CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC

DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM

THE ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS IN THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA

BY

NAWARU MOHAMMED FUSEINI PATIENCE FOFO AMOAH ZEMEME AKOTO

1

SEMPTEMBER 2006

CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC
DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM
THE ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS IN THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA

BY

NAWARU MOHAMMED FUSEINI PATIENCE FOFO AMOAH ZEMEME AKOTO

02/03/0054/D/TOR 02/03/0019/D/TOR 02/03/0016/D/TOR

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM, SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE AND ARTS OF CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN TOURISM

2

SEPTEMBER 2006 DECLARATION

We hereby declare that except for references to other people’s work, which have been duly cited, this project work is the result of our own original research and no part of it has been presented for another Higher National Diploma in any institution.

NAME OF STUDENT’S

SIGNATURE

Nawaru Mohammed Fuseini

………………………

Patience Fofo Amoah

…………………………

Zememe Akoto

…………………………

DATE: ……………………………………..

3

… Date……………………… MR.. Supervisor’s signature…………………………………. FRANKLIN DACOSTA (SUPERVISOR) 4 .CERTIFICATION The undersigned certify that he has read and recommend to the Tourism Department of the School of Applied Sciences and Arts of Cape Coast Polytechnic for the acceptance of this project.

DEDICATION We dedicate this project work to the Almighty God and the late Mr. Cape Coast Polytechnic. the former Head of Tourism Department. Andrews Obidiaba. 5 .

Franklin Dacosta. However. Space will not permit us to list names of all of them. Special thanks go to all lecturers of the Tourism Department.S. Johathan Nartey and family. our project supervisor for his valuable suggestions. Tetteh (Liberal studies Department). we owe a debt of gratitude to all those who supported us spiritually and financially namely: Mr. especially Jennis Hackey for typing and printing the manuscripts.B. comments and criticisms which extremely enriched the contents of this work. It is by His Grace and Mercy that this project work has come into existence.S. special mention should be made of Mr. Our gratitude also goes to all the staff of EDSAM Computers. Baba Hafiz and family. U.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT All thanks and praises to the Almighty God for sustaining us throughout all these years. Mrs. Faustina Lomo and Mr. Also. especially Mr. Felix Akoto and family. Owusu-Mintah (Head of Tourism Department) and Mr. We wish to express our profound gratitude to all those who have contributed in one way or the other in bringing this research work into being. Mr. 6 . Seth Nii Akwei Allotey. Mr.

profound thanks go to all those who contributed in one way or the other towards our education and also to the Tourism class of 2006. it has been a pleasure knowing all of you.Finally. 7 .

1 Statement of the Research Problem……………………………..vii List of Tables ……………………………………………………………….11 8 .11 1..2 Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………8 1..vi List of Figures ………………………………………………………………..5 Organization of the Study…………………………………………………9 1.…..i Declaration ………………………………………………………………….v Table of Contents ………………………………………………………….7 Significance of the Study………………………………………………….0 Background of the Study……………………………………………..7 1...ii Certification …………………………………………………………………..viii CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1...iv Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………..…….6 Definition of Terms………………………………………………………..4 Research Questions………………………………………………………9 1.TABLE OF CONTENTS CONTENT PAGE Title page …………………………………………………………………….10 1.8 Study Area………………………………………………………………….8 1..iii Dedication ………………………………………………………………….3 Justification of the Study……………………………………………….1 1....

.0 Introduction …………………………………………………………………32 3......…….4 Occupation of Respondents ……………………………………………..38 4.3 “Homowo” festival as an attraction ………………………………………21 2.…34 CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 4.1 The role of culture in tourism development ……………………………..32 3..36 4.5 Limitation of the study …………………………………………….0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………16 2.……39 4.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2...40 9 .34 3.1 Research method ……………………………………………………….1 Characteristics of respondent ……………………………………………….….5 Marital status of respondents ………………………………………………...26 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.…33 3..16 2..4 Promotion of “Homowo” festival to be part of cultural tourism in La….2 Cultural Tourism ………………………………………………………….3 Educational Background of Respondents ………………………………….0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………36 4.3 Methods of data collection …………………………………………….19 2.4 Time for data collection …………………………………………………….33 3.2 Analysis of main data …………………………………………………………37 4.2 Population and sample size …………………………………………….

….41 4.19 4.…46 Nationality of respondents ………………………………………………..18 4.15 4..13 4.….11 4..8 Social impacts from respondents ………………………………………….10 4...43 Effects of Environmental pollution ………………………………………44 Suggested ways of solving environmental pollution ……………….…51 How respondents obtained …………………………………………..42 4..43 4.…45 Respondents age group ……………………………………………….21 4...7 Generation of Employment ……………………………………………….20 4.12 4.47 Occupation of respondents ………………………………………….6 Economic benefits of “Homowo” Festival …………………………………....….45 Personal characteristics of Tourists ………………………………….…48 Educational background of respondents ……………………………….17 4.48 Respondents perception about Ghanaian hospitality ………………..41 4.52 10 .9 Types of social problems …………………………………………………….50 Admiration of local culture by respondents ……………………….16 4.14 4.22 Environmental impacts from respondents …………………………….49 Local resentment by respondents ………………………………….51 Conclusion ………………………………………………………………..…...4.

...54 5.3 Recommendations …………………………………………………………….....53 5.....53 5..57 LETTER OF INTRODUCTION ……………………66 11 ..2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………...…56 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B QUESTIONNAIRE .........1 Summary ………………………………………………………………………........ CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5........54 BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………….....0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………...CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY........

39 4. Nationality of respondents ……………………………………4 12 ..40 6. Generation of employment …………………………………….41 7.La. Educational background of respondents ……………………. Sex of respondents ……………………………………………46 14. Sex of respondents………………………………………………37 2. Suggested ways of solving environmental pollution ………. Effects of environmental pollution ……………………………44 12.. Types of social problems……………………………………….42 9.46 15.43 10.40 5.. Respondent’s age group …………………………………….... Social impacts from respondents …………………………….. Occupation of respondents ……………………………………. Marital status of respondents …………………………………. A map of Accra Metropolitan Area showing the Study Area .LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.42 8.45 13.. Age group of respondents ………………………………………38 3. Environmental impact from respondents ……………………44 11. Economic benefits from respondents …………………………... LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1.

“culture is the totality of the people’s way of life”. Preservation of cultural heritage includes the promotion of cultural festivals. of body. institutional support. Cultural heritage. study of culture and the attitude of the people. It is the advanced development of human power. works of arts. The former includes landscapes. on the other hand. scientific discoveries and production of material goods. vegetation. Paramount Chief of Sefwi Bekwai Traditional Area (1998). 13 . is the creative time pile up of many generations of people in the values of spiritual culture and embodied in books.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. mind and spirit by training and experience. The latter are principally the products of history and culture. According to Odeneho Gyapong Ababio II. forests and wildlife. climate.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Cooper et al (1993) grouped attractions into those which are natural and those which are man-made. It gives people their unique character and identity.

traditional sculpture. Undoubtedly. In addition.” “Damba” to mention a few are all deliberate works of ritual art. “the more unusual the cultural background. In respect to tourism. dance. poetry. is a central and dynamic institution which clearly exhibits the rich and unique cultural identity of the land of Gold (Ghana). architecture and literature radiates from this institution. Festivals comprise many artistic forms and actions in songs. each 14 . as it is known. poetry and religion. Cooper et al (1993) stated that. music and dance. the celebration of the week-long traditional festivals of “Homowo”. “Odwira. merry-making and even revelry. In Ancient Ghana. the dead and the living. patterns and general organization of festivals have always been in consonance with norms. ethnic group or society to another. festivals are man-made attractions and generally a period of celebration. It is at festivals that chiefs express their link between God and their people. chiefs provided facilities and workshops where artists and craftsmen settled to work. The motives. which is all among the reasons for the institutions of chieftaincy. producing all the royal paraphernalia it takes to maintain royalty. In Ghana. harvest and the people’s welfare. Customs.Chieftaincy. arts and crafts. trends. tribe. festivals may vary from one community. cultural practices and belief system held by the society or community undertaking that function. the more attractive the destination may become”. almost extensively for royal courts.

recreational and entertaining. ethnic group or society to recount its historical past. Traditional festivals invoke all the available artistic and cultural forms and practices orchestrated to a common purpose. one has it that. The Ga mythology has two explanation. In keeping with this definition. It is an important aspect of our culture because it is an occasion for a tribe.A. tribe or an ethnic group meet to remember. but also a moment of solemn and even spiritual cogitation. The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary explains festival as.ethnic group has it festival which encapsulates the ethos and peculiarities of a particular region. This explains why the festival is called the “Homowo” meaning “hooting at hunger”. “a day or time of religious and other celebration”. It is within such festivals that the art and culture of the people find their practical expression. According to A. Opoku (1970). 15 . Festivals are defined as the annual celebrations at which community. the “Homowo” festival came about as a result of bumper harvest after famine had broken out during their migration to their present-day settlement on the South – eastern coast of present-day Ghana. the history behind how the “Homowo” festival came to be with the Ga people is unknown. gods and ancestors for their protection and help. which is spiritual. honour and give thanks to God. the “Homowo” festival is not solely a period of festivity. community.

La. These people are 16 . Opoku (1970). A. a ban is placed on drumming and dancing and other forms of noisemaking. the chief of Ga Mashi Traditional Area. Basically. A. This is based on the use of unleavened cornmeal for ritual meal. It is celebrated on a Saturday in Accra or Ga Mashi.Another explanation to it is derived from the Jewish Passover in the Holy Bible. One common feature of the “Homowo” festival which is also associated with other traditional festivals in Ghana is its relations with the traditional occupation of the Ga people which is mainly fishing and farming. when the seven principal priests do the ritual sowing of corn. on a Friday at Tema. the application of red clay to the door post. and ends in late September when the corn is harvested. ten days later. A. Furthermore. in the suburbs of Osu. on a Tuesday. The ban is lifted after thirty days with a special ceremony by the Priests and the “Gbese Mantse”. the Ga Mashi “Homowo” is heralded by the return to town of Ga citizens living outside Ga Mashi on the Thursday immediately preceding “Homowo” Saturday. and Ningo. The actual “Homowo” day or “Koyeligbi” falls in August. this is done to promote peace and unity among the Ga people. After the sowing of the ritual corn. A. and the hurried and communal manner in which food is eaten. The “Homowo” season begins with the coming of the rain in early May. Opoku (1970).

At sunset they troop out to the seashore to cast away the leftovers of the feast with some ceremony. The next day after the arrival of “Soobii” is the traditional yam festival and lustral day of all twins. The women make sure the milled corn. Opoku (1970). It is also the time to besmear and polish the hearths and to paints the lintel of the main gateway into the house with red clay. The groups vie with one another in presenting the best turn-out and they go to the extent of presenting themselves in attractive uniforms and decorations. The entry of the Ga citizens who have return from other towns is draped with flags and blunting. A. The final and feverish preparations for the “Homowo” day go on at the same time with the feast of twins. Opoku (1970). the corn is soaked to get it ready for milling process the next day.A. singing and dancing. it is a sight to see.called “Soobii”. Later in the evening. the oil palm. In other towns where “Homowo” day falls on a Tuesday. The twins and their parents and relations clad in white and make merry in their homes with feasting. This reminds 17 . A. the Ga people who have travelled return home on the preceding Monday singing the “Kpa” songs. They match in groups corresponding to the seven quarters of Ga Mashi up to a point where they break up and each group goes to its quarter. the fish faggots and other essentials for the great feast are ready.A.

18 . while it is observed on a Wednesday in other towns. It is made from the steamed unleavened corn dough mashed by beating in mortar. flourishes of horn. Exodus 12:6-7 during the Jewish feast of the Passover. In the afternoon of the “Homowo” day. friends and in-laws to exchange “Noowala” greetings. This day falls on a Sunday in Ga Mashi. The day that follows the “Homowo” day is spent in visiting relations. There is a royal procession which is accompanied by drumming. A. dancing and sprinkling of “kpoikpoi” by the “Mantse”.one of the application of the blood of paschal lamb. the ritual food is sprinkled for the spirits of the departed and not the gods of the Ga people. This fosters solidarity between the young and the old. which is the ritual food for the “Homowo” festival. Both young and the old male members of the households mingle and gather round the ritual food and eat from the same bowl. by the women. Opoku (1970). singing. “Homowo kpoikpoi” is always eaten with palm soup. The sprinkling of “kpoikpoi” is done by the “Mantsemεi” within their areas of influence or authority. It is also a period of settling disputes and misunderstanding.A. The following day begins with the preparation of “Kpoikpoi”. This is later salted and mixed with palm oil.

Firstly. STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM The problem statement of this research is that the “Homowo” festival of the Gas of has lost its traditional value due to some reasons below: i. Finally. iii. These conflicts deprive the Gas of La off certain socio-economic benefits derived from the celebration of the “Homowo” festival.1. technology and other areas of human endeavour in the African milieu is instructed by the means of oral tradition. Secondly.1. Much knowledge is lost through distortions. ii. the existing misunderstandings and conflicts between the leaders is also a problem of “Homowo” festival. culture. the medicine. while passing on knowledge from “the mouth to the ear” over to generations. These problems can be hindrance to the tourism industry. This factor has caused the youth who are to take over from the elders in performing the rites during the celebration to ignore the “Homowo” festival. 19 . the fading away of the traditional value in the “Homowo” festival has being mainly due to the increasing filtration of western values in the African society.

To investigate how local people behave towards tourist during the celebration of “Homowo” festival at La.3. ii. an African and for that matter Ghanaian cultural renaissance. iv. v. It is also a token contribution toward. To examine how tourist impact socially on the lives of the local people when they take part in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival. 20 . JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY This work is a modest attempt at documenting how cultural tourism is being promoted in Ghana and to know why the “Homowo” festival has lost its traditional values. To find whether or not there are any negative impacts on the physical environment when “Homowo” festival is celebrated. To identify the economic benefits derived from the celebration of the “Homowo” festival at La. iii. 1.1. To identify the role of “Homowo” in promoting cultural tourism in La. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The aims of this study include: i.2.

21 .4. any reader should be able to answer the following research questions: i.1. guesthouses and lodges meet international requirements to accommodate foreigners and other visitors who join in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival at La? ii. During and after the celebration of the “Homowo” festival. RESEARCH QUESTIONS At the end of the study. Objectives of the study. Chapter one comprises: i. iv. Significance of the study. v. Finally. is there any negative or positive Impact (effects) on the local people? iii. Do the hotels. Justification of the study. vi. Definition of terms. How positively or negatively is the physical environment affected? Do the lives of the local people get better or not when tourists take part in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival. iv. ii. what role has “Homowo” got to play in promoting cultural tourism in La? 1. v. Statement of the research problem. Background of the study. ORGANIZATION OF STUDY The study would be made up of five chapters.5. iii.

Study area. DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms and vocabulary relates to the Ga people and celebration of the “Homowo” festival would be used extensively: i.6. Interviews and Questionnaires The fourth would comprise presentation of data and analysis. the Nanumba and the Wala. “Homowo” – A festival celebrated by the Ga people meaning hooting at hunger. The second chapter would be made up mainly of literature review to find out what other scholars said concerning the study area under discussion. 22 . iii. recommendation and references. The Gonja. The tools or instruments to be used in the collection of data include: i. “Odwira” – A festival celebrated by the Akuapims. The Mpamprusi. conclusion.vii. ii. “Damaba” – A festival celebrated by The Dagomba. 1. The fifth chapter would deal with summary. ii. The third chapter would be made up of the methodology used in the collection of data.

iv. v. vi.

“Koyeligbi” – day of feasting. “Kpa”- The local god of some sections of the Ga people. “Soobii”- the return to town Ga citizens who are living outside Ga Mashi.

vii. viii.

“Kpoikpoi” – A ritual food prepared from unleavened corn dough. “Mantsemεi” – chiefs.

1.7.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This work seeks to help in the study of tourism by defining the role “Homowo” plays in the promotion of cultural tourism in La. Also, this study would identify the effects of the festival on the lives of the people of La.

1.8.

STUDY AREA

1.8.1. PROFILE OF LA La is found within the jurisdiction of the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA). It is bounded on the south by the Gulf of Guinea and on the North by Cantonment and Burma Camp. It is also bounded on the west by Osu, while on the east, it is bounded by Teshie

1.8.2

RELIEF AND DRAINAGE The landscape of La is generally low lying. The Kpeshie Lagoon is found on its eastern boundary with Teshie. The wetlands of the lagoon serve as barriers to physical development. Moreover, the low lying landscape of La

23

has made it suitable for the cultivation of various vegetables and crops such as cabbage, garden eggs, carrots and many more.

1.8.3

CLIMATE La is located in littoral anomalous Zone of Ghana and it experiences relatively high temperatures throughout the year. The hottest months are in February and March, just before the main rainy season, while the coolest months are between June and August. La is humid and the total rainfall is between 800mm and 1000m.

1.8.4 VEGETATION The natural vegetation of La consists of shrubs of about 1.5m high, grasses and a few scattered trees. The original vegetation of dense shrub which the rainfall supported has been replaced by secondary vegetation as a result of activities of human.

1.8.5.

UTILITIES

5.1.

WATER La is well supplied with portable drinking water from the Weija Dam. Over 90 percent of the local residents are supplied with water from this source. However, seasonal shortages occur as a result of the drying up of the Densu River.

24

5.2.

ELECTRICITY La is allocated on the national grid. Electricity is supplied to all parts of La from the Akosombo Dam. Electricity Company of Ghana has the sole responsibility of supplying electricity to the people of La.

5.3. TELECOMMUNICATION La is endowed with more public phone booths, in addition to the fixed lines provided by Ghana Telecom and Westel Telecom. There are also private mobile telecommunication networks such as Areeba, Kasapa, Tigo and One touch, which operate in La.

1.8.6.

SERVICES

6.1.

BANKING Apart from the La community Bank, there are also wide ranges of banking facilities found in La. These include Ghana commercial Bank, National Investment Bank, in addition to many ‘susu’ groups in La.

6.2

TRANSPORTATION The main mode of transportation is by road. This is supported by taxis and “trotros”.

25

7. professionals. institutional workers. Labadi Beach Hotel.8. MARKET The compact nature of La has ensured that the International Trade Fair site capture the bulk of commodity flows into the country. Other satellite market and small selling centres are found at Palm-wine Junction. Jokers Restaurant. shrines. agriculture (fishing and farming) and other manufacturing. Interestingly. historical sites and other leisure facilities. Also tourism facilities found in La are the La pleasure Beach. big hotel chains. Kojo Sardine.8. Tourism activities emanate from and in La. Olympia and La Jauhe. These flows emanate from other countries and within the countries. restaurants.8. EMPLOYMENT The employment scene in La is dominated by petty trading. which is the La palm Royal Beach Resort. 1. with just a handful of people engaged in farming. TOURISM One of the fastest growing industries in La is the tourism industry.8. the only five-star hotel in Ghana is found in La.1.9. 26 . La is endowed with beautiful beaches. 1. Formula One Leisure Centre and so on. La is noted as a predominately fishing community. traditional arts and crafts.

27 .8. HEALTH The La General Hospital is the main health post provided by the Government for the people of La. In addition to this hospital are the numerous private health posts.10.1.

ethic 28 . Culture is the various forms of creative expressions that are traditionally recognized in a society. beliefs. They serve as potential attractions for tourist and other visitors into the country. THE ROLE OF CULTURE IN TOURISM DEVELOPMENT Culture has been defined as. literature.0. values and norms that combine to make up the way of life. This chapter would provide comprehensive information on what other scholars have said about the role of culture in tourism development. “Homowo “ festival as an attraction and promoting “Homowo “ festival to be part of tourism from the marketing point of view. art forms. 1998). INTRODUCTION. It serves as an avenue for providing identity to a community. it is the people’s way of doing things and their cherished values. 2. (Odeneho Gyapong Ababio II.1. cultural tourism. The celebration of festivals including the “Homowo” of the Gas at La has played a major role in the development of cultural tourism. “the totality of a people’s way of life”.CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Probing further into this definition. etc. It includes language. one could say.

Cultural heritage is all about mastering the creative time pile up of past generations. oral tradition. Using this treasure most efficiently and developing it further. beliefs.group or country. dresses. (Odeneho Gyapong Ababio II. rather than by only some individuals is an essential and necessary pre–requisite for turning out abundant products of spiritual culture. norms. music and dance of various ethnic groups in a country. It is one of the greatest treasures of mankind which was amassed over thousands of years. Development of society on the other hand. Cultural heritage is also the various artifacts. man makes his contribution to the priceless treasure of the future. thereby creating awareness for self realization and subsequently self confidence as a result of pride. “a recent important event which is the last in a series of latest events”. he may apply it efficiently for making new progress in the future that is development. Thus. 1998). Contemporary society is a continuation of the past and future of mankind. success and progress. by obtaining the creative energy of human thought and labour from the values of spiritual culture of past generations man benefits from it today and. The celebration of 29 . what is more. The Cambridge International Dictionary of English defines development as. means forward motion and consequently improvement. manifested in cultural values. In other words mastering of the culture values of the past by each person.

”any economic development carry with it implications on the social structure and cultural aspects of the population”. A major significance of these festivals including “Homowo” is that. culture plays a crucial role in the development of tourism. the tourism industry generates two hundred million jobs and an estimated three point four million dollars worldwide. Tourist and other visitors also use these projects when they join in the celebration of the festivals. Tourism is an economic activity that has become the fastest growing industry in the world. electricity.traditional festival is a way of preserving cultural heritage and developing the contemporary society. In addition. for tourism to succeed it must be sustainable economically. This implies that culture and the other factors play significant role in the tourism planning and development process. This could be done by involving local people in the planning and development of tourism. where the festival is well organized it serves as tourist attraction. especially in La. During festive celebrations. Finally. This situation has helped in culture playing a key role in 30 . they afford the people of the community opportunity to correct mistakes and to plan the future. A. K. Cooper et al (1993) stated that. water and so forth. culturally. Definitely. According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (1996). chiefs and their people raise funds for development projects like community centre. socially and environmentally“. Bhatia (2001) stated that “.

2. The quest and zest to probe is a factor that has contributed to people visiting different lands. dance. Bhatia (2001) said. art. music festival and other cultural events of importance. music and paintings of exotic origin. This curiosity has led people to reading and learning about the cultural heritage of other people and consequently visiting those places with unique cultural 31 . Culture is an essential tool for tourism development. especially La. The interest shown by many in architecture. see and learn about different places. CULTURAL TOURISM One of the main reasons for undertaking tourism activities is to give people the opportunity to be well–informed about others at different locations. is another aspect of man’s quest and zest to acquire knowledge. A. it is one of the platforms that other people would use to learn about the cultural heritage of the Ga people in Ghana. For instance is the celebration of the “Homowo” festival.2. In the present day world. technological advancement in the area of mass media has made it possible for people to read. because one aim of tourism is to promote the understanding of different cultures of both the host community and the visiting tourists.K.tourism development. “An increasing number of people are visiting different lands especially those places having important historical or cultural heritage of antiquity or those holding special art festival.

This is more than just providing reliable transportation system and relaxing in deluxe accommodation facilities. Ultimately. Thus cultural tourism is an important means of promoting cultural relations and international co-operation. environmental tourism. smith (1995) classified tourism destination into six categories. cultural tourism could be used to promote not 32 .heritage for leisure. cultural institutions needs to be tailored to visitor needs sometimes providing multilingual guides and sinage among others”. Events such as Panafest. Culture is a basic and vital raw material for every tourism industry. Cultural tourism is all aspects of travel whereby people learn about each other’s way of life and thought “. During such events people who come learn certain ways of life that make up the culture of the local people. Therefore. business tourism and recreational tourism. tourism discovers all the areas through which a destination could gain publicity to both existing and potential tourism market. It includes cultural tourism. Valene L. recreation and entertainment. “to increase accessibility. ethnic tourism. Goeldner et al (2000) stated that. historical tourism. This indicates how culture of the local people enhances the experience of tourists at a destination. “Homowo” festival and others are examples of tourism activities that provide the platform for cultural relations and international co-operations.

but would not exist without attractions. catering and other services to enjoy their stay away from their normal 33 . According to Cooper et al (1993) attractions generate the visit to a destination. For instances tourist and other visitors who join in the celebration of “Homowo” would need accommodation. Unless these are there. while other support services and facilities are also essential for tourism at the destination. but also the image of the country among foreigners in t he travel market. In other words. transport. attractions provide initial motivation to visit a particular place before introducing what a destination has to offer.3.K. Bhatia (2001). However. tourists would not be motivated to go to a particular place. This is because demand is as a result of tourists been drawn to the area by attractions. since the interests and tastes of tourists vary widely. “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL AS AN ATTRACTION The destination. a distinction between attraction and other support services should be made. 2. with its attraction and amenities is the most important asset and this is very basic to tourism.only knowledge and idea. Festivals such “Homowo” form part of the attractions in Ghana that promote tourism. A. Attractions provide the single most important reason for undertaking tourism activity at a destination. they might choose from a wide range of attractions available at the various destinations all over the world.

residence. In the proceeding sections of the study much care would be taken to explain each of them as a dimension which impact on cultural tourism. Each ethnic group in Ghana has its festival which encapsulates the ethos and peculiarities of that particular ethnic 34 . These dimensions include ownership.3.1. while others are owned by voluntary organizations and private sector. attractions are those elements in the tourist product which determine the choice of particular destination rather than another. Traditional festivals like “Homowo” are elements of Ghanaian culture which are privately owned by the local community that celebrates the said festival. OWNERSHIP One dimension that Cooper et al (1993) based on to classify attractions is the type of ownership. There are many different types of attractions and number of attempts has been made to classify them. is that they are shared with the host community. catchments area. Consequently. A common feature among attractions of which “Homowo” is part. permanency and type. fall with the domain of the public sector. Many attractions. These unique cultural practices cannot be taken away from the local people nor exchanged for the culture of other people. Cooper et al (1993) classified attractions based on a number of dimensions. both man –made and natural. 2. capacity.

3. 2. For example provision of water. Other support services such as hotels. telecommunication network. This implies that most time of the year the attraction has to match capacity. “Homowo” festival for example is celebrated during the summer season. catering services and entertainment facilities are owned by the private sector. This capacity of attraction is closely linked to the number of visitors and population of the catchments area. In most cases. 35 . forex bureau. hospital and roads that are found in the areas where the festival is celebrated are owned by the public sector. Cooper et al (1993) based the classification of attraction on the number of visitors that an attraction gets within specific periods of the year. CAPACITY The seasonal nature of attractions does not make it possible for product and visitor experience to be stored. The seasonal nature of attraction is divided into two namely: the peak season and the lean season. the peak season determines the capacity of an attraction while during lean season the attraction receives low patronage.group. so it receives higher patronage from tourists who are on summer holidays in Ghana. insurance. Facilities that are owned by both private and public sectors are used by tourists who join in the celebration of “Homowo”.2. electricity.

Only a handful of attractions draw tourists from international catchments area.3. This involves classifying attractions based on the areas served by an attraction.3. whilst the regional deals with attractions that attract tourist from the region in which it is located. Country parks are example of attraction that has local catchments area. The cultural practices 36 . Celebration of “Homowo” festival is a unique cultural event that attracts tourists from around the globe. the celebration of “Homowo” festival is the cultural heritage of the Ga people. In other words permanency means the potential for attraction to remain the same and continue for a long time. Local catchments area draw tourist from within few miles. environmental and historical features without detrimental effects. CATCHMENTS AREA. Attractions that have international catchments area have unique cultural. For instance.2. There are large varieties in the size of catchments from which attraction attract visitors. 2.3.4. PERMANENCY This refers to classification of attractions based on how a particular attraction could maintain its unique cultural. Cooper et al (1993) based the classification on the commercial viability is terms of investment cost and operating cost to establish and maintain attraction. It is celebrated annually with the performance of all the necessary cultural practices. environmental and historical features literally well–known around the world.

ethnic groups and countries.3. Thus. while the man-made attractions are all products of history and culture.including sprinkling of “Kpoikpoi“ have been with people since time immemorial and cannot be taken from the nor exchanged for any other thing.5. forests. but they also include artificially created entertainment complexes. climates.made attractions. because they provide access to a large market and have the economic 37 . Attractions were grouped into natural and man. In respect to natural attraction they are generally fixed in supply and are able to provide any limited amount of service at any given time frame. It was subdivided into site (because of physical location of facilities) and therefore acts as a destination and attractions which are intangible and ephemeral because they are events. Man–made attractions are most commonly results of history and culture of a country which have legacy of historic monuments and buildings. it is what is happening at the time that takes priority rather than the location. TYPES Attraction type is one of dimensions that Copper et al (1993) based on to classify. some of the most spectacular event in the forms of festivals and carnival takes place in societies. For events. It is the quality of the natural resource that often provides the attraction. vegetation and wildlife. The natural attractions are made up of landscapes. 2. Cooper et al (1993) further subdivided the basic classification made.

according to Cooper et al is “the descriptive term for the mix of communication activities which tourism companies. Methods that can be used in the promotion of attractions including “Homowo”. The methods outlined include advertising.base to support them. the methods that can be used to promote “Homowo” would be discussed. “Homowo” is an example of attraction that is intangible and ephemeral.4. PROMOTION OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL TO BE PART OF CULTURAL TOURISM AT LA Promotion. sales promotion. as part of tourism from the marketing point of view have been outlined by Cooper et al (Principles and practice of tourism 1993). This is done to achieve high patronage at a facility or event. Keeping with the dimensions Cooper et al (1993) based on to classify attractions. public relations and other promotional activities. or tourist board. personal selling. 38 . In this section of the study. carry out in order to influence those public on whom the sales depend “(1993: page 258). 2. it was evident that “Homowo” festival is a man-made attraction which could be promoted to give the festival an international dimension.

2. direct mail and bill boards. both definitions dealt with goods and services which are marketable. ADVERTISING Advertising is any paid form of non-personal communication through the media about a product or service that has an identified sponsor. newspaper. radio.K. and secondly by seeking to influence the judgment in favour of the particular goods and services which are subject of advertising. Issues mentioned above reveals that. One advantage of advertising is that.4. This would go a long way in promoting “Homowo” festival to be part of cultural tourism in La. one could say. A. magazines. 39 .1. television. The sales media is delivered through a paid medium for the purpose of influencing the buying behaviour of purchasers. Other objectives of advertising is about changing attitudes and building image as well as achieving sales. Bhatia (2001) also defined advertising as “any activity designed to spread information with the view of promoting sales of marketable goods and service”. “Homowo” could be advertised to create awareness since it takes place within a specific period within the year. firstly by spreading information among existing and potential customers about possibilities of consumption. From the definitions given about advertising. Also. it is a better method of reaching a large number of people at low cost. The paid medium may include travel guides. advertising operates in two ways.

This is used to improve demand at certain specific periods. cocktail. Merchandising involves materials used in travel agents to stimulate sales. For example.2. the communications manager of a large hotel like La Palm Royal Beach Resort can communicate with customers about the 40 . 2.2. (Cooper et. an important area is known as merchandising. free palm wine or free “kpoikpoi” offer can be used by a hotel and restaurant to promote sales during “Homowo” festival.4. Most incentives are planned short term in nature. 1993). PERSONAL SELLING Personal selling is an attempt to gain benefits through face-to-face or telephone contact between the sales representative and those people with whom the seller wants to communicate. This is important as a means of creating impulse buying or reminding the customer of what is on offer. For example. posters and souvenirs.4. SALES PROMOTION Sales promotion involves any activity which offers an incentive to induce a desired result from either existing and potential customers or trade intermediaries.3. Advertising and sales promotion are said to be the most widely used forms of promotion. As a part of sales promotion. The celebration of “Homowo” could be published in brochures or leaflets of travel agents with an attempt to sell their tour packages. al. This sort of selling may be used by non-profit making museum as well as by the manager of a larger hotel.

but also suppressing bad coverage. It is very essential in public relations to provide complete information and facts to both existing and potential customer about the tour package or goods. Hence. Public relations are important not only in obtaining editorial coverage. public relations assume special significance in tourism. public relations involve measures designed to improve the image of goods and services to create more favourable climate for its advertisement and sales promotion activities. The coverage could include a space given for a press release or favourable editorial comment. Public relations in the field of tourism assume special importance because of the peculiar nature of the product. and which is not paid for by source.4. In simpler terms. An example is promoting “Homowo” festival as part of cultural tourism in La through favourable editorial comment or a space given for press release in the Daily Graphic or Ghanaian Times newspapers. but only a relatively small number of people can be contracted. Such promotional activity would help create and maintain a positive image of the “Homowo” festival in the minds of people who are in 41 . personal selling has a high potential for achieving objectives. PUBLIC RELATIONS Public relations are a non-personal communication which charges opinions and achieves coverage is a mass medium. 2. As compared to advertising.celebration of “Homowo” at La and the package that awaits them when they join in the celebration of the festival.4.

The main method is by direct mail. which is a postal communication by an identified sponsor. which does not form part of the sponsoring company’s normal business. This is done to get the message of their product to both existing and potential customers. Finally. on the other hand.4. Ghana Breweries Company (producers of Star beer) for example.position to influence public opinions (includes journalists.5. Basically. for the creation of favourable image of the tourist product. firstly. a great deal of promotion includes the production of 42 . 2. Sponsorship is defined as the material and financial support for a specific activity. which according to Cooper et al (1993) does not fit comfortably into the other four promotion categories. editors and travel writers) or in the minds of sales intermediaries (travel agents and tour operators). Direct marketing. the objective of public relations in the promotion of “Homowo” as part cultural tourism may be divided into two parts. provides sponsorship for festivals in Ghana including “Homowo” festival. that is the “Homowo” festival. and secondly. due to the intangible nature of tourist product including the “Homowo” festival. the dissemination of information. OTHER PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES There is a growing use of sponsorship and direction marketing. is used extensively by direct-sell tour operators such as Expert travel.

printed communication such as brochures and leaflets. compilation and printing of tourism brochures is one of the most important promotion method that could be employed to promote “Homowo” festival as part of cultural tourism in La. The design. 43 .

RESEARCH METHOD In line with achieving the earlier stated objectives. while space would be provided for the open-ended questions. When the questionnaires were designed.CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3. 3. used in the data analysis would be described in the chapter. sampling methods used for data collection and tools. much attention and care was taken to make sure that difficult questions were avoided with regards to the various standards of educational attainment of the general public. were designed to obtain information from both the literate and illiterate groups of the selected area. 44 . questionnaires.1. The target population. The respondents are expected to tick [√] appropriate answers to the close ended questions. Also the questions were developed in two forms: open-ended and close ended questions.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter would basically deal with the research methods employed for the study.

QUESTIONNAIRE A questionnaire that served as a data collection instrument was developed and tested to ensure that questions were fully understood by respondents. 45 . La was chosen because of the topic to be researched into.3. 3.2 POPULATION AND SAMPLE SIZE Actually. A. This personal distribution approach was adopted so that researchers would be in the position to explain what has been stated in the questionnaire and also what is expected from the respondents. This approach would help respondents to know what research is about and would make answering easier. the topic and research objectives are focused on both local residents and tourists who take part in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival. The questionnaire would be sent personally to the general public to ensure safe delivery.3.000) residents. Due to time constraints and other resources a sample of sixty (60) was to represent a whole population of two hundred thousand (200. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION Questionnaires and interviews are methods to be used in the collection of data for the research.

This was a major problem encountered during the research.5. INTERVIEWS Interviews were undertaken so that the researchers could obtain essential information from the population sample selected. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY A whole lot of problems were encountered during the conduct of the research. 3. Transportation cost to contact respondents and other people as well as purchasing certain materials for the research really posed problem during the research. The problems encountered when the research was been conducted on the field of study include: i. ii. The research study involved a lot of money. 3. TIME FOR DATA COLLECTION Enough time was actually given to respondents to react to questionnaire before collection. respondents felt reluctant in answering the questions with the notion that they might expose certain information that were not supposed to be exposed.4. Another reason was that. The interviews were conducted on several occasions with the time that favoured the selected sample. they do not have 46 . Furthermore.B. The lack of funds to conduct the research.

relatives and friends to conduct the study. writing and asking questions at the same time made the interview boring and difficult. Some people who fell within the sample selected made the interview a difficult one. resentment and annoyance were received at times because respondents saw it as disturbance to their daily schedules. iv. These problems were solved by allocating a particular period barely a month for conducting the research and was financially supported by the students loan. Finally. iii. v. it wasted a whole lot if time for our studies in school. Most vital information were lost during the interview because listening. 47 . because the time scheduled for the conduct of interviews were changed several times. Thirdly. Other interviewers who had bad experiences form other students through research interviews were not allowed to be interviewed. the conduct of the interview was another problem encountered during the research.enough time since it has to take then some time to finish answering the questionnaires. Also. most of the people interviewed during the research did not allow their voices to be recorded on tape. Also.

while 12 female respondents represented 40 percent. This is shown below. which covered frequencies and percentages. which involves the tools used for data analysis. their age.1 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL RESIDENTS Table one (1) shows that 18 respondents representing 60 percent of the sample selected were males. educational background.CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS 1. were used in the study to analyze the data that were gathered on both illiterate and literate groups in La. social and environmental impacts of the celebration of “Homowo” festival of the Gas in La. Descriptive analyses were also used in analyzing the data collected.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter deals basically with the presentation and analysis of data. occupation and nationality. The tables presented were prepared after the answered questionnaires have been carefully edited and tallied. 4. The analysis covered sex of respondents. This is followed by the views of some selected sample of the population to know their perception on economic. Tables. 48 .

September 2006. This is shown in table 2 below. The table below implies that majority of the respondents were within the ages of 18-25. whilst 56 and above had 2 respondents representing 7 percent. which also represented the least sample selected.2 AGE GROUP OF RESPONDENTS Table two (2) indicates that majority of the respondents were within the ages of 18-25 which represented 33 percent of the sample selected. 4.TABLE 1: SEX OF RESPONDENTS SEX Male Female Total FREQUENCY 18 12 30 PERCENTAGE (%) 60 40 100 Source: field survey. TABLE 2: AGE GROUP OF RESPONDENTS 49 .

while one (1) respondent had formal education.3 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS Fifteen (15) respondents representing 50 percent of the selected sample have had tertiary education.AGE GROUP 18-25 26-30 31-35 36-45 46-55 56+ Total FREQUENCY 10 5 3 6 4 2 30 PERCENTAGE (%) 33 17 10 20 13 7 100 Source: field survey. This vividly shows that the selected sample had more people with high educational background. which represented 3 percent of sample selected. September 2006. TABLE 3: EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS LEVEL OF EDUCATION FREQUENCY 50 PERCENTAGE (%) . 4. This is shown in the table below.

4 OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS The self employed formed 30 percent of the selected sample. September 2006 3 17 20 10 50 100 4. whilst one (1) unemployed represented 3 percent of those interviewed. This is shown in the table below. TABLE 4: OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS OCCUPATION Farming / fishing Student Self employed Public/civil servant Unemployed other Total FREQUENCY 3 8 9 5 1 4 30 51 PERCENTAGE (%) 10 27 30 17 3 13 100 . education 6 Post-sec. education 3 Tertiary education 15 Total 30 Source: field survey.Informal education 1 Basic education 5 Sec/ tech.

TABLE 6: ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF THE “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL FROM RESPONDENTS 52 . while the widowed were the least in the selected sample and this represents 2 respondents or 7 percent.Source: field survey.5 MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS The table below shows that majority of the respondents are married and they represented 43 percent of the selected sample. 4. This is shown below. 20 respondents representing 67 percent responded yes to positive economic benefits derived from the celebration of the “Homowo” festival.6 PERCENTAGE (%) 37 43 13 7 100 ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL FROM RESPONDENTS From the sample selected. 4. September 2006. while 10 respondents representing 33 percent responded no to any positive economic benefits of the “Homowo” festival. September 2006. TABLE 5: MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS MARITAL STATUS FREQUENCY Single 11 Married 13 Widowed 4 Divorced 2 Total 30 Source: field survey.

while the sale of drugs (pharmacy) generated the least employment for the local people. TABLE 7: GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT SOURCE OF EMPLOYMENT FREQUENCY Sale of traditional arts and crafts 9 Sale of food 7 Tour guiding 4 Sale of drugs (pharmacy) 2 Hotel accommodation 5 Tour/travel operation 3 Total 30 Source: field survey. PERCENTAGE(%) 30 23 13 7 17 10 100 4.8 SOCIAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS Seventeen (17) respondents representing 57 percent of the sample selected responded yes to negative social impacts on the local people possibly from tourists. September 2006. PERCENTAGE (%) 67 33 100 4. but 13 responded no to any negative social impacts 53 .RESPONDS FREQUENCY Yes 20 No 10 Total 30 Source: field survey. September 2006. which had 2 respondents representing 7 percent of the selected sample. This is shown in table 7 below.7 GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT The table below depicts that 9 respondents representing 30 percent are of the view that the sale of traditional arts and crafts generates a lot of employment for the local people during the celebration of “Homowo” festival in La.

the level of cultural infiltration such as drinking and smoking by the youth are on the rise. This is shown below. 4.9 TYPES OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS Table nine (9) below clearly depicts that 12 respondents representing 40 percent are of the view that during the celebration “Homowo” festival. TABLE 8: SOCIAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS RESPONDS FREQUENCY Yes 17 No 13 Total 30 Source: field survey.10 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS From the table below. September 2006. They youth are the victims of such bad habits or attitudes possibly copied from tourists.from tourists during the celebration of “Homowo” festival. While 7 respondents representing 23 percent did not pass any comment. 18 respondents or 60 percent of the selected sample responded yes to environmental pollution as a result of the 54 . PERCENTAGE (%) 57 43 100 TABLE 9: TYPES OF SOCIAL PROBLEMS PROBLEMS FREQUENCY Overcrowding 6 Cultural infiltration 12 Prostitution 5 No comment 7 Total 30 Source: field survey. This is shown below. September 2006 PERCENTAGE (%) 20 40 17 23 100 4.

TABLE 11: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION EFFECTS FREQUENCY Noise making 8 Diseases 13 No comment 9 Total 30 Source: field survey. 12 respondents representing 40 percent of the selected sample responded no to any environmental pollution created by tourists. TABLE 10: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS FROM RESPONDENTS RESPONDENTS FREQUENCY Yes 18 No 12 Total 30 Source: field survey. September 2006 PERCENTAGE(%) 27 43 30 100 4. September 2006.11 EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Thirteen (13) respondents representing 43 percent as shown in Table 11 below mentioned the outbreak of diseases as a result of pollution possibly by the influx of tourists during the celebration of “Homowo” festival. While 8 respondents or 27 percent of the selected sample mentioned noise making as a pollutant and 9 respondents or 30 percent of the sample selected did not pass any comment. This is shown below.possibly tourists’ influx during the celebration of “Homowo” festival. Also.12 SUGGESTED WAYS(S) OF SOLVING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 55 . PERCENTAGE (%) 60 40 100 4.

TABLE 12: SUGGESTED WAY(S) OF SOLVING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION SUGGESTED WAY(S) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) Education 10 Environmental sanitation 11 Enforcement of environmental laws 1 No comment 8 Total 30 Source: field survey. This is shown below. This is shown below. while 12 respondents representing 40 percent were females.From the sample selected. 33 37 3 27 100 4. Also. September 2006.13 PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISTS The table below shows that 18 respondents representing 60 percent of the selected sample were males. while 10 respondents representing 33 percent mentioned that both host community and tourists should be educated on the dangers of environmental pollution. 11 respondents representing 37 percent mentioned that environmental sanitation should be improved. TABLE 13: SEX OF RESPONDENTS SEX Male Female Total FREQUENCY 18 12 30 PERCENTAGE(%) 60 40 100 56 . 8 respondents or 27 percent of the selected sample mentioned the enforcement of environment laws as ways of solving environmental pollution.

14 RESPONDENTS AGE GROUP Table fourteen (14) shows that the majority of the respondents were within the ages of 26-30 representing 30 percent sample selected.Source: field survey. September 2006. TABLE 14: RESPONDENTS AGE GROUP AGE GROUP FREQUENCY 18-25 8 26-30 9 31-35 3 36-45 4 46-55 4 56+ 2 Total 30 Source: field survey. which had one (1) respondent or 3 percent of the sample selected each. This is shown below. The least respondents were from Togo. Spain. 57 . September 2006 4. PERCENTAGE(%) 27 30 10 13 13 7 100 4. This is shown below.15 NATIONALITY OF RESPONDENTS Majority of the respondents were domestic tourists form Ghana and they were represented by 11 respondents or 37 percent of the sample selected. Singapore and Jamaica. while the least in the selected sample were 56 and over had 2 respondents representing 7 percent. Cuba. This signifies that majority of the respondents are within the ages of 26-30. South Africa.

S. While one (1) respondent each or 3 percent of the sample selected were farming/ fishing or public/ civil servants. PERCENTAGE(%) 7 7 37 7 3 3 3 7 3 10 3 3 7 100 4. OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS Table seventeen (17) below indicates that majority of the respondents were self employed. September 2006. This is shown below.A 2 Ghana 11 Germany 2 Togo 1 South Africa 1 Spain 1 Sweden 2 Singapore 1 England 3 Cuba 1 Jamaica 1 France 2 Total 30 Source: field survey.16.TABLE 15: NATIONALITY OF RESPONDENTS COUNTRY OF ORIGIN FREQUENCY Nigeria 2 U. that is 12 respondents represented 40 percent of the selected sample were self employed. TABLE 17: OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS OCCUPATION Farming / fishing Student Self employed Public/civil servant FREQUENCY 1 8 12 1 58 PERCENTAGE (%) 3 27 40 3 .

education 1 Post-sec. while 1 respondent or 3 percent of the sample selected have had secondary / technical educational background.17 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS Twenty-two (22) respondents representing 73 percent of the selected sample have had tertiary education. In other words. This is shown below. 16 respondents representing 53 percent of the sample selected viewed the Ghanaian hospitality as good. This vividly shows that majority of the respondents had attained high educational background. 12 respondents which represented 40 percent of the 59 . 27 100 4.18 RESPONDENTS PERCEPTION ABOUT GHANAIAN HOSPITALITY According to table eighteen (18). Also.Unemployed Others 8 Total 3 Source: field survey. majority of respondents viewed the Ghanaian hospitality as good. TABLE 17: EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND OF RESPONDENTS LEVEL OF EDUCATION FREQUENCY Informal education Basic education 2 Sec. while 2 respondents viewed the Ghanaian hospitality as normal. September 2006. PERCENTAGE(%) 7 3 17 73 100 4. / Tech. September 2006. education 5 Tertiary education 22 Total 30 Source: field survey.

TABLE 19: LOCAL RESENTMENT BY RESPONDENTS RESPONDS Friendly Apathy Acceptable FREQUENCY 12 2 6 PERCENTAGE(%) 40 7 20 60 .selected sample indicated that the Ghanaian hospitality is very good. September 2006. only 2 respondents or 7 percent of the sample selected responded that the local people are apathy to tourists. TABLE 18: RESPONDENTS PERCEPTION ABOUT GHANAIAN HOSPITALITY RESPONDS Very good Good Normal Bad Very bad Total FREQUENCY 12 16 2 30 PERCENTAGE(%) 40 53 7 100 Source: field survey. This is shown below.19 LOCAL RESENTMENT BY RESPONDENTS The table below vividly depicts that 12 respondents representing 40 percent of the selected sample responded that the local people are friendly. Whilst. 4.

TABLE 20: ADMIRATION OF LOCAL CULTURE BY RESPONDENTS RESPONDS FREQUENCY Yes 27 No 3 Total 30 Source: field survey. This is shown below.20 33 100 ADMIRATION OF LOCAL CULTURE BY RESPONDENTS All indications from the table below shows that 27 respondents representing 90 percent of the selected sample responded yes that they admired the local culture. while three (3) respondents or 10 percent of the sample selected responded no to the admiration of the local culture. That is 12 respondents representing 40 percent of the sample selected responded that they obtained the information through either friends or relatives. September 2006. But only 2 respondents or 7 percent of the sample selected received the information through the radio. Table twenty-one (21) clearly shows that majority of the respondents obtained information about the celebration of the “Homowo” festival through word-of–mouth.Good 10 Total 30 Source: field survey. PERCENTAGE(%) 90 10 100 4.21 HOW RESPONDENTS OBTAINED INFORMATION ABOUT THE CELEBRATION OF THE “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL. September 2006 4. This is shown below. 61 .

September 2006. CONCLUSION From the tables and analysis in this chapter.22.TABLE 22: HOW RESPONDENTS OBTAINED INFORMATION ABOUT THE CELEBRATION OF THE “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL RESPONDS FREQUENCY Word-of –mouth 12 Internet 9 Television 3 Radio 2 Newspaper 4 Total 30 Source: field survey. the frequencies or percentages which are higher are the very heart beats of the respondents and need to be concentrated on to enhance the achievement of the earlier stated objectives of this study. PERCENTAGE(%) 40 30 10 7 13 100 4. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 62 .

interviews conducted.1 SUMMARY This chapter presents the summary of the entire study. the time of data collection and the problems encountered on the study and how they were solved. Chapter one (1) comprised of the background of the study. significance of the study and the study area.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter entails the summary. justification of study. 63 . the statement of research problem. objectives of the study. The chapter four (4) dealt with the presentation and analysis of the data. cultural tourism.5. research questions. definition of terms. The chapter two(2) was made up of the literature review to find out what other authors said about the role of culture in tourism development. conclusion and recommendations outlined by the team of researchers. “Homowo” as an attraction and promotion of “Homowo” festival to be part of cultural tourism in La. how questionnaires were distributed . organization of the study. 5. Chapter three (3) covered the methodology used in the sampling and collection of data.

Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) as well as the 64 . for the crucial role of the “Homowo” festival in the promotion of cultural tourism in La. Another recommendation is that the publicity of the festival should go hand-in-hand with the national campaign against HIV/AIDS. RECOMMENDATIONS Following the outcome of the research. Also. it could be concluded that the Government in collaboration with the Ministry of Tourism and Diaspora Relations and the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) must support the “Homowo” festival planning committee with all the necessary expertise. logistics and facilities to promote the festival within and outside Ghana. so that the level of prostitution could decline. 5. 5.Finally. there is the need for strategic planning and effective managerial methods on the part of all stakeholders.3. these recommendations have been outlined below to help all stakeholders involved in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival in La. iii. i.2 CONCLUSION From the research conducted. The centre for National culture. It is recommended that the “Homowo” festival be launched at the beginning of the year and this should be followed by effective publicity to create awareness of the celebration of the festival ii. the Ministry of Tourism and Diaspora Relations.

It is also recommended that the marketing of the “Homowo” festival should be undertaken to portray the natural beauty of the culture of the Gas in La. Also. reduce or eliminate possible social and environmental impacts. The Role of Culture in Tourism Development: A paper presented at the 1st Western Regional Tourism Development Conference (1998). it is recommended that laws and regulations should be enforced during and after the celebration of the “Homowo” festival to prevent or eliminate immoral behaviours on the part of both tourists and local community. Finally. BIBLIOGRAPHY Adagio Gyapong Odeneho II. vi. facilities needed to make the stay of tourists and other visitors a success before and after the celebration of the “Homowo” festival should be created to encourage repeat visits. iv. to prevent. Private organizations and investors should also be encouraged to invest in the celebration of “Homowo” festival vii. it is recommended that stakeholders educate both host community and tourists. Furthermore.“Homowo” festival planning committee should make efforts at packaging the festival in an attractive way. viii. Churches should be educated on the relevance of celebrating the “Homowo” festival in La v. 65 .

New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Opoku A. Tourism Principles and Practices.Bhatia. New York. (1970). Practices and Philosophies.R. et al. (1993). (1999). (2000). A. (1989). Cooper. Festivals of Ghana. C. International Tourism Management (Revised Edition). Goeldner. Ghana Publishing Corporation. CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM TOPIC: THE ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS IN THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA 66 . London: Pitman Publishing. Cambridge International Dictionary of English. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. Valene. Accra. L. Gilbert and Wanhill. (2001). Fletcher. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. Host and Guest: The Anthropology of Tourism. Tourism: Principle.A. Smith. Oxford University press. (1997). New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Limited. Cambridge University press.K.

Divorced [ ] d. 31-35 d. Thank you very much. Single [ ] b. 36-45 e. Age Group a. 26-30 c. MODULE A PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. Sex: (a) Male 3. Widowed [ 67 .QUESTIONNAIRE FOR LOCAL RESIDENTS STUDY AREA: LA This questionnaire is aimed at finding out the economic benefits derived from the celebration of “Homowo” festival. Female [ ] 2. Married [ ] ] c. 56 + [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] b. 46-55 f. Marital status: a. Please tick [√] and provide information where appropriate. 18-25 b. Your responses will be kept as confidential as possible and be used mainly for the purpose for which it is intended.

Public / Civil Servant [ [ ] ] [ ] [ ] f.4. Tertiary education [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 5. Student c.……………………………………………. Farming/ Fishing b. Basic education c. Informal education b. /Tech. Sec. Post-sec education e.. Self employed d. We very much value you willingness to answer the questions frankly. Occupation a. Other (Specify) …………………………. Do you get money from tourists during the “Homowo” festival celebration? Yes [ ] No [ ] 68 . education d. MODULE B ECONOMIC BENEFITS 6.. Educational Background a.

.................. 9.... why............... Do tourists give you problems when they take part in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival? Yes [ ] No [ ] 69 . if no..7.......................... in which way? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… b......... Have you gained employment through the help of any tourists? Yes [ ] No [ ] 10....... Are you gainfully employed when tourists come to participate in the celebration of “Homowo” festival? Yes [ ] No [ ] MODULE C SOCIAL IMPACT 11......... Have you ever received any help from any tourist? If yes............ What job do you do to get money from tourists during the celebration? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 8a................

give reasons why you think they do not..………………………………………………. Do tourists pollute the environment when they come for the celebration “Homowo” festival? Yes [ ] No [ ] 14a. If no. Do you suffer from the pollution? Yes [ ] No [ ] 16. ……………………………………………... …………………………………………. how is the environment polluted? …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …. Mention some of the problem (s) they give you i. 15. MODULE D ENVIRONMENT IMPACT 13.12. Mention some problem(s) as a result of the pollution 70 ..………………………………………………..………………………………………………. If yes. b. ii…………………………………………….

…………………………………………………………………………………….. ii…………………………………………………………………………………………….i……………………………………………………………………………………………. iii……………………………………………………………………………………………. Do you think the problem(s) of pollution of the environment by tourists’ influx can be solved? Yes [ ] No [ ] 18. ………………………………………………………………………………… CAPE COAST POLYTECHNIC DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM TOPIC: ROLE OF “HOMOWO” FESTIVAL OF THE GAS IN THE PROMOTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM IN LA 71 . 17. In what way(s) can it be solved? i. ii.

18-25 b. Thank you very much. 45-55 f. Nationality: …………………………………………………………………. 31-35 d.. Age Group a.……… If Ghanaian. 56+ [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] (b) Female [ ] 2. 26-30 c. Please tick [√] and provide information where necessary. Your responses will be kept as confidential as possible and used mainly for the purpose for which it is intended.QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TOURISTS STUDY AREA: LA This questionnaire is aimed at finding out how local people behave towards tourists during the celebration of “Homowo” festival. tribe ………………………………………………………………………. MODULE A PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. 72 . Sex: (a) Male 3.. 36-45 e.

Do you feel happy when you meet the local people? Yes [ ] No [ ] 73 . Tertiary education [ ] 6. Student c. Sec. Public / civil Servant e.4. Post-sec education [ ] e. Other (specify) ………………………………………………………………………. Educational background a. Basic education [ ] c. Unemployed [ [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] ] f. Marital status: (a) Single (c) Divorced [ ] [ ] (b) Married (d) Widowed [ ] [ ] 5. Self employed d.. MODULE B LOCAL RESENTMENT 7. Occupation a.. /Tech education [ ] d. Farming / Fishing b. Informal education [ ] b.

ii. Very Good [ ] e. Is this your first time of coming for the celebration of “Homowo” festival? Yes [ ] No [ ] 74 . …………………………………………………………………………………………. 13. Give reason(s) for you answer i. Bad [ ] ] c. …………………………………………………………………………………………. Good [ ] b.. Normal d. Very Bad [ 10. Do you admire the culture of the local people? Yes [ ] No [ ] 12. What you think about Ghanaian Hospitality? a.8. Do you think the local people feel happy when they have you in their midst? Yes [ ] No [ ] 11. How are you treated as a foreigner in the midst of the local people? ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 9..

Television d. 17. radio e.. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ii. 16. If no. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ii.14. . 75 . give reasons why i. Newspaper f.………………………………………………………………………………………. If yes. give reasons why i. word-of-month b. …………………………………………………………………………………………. Other (specify)……………………………………………………………………. How did you get to know about the “Homowo” festival? a. Indent c.. Would you like to take part again in the celebration of the “Homowo” festival again? Yes [ ] No [ ] 15.