XBee Wireless Sensor Networks for Temperature

Monitoring
Vongsagon Boonsawat, Jurarat Ekchamanonta, Kulwadee Bumrungkhet, and Somsak Kittipiyakul
School of Information, Computer, and Communication Technology
Sirindhorn International Institute of Technology, Thammasat University, Pathum-Thani, Thailand 12000
vongsagon@gmail.com, {popo_jj, just_a_pear}@hotmail.com, somsak@siit.tu.ac.th
Abstract—This paper presents an embedded wireless
sensor network (WSN) prototype system for temperature
monitoring in a building. This network will be used
for management of air conditioning systems at SIIT.
The ultimate goal is to help saving the energy cost and
reducing energy consumption. The system provides a
web user interface for any user to access the current
and past temperature readings in different rooms. The
network consists of a data gateway or coordinator which
wirelessly polls each WSN temperature-monitoring node
located in each classroom. Each WSN node consists
of a microcontroller on Arduino board and an Xbee
wireless communication module based on the IEEE
802.15.4/Zigbee standards. The coordinator also has an
Ethernet interface and runs a simple data web server.
Hence, the coordinator allows data collection over Xbee
and data access from web browsers.
Index Terms—Wireless sensor network, Zigbee, Xbee,
Arduino, microcontroller, temperature monitoring
I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, the world is facing many challenges
in reducing energy consumption and global warming.
In the same time, there are many technologies that
can be used to resolve these problems and more-
over support better living. Wireless Sensor networks
(WSNs) are the technology that could provides ubiq-
uitous computing [1]. WSNs deploy many small sensor
devices to detect environmental properties. WSNs are
the combination of embedded system and wireless
communication which allows data transmission among
the sensor nodes over ad-hoc wireless networks as
shown in Figure 1. The ad hoc networks requires
no existing infrastructures unlike those in WLAN or
cellular networks. The brain of each WSN node is the
microcontroller which processes readings from its own
sensors and, in some cases, readings from adjacent
nodes as well since the sensors in different nodes
located near each other may be highly correlated and
hence the amount of sensor data needed to be trans-
mitted from the two sensor nodes can be cooperatively
reduced.
In this prototype system, we develop an embedded
wireless sensor prototype system for temperature mon-
Figure 1. Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks
itoring at the Sirindhorn International Institute of Tech-
nology (SIIT). The system is used to remotely monitor
temperature in each classroom. It provides necessary
data for the whole energy consumption management
of the air conditioning systems.
We use the XBee modules based on the IEEE
802.15.4/Zigbee Wireless Personal Area Network
(WPAN) standards to build a low-power, low-
maintenance, and self-organizing WSN [7]. Small size,
low power, low cost and long battery life are the rea-
sons of using ZigBee. We use the Arduino board which
comes with ATmega168 or 328 for easy interfacing
with the ZigBee module and for easy programming
(in C) of the microcontroller. The Arduino boards
come with a library for interfacing with XBee module
and for dealing with analog or digital inputs and
outputs [3]. For the temperature monitoring sensor,
we use a low-cost analog sensor to show the proof
of concept.
The remaining of the paper is organized as follows.
In Section II, we discuss some related works. Section
III describes the methodology used in this project.
Sections IV and V describe the testing environment
and the results, respectively. We conclude the paper
Figure 2. System Diagram
and discuss some future extensions of our current
prototype in Section VI.
II. RELATED WORKS
There are several WSN hardware platforms avail-
able. In our prototype system, we chose our hardware
platform to base on an Arduino board and an Xbee
module. This was motivated by the SquidBee WSN
platform developed by the Wireless Sensor Network
Research Group [5]. SquidBee is an open-source WSN
platform, where each SquidBee Mote takes environ-
mental parameters with its three sensors (humidity,
temperature and lightness) and sends them wirelessly
through the SquidBee network using ZigBee protocol.
The hardware of each mote consists of an Arduino
board, an Xbee shield that supports an Xbee module,
and sensors. Although our prototype hardware plat-
form is not optimized for WSN applications in term
of cost, energy consumption, size, nor real-time appli-
cation support, the platform allows easy development
of a WSN due to the simplicity of programming an
Arduino microcontroller board.
Over the last decade, many WSN systems have
been extensively developed and studied for numerous
applications. An example of WSN systems is illus-
trated in an automation in construction [6]. The authors
in [6] proposed a web-based building environmental
monitoring system based on WSN. As in typical WSN
systems, the proposed system in [6] consists of three
main steps: data acquisition, data collection and data
retrieval. Likewise, our prototype system also contains
these three main steps.
III. METHODOLOGY
A. Overview
The diagram of the system is shown in Figure 2
and consists of a client computer which provides a
web user interface to the system, a coordinator as a
data collector and web server, and several end devices
which provide sensor readings over Xbee communica-
tion links.
B. Design and Development
The system is divided into three main parts as
following:
1) User Interface: The User Interface communi-
cates to the user via Ethernet and displays the result
in a web browser. The User Interface is divided into
two parts:
∙ Automatic display: In this part, it shows the
data from every sensor via Web page in HTTP
Response. Arduino duplicates itself as a Web-
Server to generate HTTP Response in the format
as shown in Figure 3.
∙ Display according to an instruction: The user
instructs from the webpage in HTTP Request,
Figure 3. HTTP Request and HTTP Response Messages
whose format is shown in Figure 3. The HTTP
request message is then sent to the Coordinator
who is acting as the web server. The user can
also request to read the temperature reading from
a selected room (equivalently, a selected end
device).
2) Coordinator: The Coordinator is the center of
system. It collects sensor readings from the sensors
back to the user. The function of the collector is
divided into two parts: Web-Server and Xbee Interface
to the WSN. These two functions as implemented on
the Arduino board. The hardware of the coordinator
consists of an Arduino USB Board, Xbee Shield, and
Ethernet Shield, as shown in Figure 4. The Web-Server
function uses the <Ethernet.h> library, while the Xbee
Interface uses the <Xbee.h> library. The flowchart of
the coordinator is showing in Figure 5.
3) End Device: Each End Device has one or more
temperature sensor inputs. The device waits for data
reading request (i.e., polling) from the Coordinator and
then responses with the value from the sensor. The
interfaces of End Device consists of two parts: Sensor
Interface and Xbee Interface. These two parts work
in Arduino USB Board, Xbee Shield and LM335A
according to Figure 5. The Sensor Interface receives
data from the temperature sensor (LM335A), the tem-
perature signal in Volts is read via an Arduino Analog
Input pin (as A/D converted into digital value in
the range 0-1023, where 0 represents 0 V and 1023
represents 5 V. We can convert the temperature value
in Volt into degree Celsius according to the equation
(1). The Xbee Interface uses <Xbee.h> library which
communicates between Xbee module and the Arduino.
C. System Specification
1) Network Specification:
a) Star Topology: Consists of a Coordinator as
a center processing unit functions. It gathers sensor
readings from all End Devices.
Figure 4. Hardware Platforms of Coordinator and End Device
Figure 5. Flowchart of Coordinator and End Device
b) Polling: Polling is a method in which the Co-
ordinator requests each End Device one by one to send
sensor readings back to the Coordinator. The purpose
of polling is to avoid interference from multiple nodes
transmitting to the Coordinator simultaneously.
2) Hardware Specification: A WSN node consists
of a microcontroller, some sensors, and a communica-
tion module
a) Microcontroller: We use Arduino USB Board
which use the chip ATMEGA328 as a processor,
controlled by the computer via USB port. Arduino
composed of 5 pins Analog I/O and 13 pins Digital
I/O which can interface with the other devices such as
I2C, SPI, digital and analog.
b) Sensor: Temperature Sensor (LM335A) is a
semiconductor [8] which measures temperature and
displays the information in the voltage form. The
output from the temperature sensor is analog but is
then sampled and quantized (A/D converted) by the
Arduino. Hence, we can realize the temperature in
degree Celsius by calibrating it by using the equation
derived from an experiment if we use reference tem-
perature is X degree Celsius and sampling value at
reference temperature is Y as shown in equation (1).
Tc:jc:otn:c = A + ((ono|oo1cod − Y ) ∗ 0.5)) (1)
c) Communication: We use Xbee Pro 2.5 ZNet
[7] in our system. The XBee Pro module is compliant
to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. It is a series-2 version
which supports mesh networking, fixes the address to
64 bits, and has 20 pins.
In summary, the system consists of two types of
nodes: Coordinator and End Device, as shown in
Figure 4. The Coordinator consists of Arduino, Xbee
Pro, Xbee shield, and Ethernet Shield. On the other
hand, End Device consists of Arduino, Xbee Pro, Xbee
shield, and a temperature sensor.
3) Software Specification:
a) Microcontroller: We use Arduino IDE as a
code editor and code burner.
b) Web-Server: We use a simple HTML/AJAX
running on Coordinator.
c) Database: We use MySQL [11] to run on
client computer. The client computer should has
XAMPP Web-Server [10] for Query MySQL com-
mand with PHP language accordingly.
4) System Limitation: The distance between the
Coordinator and End device should not exceed 140
meters from the specification. On the other hand, if
there are any blockages, the distance should not be
greater than 40 meters. For the sensor, it can measure
the temperature to the accuracy of only one decimal
point, i.e., the resolution is in 0.5 degree Celsius.
MySQL and PHP code have to run on client computer
in the same LAN network because Arduino cannot run
MySQL by itself.
IV. TESTING
A. Sensor Testing
Every sensor is tested on the protoboard which
connected to the Arduino analog input pin number 0-
3 in as shown in Figure 6. We observe the sampling
values in range 0-1023 to check the sensors. The result
is shown in Table I.
B. Field-Test Temperature Measurement
Location: We deployed the Coordinator and End
Device within The Activities Center Building, Tham-
masat University Rangsit Campus at 1st floor. Figure 7
shows the floor plan of the building.
We deployed four sensor nodes far away from
each other at about 10-30 meters. We monitor the
Figure 6. Accuracy and Stability of Temperature sensors Testing
Figure 7. The Activities Center Building infrastructure and nodes’
locations
temperature readings from different nodes via a web
browser, communicate to Coordinator which is Web-
Server and receive the data from each sensor and then
monitor via Webpage.
a) Automatic Polling Experiment: The Coordina-
tor automatically requests from each sensor in a round
robin scheme and displays to the Webpage according
to Figure 8. The temperature readings are shown in
Table II.
b) Demand-Based Polling Experiment: The Co-
ordinator requests from a sensor according to a fixed
address and displays to the Webpage as shown in
Figure 9.
V. RESULTS
A. Field-Test Temperature Measurement
We performed a field test for temperature monitoring
between 8am to 4pm. The system collected the temper-
ature readings every 1 hour and got the result as shown
in Table II, got from Database as shown in Figure 8.
For the Demand Polling, we got the result as the value
at that time of that sensor as shown in Figure 9. From
these results, we could say that the system is working
in satisfaction in term of its functionality.
Figure 8. Auto Round Polling via Webpage
Figure 9. Demand Polling Experiment
Figure 10. End Device Location
Table I
TABLE OF ACCURACY AND STABILITY TEST
pin(0) pin(1) pin(2) pin(3)
1 619 620 618 619
2 619 620 619 618
3 619 619 618 618
4 619 620 620 619
5 619 620 618 619
6 619 620 619 618
7 619 619 618 618
8 619 619 618 618
9 619 620 619 619
10 619 620 618 618
Table II
TABLE OF FIELD-TEST
Time Node A Node B Node C Node D
08.00 26.50 26.50 27.50 26.00
09.00 27.25 26.75 29.25 27.00
10.00 27.00 25.25 33.00 26.00
11.00 27.00 25.00 34.50 27.00
12.00 27.50 25.50 34.25 27.25
13.00 28.00 25.50 34.50 28.50
14.00 28.50 24.50 32.50 27.50
15.00 28.00 24.25 30.00 26.00
16.00 27.50 26.25 30.25 26.50
B. Polling time
The time required for each polling to a node can be
measured by using the function millis(); to realize the
distance between Coordinator and End Device. This
testing counts the 2-way transmission time. The delay
times are shown in Table III.
VI. SUMMARY AND FUTURE WORK
In this paper, we built a prototype of an embedded
wireless sensor network based on easy-to-use Arduino
microcontroller board and Xbee module. We consider a
temperature monitoring application to demonstrate the
proof-of-concept of our system. The collected temper-
ature data can be stored into the MySQL Database and
retrieved later for analysis.
Extensions of our current work include an extension
from a star network to a mesh network which will be
useful for deploying sensor networks in large areas like
in buildings with multiple rooms and multiple floors.
Table III
RESULT OF POLLING TIME DELAY
# Sensor Distance Delay 1 Delay 2 Delay 3 Avg.
Node A 8 m 324 ms 294 ms 312 ms 310 ms
Node B 15 m 311 ms 314 ms 291 ms 305.3 ms
Node C 17 m 309 ms 322 ms 310 ms 313.7 ms
Node D 20 m 301 ms 311 ms 291 ms 301 ms
This mesh networking capability is being explored by
our colleague [12].
A cost reduction for each node can be achieved by
removing the Arduino board. This takes advantage of
the fact that each wireless sensor node can be equipped
with an XBee module alone without a microcontroller.
This can be done because the XBee module can
automatically sample the sensor inputs and report back
to the coordinator. It is called Zigbee I/O Sampling that
is Xbee module can read sampling values on its pin
by itself. So, if we can use only Xbee module, price
per each node will decrease.
REFERENCES
[1] Stefan Poslad, Ubiquitous Computing: Smart Devices, Envi-
ronments and Interactions, Wiley, 2009
[2] IEEE 802.15 WPAN Task Group 4 (TG4),
http://www.ieee802.org
[3] Arduino, http://arduino.cc/.
[4] SparkFun Electronics, Temperature Sensor - LM335A,
http://www.sparkfun.com
[5] Wireless Sensor Network Research Group, http://www.sensor-
networks.org
[6] Won-Suk Jang, William M. Healy, Miroslaw J. Skibniewski,
Wireless sensor networks as a part of a web-based building
environmental monitoring system, Automation in Construction
Volume 17, Issue 6, August 2008, Pages 729-736
[7] Digi International Inc,XBee ZNet2.5/XBee-PRO ZNet2.5 OEM
RF Modules, Product Manual v1.x.4x - ZigBee Protocol For
OEM RF Module Part Numbers: XB24-BxIT-00x,Digi Interna-
tional Inc.11001 Bren Road East Minnetonka, MN 55343877
912-3444 or 952 912-3444 http://www.digi.com
[8] Sabri.C, Mechatronic, 1st-Edition, John Wiley&sons, Inc.,
2007, ISBN 978-0-471-47987-1
[9] James F. Kurose, Keith W. Ross, Computer Networking: A
Top-Down Approach: International Version, 5/E,Pearson Higher
Education
[10] Kai Oswald Seidler, http://www.apachefriends.org
[11] Timothy Boronczyk, Martin E. Psinas, PHP and MySQL:
Create Modify Reuse, Wrox (May 5, 2008)
[12] V. Mayalarp, N. Limpaswadpaisarn, T. Poombansao, and
S. Kittipiyakul, “Wireless mesh networking with XBee,” in 2nd
ECTI-Conference on Application Research and Development
(ECTI-CARD 2010), Pattaya, Chonburi, Thailand, 10-12 May
2010.

The hardware of each mote consists of an Arduino board. Although our prototype hardware platform is not optimized for WSN applications in term of cost. Display according to an instruction: The user instructs from the webpage in HTTP Request. the proposed system in [6] consists of three main steps: data acquisition. In our prototype system. where each SquidBee Mote takes environmental parameters with its three sensors (humidity. Overview The diagram of the system is shown in Figure 2 and consists of a client computer which provides a web user interface to the system. our prototype system also contains these three main steps. energy consumption. nor real-time application support. the platform allows easy development of a WSN due to the simplicity of programming an Arduino microcontroller board. Over the last decade. an Xbee shield that supports an Xbee module. III. it shows the data from every sensor via Web page in HTTP Response. II. Likewise. M ETHODOLOGY A. B. and several end devices which provide sensor readings over Xbee communication links. System Diagram and discuss some future extensions of our current prototype in Section VI. temperature and lightness) and sends them wirelessly through the SquidBee network using ZigBee protocol. An example of WSN systems is illustrated in an automation in construction [6]. and sensors. SquidBee is an open-source WSN platform. size. Design and Development The system is divided into three main parts as following: 1) User Interface: The User Interface communicates to the user via Ethernet and displays the result in a web browser. R ELATED W ORKS There are several WSN hardware platforms available. Arduino duplicates itself as a WebServer to generate HTTP Response in the format as shown in Figure 3. The User Interface is divided into two parts: Automatic display: In this part.Figure 2. many WSN systems have been extensively developed and studied for numerous applications. As in typical WSN systems. This was motivated by the SquidBee WSN platform developed by the Wireless Sensor Network Research Group [5]. The authors in [6] proposed a web-based building environmental monitoring system based on WSN. a coordinator as a data collector and web server. we chose our hardware platform to base on an Arduino board and an Xbee module. data collection and data retrieval. .

h> library. The purpose of polling is to avoid interference from multiple nodes transmitting to the Coordinator simultaneously. The interfaces of End Device consists of two parts: Sensor Interface and Xbee Interface. controlled by the computer via USB port. HTTP Request and HTTP Response Messages Figure 4. The device waits for data reading request (i. We can convert the temperature value in Volt into degree Celsius according to the equation (1). The hardware of the coordinator consists of an Arduino USB Board. The Sensor Interface receives data from the temperature sensor (LM335A). The flowchart of the coordinator is showing in Figure 5.e. The user can also request to read the temperature reading from a selected room (equivalently.h> library which communicates between Xbee module and the Arduino. SPI. Xbee Shield and LM335A according to Figure 5. Flowchart of Coordinator and End Device b) Polling: Polling is a method in which the Coordinator requests each End Device one by one to send sensor readings back to the Coordinator. as shown in Figure 4. where 0 represents 0 V and 1023 represents 5 V.. It collects sensor readings from the sensors back to the user. The HTTP request message is then sent to the Coordinator who is acting as the web server. These two parts work in Arduino USB Board. some sensors. These two functions as implemented on the Arduino board. b) Sensor: Temperature Sensor (LM335A) is a semiconductor [8] which measures temperature and displays the information in the voltage form. Xbee Shield. while the Xbee Interface uses the <Xbee. 2) Coordinator: The Coordinator is the center of system. Figure 5. the temperature signal in Volts is read via an Arduino Analog Input pin (as A/D converted into digital value in the range 0-1023. a selected end device). It gathers sensor readings from all End Devices. and a communication module a) Microcontroller: We use Arduino USB Board which use the chip ATMEGA328 as a processor. Arduino composed of 5 pins Analog I/O and 13 pins Digital I/O which can interface with the other devices such as I2C. polling) from the Coordinator and then responses with the value from the sensor. System Specification 1) Network Specification: a) Star Topology: Consists of a Coordinator as a center processing unit functions. The Web-Server function uses the <Ethernet. The . C. The Xbee Interface uses <Xbee. 3) End Device: Each End Device has one or more temperature sensor inputs. The function of the collector is divided into two parts: Web-Server and Xbee Interface to the WSN.h> library. and Ethernet Shield.Figure 3. Hardware Platforms of Coordinator and End Device whose format is shown in Figure 3. 2) Hardware Specification: A WSN node consists of a microcontroller. digital and analog.

b) Demand-Based Polling Experiment: The Coordinator requests from a sensor according to a fixed address and displays to the Webpage as shown in Figure 9. i.5 degree Celsius. V.. Xbee Pro. fixes the address to 64 bits. 4) System Limitation: The distance between the Coordinator and End device should not exceed 140 meters from the specification. Field-Test Temperature Measurement Location: We deployed the Coordinator and End Device within The Activities Center Building. Accuracy and Stability of Temperature sensors Testing Figure 7. MySQL and PHP code have to run on client computer in the same LAN network because Arduino cannot run MySQL by itself.e. Hence. 3) Software Specification: a) Microcontroller: We use Arduino IDE as a code editor and code burner. the system consists of two types of nodes: Coordinator and End Device. communicate to Coordinator which is WebServer and receive the data from each sensor and then monitor via Webpage. Field-Test Temperature Measurement We performed a field test for temperature monitoring between 8am to 4pm. We deployed four sensor nodes far away from each other at about 10-30 meters. The Activities Center Building infrastructure and nodes’ locations temperature readings from different nodes via a web browser.15. (1) c) Communication: We use Xbee Pro 2. End Device consists of Arduino. B. In summary. b) Web-Server: We use a simple HTML/AJAX running on Coordinator. Xbee shield. For the Demand Polling. a) Automatic Polling Experiment: The Coordinator automatically requests from each sensor in a round robin scheme and displays to the Webpage according to Figure 8. The system collected the temperature readings every 1 hour and got the result as shown in Table II. we could say that the system is working in satisfaction in term of its functionality. We observe the sampling values in range 0-1023 to check the sensors. The XBee Pro module is compliant to the IEEE 802.output from the temperature sensor is analog but is then sampled and quantized (A/D converted) by the Arduino. The client computer should has XAMPP Web-Server [10] for Query MySQL command with PHP language accordingly. and a temperature sensor. R ESULTS A. On the other hand. For the sensor. Xbee Pro. we got the result as the value at that time of that sensor as shown in Figure 9. We monitor the Figure 6. From these results. the distance should not be greater than 40 meters. On the other hand. if there are any blockages. we can realize the temperature in degree Celsius by calibrating it by using the equation derived from an experiment if we use reference temperature is X degree Celsius and sampling value at reference temperature is Y as shown in equation (1). Xbee shield. it can measure the temperature to the accuracy of only one decimal point.4 standard. T ESTING A. . Sensor Testing Every sensor is tested on the protoboard which connected to the Arduino analog input pin number 03 in as shown in Figure 6. as shown in Figure 4. and has 20 pins. and Ethernet Shield. Figure 7 shows the floor plan of the building. The temperature readings are shown in Table II.5 ZNet [7] in our system. c) Database: We use MySQL [11] to run on client computer. the resolution is in 0. Thammasat University Rangsit Campus at 1st floor. got from Database as shown in Figure 8. The result is shown in Table I. The Coordinator consists of Arduino. IV. It is a series-2 version which supports mesh networking.

00 11.00 34.00 26.75 25.50 28. VI.50 32. The collected temperature data can be stored into the MySQL Database and retrieved later for analysis.50 25.50 Figure 8.00 12.25 34.00 Node A 26.3 ms 313.00 16. Auto Round Polling via Webpage B.25 26.00 15.TEST Time 08.00 27.7 ms 301 ms . Table III R ESULT OF P OLLING TIME DELAY Figure 10.50 27. Extensions of our current work include an extension from a star network to a mesh network which will be useful for deploying sensor networks in large areas like in buildings with multiple rooms and multiple floors.50 27.50 29. we built a prototype of an embedded wireless sensor network based on easy-to-use Arduino microcontroller board and Xbee module.25 28.25 Node C 27. S UMMARY AND F UTURE W ORK Figure 9.00 27.00 26.50 30. Demand Polling Experiment In this paper. This testing counts the 2-way transmission time.50 24. End Device Location # Sensor Node A Node B Node C Node D Distance 8m 15 m 17 m 20 m Delay 1 324 ms 311 ms 309 ms 301 ms Delay 2 294 ms 314 ms 322 ms 311 ms Delay 3 312 ms 291 ms 310 ms 291 ms Avg.50 24.00 30.50 Node B 26.25 25.25 Node D 26. Polling time The time required for each polling to a node can be measured by using the function millis().00 27.00 14.00 28. 310 ms 305.00 27.25 33.00 27.00 25. The delay times are shown in Table III.00 10.00 13. We consider a temperature monitoring application to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of our system.50 26.Table I TABLE OF ACCURACY AND S TABILITY TEST pin(0) 619 619 619 619 619 619 619 619 619 619 pin(1) 620 620 619 620 620 620 619 619 620 620 pin(2) 618 619 618 620 618 619 618 618 619 618 pin(3) 619 618 618 619 619 618 618 618 619 618 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table II TABLE OF F IELD .50 34.50 28.50 26.00 09.00 27. to realize the distance between Coordinator and End Device.25 27.

and S. Thailand. Kurose. 2008) [12] V.. 2007. if we can use only Xbee module. N.ZigBee Protocol For OEM RF Module Part Numbers: XB24-BxIT-00x.15 WPAN Task Group 4 (TG4). 1st-Edition. So. John Wiley&sons.org [6] Won-Suk Jang. [4] SparkFun Electronics. Issue 6. Automation in Construction Volume 17.digi.LM335A. It is called Zigbee I/O Sampling that is Xbee module can read sampling values on its pin by itself. http://www.C. Healy. Ross. Wrox (May 5. Miroslaw J. http://www. Chonburi. . August 2008.cc/. Keith W. Temperature Sensor .x. “Wireless mesh networking with XBee. Limpaswadpaisarn. Wireless sensor networks as a part of a web-based building environmental monitoring system.com [8] Sabri. PHP and MySQL: Create Modify Reuse. MN 55343877 912-3444 or 952 912-3444 http://www. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach: International Version. http://arduino.11001 Bren Road East Minnetonka.5/XBee-PRO ZNet2.5 OEM RF Modules. Psinas. Mechatronic.Digi International Inc.org [11] Timothy Boronczyk.org [3] Arduino.com [5] Wireless Sensor Network Research Group. price per each node will decrease.This mesh networking capability is being explored by our colleague [12]. Martin E. A cost reduction for each node can be achieved by removing the Arduino board. ISBN 978-0-471-47987-1 [9] James F. Pattaya. William M. Inc. Ubiquitous Computing: Smart Devices.ieee802. Mayalarp.Pearson Higher Education [10] Kai Oswald Seidler. This takes advantage of the fact that each wireless sensor node can be equipped with an XBee module alone without a microcontroller.4x . 2009 [2] IEEE 802.XBee ZNet2. 10-12 May 2010. http://www. Pages 729-736 [7] Digi International Inc.” in 2nd ECTI-Conference on Application Research and Development (ECTI-CARD 2010). Product Manual v1.sparkfun. Skibniewski. Environments and Interactions. http://www.apachefriends. This can be done because the XBee module can automatically sample the sensor inputs and report back to the coordinator. R EFERENCES [1] Stefan Poslad. Kittipiyakul. 5/E. T.sensornetworks. Wiley. Poombansao.