The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect

the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

Or …

A form of unlucky migration

Why are People Trafficked?
Three parts: 1. Why do people migrate? 2. Why are some migrants vulnerable to exploitation? 3. Why do people traffic others?* Often, people conflate reasons for migration with reasons for trafficking.

What are the Risk Factors?
CO MMU NITY FA CTOR Loca tion Mos t migr ation an d traffickin g occurs along the major highway s linki ng Cambodi a to Thail and Significant risk Not a risk factor factor

IND IV IDUA L & FAMIL Y FAC TORS Sex Age Numbe r of brok ers us ed Pre -existing knowledge and idea s about Thailand Ma rital stat us Years of educa tion Pre vious job Numbe r of dependents Ill or rec ently passe d awa y family memb er Sibling o r child w ho ne eds school fees Forc ed to g o to Thailand by family mem ber Violenc e in the family Recent flood, drought, natur al disaster

Impact of New Roads on TIP
1 • • 2 • • 3 • • Open up new migration routes New migrants are often more vulnerable Central Vietnam - Thailand Encourage migration Exposure to new jobs, lifestyles, etc. Baoshan - Longling, China Change the way people migrate Impact on Interventions - from train to road* North-South corridor in Mongolia

Impact of New Roads on TIP

Impact of New Roads on TIP

Impact of New Roads on TIP
4 Disturb traditional lifestyles • Land grabbing, move to monetary economy* • North-East Cambodia, Lao PDR 5 Increase Prostitution • Inherently exploitative trade • During road-building projects • And After? Route 3 in northern Lao PDR 6 Provide alternatives to migration • Increase local opportunities • Longitudinal work needed (Most of the impact is not within project life)

Preventing Trafficking
Awareness raising is the ’black hole’ of anti-TIP resources unclear messages wrong messages knowledge already exists Actions, Means and Purpose Unlike TIP networks, prevention programmes are not linked along migration routes Prevention often misses those in need

Trafficking and HIV/AIDS
Lessons Major gap between awareness and behaviour Approaches that deny reality will fail Challenges TIP seems to lend itself to dubious interventions Potential tensions in entertainment venues Opportunities Both are risks faced by migrants

More broadly …
Best contributions may come at policy level
ADB already active in COMMIT TA6448, linking with key sectors (transport, tourism)

More recognition of labour migration as core component of regional economic integration Ensure good labour practices on projects Ensure existing guidelines are implemented (environment, gender, ethnic minority) Build on opportunities* Drop the word?

At project level
Be realistic about what might be achieved Migrant information centres Community Education Peer education for sex workers Out-reach at ‘choke points’ Community health schemes Many can be combined with HIV/AIDS work All must be based on accurate problem definition