Satellites

GOES-8, a decommissioned United States weather satellite.

Four GOES satellites are currently available for operational use:

GOES-11 is designated GOES-West, currently located at 135°W over the Pacific Ocean.[1]

GOES-12 is designated GOES-South, currently located at 75°W over the Amazon River.[2]

GOES-13 is designated GOES-East, currently located at 105°W. It provides most of the U.S. weather information.[3]

GOES 14 was placed in orbit on 7 July 2009, underwent Post-Launch Testing until December 2009 and then was placed in on-orbit storage.[4]

Several GOES satellites are still in orbit, either inactive or re-purposed. GOES-3 is no longer used for weather operations, but is a critical part of the communication links between the United States and Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. Geostationary satellites cannot ordinarily be seen at all from the poles, but they require station keeping fuel to keep them stationary over the equator. When station keeping fuel runs out, solar and lunar perturbations increase the satellite's inclination so that its ground track begins to describe a figure-8 in the north-south direction. This usually ends the satellite's primary mission. But when the inclination is high enough, the satellite may begin to rise above the polar horizons at the extremes of the figure-8, as is the case for GOES-3. A nine-meter dish was constructed at the station, and communication with the satellite is currently possible for about five hours per day. Data rates are around 2.048 Mbit/s bi-directional under optimum conditions. GOES-8 (GOES-East when it was in operation) is in a parking orbit, currently drifting about 4°W daily.[5] It was decommissioned on April 1, 2003, and deactivated on May 5, 2004, after the failure of its propulsion system.[6]

With the cessation of GOES-10's duties. [edit]Purpose Designed to operate in geostationary orbit. GOES-10 was moved from South America operations to temporarily replace GOES-12 as the GOES-EAST operational satellite. 2007. South America and southern Canada. GOES-11 initially took "full disk" images to cover the lost data until a contingency plan could be implemented. neighboring environs of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. and Central. the advanced GOES I–M spacecraft continuously view the continental United States. The importance of this capability has been exemplified during hurricanes Hugo (1989) and Andrew (1992). body-stabilized spacecraft design enables the sensors to "stare" at the earth and thus more frequently image clouds. GOES-12 visible light image. GOES-13 has replaced GOES-12 as "GOESEast". protection of property. ensuring real-time coverage of short-lived dynamic events. These advanced spacecraft enhance the capability of the GOES system to continuously observe and measure meteorological phenomena in real time. It no longer had the fuel for required maneuvers to keep it on station[12]. and sound the atmosphere for its vertical thermal and vapor structures. but communication was resumed via a backup antenna. GOES-12 was then moved to 60W and resume South American duties for GOES-10. especially severe local storms and tropical cyclones—two meteorological events that directly affect public safety. providing the meteorological community and atmospheric scientists greatly improved observational and measurement data of the Western Hemisphere. which pushed the satellite incorrectly. Emergency procedures were executed to cut off the valve. The GOES I–M series of spacecraft are the principal observational platforms for covering such dynamic weather events and the near-earth space environment for the 1990s and into the 21st century.[8] On 9 December. 2009 and was boosted to a graveyard orbit. communication with GOES-10 was also temporarily lost. GOES-12 water vapor image. monitor earth's surface temperature and water vapour fields. 2007 when it performed a standard station-keeping maneuver. 35. In addition to .[10] The trouble was traced to a leaking thruster valve. and a redundant thruster was activated to restore the location of the satellite. thereby remaining stationary with respect to a point on the ground. economic health and development.Communication was lost for 13 days to GOES-12 on December 4. Thus the evolution of atmospheric phenomena can be followed.[11] GOES-10 was decommissioned on December 2.790 km (22. The three-axis.[9] GOES-12 was successfully reactivated and moved back to normal operation following a thrust maneuver on 17 December. and ultimately.[7] On December 5. It joins GOES 8 and 9 which are already in graveyard orbits.240 statute miles) above the earth.

Virginia[13] The GOES satellites are controlled from the Satellite Operations Control Center (SOCC) located in Suitland. all used for in-situ surveying of the near-earth space environment. [edit]Satellite designations Before being launched. Data is received via the NOAA Command and Data Acquisition ground station at Wallops Island. The Imager is a multichannel instrument that senses infrared radiant energy and visiblereflected solar energy from the Earth's surface and atmosphere. numerical weather prediction models..). -B. Air Force Rescue Coordination Center. The Sounder provides data for vertical atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles. During significant weather or other events the normal schedules can be altered to provide coverage requested by the National Weather Service and other agencies. [edit]Payload The main mission is carried out by the primary payload instruments. design and manufacturing of GOES is overseen by NASA. Invertible GOES logo designed forSpace Systems/Loral by Scott Kim In addition. GOES spacecraft have been manufactured by Boeing (GOES D-H and N–P) and Space Systems/Loral (A–C and I–M). Because GOES-G was a launch failure. although none of these imagers are currently active. surface and cloud top temperature. Once a GOES satellite is launched successfully. a high energy proton and alpha detector. the GOES satellites carry Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) and Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) receivers. -3. the Imager and the Sounder. an X-ray sensor. Since then. The latter consists of amagnetometer. it never received a number. while all operations of the satellites once in orbit are done by NOAA. The procurement. and ozone distribution. Other instruments on board the spacecraft are the ground-based meteorological platform data collection and relay.). which are used for search-and-rescue purposes by the U. Maryland.short-term weather forecasting and space environmental monitoring. and environmental sensor design and development. So. Satellites numbered 12 and greater also carry a solar imager. . and the space environment monitor. GOES-H to GOES-N became GOES-7 to GOES-13. -2. these enhanced operational services also improve support for atmospheric science research.. it is redesignated with a number (-1. and an energetic particles sensor. GOES satellites are designated by letters (-A. GOES-A to GOES-F became GOES-1 to GOES-6..S.. The two current GOES series (I-M and N-P) are documented in the "GOES I–M Databook" and "GOES N Databook". -C.

[21] [edit]Future The GOES-R series of spacecraft is in the development phase.[22] The first GOES-R series satellite is scheduled for launch in fiscal year 2015[23] and is expected to remain operational through December 2027. In October 2006. EDT from Florida'sCape Canaveral Air Force Station at Space Launch Complex 37 piggybacking on a Delta IV rocket. and was renamed as GOES-14 once it successfully arrived on orbit. which includes the Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI). [22] [edit]History/status of GOES satellites Main article: List of GOES satellites . the Solar X-Ray Sensor (XRS).[19][20] Boeing will build and launch a GOES-Q only if either GOES-O or GOESP fails to be delivered on-orbit in good working order. NOAA repositioned GOES-10 (originally GOES-K) over the Amazon region.[15][16] GOES-O was launched Saturday. and a Solar and Galactic Proton Sensor (SGPS). and the Extreme Ultraviolet Sensor (EUVS). June 27. 2010 at 18:57 EST. to provide full time coverage for South American countries. an Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS). the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). which is roughly 40% of the time during the hurricane season.69 billion—a $670 million increase from the prior $7 billion estimate. The planned delivery schedule was also slowed down in order to reduce costs. the frequency drops from 30-minutes to 3 hours whenever a storm occurs in North America.[17] The GOES-O satellite is a part of the GOES N Series.[25][26] In September 2006 the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) was cancelled and the planned number of satellites was reduced from 4 to 2 by NOAA due to concerns about cost overruns. [24] The proposed instrument package for the series initially included: the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI).[18] GOES-P launched successfully on March 4. 2006.m. the Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES). The expected cost is $7.[14] The launch of GOES-O was delayed several times due to various issues. which includes two Magnetospheric Particle Sensors (MPS-HI and MPS-LO). GOES-14 will be stored and will be able to be activated for duty if another GOES satellite is decommissioned. the Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS). Contracts are planned to be awarded sometime in mid-2009. and the Magnetometer. Although NOAA currently sends images to South America.GOES-13 (which was designated GOES-N prior to orbiting) was launched by a Delta IV rocket from Space Launch Complex 37B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida at 22:11GMT May 24. 2009 at 6:51 p. the Solar Imaging Suite (SIS).

launched on July 23. launched on May 3. launched on May 23. used as a communications relay for the South Pole research station. 1995. launched on May 22. 2009[1]   GOES 11. providing coverage for South America[27]    GOES 13. 2009.      GOES 4. 1980. launched on April 28. launched on May 24. 1983. in operation as GOES East[27] GOES 14.    GOES 1. 1975. on orbit .testing[20] . used as a communications satellite by Peacesat    GOES 8. launched on April 25. 1977. 2007 GOES 10. 2006. decommissioned on December 2. 1978. 1975 October 25. in operation as GOES West[27] GOES 12. 2001. decommissioned GOES 9. launched on April 13. launched on May 3. launched April 28. decommissioned GOES-G. decommissioned GOES 5. launched on October 16. 2010 on orbit . 1987. 1981. 1994. failed to orbit GOES 7. launched on June 27. 1997. launched on June 16. 1645 GMT. decommissioned GOES 2. 2000. 1986.The first image obtained from the GOES 1 satellite. launched on September 9. decommissioned on June 15. standby. launched on March 4.in storage[27] GOES 15. launched on June 16. decommissioned GOES 3. 1990 GOES 6 . deactivated on July 18.

3. NOAA. Retrieved June 29. NOAA. NOAA. [edit]References 1. Retrieved February 7. ^ "GOES-14 (O) Moving Into on-Orbit Storage Around Earth". 1974-2004: A Retrospective". "The GOES Time Code Service. 4. Hanson. ^ "GOES-12 Status Bulletin". 2007. 7. Retrieved August 25. 2009. ^ NOAA (May 3. 9. Japanese weather satellite program Polar Operational Environmental Satellites Remote sensing reading Lombardi. Retrieved December 5. 6. ^ "GOES-13 Spacecraft Status Summary". Retrieved June 29. Press release. 2009.. 2007. Retrieved June 29. . Michael A. ^ "CIMSS GOES Blog". 2007. Retrieved June 29. 2009. Wayne (March-April 2005). "NOAA DEACTIVATES GOES-8 AFTER 10 YEARS OF SERVICE". ^ "GOES-12 Status Bulletin". Science Daily. meteorology and navigation payloads     [edit]Further Emergency position-indicating radio beacon MTSAT. 2010. Retrieved December 7. ^ "GOES-12 Spacecraft Status Summary". ^ "GOES-8 Spacecraft Status Summary". 8. Retrieved December 17. 2006. Journal of Research of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology 110 (2): 79– 96. NOAA. ^ "GOES-11 Spacecraft Status Summary". 2009.six early geosynchronous satellites that carried communications. 5. 2. ^ GOES-10 Status Bulletin 10.[edit]See also Wikinews has related news:GOES-12 weather satellite fails during adjustment  Applications Technology Satellites . D. 2004).

2006. 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 19. NASA. 17. ^ "NASA and NOAA's GOES-O Satellite Successfully Launched".11. 2009). 26. NASA. ^ "NASA's Shuttle and Rocket Launch Schedule". Goddard Space Flight Center. 15. Retrieved April 17. Retrieved 2009-06-23. Retrieved June 27. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Program (GOES). Steve.Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Program (GOES). 2010. NOAA OSO. Retrieved December 31. ^ "GOES-R Overview". NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. Retrieved March 4. 23. Retrieved October 31. ^ a b "GOES-P Mission". Retrieved May 7. ^ Hill. ^ "GOES-R Program Office". 16. United States Government Accountability Office. ^ "GOES-R Spacecraft".S. Retrieved May 07 2009. "Acquisition Is Under Way. ^ "GOES-O Mission Page". Retrieved April 14. 21. 2009. 24. GOES-R Program Office. ^ "GOES N Main Page".. ^ a b c d "GOES Spacecraft Status". 2008. NOAA/NASA. ^ "Spaceflight Now". Associated Press. but Improvements Needed in Management and Oversight" (PDF). Goddard Space Flight Center (Accessed 17 Mar 2008) 14. 2009. June 16. 27. ^ "NASA and NOAA's GOES-O Satellite Ready for Launch" (Source: Goddard Space Flight Center). 2009. "GOES-R Solar and Space Environment Data Products: Benefiting Users". 2006. 20. NASA. ^ a b Powner. 22. 2010. ^ Farewell to GOES-10 13. Archived from the original on April 23. 2006. ^ GOES-I/M MISSION. Retrieved August 25. SpaceRef Interactive Inc. ^ GOES-M status 12. 2009. NASA. 25. Retrieved June 29. June 27. 18. ^ "U. David (April 2. to Reposition Satellite Over Amazon". 2009. [edit]External links  GOES Operations on NOAA website .

    GOES-R article LM/SAIC/IBM partnership announced for GOES GOES gallery GOES weather satellite viewer Online GOES East and GOES West weather satellite viewer with 2 months of archived data. v•d•e [show] Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites v•d•e [show] Meteorological remote sensing systems in Earth orbit v•d•e [show] Science instruments on satellites and spacecraft Categories: Weather satellites | Artificial satellites orbiting Earth | Artificial satellites in geosynchronous orbit | National Weather Service | Lockheed Martin satellites and probes • • • • • • • New features Log in / create account Article Discussion Read Edit View history Top of Form Bottom of Form • • • • • • Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate Interaction • Help .  Social & Economic Benefits of GOES from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative   Introduction to satellite imagery Spherical panorama of GOES-O in the clean room This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Government.

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