Phylogeny of Plants and Related Organisms

SYSTEMATICS
• Scientific study of the kinds and diversity of organisms and any relationship among them

SYSTEMATICS • Deals and encompasses traditional TAXONOMY

TAXONOMY
Is the: • Description • Identification • Classification, and; • Nomenclature of organisms

Recall: bio3
Category vs. Taxa Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida
• The ordering of taxa provides a system of cataloguing and expressing relationships between entities.

Phenetic Classification
• Based on overall similarities between and among taxa

Phenetic Classification
• The more features two taxa share, the more likely they will be put in the same group.

Phenetic Classification
• Groupings are based on their chemical, morphological, anatomical, physiological, and ecological characteristics

Phylogenetic Classification
• Based on evolutionary history or pattern of descent, which may or may not correspond to overall similarity.

Phylogenetic Classification
• Most widely used form of phylogenetic analysis: CLADISTICS
–Represented by a CLADOGRAM (phylogenetic tree)

Cladograms
• A branching diagram that conceptually shows the evolutionary pattern of descent.

Cladograms
• Have implied time scales • The lines represent lineages or clades, which denote descent.

Cladograms
• The branching shows lineage divergence, changes in evolution through time– a change from the pre-existing (ancestral) trait to a new derived character (apomorphy)

Monophyletic groups
• Consisting of a common ancestor plus all descendants.

Paraphyletic groups
• Consisting of a common ancestor but not all the descendants of that common ancestor.

Polyphyletic groups
• Two or more separate groups, each with separate common ancestor

End.