Music Education Research Vol. 9, No. 2, July 2007, pp.

281Á292

Acts of hospitality: the community in Community Music
Lee Higgins*
The Liverpool Institute of Performing Arts, Liverpool, UK

This article will investigate the notion of ‘community’ within the aspirations of Community Music. Guiding this study are the questions: How is community made manifest through Community Music? What joins the notion of community to that of music? Two distinct sections will frame this research: (1) an etymological consideration of the word ‘community’, followed by a rethinking of its status as a hospitable act of welcoming; and (2) a case study that examples a vision of Community Music as an act of hospitality. The article will conclude by suggesting that this act of hospitality serves to remind us of the broader theme of music education, equality and social justice.

Introduction Community Music, as understood in the UK, traces back to the community arts movement of the early 1970s. As an expression of cultural democracy,1 a doctrine of empowerment and a tool for action, those working within Community Music focused their attention on music-making outside of formal educational institutes. This was particularly evident in its critiques towards the Arts Council and the education establishment, both seen as custodians of high art, and, therefore, continuing the oppression of a working-class musical vernacular. The erratic world of grant-aid and project funding resulted in the majority of community musicians assuming freelance status, with the imperative to generate funding a constant concern. Dictated to by the capitalist imperative, practitioners developed a rich tapestry of projects, but found it difficult to find the time and space to critically reflect on their activities. The inheritance of this ‘tradition’ has meant a general void in scholarly and academic writings pertaining to Community Music. This vacuum has most recently come to the fore with the growing interest from universities in providing both undergraduate and postgraduate programmes in Community Music. As a response to this, and a belief that Community Music has much to add to any debate surrounding music education generally, my recent research interests have involved problematizing assumptions and ideas common to the community musician, such as participation, context, pedagogy, and community.
*The Liverpool Institute of Performing Arts, Mount St., Liverpool, L1 9HF, UK. Email: l.higgins@lipa.ac.uk ISSN 1461-3808 (print)/ISSN 1469-9893 (online)/07/020281-12 # 2007 Taylor & Francis DOI: 10.1080/14613800701384441

and secondly. but at the cost of increased disenchantment and alienation. These sentiments have propelled a utopian vision of community as a radical alternative to the prevailing order.282 L. Greater. community arts engaged in a critique that promoted a yearning for the romantic associations of a utopian community (Braden. communus. 18). Kelly. Under the Lyotardian (1988) pursuit of new . As a consequence. Meaningful collaborations between participants have emphasized Community Music’s focus on groupwork rather than the individual per se. as the expression of belonging. and my own experience suggests that the general use of the term ‘community’ is a ratification of Community Music’s participatory ethos. Brook. Gerard Delanty (2003) begins his excellent analysis with communitas [Latin]. Vila. 2003. community is both problematic and powerful. charting the term’s changing pattern of application and understanding (Auge. Community ‘Community’ is etymologically untangled in several ways. The socialist enterprise of Community Music is rooted within this vision. and kinship. Higgins As a contentious term. or (3) a common social system or structure (Rapport & Overing. but one of the strongest manifestations is that of the romantic echoes of loss and recovery.2 Kant (1998) makes a distinction in Latin between communio. In the field of anthropology. he advocates an understanding that is both ontological and structural. Any definition of the term ‘community’ remains elusive. Expressions of community vary. irreducible to any social or political arrangement. reflecting the modern release of the individual from the traditional ties of class. (2) a common ecology and locality. Accordingly. 1988). and the considerable pressures towards individuation and fragmentation. an exclusive sharing space protected from the outside. Anthropological and sociological excavations reveal a variety of perspectives. Thus. the processes of exchange and communication. such as the extensive use of creative groupwork through facilitation.3 as in ‘with oneness or unity’. 2000). referring to community as a relation between things. 1986. The idea of ‘difference’ is often used as a guiding idea in tackling tensions found between fixed social and political relations within communal frames. the emancipation of the human spirit as an Enlightenment trajectory has championed the free person. 1986. 2005). Sheldon. and commercium. Amit & Rapport.4 emphasizing the doing of one’s duty (p. In the German word Gemeinschaft [community]. whilst politically resisting any institutional stranglehold. religion. 2002. 1984. ´ 1995. the community in Community Music advertises emphases towards active and creative musical doing. the term is usefully isolated with three broad variants: (1) common interests between people. Childs. William Corlett (1995) considers two different strands: firstly communis. Orientating itself around these sentiments. 1978. Philip Alperson’s (2002) definition of community articulates a state of being held in common. the term ‘community’ designates methods of practice.

.10 For Derrida. which understands a progression from the Enlightenment to fascism as the ultimate end to modernity. neighbors. to Jean Luc Nancy (1991). they can transcend the original circumstances of their formation. which means both ‘guest’ and (paradoxically) ‘enemy’ or ‘hostile’.5 contextual fellowship. The communality at the heart of community provides internal contradictions for Derrida. As a term. this promise. the word hospitality is derived from the Latin hospes [from hostis]. The very concept of the ‘common’ (commun) and the ‘as-one’ (comme-un) in community lies behind Derrida’s unwillingness to speak in terms of community. schooling. These include friends. and fundamental agreement beneath the phenomena of discord or war’ (p. and Maurice Blanchot (1988). then the self-protected closure etymologically inherent within its ‘signature’ works against its quest. community as a signatory provides a tension in its overall desire to create an embracing welcome.Acts of hospitality 283 modes and idioms through which to interact with the incommensurable. is the idea to which I now turn. Hospitality Throughout the work of Jacques Derrida. Although the community musician may focus on a particular community. Delanty (2003) suggests four categories in which one might reconsider community today: collective identities. Although these communities are often partial and limited in time. Etymologically. parenting. If Community Music is a search for openness through which to welcome potential participants. while reminding us that any conditional hospitality takes place in the shadow an impossible ideal. Derrida’s explorations of the borders and limits of the term hospitality resonates with my understanding of Community Music. many contemporary expressions of community can be deemed postmodern.6 liminal communities. workmates and companions of leisure. political activities. This line of thinking has a trajectory from Georges Bataille (1988). age or gender group. When the term community is opened this way. the notion of community as oneness or unity evokes a fortress wall surrounding a city. with its emphasis on the defense and the unified. etc.’ understanding it as ‘a harmonious group. One can place Derrida’s concerns within the perspective of Western European history. hospitality reveals the transgressive nature of crossing a threshold. and the refusal of any reception with strangers or foreigners. The position of Derrida (1995) appears clear enough when he states ‘I don’t much like the word community.7 and virtual communities. Unlike the word community.9 This conception reminds us of our responsibility and commitment to what I will call ‘the welcome’. institution.8 Amit and Rapport (2002) expand on these notions to include fellowship and social belonging through modest daily practice. there has been a reluctance to speak in terms of community. consensus. whether based on place. the phrase community without unity seems an apt one. 355). interest. Illustrative of the postmodern perspective. This mark of unconditional hospitality.

organized in conjunction with the current incarnation of the Peterborough Community Samba Band (PCSB). an interrogation of the new arrival. but mechanisms were in place so it could continue. The event offered an opportunity to probe . 69). This deep conviction resonates with its beginnings. As a practice. and about using the Arts to achieve change’ (p. open-ended affirmation. Community Music is a democratic form of hospitality promoting equality and access beyond any preconceived limits. we do so with limits. Community Music practice must move within the impossible conditions of unity and dislocation. permeable.) Organized as an opportunity to meet old friends and enjoy a weekend of drumming. when a music leader welcomes a new participant into a group. It is this transformation that should be central to Community Music practice. Recasting the notion of community through a Derridean perspective of hospitality reflects more accurately the practice of the community musician. Higgins In this way. it is a community-to-come beckoning generosity to be washed upon the shoreline. the reunion met in May 2004 in Cambridgeshire. This cannot be avoided because when we welcome another. they do so with questions: What is your name? What instrument do you play? Have you done this before? What are your expectations? Can you make it every week? There is usually an understanding that the person being hosted will get involved with the musical activities offered. generating a porous.11 The notion of conditional hospitality provides touchstones through which openness.284 L. freedom and tolerance flows. a flickering entity both essential and unessential. and serve to illustrate the theoretical ideas presented above. As an act of hospitality. As practice. they are examples of conditional hospitality. UK. Strength is needed nonetheless to pursue the maintenance of integrity. diversity. (Through a change in job and relocation. The very the parameters (hostilities) inherent within one’s welcome (hosting) is what makes hospitality possible. Community Music requires the term community to level its etymological fortress and weaken its defense against the oncoming participants. Much of the material used for this research comes from a weekend reunion. A deconstructive vision of hospitality allows access to alternative operations of the word community in Community Music. the community in Community Music is a promise to ‘the welcome’. As a statement of intent. Case studies from the Peterborough community samba band The following case studies centre on a Community Music project I initiated in 1993. the term community must reside as a prefix to Community Music. if nothing else. a commitment to a community without unity. about change. This provisional acceptance must understand that notions of community are always temporary. I left the band in 1996. as Mark Webster (1997) states: ‘Community Arts is. Community thus becomes a preparation for the incoming of the other. These sentiments reflect Community Music’s commitment to access and equality of opportunity. Although questions such as these are very human.

The way she carries herself. and appeared as nervous as I was. . now there is something else. Emily has made an incredible life journey since our first meeting. oh yeah!’ Through reflection. Emily entered the building first. her lifestyle. heavy in weight. Emily had been ‘trying to make ends meet’. Illustration 1: Emily’s story. and I greeted her. short in stature.Acts of hospitality 285 motivations and experiences from those who have shaped the PCSB’s 12 years of operation. It’s not just something that I do. ‘I am Emily Samba. and expressed an understanding that ‘all the experiences that I’ve gained have made me what I am now and I don’t wanna be not what I am now. and unhappy with her selfidentity. where ‘the only thing that kept me sanely in that period was the fact that I was working with music. This has not been easy. and dressed in baggy clothes. have all undergone dramatic transformation. (a derogatory description indicating dowdylooking and worn-out). both the leader and the group allowed Emily to engage with her passion for music. I can’t imagine who I’d’ve been now. It’s such an intrinsic part of who I am. not knowing if there would be any attendance at all. Emily became visibly tearful as she recounted the process of change. Emily notes that the PCSB ‘made the biggest impact of anything I’ve done I think. I am so glad that I went to this first Samba session. As she walked towards where I was standing. It is this desire for an unconditional embrace. she stated. Regarding her identity.. If there wasn’t music in my life then. Through a commitment to ‘the welcome’. When the Bahianas arrived in Rio as part of the migration following the end of slavery.’ During our interview. Just before 7:30 p. Twelve years after her initiation into the group. I can’t imagine me not doing it now. She walked in awkwardly. Advertisements for samba drumming classes at the Peterborough Arts Centre were visible in local newspapers in May 1993. Participants’ backgrounds were typically wide. an opportunity that had not been possible before. their relationship with the African continent was .’ she noted. and considers the act of hospitality embedded into the condition of the PCSB as a catalyst for a deeper understanding of her current identity. and it is in stark contrast to previous times. her hairstyle. she was apologetic of her musical incompetence. but it’s not the only thing.’ Emily’s story illuminates the community musician’s promise. regardless of what may initially appear to be true. that allows the community musician to realize her commitment to equality of opportunity. Illustration 2: aunties. describing herself as ‘mumsy’. her attitude. very important. a promise that is in excess of the conditional welcome. This statement is qualified by revealing that she has recently entered into a new relationship and understands the need to strike a balance between her love for samba and all its community intersections. ‘By God. on a Thursday night. I sat nervously.’ Emily admits that samba is ‘still very.’ Before involvement with the PCSB. She described herself as a ‘shadow-little-person’ prior to involvement. and echoed the group’s historic diversity. . and the commitment of the new relationship. Emily notes a ‘phenomenal change’.m.

‘[t]he people that I played with became my family and as a consequence of samba I visited places and got involved with activities that I would never have been a part in otherwise. Higgins immediately re-established. Helen’s children. This feature grew from the amalgamation of the adult-orientated PCSB and the Samba Sizzlers. Both had teaching experience. the identity of the PCSB was permeated by a material expression of the ‘aunty’. Helen was a qualified primary school teacher.’ Miriam continued. The initial ‘kids’ samba’ of 1995 generated enthusiasm from both the children and their parents. 52). if any of that is a direct consequence. They have good interpersonal skills. Miriam and Beth Ellis. and are very worldly wise.’ Helen and Karen’s involvement reflects the experience many parents have juggling their offspring’s out-of-school activities (support for their own child plus the occasional taxi run for others). As Helen confirms. ‘Our two girls have met and experienced a much broader diversity of people than they might otherwise. the musical leadership revolved mainly around Emily. and at night sponsored candomble ´ ´ sessions and samba parties. recalls: ‘It was a social thing from quite early on and I gained lots of friends. Of course. p. In the colloquial sense. With limited teaching experience. Emily found the kids’ group a little difficult. As the Samba Sizzlers grew in numbers. are not quick to judge. sold sweets in the daytime. ‘I’ve grown up . just to keep it going. you know. and asked parents if they would be willing to lend a hand. Beth is also at university.’ She reflects. the women of Bahia set up the candomble temples. During the first term of workshops. samba soon became ‘something which allowed me to express myself. they began to absorb the skills required in the playing of certain instruments. and were addressed respectfully as ‘aunties’ (Guillermoprieto.’ Starting as a hobby. 1991. because it really did grow into a successful junior band. several other ‘mums’ also began helping out. As ‘daughters-of-saints’. it was ‘in a proper sense of managing the band. and later joined with the PCSB. Then my parents got involved in the organization and families started socializing out of the group. organizing it. you know. its junior off-shoot. The band’s impact on Helen’s family was dramatic. but my opinion is that it will have had an impact.286 L. Helen Hutchens and Karen Ellis offered to help. began playing with the Samba Sizzlers at ages eight and ten. and was an influential factor in her decision to study social anthropology. and states ‘[w]e always refer to it [the PSCB] as our extended family and I still feel that way. ‘Karen or I would jump in. organically grown through necessity and care. These women had ‘samba in the foot’. and Karen worked within classrooms as a learning support assistant. In turn.’ The amalgamation of the Samba Sizzlers and the adult band grew. As Helen and Karen attended the Samba Sizzlers’ rehearsals. And we got invited all over the place. The following illustration recounts the creation of an ‘aunties system’ and explores the social effect it had on two families. it is not possible to quantify what.’ For Miriam. samba ignited her interest in other cultures.’ Miriam. being secretary and treasurer and sorting out the gigs and organizing the coaches and this sort of thing. now 20 years of age and studying at University. they formed a ‘sticking-plaster-attitude’ of playing anything that was needed when attendance was low.

Azra joined the Samba Sizzlers after performing in her school’s samba band. creative and functional structure. if they’ve done the wrong thing. dancing. . Of Iranian descent.’ This nurturing had a profound effect on other children as well. Through a network of inter. and thus allowed the party to continue in full-swing. the nature of this action was not initially understood by all. samba was something ‘we could enjoy as a family. Through extended community responsibility. Helen remembers thinking. it has not erected unnecessary fortress walls.g. . ‘[w]e really shouldn’t be allowing them to speak to other adults like that. e. the parents became aware of the manner in which the children were addressing the adults.’ Yet she supported the development of the children’s individual and collective voices.’ With a group of 20 or so performers. Creating tensions between some children and some adults. Reminiscent of her mother. Helen rearticulated her previous position. they’re out of order. In a sense. but this was not without its difficulties.Acts of hospitality 287 with the PCSB. you’ve got a point of view and it’s valid. Helen states. both Helen and Karen recognized the need to ‘look after each other’ and cultivate communication channels. the adults became known as ‘aunties’. Azra highlights that performing never seemed particularly ‘in-sync’ with her father’s beliefs: ‘Going to samba meant I was able to do something that he approved of. a group formed because of the music workshops I had completed while Music Animateur. you know.’ The young participants of the Samba Sizzlers were encouraged to develop their voice. and you’ve got a right to say what you think and I’m pleased and proud that you are actually standing up for yourselves. The band sees the reduction of unity as strength from both the inside and the outside. but continues to maintain an ability to welcome new participants in order to ensure a ‘we’ experience.’ Azra pinpoints the PCSB as ‘the first group of adults that I had ever been told to address by their first names!’ Responding to the moments of tension between the children and the adults. ‘I wanted the girls to be seen as individuals standing up for their own. The PCSB’s support system operated within the notion of a community without unity. the Peterborian women had ‘samba in their feet’. The PCSB prides itself on its integrity and crafted support systems. the Samba Sizzlers developed a cross-parenting textuality that allowed the children decisionmaking abilities within a responsible. a democratic musical activity that has reduced the status of gathering in order to advocate openness. you tell them they are out of line. while I was also able to socialize and incorporate other lessconforming aspects of my personality.’ Paul Hutchens remarked that his main motivation for participating . wearing bright clothes for carnival.12 for Peterborough. ‘[y]eah. Illustration 3: family. . Some of us went through those troublesome teenage years [while we were with the] PCSB. Don’t come to me as a parent expecting me to shut them up because actually they have got a valid point of view. For the Hutchens family.and intra-support. . fine. Although the ‘aunty’ network has acted as unifying force. encouraged through an activity that gave ownership and responsibility.

His anxiousness initially prevented him from joining the PCSB. In fact. the kids were saying ‘‘[w]ell no. embraced a wide variety of experiences and colored the nature of parenting. ‘picked up a teaching job and knew nobody here and I’ve been here two years and this was one of the ways of trying to make friends in Peterborough. I’m quite happy that she knows where she is and she knows she’s safe and she knows how to be safe around those people and at least we can explore the issues and laugh about it together. She [Miriam] went with a group of friends and one particular man was virtually neurotic and thinking.’ Rachel suggests .’ she recalled. So that pretty much these people are my friends in Peterborough. the PCSB nurtured deeper relationships between old acquaintances.’ Helen cites Miriam’s first attendance at the Glastonbury Festival. odd and new. .’ From the Ellis family.’ Both the Hutchens and the Ellis families recognized that to ensure the notion of hospitality. Both the Ellis and Hutchens family suggest quite explicitly that the hospitality inherent within the PCSB directly influenced how they parented. Illustration 4: friendships. For a number of participants. and was struggling to find new friends. a trust developed that allowed the parents to support their children’s endeavors. Karen also states that one of her main motivations for attendance is ‘being with friends. allowed the whole family to develop closer bonds. the PCSB needed continued nurturing. . we’re not going on holiday then. he decided to overcome his ‘fear’. Helen notes. but as the rest of his family became increasingly committed. because we got Drum Camp’’. ‘We have responsibilities to this community band and this is what we have to do for it and unfortunately this is gonna have to be considered within our family life. Miriam had also moved into Peterborough for employment. actually .’ Paul had considered a career in music after early exposure to singing in the Welsh eisteddfods. Higgins ‘was a desire to have shared experiences with my family.’ but makes particular reference to the growth of her friendship with Emily. ‘Well.’ Samba family outings. the PCSB was initially seen as a way to make new friends. Helen explained. you know. Beth attributes samba as part of the reason she has ‘a great relationship with my parents as we do this as a family. .288 L. . ‘I’d moved to Peterborough. ‘I have gained a whole new friendship group. and later achievements in trumpet and piano. Elizabeth joined the band soon after moving into the area for work. efforts that were often beyond their particular horizons of understanding. It is clear that these ‘bonds’ are not received as restrictive parameters.’ As well as the creation of new friends. Helen explains Paul’s dilemma: ‘Samba was sort of ruling the lives of those core few families and certainly was dictating what we did half of the summer-time . such as the annual Drum Camp. ‘I think it made us confident as parents to let go of the children. another regular member of the band. The experiences of community within the PCSB opened pathways for experiences that however challenging. ‘‘how can you [Helen] be so cool?’’ and I thought.

having studied percussion at the Royal College of Music in London. It is through his meeting with Joseph. ‘[t]his sharing refers back to the community and is exposed in it’ (p. friendships. Luke had a formal music education. it is to come. As a Community Music project that advocates a promise to the welcome and a commitment to the act of hospitality. the band operates quite differently from his normal working day. p. a musician and instrument builder. Beth reinforces this notion. 395). that Luke began the process of changing jobs. This emphasis allows the development of open networks. 22). 11). It is this desire that allows the PCSB’s present to be an effective act of hospitality. Blanchot (1988) reinforces this sentiment by stating ‘If I want my life to have meaning for myself. 19). Such face-to-face relationships echo the notion of Emmanuel Levinas (1981) that ‘community with him begins in my obligation to him’ (p.Acts of hospitality 289 that friendships occurred in ways that she had not experienced before. I have proposed that any understanding of the hospitable is marked by the conditional and the unconditional. As Blanchot (1988) suggests.’ says Luke. the PCSB works towards an unconditional rapport with its participants. 2005. a future that is waiting to be discovered. ‘Samba band. community lies ahead of us. Luke originally joined because he wanted to do more playing and wanted to broaden his background in world music. and performing experiences that lie in a future that is unexpected and unpredictable.’ The PCSB as an exemplar of Community Music inscribes sharing and friendship as illustrated above. Luke joined the group around six months after its inception. and I did a couple of them. Conclusion Through a theoretical discussion and practical illustrations. ‘[i]t’s a relationship that [is] hard to define as the only connection really is samba and this is the only time I see them. As a professional musician. He soon recognized the band’s value in expanding his network of friends. Nietzsche (1986) reminds us that an incapacity to imagine imprisons the . ‘gave me the opportunity to do workshops with adults. While talk of a lost community may prove a fantasy. The shift from record producer to workshop leader and teacher has its roots within this friendship. Derrida also concludes that as soon as we have begun to speak we are already caught up in the ‘the relation to the Other prior to any organised socius’ (Gaon.’ Other friendships have aided significant changes of life style. this article has suggested that the sign ‘community’ in Community Music resides as an encounter of hospitality. associations. which I hadn’t done much before ’cause you [the bands leader] were away for a couple of weeks. ‘I work in a formal structured atmosphere where there isn’t much fun or social interaction between staff.’ From Oliver’s perspective. it must have meaning for someone else’ (p. maybe three weeks. Unlike the majority of the PCSB’s participants. I don’t think I would find a relationship like that in any other situation.

with modernity. Higgins free spirit. As a manifestation of Community Music. . the band appears to advocate a sense of belonging to those who participate. The PCSB reflects Community Music’s act of hospitality. during these moments people bond and begin talking. 6. 7. suggesting instead the Peterborough Community without Unity Band. Times of emergency can ignite a sense of contextual fellowship. such as contextual fellowship. I am thinking of those 10 minutes or so spent dropping the children off or picking them up from school. Notes 1. Gemeinschaft is often understood alongside the word Gesellschaft . As an advocate of traditional cultural values. this sense of community. that has fertilized a network of friendships that have their seeds embedded within the band’s identity. one might even think off the ‘ebay’ community. Com'munnus. or those hours spent with work colleagues in the office. the train journey to and from work. Doing one’s duty to the whole. society replaces community as the primary focus for social relations. It is porous. but rather is embedded within a deconstructive vision of hospitality. and. We might rethink the band’s name. for example your morning coffee in Starbuck. meaning society. at times of delay or cancellation. Liminal in a sense of transitional. All of these categories emphasize difference as a guiding idea in wrestling tensions between social and political relations within communal frames. Also reflect on waiting for the train or plane. the PCSB welcomes new participants into its folds without formal invitation. 9/11 for instance. The introduction of this article highlighted contemporary anthropological notions of community. Although not always easy. Common'defence. 8. Ferdinand Tonnies work. the PCSB reciprocally reinforces its identity. or the gym every Saturday morning. permeable and open-ended. mutual service. liminal communities. Com'munis. Through its social hospitality. such as chat rooms. It is this welcoming. 2. As far as community arts had any common philosophy. those ‘in-between’ spaces that have importance in people’s lives. Most often associated with technologically-mediated communities. By means of an etymological examination of the term community I have tried to release an aspect of this free spirit. as such. 4. 5. the death of Princess Diana. Having common duties or functions. enjoyment and celebration would be available to all was paramount to its cause. Part of the band’s success lies in its ability to work through the aporia of the hospitality paradox. Through its transgressive condition. welcomes difference and individuality recast in plurality. This motion is not restricted to normative understandings of community. explores these terms concluding that. Cultural democracy in its extreme condemned the cultural heritage of Europe as bourgeois. These moments have a consciousness of communality. 3. Community and society. ¨ originally published in Germany in 1887. As participants within a community project. those that form the identity of the PCSB are constantly preparing themselves for the arrival of new members. it did argue that a cultural democracy in which creative arts opportunities. collective identities and democratic individuality.290 L. the PCSB operates within these postmodern visions of community.

387Á403. (2000) Of hospitality (Palo Alto. Auge. a refusal of any interpretation of community that privileges ‘gathering’ over ‘dislocation’. (1988) Wanted! community artists (London.) (2002) Diversity and community: an interdisciplinary reader (Oxford. Polity Press). . (2001) A taste for the secret (Cambridge. SUNY Press).Acts of hospitality 9. (2003) Transcommunality: from the politics of conversion to the ethics of respect (Philadelphia. This is a direct reference to the account by Derrida (1994) of Heidegger’s favour ‘of the accord that gathers or collects while harmonizing. & Ferraris. (1997) Politics of friendship (London. endlessly. UK. Caputo (Ed. Journal for Cultural Research. in: J. Verso). suggesting that a ‘Community without community is to come . 2000. W. (2005) Communities in question: sociality and solidarity in Nancy and Blanchot. It was The Council of Europe’s response to its own directives within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. V. identity and collectivity (London. R. P. CA. and the response of John Caputo (1997) to a roundtable discussion with Derrida in 1994. (2001) On cosmopolitanism and forgiveness (London. Verso). Although Derrida does not embrace the word community. Braden.) Deconstruction in a nutshell: a conversation with Jacques Derrida (New York. described by Sue Braden (1978. N. at the heart of every collectivity’. Derrida. Duke University Press). (1995) Community without unity: a politics of Derridian extravagance (Durham. M. (1988) The unavowable community (New York. S. D. J. Routledge). Jean-Luc Nancy (1991) speaks of a community without community. S. J. 291 10. Amit. implementing the creation of the ‘sociocultural animateur’. Routledge). Derrida. Corlett. (2002) The trouble with community: anthropological reflections on movement. Derrida (1997). Caputo. 2001) deals with the themes of displaced peoples and their treatment as strangers in new lands. The posts began to dwindle in the late 1990s. The implication of the sign of a hospitable community within Community Music is a structure of the musical future to come. J. PA. (2003) Community (London. References Alperson. he is nevertheless concerned with its implications. 11. what Lyotard calls the differend. M. The ‘Arts’ animateur became popular throughout 1980/1990s Britain. G. Delanty. Derrida. part artist. 178) as ‘part priest. (1995) Non-places: introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity (London. Brook. B. in the sense that it is always coming . Routledge). (1978) Artist and people (London. Blanchot. Childs. J. (1988) Inner experience (New York. (Ed. ´ Bataille. Pluto Press). p. his work on asylum seekers and refugees (Derrida. J. Stanford University Press). 9. M. Derrida. Blackwell Publishing). Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation).’ Dislocation also resides in the postmodern idea of increased fragmentations that requires continue negotiation. Further reading can be found in Derrida and Ferraris (2001). J. who breathes life into a community. Gaon. NC. 12. Temple University Press). Station Hill Press). & Rapport.’ Notes on contributor Lee Higgins is Program Leader for the Integrated MA and Community Arts at the Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts. Fordham University Press). G. D. (1997) Community without community.

P. Cambridge University Press). (1991) The inoperative community (Minneapolis. Sheldon. (1984) Community. Higgins Greater. making choices (Nottingham. MN. (1998) Critique of pure reason (Cambridge. Martinus Nijhoff). Vila. art and the state (London. (1986) Campaign for a popular culture. Cambridge University Press). Lyotard. J. (1986) The manifesto: another standard. (1986) Human.-L. Departures). Guillermoprieto. and class on the U. L. culture and democracy (London. (2000) Social and cultural anthropology: the key concepts (London. Manchester University Press). gender.S. M. Webster. Comedia). Kant. Routledge). N. Rapport. O. University of Minnesota Press). & Overing. (2005) Border identifications: narratives of religion. Nietzsche. the GLC’s Community Arts Programme 1981Á1986 (London. J. A. all too human: a book for free spirits (Cambridge. E.) (1997) Finding voices. (1991) Samba (New York. J.-Mexico Border (Austin. (Ed. F. Greater London Council).292 L. C. TX. (1988) The differend: phases in dispute (Manchester. A record of struggle and achievement. Comedia). (1981) Otherwise than being or beyond essence (The Hague. Kelly. University of Texas Press). . Nancy. T. I. Levinas. Educational Heretics Press).-F.