction. Solar heat intensity. it has the added benefit of providing a direct alarm should the conductor sag exceed or tension fall below a predetermined point that represents a violation of the required statutory ground clearance. The line to which dynamic rating is to be implemented should be inspected and its actual state confirmed prior to the application of available strategies. The heat balance equation is used to determine the additional current that can be transferred before the conductor’s maximum operating temperature is achieved. However. and evaluated accurately when applying either direct or indirect rating strategies: In line rating calculations. it is normally assumed that the conductors are in their ‘as  designed’ and ‘as installed’ condition. Line current. and Conductor parameters Benefits and Considerations The benefits of dynamic line rating include but are not limited to. and lower rates for utility customers. iv . increased efficiency of generation resources.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Sag based (direct) The line rating is determined by direct measurement of the conductor’s state. improved system reliability and safety. Air temperature.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . The actual conductor temperature can be calculated using the predetermined relationship between conductor position/tension and temperature. Field data includes the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Conductor position and or tension. the following issues need to be considered.

Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 While in general new connectors and line hardware runs cooler than the conductor. electric fields also need to be evaluated as its strength at ground level is affected by conductor sag. v . The magnetic field of a transmission line increases with line ampacity.  However. the conductors have to remain at a safe distance from buildings.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . the use of system-wide line ratings could lead to line failures. It is common for measuring devices to be in a remote location. it does arm the network controller with much more information in order to better manage contingent events and periods of uncharacteristic weather conditions. Despite the effects  of weather and loading. and people or vehicles passing beneath and near the line at all times. as well as a robust power source and communication links. objects. Overhead conductors elongate with time.  older connectors and hardware may not. and increases at  ground level with increased conductor sag. temperature and tension. Dynamic rating does not eliminate the risk of violating statutory ground clearances. A high standard of  reliability and durability is vital for effective real-time rating determination. Unless periodically inspected. Orders of backup adjacent monitoring stations are important and ‘watchdogs’ are necessary to monitor the integrity of the telemetered data elements. Even though transmission line voltage is managed to remain at the rated level.


2 Monitoring Conductor State Dynamic Line Rating Advantages and Disadvantages Consequences of too Optimistic Rating Assumptions 2.3 Elevated Temperature Creep 1 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 8 8 8 9 11 11 11 11 12 15 15 15 15 16 16 17 19 20 2.2.2 Right of Capacity or Dispatch Transpower’s Line Rating Process Possible Opportunities Implementation Considerations 4. References Appendices Appendix.2.2. Australian Experience 3.1 Measuring Climatic Conditions 2.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .1 Background 3.1 Clearance Violations 2.3 4.1.2. 2.1 Market Design and Operation 4.1 2.3 2.4.1 4.2.5 5. Introduction Current State of the Art 2. A Existing Dynamic Line Rating Technologies vii .Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Contents 1.4 3.1 3.4 4.2 Conductor Annealing 2.2 Current Practice Selection of Short Time Ratings Tasmanian Rating Scheme 3. New Zealand Opportunities 4.2.2 Background Line Rating Parameters 2.2 NEMMCO Requirements 3.2 Background The New Zealand Electricity Market 4.

A-2 A-3 Sensor TM Figure A-4 Completed Installation ThermalRate Sensor A-3 Figure A-5 A weather station with a 3D ultrasonic anemometer mounted next to a standard propellertype anemometer A-4 Figure A-6 Load Cells to measure tension Figure A-7 Completed Installation of Load Cells to measure tension Figure A-8 EPRI’s Video Sagometer mounted on a wood pole Figure A-9 Sagometer Target Figure A-10 Proposed Basic Configuration of Differential GPS A-5 A-5 A-6 A-6 A-7 List of tables Table 2-1 Simplified Comparison of Common Dynamic Line Rating Methods Table 2-2 Dynamic Line Rating System Advantages and Disadvantages Table 3-1 Seasonal Alternate Rating in Tasmania 6 7 12 viii . Inc) Figure A-2 On-line temperature monitoring system comprised of Power Donut and weather station and ground station RTU (© Courtesy of Nitech.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 List of figures Figure 3-1 Typical Daily Operation of the NEM [11] Figure 3-2 Completed Installation of a Load Cell to Monitor Conductor Tension in Tasmania Figure 3-3 Completed Installation of a Weather Station in Tasmania Figure A-1 Power Donut TM 10 13 14 A-1 TM (© Courtesy of Underground Systems. Inc) Figure A-3 ThermalRate TM temperature sensors.

This review includes a description of possible strategies.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . specifically Tasmania. Introduction The Electricity Commission of New Zealand (EC) engaged Hydro Tasmania Consulting (HTC) to prepare a review of the application of real-time thermal rating to overhead lines in New Zealand. 1 . and a discussion of their possible application within the New Zealand network.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 1. the present state-of-the-art in Australia. This review does not provide a full assessment of the actual opportunities and benefits to New Zealand. including a cost/benefit analysis. This review should form part of an overall feasibility study into the use of dynamic rating technology in New Zealand. in an attempt to remove existing restrictions to the development of renewable generation sources.


This is especially important for the wind developers. Line resistance determines a level of Pj which. Likewise. when combined with the remaining terms. 2. represents the joule heating due to resistance of the conductor. and a low conductor emissivity) along the entire line for an extended period of time. Secondary terms of heat gain such as eddy currents and corona are not considered. results in a conductor temperature that ensures required clearances are maintained for safe operation of the line. This temperature is based on the heat balance equation where conductor heat gain equals conductor heat loss: Pj + Ps = Pr + Pc The heat gain term.1 Current State of the Art Background The steady state thermal current rating of a conductor is the level of current that induces the maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient condition. the time of year and the time of day. The static rating approach also has the effect of underutilising the lines potential during climatic conditions below the predetermined criteria. This assures the network operator that the conductor will not sag below the required vertical clearances at any point in the line’s life. this assurance may be misguided during extreme climatic conditions over and above the predetermined criteria. Ps is the solar heat gain (air temp and solar radiation). The heat loss term. This also ensures integrity of the conductor is not compromised through annealing or loss of grease. Static line ratings in their simplest form involve the predetermination of ‘worst-case’ weather conditions (the highest expected ambient temperature. as the simplified static model does not take ambient wind strengths or wind direction into account which would greatly increase the possible rating of the line. a low wind speed. static and dynamic. Rating strategies can be divided in two main groups. the evaporative cooling heat loss term is also discounted. The Static rating model can be enhanced by the introduction of the line’s geography.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 2. Pc. represents natural and forced convection cooling (wind) while Pr denotes radiation cooling. Pj. with ratings based on long term average conditions over the 3 . However.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .

an important parameter in the determination of line capacity. However. the volatility of wind data can create some problems. [2] 2.1 Measuring Climatic Conditions Transmission network operators typically prepare load capacity limits based on known seasonal conditions and wind speeds. (b) Wind Speed and Direction Wind exerts a very strong cooling influence on the conductors irrespective of the ambient temperature and is. [2] Quasi-dynamic line ratings are typically calculated for longer time periods than dynamic ratings and. However. Clearly. This approach results in a workbook or lookup table for each line and will provide for better utilisation of the line during times where the actual climatic condition match the long term averages. during winter-time. hence. a line can be rated at higher capacity because at low ambient temperatures and the conductors will have a higher nominal load carrying capacity. Management strategies may 4 . These can be measured at locations throughout the network and provide the representative conditions for the region in question and. 2.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . due largely to their ability to dissipate heat. (a) Ambient Air Temperature Typically. therefore.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 required periods.2 Line Rating Parameters The following section discusses the parameters which may be measured in order to determine the rating of an overhead line. During summer. while typically higher than static ratings. the possible line rating. The application of a Dynamic line rating strategy is quite different since the predetermination of the ‘worst-case’ weather condition need only apply for the next 5 to 15 minutes. they can be more predictable and less variable than dynamic ratings. the line rating may decrease due to hotter ambient temperatures. the possibility of missed opportunities is still present and the probability of falling below the required clearances on days where the ambient temperature exceeds the long term average is increased. The current devices and technologies used to measure these parameters have been detailed in Appendix B. dynamic ratings are likely to be higher than the static rating but have the disadvantages of volatility and unpredictability.2.

The selection of the span to be measured is important. using measured sag. The heat balance equation is then used to determine the additional 5 . (c) Solar Radiation The level of direct and diffuse solar radiation can be reliably measured but is also volatile due to variable cloud cover. Conductor emissivity and absorptivity evolve over time as the conductor ages. (a) Conductor Sag Conductor sag is defined as the vertical distance between any point on a conductor and a straight line between the two attachment points. Due to significant uncertainty in the current measure of emissivity and absorptivity. can be converted into a corresponding conductor temperature. This tension. and hence both influence the heat balance equation. determining emissivity and absorptivity values more accurately could reap significant savings in the form of reduced conductor size or higher transmission line ratings. (d) Conductor Condition The emissivity and absorptivity of a conductor depends on the conductor’s surface properties. However. when combined with the conductor parameters. the conductor tension can be determined. The real-time measurement of this parameter is generally discounted in favour of established solar radiation charts for the particular region. 2. or is affected by pollution. Emissivity is a measure of the thermal radiation from the conductor while absorptivity is a measure of how much the conductor is heated by solar radiation. averaging the wind speed over a time period and or setting upper and lower bounds. conductor manufacturers are generally satisfied with assigning conservative emissivity and absorptivity values to be used in dynamic rating of transmission lines. tension and the span length.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 include discounting wind direction. Therefore. The conductor sag at any point in a given span is a function of the conductor’s mass per unit length (ùc). as it should be representative of the whole line.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .2. collects dust and other particles.2 Monitoring Conductor State The actual state of the conductor can be measured to determine the amount of additional current that can be transferred by the line before the predetermined maximum conductor temperature is exceeded.

A detailed assessment. Table 2-1 Simplified Comparison of Common Dynamic Line Rating Methods Cost Accuracy Normal Wind High Load good good good good good good Normal Wind Low Load good good low low low good High Load Low Wind low good good high high high High Load High Wind good good good good good good Monitor Purchase Cost Install Cost Maintain Cost Line Outage Measurement Reach Weather Conductor Replica Temperature Tension Sag Combined low low high high high low low low medium high medium medium low low high high high medium no no no yes no yes variable variable point multi span multi span multi span 6 . However.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . 2. including site specific considerations must be carried out for individual applications of dynamic line ratings. This process is complicated by the presence of wind. which has the dual effect of cooling the conductor and also effectively adding a component to the conductor’s unit load (ùc +ùh).3 Dynamic Line Rating Advantages and Disadvantages Table 2-1 shows a simplified comparison of the common methods available for dynamic line ratings. direct measurements of the conductor must be made as well as the ambient conditions of wind and air temperature. To establish the line rating. This value is then used in the same manner as described above. it does introduce the added complication of maintaining sensor isolation from the telemetry device. [3].Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 current that can be transferred before the conductor’s maximum operating temperature is achieved. (b) Conductor Tension Conductor tension can be measured directly using a load cell within the tension insulator string. (c) Conductor Temperature The simplest strategy is to measure conductor temperature directly. This inherently takes into account all external influences.

At low wind speeds.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . [1]. Table 2-2 Dynamic Line Rating System Advantages and Disadvantages Dynamic Line Rating System Weather Station Advantage Disadvantage Simplest method to implement.5 2 amps/mm [1] Can be maintenance intensive.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Table 2-2 summarises the possible advantages and disadvantages of the available systems for dynamic line rating. Conductor Replica A simple method to implement Direct Temperature Measurement Effectively prevents the loss of conductor strength at high temperature Tension Ideal for heavily loaded transmission lines with current density greater than 2 approximately 1 amp/mm . Sag Ideal for heavily loaded transmission lines with current density greater than 2 approximately 1 amp/mm . the prediction of wind direction and persistence is nearly impossible. Can be maintenance intensive. Ideal for lines with relatively low current density of less than about 0. Measured conductor temperature may or may not be a good estimate of the average conductor temperature along the line. High accuracy for use in a line section with multiple suspension spans having nearly the same tension. Measured conductor temperature may or may not be a good estimate of the average conductor temperature along the line. [1]. Wind on conductor may affect the measured sag Combined Safest and an ideal method of dynamically rating transmission lines High premium cost 7 . High accuracy for use in a line section with multiple suspension spans having nearly the same tension.

2 Conductor Annealing When hard drawn aluminum conductors are operated at temperatures beyond their rated temperature. Annealing weakens the conductor and can potentially cause the conductor to break under wind or ice conditions. Transmission lines operated at temperatures higher than the designed temperature may result in clearance violations. which may result in: 2. 2. the location and height of each structure in a pre-selected line route is determined using an assumed maximum conductor temperature and required statutory clearance to which the line is expected to operate.4.1 Clearance Violations During line design.4 Consequences of too Optimistic Rating Assumptions When weather monitoring equipment produces a poor representation of weather conditions for a dynamically rated conductor. the aluminum starts to anneal. 8 . The elongation is a result of molecular realignment of the conductor’s base material. [17] 2. the conductor rated temperature may be significantly exceeded.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . This is particularly important for lines requiring dynamic rating that may be lightly loaded with periods of near rated load. 2.3 Elevated Temperature Creep Permanent or irreversible elongation of the conductor is known to occur due to operation of the conductor at elevated temperature. Elongation increases conductor sag and reduces the conductor clearance to ground.4.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Combinations of both weather and physical line monitoring is clearly more expensive but will enable improved dynamic rating at both high and low conductor current densities.4.

many of the processes that constitute NEM trade are automated through sophisticated information technology systems. to determine the most cost-effective way to satisfy demand.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 3. South Australia and Tasmania. The calculation takes into account any loss factors to be applied. 9 . the technical limitations of the system. and to capture the present state of the power system. and any bottlenecks or physical constraint that exist [11]. Figure 3-1 shows that each day. NEMMCO prepares and publishes a pre-dispatch schedule that covers the supply and projected demand for all periods from the next trading interval to the final trading interval of the next trading day. the Australian Capital Territory. Australian Experience Australia’s National Electricity Market (NEM) consists of six (6) regions .Queensland. identify the capability of the transmission network to transmit electricity.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . The National Electricity Market Management Company Limited (NEMMCO)1 is responsible for managing and operating NEM in accordance with the National Electricity Rules (NER). NEMMCO is required to balance supply with demand by scheduling the most cost-effective generators into production. Victoria. 24-hours-a-day and seven-days-a-week. While forecasting demand and managing congestions on the network rely on the input and monitoring of operators. 1 From 1 July 2009 NEMMCO ceased operations. It is the mechanism through which electricity is physically traded between registered generators and market customers. Each Transmission Network Service Provider (TNSP) provides the necessary information to NEMMCO to allow it to forecast electricity consumption in each of the 6 regions. NEMMCO's roles and responsibilities have transitioned to the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO). New South Wales. Trade in electricity takes place dynamically. NEMMCO’s system issues dispatch instructions every five minutes after a set of rules (referred to as the dispatch algorithm) is applied to all dispatch bids.

Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . Each transmission line in the network has its own limit (line rating) which is dictated by its location. design. all TNSPs apply the same secondary environmental parameters (except for wind speed and ambient temperature – prevailing conditions in each geographic area is used) to the agreed equation in rating transmission lines. To determine this limit.1 Line Rating Principles NEMMCO’s ability to schedule generators to meet demand within NEM regions is sometimes limited by the physical transfer capacity of the transmission lines used to facilitate importing electricity.1. and operator. without limitation: 10 .Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Figure 3-1 Typical Daily Operation of the NEM [11] 3. NEMMCO may require a TNSP to advise different current ratings to be applied under nominated conditions including. Each TNSP provides Static rating and Real-Time rating (if available).1 Static ratings Static ratings of lines are used for network planning and operation planning purposes and for operational circumstances where another form of rating is not available or necessary. NEMMCO may request a continuous current rating and one or more short term current ratings as defined in NER. 3. This should include a Day-time and a Night-time rating for at least each month of the year which reflects the average-worse-weather conditions for the particular period that it is applied [3].

1. This system has been augmented. 3.2 The period of loading at the nominated level. 3. and 4. Real-Time ratings Real-Time rating (if available) is used over Static rating during favourable weather conditions to maximise the use of the transmission system. As this maximised transfer capacity was required for only a few months. and in some cases superseded.1 Tasmanian Rating Scheme Background Hydro Tasmania commenced a dynamic rating strategy for transmission lines in the mid 1990s. this was achieved by the installation of an earthed ‘safety span’ under the most critical 110kV span. Seasons and/or times of day. by the present day use of regional weather stations to determine ambient conditions and hence available rating. the remaining circuit would pick-up the entire load until the sag approached the statutory ground clearance limit at which point the circuit would trip. 3.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 1. The present use of tension monitors is restricted. as they signal the commencement of conductor icing.2 3. To provide a stable value. This was brought on by the need to maximize the N-1 transfer capacity of a radial double circuit 110kV line in the event of a single circuit outage on that line during a major outage of a local power station.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .2. 11 . The average measured data and calculated rating are provided to an energy control centre in a suitable format to realise any potential benefits [3]. 2. This was a relatively crude strategy and fortunately was not engaged. This short term strategy led to the introduction of the CAT-1 system onto a number of lines deemed to be system critical either under normal or contingent operation. to provide a check for the main rating scheme and input into the anti-icing scheme. Ambient weather conditions. The system would issue an alarm should the tension drop below a designated limit. Initially the scheme measured tension only and used the span geometry to determine conductor temperature. this rating should be calculated using the averaged measured data of weather conditions (accurate and timely measurements of wind speed and air temperature) which characterise the entire length of the line over a 10-minute period. Ratios of the current during an emergency to the current prior to the emergency (taking into account pre-contingent loading history where applicable). In the event of a trip.

Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 In 2005. 3.2. 12 .Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . SOUTH.2.3 Real-Time Rating Implementation In Tasmania. Transend maintains 15 weather stations and has 19 transmission line conductor tension monitors on 12 transmission circuits. Tasmania’s network asset owner and system operator. ‘TRCalc’. temperature zones were defined (CENTRAL. the existing transmission network. 3. and minimising constraints on. NORTH. Rating software. NORTH WEST. solar characteristics. ownership of these weather stations was transferred to Transend Networks Pty Ltd (Transend). uses circuit and conductor definition files. The real-time weather information and measured conductor tension from these devices is telemetered from remote weather stations to Network Operation Centres (NOCs) via Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) at substations [9]. WEST and FAR NORTH WEST) and each end of all lines is allocated a temperature zone. the use of weather stations to support real time transmission line ratings is a valuable and cost effective means of maximising the utilisation of. and the worst measured data (lowest wind and highest ambient) from the primary and co-primary weather stations to calculate the real-time transmission circuit ratings using an enhanced Cigré method [9] [3]. Ratings for transmission lines within each zone are provided on a 5 degree incremental basis from 0 degrees to 40 degrees as Static rating data (historical static rating2). The wind speed used in the calculation is de-rated and must 2 The historical static rating is stored in a workbook which serves as the last level of back-up for TRCalc.2 Static Rating of Transmission lines The selection of a particular rating is time based identified as follows: (a) 2 Season (Seasonal Rating) Table 3-1 Seasonal Alternate Rating in Tasmania Season Summer (TASSUM) Winter (TASWIN) Start Start of December Start of March End End of February End of November (b) Temperature Based (Locational Rating) To accommodate the temperature based ratings.

5 and 2m/s to produce a conservative result. Transend has implemented a bi annual calibration. Figure 3-2 Completed Installation of a Load Cell to Monitor Conductor Tension in Tasmania 13 . The fault is attended to at the earliest possible opportunity subject to weather conditions and resource availability. they are replaced with the latest commercially available parts where possible. If all else fails.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 be between 0. the Real-Time MVA rating is provided to NEMMCO for use in the 5 minute dispatch process. gradually upgrading the weather and tension monitoring stations.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . thus. servicing and fault ratification program for the Circuit Rating & Weather Monitoring Systems and associated communication links. Where faulty. custom or obsolete components are identified. ‘TRCalc’ will then use the historical static rating stored in a workbook. ‘TRCalc’ uses the nearest among the two weather station backups. In the event of faults in the primary weather station. Together with the actual bus voltage.

Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Figure 3-3 Completed Installation of a Weather Station in Tasmania 14 .Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .

and An inter-island 350kV high voltage DC link that runs from Benmore in the South Island  to Haywards in the North Island. as the system operator. with areas of demand (load) commonly some distance from the areas of significant generation. a deregulated electricity market was introduced to New Zealand. a 40 km submarine cable between Fighting Bay and Oteranga Bay across the Cook Strait.1 New Zealand Opportunities Background New Zealand’s transmission networks can be viewed as narrow and longitudinal.1 Market Design and Operation The operation of NZEM relies on its Scheduling. The New Zealand Electricity Market (NZEM) was previously a self regulated market overseen by M-Co and the market surveillance committee. In addition. Transpower is also responsible for providing ancillary services to the market including the management of reserves. and a further 37km double circuit overhead line between Oteranga Bay and Haywards (ref. Pricing.2 The New Zealand Electricity Market In 1996.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 4. and Dispatch (SPD) process to take generation offers and load bids that are used to determine the optimum clearing price for electricity at each of approximately 250 nodes in the power system. The National Grid consists of: A high voltage AC transmission network made up of a grid back bone of 220kV and  110kV transmission lines that supply most of the major load centres. This link includes 535km of double circuit overhead line from Benmore to Fighting Bay. The Commission regulates the operation of the electricity industry and markets (wholesale and retail) in accordance with the Electricity Act and government energy policy. North & South Islands Network Maps). is responsible for scheduling and dispatching generation at minimum cost according to market rules. 4. 15 . 4. 4. an extensive transmission system that allows generators to transfer energy with minimum losses has to be developed and maintained. Transpower. Consequently. market regulation has been conducted by the Electricity Commission (Commission).Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .2. Since September 2003.

respectively. Transpower reported that the results of the 16 . Connection to the grid and participation in the electricity market does not guarantee that a generator will be dispatched at all times by the System Operator. Market participants (Generators and Loads) will make offers and bids to inject or take off power at each node in the power system. subject to constraints in the network. or The generator is non-compliant with the Asset Owner Performance Obligations o (AOPOs) and technical codes. Reserves are also offered by Generators and contracted interruptible Loads.2.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . 30°C and 20°C.2 Right of Capacity or Dispatch A connection to the National Grid does not result in any capacity rights for that connected party.3 Transpower’s Line Rating Process Transpower currently applies a fixed summer and winter ambient temperature of. up to two hours ahead of dispatch. The participants may then choose to alter their offers and bids and resubmit these for a subsequent scheduling solution. Forecast information on cleared generation and load (those that have had successful offers and bids) as well as nodal prices is then fed back to the market participants. Dispatch occurs every five minutes through formal dispatch instructions sent electronically. The offers and bids are associated with half hour trading periods. Existing or future congestion on the national grid will affect the ability of a generator to deliver its energy to the market. The SPD solver takes the offers and bids for a trading period and employs a linear programming solution to match generation to load at minimum cost. o There are constraints on the power system that limit the amount of electricity that o the generating unit can produce. 4.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 The Scheduling mode of SPD is used to forecast a schedule of generation for 13 to 35 hours ahead of time. A generator will not be dispatched where: There is sufficient lower priced generation to meed demand. in a long-standing proprietary formula (Latta) developed by the New Zealand Electricity Department (NZED) to establish the seasonal ratings (Summer/Winter) of its transmission lines [18]. There is no Automatic Governor Control (AGC) in New Zealand. 4.

Transpower may easily ascertain that normal load levels higher than the static rating do not require action. 2. USA. Dynamic line rating will be trialled in one of its transmission routes in 2012. thus avoiding the need for Transpower’s intervention to reduce load. Although it may require accurate prediction of values up to a day ahead. In 2010. The analysis of the results provided by the experiment demonstrated the real capabilities of Transpower's transmission lines. Transpower have investigated the use of direct temperature monitoring and tension monitoring systems. When dynamic normal ratings are available. When dynamic emergency ratings are available. In 1996. post-contingency loads that exceed static emergency ratings may be less than dynamic emergency ratings. such as IEEE [19]. Transpower began exploring the available DLR systems to increase the capacities of its major lines. Transpower would need to focus on overcoming constraints introduced by the current market processes and related software. Transpower was not able to advance further due to the inflexibility of their legacy market system software [20].Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Latta rating method are slightly higher compared to the results of modern rating methods. The latter was selected to be installed on two of its lines as a trial setup utilising the hardware and software provided by Valley Group. 4. dynamic ratings allow considerable market benefit due to more optimal generation dispatch calculations.4 Possible Opportunities Dynamic line ratings are normally higher than static ratings and have the following advantages: 1. low probability.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . Market process 17 . since the load does not surpass the dynamic rating. Transpower will be introducing additional shoulder seasonal (spring/autumn) ratings across all transmission lines. The study concluded that dynamic line rating can contribute towards efficient control of transmission lines [14]. 3. Region specific line ratings are also planned to be applied. However. Some of the issues that need to be addressed would include: 1. To gain the benefits of implementing dynamic line ratings.

Tools need updating to incorporate variable dynamic inputs of temperature b. Error checking / data validation 4.g. Variable transmission line ratings would require market participants to develop a more sophisticated understanding of available transmission capacity.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . It should be noted that the only case for weather input would be to change risk/security criteria during storms. the tools should be able to handle dynamic data – e. Therefore. This is probably best done manually as at present. Instead of 2 seasons or 4 seasons. as ratings would have to 18 . Accommodation of variable line rating during dispatch In dealing with variable line rating during the dispatch time frame and sudden changes in wind. This issue may now be addressed with the aid of the new market software. Market software Processing of dynamic rating information was not possible in the previously used market software. and similar processes as used for wind generation need to be considered for the implementation of dynamic line rating. 5. Implications for market participants over longer time scales. The calculations have to be circuit specific c. 3. for the 2-hour gate closure. as it can be designed to accommodate variable line rating data. Temperature is telemetered to Transpower for use in dispatch time frame. combinations of forecast and telemetered/local temperatures could be used.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 a. Existing line rating calculation tools in SCADA/EMS (Overload Calculation Tools) a. 2. Engines suitable for handling large amounts of data e. temperature data of every time interval d. fast acting monitoring tools in the DLR hardware. forecast weather information could be used by employing a suitable tool for wind forecasting (Similar to wind generation dispatch) b. For pre-dispatch schedules.

when monitoring a straight section of transmission line using either sag or tension line monitors and a weather station. use of such anemometers is generally discouraged. as its reliability and accuracy decreases with time due to wear and tear of its mechanical components. [1] In general. Thus. may have many changes in direction. two or more sag or tension line monitors combined with two or more weather stations may be necessary to achieve monitoring data that is a good representation of the entire line. the line rating should be calculated assuming a fixed wind heading angle of between 20 and 30 degrees from the line direction [1]. transmission lines in rugged terrain. existing transmission lines should be surveyed and studied to find out the critical span upon where the sensors are to be installed. If the station used does not observe wind direction. For longer lines using weather monitoring. Whereas. The cost of weather monitoring stations using standard propeller-type or cup-type anemometers is relatively low but they can be maintenance and calibration intensive. only one monitoring location is considered necessary. for short lines less than 10km. a single line section should be monitored if weather monitoring is the only form of field data used for dynamic rating. 19 . The 3D ultrasonic anemometer (an expensive alternative) offers a more reliable and accurate readings. Ideally wind direction and wind speed would be measured simultaneously at several locations within each line section. In fact.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 be predicted using static climate data. The degree of variability would be similar to wind generation and demand variation. at least two line sections should have operating weather stations. Installation of tension monitors on selected tension structures are to be properly coordinated and scheduled as this requires a line outage. 4. In general. and at times be coincident with it.5 Implementation Considerations Where required. like that of New Zealand. Its use is further discouraged in areas where ice is expected to build up.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .

K. 1012409 2 Increased Power Flow Through Transmission Circuits: Overhead Line Case Studies and Quasi-Dynamic Rating.E. 4 March 2009 Guide for Selection of Weather Parameters for Bare Overhead Conductor Ratings. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).B2. Powerline Ampacity System – Theory. 2007. Prospects for Dynamic Transmission Circuit Ratings. P600-00-036 9 Circuit Monitoring and Weather Monitoring System. CIGRE WG. Palo Alto.Dynamic Circuit Thermal Line Rating.299 6 The ThermalRate System: A Solution for Thermal Uprating of Overhead Transmission Lines. CA: 2006. Arizona State University. Australia 12 2008 Statement of Opportunities for National Electricity Market. April 2004. 2000 8 Strategic Energy Research . TNM-SY-808-0221 10 Holbert. Public Interest Energy Research (PIER). 2006. National Electricity Market Management Company Limited (NEMMCO). 2005. and Heydt GT. 1999. Power Technology. Hobart Tasmania.. 3 4 5 TNSP Operational Line Ratings (Draft). and Applications. Modeling. Anjan K. 7 Deb. National Electricity Market Management Company Limited (NEMMCO). 1 References Probabilistic and Predictive Circuit Thermal Rating Technology. Australian Energy Market Commission (AEMC). Newsletter Issue 95. 2009.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . CA: 2006.12. Australia 13 National Electricity Rules Version 28. CRC Press. No. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). USA 11 An Introduction to Australia’s National Electricity Market. California Energy Commission. Arizona. 2007. February 2009 Transpower Transmission Code (Preliminary Issue). Transend Networks Pty.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 5. Palo Alto. 1012533. Australia 20 .

Palo Alto.4 15 Increased Power Flow Guidebook – Increasing Power Flow in Transmission and Substation Circuits. negligence or lack of care in relation to the preparation of the information in this document. Line Rating Review. IEEE Transactions. and Benefits. 21 . Transpower. The Loss of Tensile Strength of Hard-drawn conductors by Annealing in Service. Issue . 20 Simpson. The information contained in this document has been carefully compiled but Hydro Tasmania Consulting takes no responsibility for any loss or liability of any kind suffered by any party. IEEE Volume 4. 1012534. 2000 Page(s):2403 . Transpower. J.T.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting. 2000. 1978. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).2409 vol. 17 Morgan. Bob. R. 19 Transpower Response to EC Request for Information (EC letter dated 12 October 2005). in reliance upon its contents whether arising from any error or inaccuracy in the information or any default. Concepts. Feasibility. Use of Probabilistic Temperatures in the Calculation of Transmission Line Ratings using PLS-CADD. V.. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).K. not being the intended recipient of this document. Palo Alto. Power Engineering Society.K. 12 June 2009. 18 Khot. 10 November 2005.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 14 Raniga. Dynamic rating of transmission lines-a New Zealand experience. CA: 2005. 1010627. Milind.. 16 Instrumentation for Increasing Power Flow: Needs. Transpower. Rayudu. CA: 2005.


Appendices 23 .


Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Appendix. A Existing Dynamic Line Rating Technologies There is a distinction to be made between the real-time monitoring and dynamic rating of overhead lines. Inc) A-1 . but less useful in guiding operator actions than providing dynamic ratings. The following are examples of line monitors typically used by various utilities in facilitating their dynamic rating schemes: A. It has been observed that conductor temperature can vary significantly along its length due to large variations in wind speed and direction. A.1 Direct Conductor Temperature Monitors Power DonutTM incorporate a clamp-on thermocouple attached directly to the energized conductor (see Figure A-1) and linked to a ground station by radio (see Figure A-2). Real-time monitoring is easy.1 Conductor Temperature Sensors The accuracy of conductor temperature sensors depends on how close the measured conductor temperature at one spot is to the average line section temperature.1.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . Power Donut TM Figure A-1 (© Courtesy of Underground Systems.

Inc) Real-time conductor temperature.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Figure A-2 TM On-line temperature monitoring system comprised of Power Donut temperature sensors. A. [6] The heated and unheated replicas are relatively long in order to minimize the affect of thermal boundary losses.2 Indirect Conductor Temperature Monitors ThermalRateTM Sensor (see Figure A-3) is basically made up of two aluminium rods which function as simple conductor replicas. and line current provide continuous input to a computer system where line ampacity is calculated. The replica.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . meteorological data. and weather station and ground station RTU (© Courtesy of Nitech. is used to determine the line capacity by measuring how the weather conditions heat and cool the conductor. The computer system requires special hardware and software for data acquisition from remote sensor locations via special telecommunication networks. [6] B-2 .1. chosen to be the same material and diameter as the line conductor. An internal thermocouple near the longitudinal centre measures the temperature of each replica. The ThermalRate Sensor is located near the line and pointed in the same direction as the line conductors (see Figure A-4) in order to experience the same weather conditions as the line itself.

Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 Figure A-3 TM ThermalRate Sensor Figure A-4 TM Completed Installation ThermalRate Sensor A-3 .Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .

and rain. The latter are quite expensive.2 Weather stations Weather stations generally measure wind speed and direction. and can measure vertical air movement.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 A.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . or the more sophisticated 3D ultrasonic units. but have no moving parts and are therefore very reliable. are very accurate even at low wind speeds.3 Line Tension Monitors A load cell (see Figure A-6) placed on the grounded side of dead-end insulator string (see Figure A-7) can be used to monitor line tension in real-time. Figure A-5 shows a photograph of a weather station with both anemometer types. The measured line tension is then converted to average conductor temperature of the line section. Knowing the line current and weather conditions in real-time. air temperature. [2] Figure A-5 A weather station with a 3D ultrasonic anemometer mounted next to a standard propeller-type anemometer A. the conductor temperature near the weather monitor can be calculated in real-time. B-4 . solar intensity. [2] Weather stations can include standard propeller-type anemometers.

Dynamic Transmission Line Rating .Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 A base station is mounted on the structure and connected to the load cells by cable. The line is normally de-energized when the load cells are installed. [2] Figure A-6 Load Cells to measure tension Figure A-7 Completed Installation of Load Cells to measure tension A-5 . Communication to a base station is usually by spread spectrum radio and the units can be solar powered.

but it could be mounted on any appropriate structure in the vicinity. as shown in (Figure A-8) of the line being monitored.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . The target’s ground clearance is determined from that position through a calibration procedure performed during installation.Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 A. reflective target (see Figure A-9) is placed on the conductor being monitored. [2] Figure A-9 Sagometer Target Image recognition algorithms residing in local firmware determine the position of the target within the camera’s field of view.4 Sag Monitors Figure A-8 EPRI’s Video Sagometer mounted on a wood pole The camera unit is typically mounted on one of the structures. A low-power solid-state illuminator (diode laser or LED-based device) is mounted with the camera to illuminate the target at night or when ambient light is not sufficient. A small. The conductor’s sag B-6 . passive.

[2] A.Dynamic Transmission Line Rating . [2] The systems can be powered by solar-cell/battery arrangements. or by standard AC distribution power if available at the site. hard-wire is used to bring position data to power system operators. Only one phase of a circuit would be instrumented in a critical span. The systems.5 Global Positioning System (GPS) Based A recently proposed method to measure conductor sag known as Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) uses two GPS measurements with one at a precisely known point which makes it possible to correct errors in the remote measurement. From the base station. can readily be installed on energised EHV transmission lines. Figure A-10 Proposed Basic Configuration of Differential GPS A-7 .Technology Review 208478-CR-001 Revision No: 1 30 July 2009 and/or ground clearance is determined at any point along the span from the catenary equation. or readily removed and relocated. including the targets.