Optimizing Powered Haulage Investment in Surface Coal Applications

Jonathan W. Baucom – Application Engineer

3. .The effect it has with fuel consumption and requirements for coal haul profiles vs. Horsepower . As this pertains to all mines the focus today will be with surface coal operations and the following key points: 1.Analyze the effect gear ratio has on performance and how this should be interpreted for achieving best operation in the field Cost per Tonne – Discuss in regards to what the driving factors are and how the current coal market allows for greater mine flexibility 2.Optimizing Powered Haulage Investment All mines require efficient equipment to move material in a cost and time effective manner. other applications Gear Ratio .

Mine Operating Costs  What percentage of mining operation costs are attributed to open pit mining equipment?  Generalized mine operation costs .

Powered Haulage Operating Costs  What are the main drivers of operating costs?  Fuel consumption is always the primary cost with haulage and loading fleets .

Horsepower & Fuel Consumption  Fuel consumption is directly proportional to horsepower 20V4000 100% Load Factor Fuel Consumption (L/hr) 640 617 16V4000 QSK 78 522 490 547 QSK 60 455 Rated Engine Output (hp)  Only four major engine types for >240tonne electric drive mining trucks .

Haul Profile Definition  What defines a haul profile? 200m @ 10% 4000m @ 0% 350m @ 0% 1000m @ 10% 200m @ 0% Typical Coal Haul    Segment Length Segment Grade Rolling Resistance Speed Limits 350m @ 0% 200m @ 0%  2500m @ -10% Typical Downhill Loaded Haul 1600m @ 0% 500m @ 10% .

64kph (40mph) 0 5 mph 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Speed .33:1 ratio  300k lb-f vs.7:1 ratio  Greater low-end “breakout” torque  Lower top end speed – 54kph 54kph (34mph) vs. 350k lb-f  Greater top end speed – 64kph 43.Gear Ratio Effects  37.

Cost per Ton Drivers  Payload  The most effective way at lowering a cost per tonne is to increase payload More material hauled = more $$   Horsepower   Cycle Times Fuel consumption  GVW  Plays important role in cycle times. thus GVW has been excluded  . fuel consumption and is influenced by horsepower This study is not a comparison of any two OEM’s equipment.

Primary mining operating cost is fuel Higher horsepower equals higher potential fuel consumption 3. low horsepower…. Coal haul profiles are generally flat and long Low gear ratio has higher top end speed than high gear ratio High payload is essential to low cost per ton  So it makes sense that to optimize the productivity and profitability of a surface coal mine. 2.Old Belief still holds true?  To Recap: 1. 4. the investment in powered haulage should be one with high payload. 5. ……………yet is this still the case today??? . low gear ratio..

175 L/hp  As engine ratings approach and exceed 3000hp fuel efficiency continues to improve .Revisit Horsepower  HP and fuel implications 20V4000 16V4000 QSK 78 QSK 60 .

41 kph.7 gear ratio . 592mt GVW 43.Revisit Horsepower  Speed on grade is a direct function of Horsepower and GVW +350hp = 2kph!  Every 100hp ≈ 0. or 0.25 mph on 8% and 10% grade  Based on T 282 B.

4 kph 3650 37.7:1 better suited for soft underfoot conditions.0 60.0 Speed (kph) 50.Revisit Gear Ratio Thousands T 282 B .0 2700hp 3000hp 3000hp 3650hp 3650hp Propulsion Separation Point 5.7:1 Propulsion Curve Hp Comparison 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.43.0 40.0 20.3:1 Constant Torque until “Separation Point” Once beyond SP hp variance then affects propulsion curve     Rimpull (kg) Low end torque needed for high RR at face and dump sites 43.4 kph Propulsion Separation Point 5. less often under loaded intentionally due to struggling to pull away from the face when fully loaded (greater TPH!!!) World wide tire shortage causing many mines to restrict speeds and TKPH. thus taking away advantage of lower gear ratio’s top end capability 43.7:1 more efficient than 37:33 on grade thus creates less heat and requires less cooling .0 30.0 10.

only to 2006 production .Coal Market Trends +95% +40% +7% *Courtesy of Energy Information Administration  Coal demand has caused prices to outpace supply both domestically and internationally over the past five years  2007 was second highest year of U. production.S.

7 gear ratio .most productive with only marginal increase in fuel burn Tonne per Hour .Haul Simulation Study   75 coal haul profiles from three separate operations were simulated with increased RR at the face as seen at each operation Typical mine speed limit of 50kph (31mph) Fuel Consumption  37.3 to illustrate old beliefs and provide baseline of new concepts  3650hp with 43.

Production is King   Production is always paramount at any mining operation Coal prices are continually on the rise *Based on 2007 Domestic Coal Prices Tonne per Litre Revenue per Hour >9.0% $/hr   Tonne per Litre within 1-2%. yet the 3650hp with higher gear ratio has a 9% greater revenue/profitability Cost per tonne is significant but production holds greater weight .

and operation top end speed not an issue due to speed limits and tire preservation 2. deeper pits for coal. High Payload – Ultra Class payload for maximum production capability High Horsepower – Technologically advanced.Conclusion      Proper horsepower. ultra class trucks Coal is the dominant energy source for at least the next two decades The haul simulation study performed was on actual haul profiles. . gear ratio and payload matching for mining applications still holds true today The world-wide coal market is spawning new concepts in the industry. higher hp fleets. efficient engines for greater speed on grade as coal mines expand from surging prices High Gear Ratio – Need low end torque for soft conditions. not generic To fully optimize production and profitability for a coal mine the following key components of a powered haulage fleet must be taken into account: 1. sufficient cooling for deeper pits. 3.

Thank you… .