PRACTICAL FILE OF COMPILER DESIGN LAB

DRONACHARYA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KHENTAWAS (GURGAON) AFFILIATED TO MAHARISHI DAYANAND UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK APPROVED BY A.I.C.T.E

Submitted By:-

Roll No: 10065

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Prabhjot Singh Roll N0. 10065 student of VIIth Semester (Computer Science & Engineering) has completed her practical file under the guidance and supervision of undersigned.

Dr. S.V Nair (HOD CSE)

(Lab Faculty)

Roll No: 10065

INDEX
S No. DATE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

TOPIC
STUDY OF LEX AND YACC TOOLS ALGORITHM TO CONVERT REGULAR EXPRESSION TO NFA ALGORITHM TO CONVERT NFA TO DFA ALGORITHM TO MINIMIZING NO. OF STATES OF DFA PROGRAM TO REMOVE BLANK SPACES AND COUNT NO. OF LINES PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS IDENTIFIER OR NOT PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS CONSTANT OR NOT PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS KEYWORD OR NOT PROGRAM TO GENERATE TOKENS CORRESPONDING TO GIVEN STRING PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN EXPRESSION IS IN GRAMMAR OR NOT PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT LEADING PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT TRAILING PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT FIRST

REMARKS

A Lexical Analyzer Generator Lex is a program generator designed for lexical processing of character input streams. to generate the target program. Read the source program and discover its structure. problem oriented specification for character string matching. If necessary. The recognition of the expressions is performed by a deterministic finite automaton generated by Lex. Lex and Yacc can generate program fragments that solve the first task. and produces a program in a general purpose language which recognizes regular expressions. copying it to an output stream and partitioning the input into strings which match the given expressions. 2. The Lex source file associates the regular expressions and the program fragments.g. The regular expressions are specified by the user in the source specifications given to Lex. but the input stream will be backed up to the end of the current partition. As each such string is recognized the corresponding program fragment is executed. The table is translated to a program which reads an input stream. e. the corresponding fragment is executed. The program fragments written by the user are executed in the order in which the corresponding regular expressions occur in the input stream.Roll No: 10065 Program No. Lex helps write programs whose control flow is directed by instances of regular expressions in the input stream. Lex . It is well suited for editor-script type transformations and for segmenting input in preparation for a parsing routine. 2. 1 PRACTICE OF LEX/YACC OF COMPILER WRITING A compiler or interptreter for a programminning language is often decomposed into two parts: 1. The task of discovering the source structure again is decomposed into subtasks: 1. . As each expression appears in the input to the program written by Lex. so that the user has general freedom to manipulate it. substantial lookahead is performed on the input. Split the source file into tokens (Lex). Process this structure. Find the hierarchical structure of the program (Yacc). The lexical analysis programs written with Lex accept ambiguous specifications and choose the longest match possible at each input point. Lex source is a table of regular expressions and corresponding program fragments. The Lex written code recognizes these expressions in an input stream and partitions the input stream into strings matching the expressions. It accepts a high-level. At the boundaries between strings program sections provided by the user are executed.

It is available on the PDP-11 UNIX. when run. and executes the associated C action for each regular expression that is recognized. Lex generates programs to be used in simple lexical analysis of text. will only discuss generating analyzers in C on the UNIX system. This manual. and replaces multiple blanks by single blanks.c. . removes blanks at the end of lines.Roll No: 10065 Lex can generate analyzers in either C or Ratfor. which is the only supported form of Lex under UNIX Version 7. copies unrecognized portions of the input to the output. lex. –n is default. This program. –9 Adds code to be able to compile through the native C compilers.yy. –n Opposite of –v. a language which can be translated automatically to portable Fortran.c is generated. and IBM OS systems. –t Place the result on the standard output instead of in file lex. [ ]+$ [ ]+ putchar(' '). The options have the following meanings. for those with access to this compiler-compiler system. Lex is designed to simplify interfacing with Yacc. –v Print a one–line summary of statistics of the generated analyzer.yy. however. %% [A–Z] putchar(yytext[0]+'a'–'A'). The input files (standard input default) contain regular expressions to be searched for and actions written in C to be executed when expressions are found. Honeywell GCOS. EXAMPLE This program converts upper case to lower. A C source program.

Lex can write code in different host languages. This avoids forcing the user who wishes to use a string manipulation language for input analysis to write processing programs in the same and often inappropriate string handling language. and OS/370. Introduction. called ``host languages. but the code generated by Lex may be taken anywhere the appropriate compilers exist. GCOS. This makes Lex adaptable to different environments and different users. problem oriented specification for character string matching. The Lex written code recognizes these expressions in an input stream and partitions the input stream into strings matching the expressions. the corresponding fragment is executed. +-------+ Source -> | Lex | +-------+ Input -> -> yylex +-------+ | yylex | -> Output +-------+ An overview of Lex Figure 1 . a high level expression language is provided to write the string expressions to be matched while the user's freedom to write actions is unimpaired. Lex is a program generator designed for lexical processing of character input streams. The host language is used for the output code generated by Lex and also for the program fragments added by the user. See Figure 1. and produces a program in a general purpose language which recognizes regular expressions. As each expression appears in the input to the program written by Lex. It accepts a high-level. and the properties of local implementations. The yylex program will recognize expressions in a stream (called input in this memo) and perform the specified actions for each expression as it is detected. Lex turns the user's expressions and actions (called source in this memo) into the host generalpurpose language. the generated program is named yylex. Lex is not a complete language. although Fortran (in the form of Ratfor [2] has been available in the past. At present. but rather a generator representing a new language feature which can be added to different programming languages. The program that recognizes the expressions is generated in the general purpose programming language employed for the user's program fragments. Thus. Lex itself exists on UNIX.'' Just as general purpose languages can produce code to run on different computer hardware. the user's background. The regular expressions are specified by the user in the source specifications given to Lex. The user supplies the additional code beyond expression matching needed to complete his tasks. Each application may be directed to the combination of hardware and host language appropriate to the task. the only supported host language is C. Compatible run-time libraries for the different host languages are also provided. possibly including code written by other generators.Roll No: 10065 1. The Lex source file associates the regular expressions and the program fragments. At the boundaries between strings program sections provided by the user are executed.

a combination of Lex and Yacc is often appropriate. and executing the desired rule action. the + indicates ``one or more . it is particularly easy to interface Lex and Yacc [3]. Thus. Lex can also be used with a parser generator to perform the lexical analysis phase. The finite automaton generated for this source will scan for both rules at once. Yacc writes parsers that accept a large class of context free grammars. Additional programs.'' as in QED. can be added easily to programs written by Lex. printf(" "). Lex can be used alone for simple transformations. This rule contains a regular expression which matches one or more instances of the characters blank or tab (written \t for visibility.Roll No: 10065 For a trivial example. and the parser generator assigns structure to the resulting pieces. %% [ \t]+$ . No action is specified.''. Lex programs recognize only regular expressions. written by other generators or by hand. or for analysis and statistics gathering on a lexical level. To change any remaining string of blanks or tabs to a single blank. so that the use of this name by Lex simplifies interfacing.. in accordance with the C language convention) just prior to the end of a line. and one rule. The program contains a %% delimiter to mark the beginning of the rules. The brackets indicate the character class made of blank and tab. and the second rule all remaining strings of blanks or tabs. . The first rule matches all strings of blanks or tabs at the end of lines. so the program generated by Lex (yylex) will ignore these characters. consider a program to delete from the input all blanks or tabs at the ends of lines. Lex is used to partition the input stream. for example) is shown in Figure 2. observing at the termination of the string of blanks or tabs whether or not there is a newline character. is all that is required. but require a lower level analyzer to recognize input tokens.. lexical grammar rules rules | | v v +---------+ +---------+ | Lex | | Yacc | +---------+ +---------+ | | v v +---------+ +---------+ Input -> | yylex | -> | yyparse | -> Parsed input +---------+ +---------+ Lex with Yacc Figure 2 Yacc users will realize that the name yylex is what Yacc expects its lexical analyzer to be named. Everything else will be copied. When used as a preprocessor for a later parser generator. The flow of control in such a case (which might be the first half of a compiler. and the $ indicates ``end of line. add another rule: %% [ \t]+$ [ \t]+ .

program fragments to be executed when the expressions are recognized. The automaton interpreter directs the control flow.Roll No: 10065 Lex generates a deterministic finite automaton from the regular expressions in the source [4]. Thus an individual rule might appear integer printf("found keyword INT"). they are a table. In the outline of Lex programs shown above. The result is still a fast analyzer. the time taken by a Lex program to recognize and partition an input stream is proportional to the length of the input. The end of the expression is indicated by the first blank or tab character. In this example the host procedural language is C and the C library function printf is used to print the string. if it is compound. What does increase with the number and complexity of rules is the size of the finite automaton. no rules) which translates into a program which copies the input to the output unchanged. unless rules which include forward context require a significant amount of rescanning. The number of Lex rules or the complexity of the rules is not important in determining speed. rather than compiled. Lex will recognize ab and leave the input pointer just before cd. 2. In the program written by Lex. . to look for the string integer in the input stream and print the message ``found keyword INT'' whenever it appears. it can just be given on the right side of the line. one looking for ab and another for abcdefg. The absolute minimum Lex program is thus %% (no definitions. The second %% is optional. If the action is merely a single C expression. Lex Source. and therefore the size of the program generated by Lex. The automaton is interpreted. or to add subroutines outside this action routine. In particular. . the rules represent the user's control decisions. the user's fragments (representing the actions to be performed as each regular expression is found) are gathered as cases of a switch. but the first is required to mark the beginning of the rules. For example. As a slightly . and the input stream is abcdefh. in which the left column contains regular expressions (see section 3) and the right column contains actions. or takes more than a line. Lex is not limited to source which can be interpreted on the basis of one character lookahead. The general format of Lex source is: {definitions} %% {rules} %% {user subroutines} where the definitions and the user subroutines are often omitted. it should be enclosed in braces. Such backup is more costly than the processing of simpler languages. Opportunity is provided for the user to insert either declarations or additional statements in the routine containing the actions. if there are two rules. in order to save space.

Every character but blank. The quotation mark operator (") indicates that whatever is contained between a pair of quotes is to be taken as text characters. A regular expression specifies a set of strings to be matched. Within square brackets. * + | ( ) $ / { } % < > and if they are to be used as text characters.Roll No: 10065 more useful example. and is safe should further extensions to Lex lengthen the list. normally. To enter \ itself. b. . Note that a part of a string may be quoted. would be a start. Thus by quoting every non-alphanumeric character being used as a text character. use \. Classes of characters can be specified using the operator pair []. Since newline is illegal in an expression. The operator characters are " \ [ ] ^ . equivalent of the above expressions. thus the regular expression integer a57D matches the string integer wherever it appears and the expression looks for the string a57D. It contains text characters (which match the corresponding characters in the strings being compared) and operator characters (which specify repetitions. since the word petroleum would become gaseum. and \b is backspace. it is not required to escape tab and backspace. or c. The construction [abc] matches a single character. An operator character may also be turned into a text character by preceding it with \ as in xyz which is another. Operators. blanks or tabs end a rule. Thus xyz"++" matches the string xyz++ when it appears. These rules are not quite enough. The letters of the alphabet and the digits are always text characters. printf("gas"). \t is tab. suppose it is desired to change a number of words from British to American spelling. Lex rules such as colour mechanise petrol printf("color").? . Lex Regular Expressions. It is harmless but unnecessary to quote an ordinary text character. newline and the list above is always a text character. which may be a. tab. an escape should be used. printf("mechanize"). as explained above. less readable. Any blank character not contained within [] (see below) must be quoted. choices. The definitions of regular expressions are very similar to those in QED [5]. Character classes. the user can avoid remembering the list above of current operator characters. 3. \n must be used. Another use of the quoting mechanism is to get a blank into an expression. Several normal C escapes with \ are recognized: \n is newline. a way of dealing with this will be described later. and other features). the expression "xyz++" is the same as the one above.

including zero. it indicates that the resulting string is to be complemented with respect to the computer character set. Thus ab?c matches either ac or abc. thus [-+0-9] matches all the digits and the two signs. Repetitions of classes are indicated by the operators * and +. the ^ operator must appear as the first character after the left bracket. Only three characters are special: these are \ . or c. The \ character provides the usual escapes within character class brackets. Thus [^abc] matches all characters except a. And [A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9]* indicates all alphanumeric strings with a leading alphabetic character. [a-z0-9<>_] indicates the character class containing all the lower case letters. [0-z] in ASCII is many more characters than it is in EBCDIC). Using .. b. Repeated expressions. both lower case letters. The operator ? indicates an optional element of an expression. Optional expressions.and ^. Alternation and Grouping. while a+ is one or more instances of a. [a-z]+ is all strings of lower case letters. If it is desired to include the character . a* is any number of consecutive a characters. or both digits is implementation dependent and will get a warning message. (E. including all special or control characters. To match almost any character. This is a typical expression for recognizing identifiers in computer languages. The operator | indicates alternation: . For example. Escaping into octal is possible although non-portable: [0-76] matches all printable characters in the ASCII character set. In character classes.Roll No: 10065 most operator meanings are ignored. and underline.between any pair of characters which are not both upper case letters.g. is the class of all characters except newline. the operator character . or [^a-zA-Z] is any character which is not a letter. the angle brackets. Arbitrary character. The character indicates ranges. from octal 40 (blank) to octal 176 (tilde). the digits. it should be first or last.in a character class. For example. Ranges may be given in either order.

or at the beginning of the input stream). efefef. The expression ab/cd matches the string ab. If a rule is only to be executed when the Lex automaton interpreter is in start condition x. or cddd. before the rules. abcd. Ambiguous Source Rules. the rule should be prefixed by <x> using the angle bracket operator characters. initial % is special. but only if followed by cd. Lex will recognize a small amount of surrounding context. ab|cd would have sufficed. but not abc. The latter operator is a special case of the / operator character. a{1. 4. complementation of character classes. Lex chooses as follows: 1) The longest match is preferred. If we considered ``being at the beginning of a line'' to be start condition ONE. cdef. the expression will only be matched at the beginning of a line (after a newline character. This can never conflict with the other meaning of ^.Roll No: 10065 (ab|cd) matches either ab or cd. . then the ^ operator would be equivalent to <ONE> Start conditions are explained more fully later. When more than one expression can match the current input. Note that parentheses are used for grouping. since that only applies within the [] operators. although they are not necessary on the outside level. Lex can handle ambiguous specifications. Repetitions and Definitions. If the very last character is $. For example {digit} looks for a predefined string named digit and inserts it at that point in the expression. If the first character of an expression is ^. which indicates trailing context. The two simplest operators for this are ^ and $. In contrast. Finally. The definitions are given in the first part of the Lex input.5} looks for 1 to 5 occurrences of a. Parentheses can be used for more complex expressions: (ab|cd+)?(ef)* matches such strings as abefef. Thus ab$ is the same as ab/\n Left context is handled in Lex by start conditions as explained in section 10. the expression will only be matched at the end of a line (when immediately followed by newline). or abcdef. being the separator for Lex source segments. The operators {} specify either repetitions (if they enclose numbers) or definition expansion (if they enclose a name). Context sensitivity.

operator will not match newline. The principle of preferring the longest match makes rules containing expressions like . 'second' '[^'\n]*' which is probably not what was wanted... it is taken as an identifier.* stop on the current line. not searching for all possible matches of each expression. both rules match 7 characters.. REJECT. REJECT. on the above input. The position of the input pointer is adjusted accordingly. . Thus expressions like . The action REJECT means ``go do the next alternative.'' It causes whatever rule was second choice after the current rule to be executed. Don't try to defeat this with expressions like (. s++.} {h++. Sometimes the user would like to override this choice. identifier action . Anything shorter (e. where the last two rules ignore everything besides he and she. h++. Thus. Some Lex rules to do this might be she he \n . The consequences of errors like this are mitigated by the fact that the .*' might seem a good way of recognizing a string in single quotes. This means that each character is accounted for once and only once. will stop after 'first'. Since she includes he.g. does not include newline. to be given in that order. If the input is integer. Suppose the user really wants to count the included instances of he: she he \n . because [a-z]+ matches 8 characters while integer matches only 7. suppose the rules integer [a-z]+ keyword action . 'second' here the above expression will match 'first' quoted string here. causing internal buffer overflows. A better rule is of the form which. If the input is integers.* dangerous.. looking for a distant single quote.. the Lex generated program will try to read the entire input file.} | . '. and the keyword rule is selected because it was given first.|\n)+ or equivalents. Lex will normally not recognize the instances of he included in she.. since once it has passed a she those characters are gone. But it is an invitation for the program to read far ahead. For example. int) will not match the expression integer and so the identifier interpretation is used. For example. suppose it is desired to count occurrences of both she and he in an input text. {s++. Note that Lex is normally partitioning the input stream.Roll No: 10065 2) Among rules which matched the same number of characters. the rule given first is preferred. Remember that . | . Presented with the input 'first' quoted string here.

though. and on ad only the second matches. 5. Assuming a two-dimensional array named digram to be incremented. 1) Any line which is not part of a Lex rule or action which begins with a blank or tab is copied into the Lex generated program. in other cases. Lex Source Definitions. Suppose a digram table of the input is desired. rather than at every other character. These can go either in the definitions section or in the rules section. the appropriate source is %% [a-z][a-z] { digram[yytext[0]][yytext[1]]++. however. . the other expression will then be counted.. it is rejected. it would not be possible a priori to tell which input characters were in both classes. In contrast. normally the digrams overlap. In this example. of course. the input accd agrees with the second rule for four characters and then the first rule for three. to define variables for use in his program and for use by Lex. and omit the REJECT action on he. The input string accb matches the first rule for four characters and then the second rule for three characters. the user could note that she includes he but not vice versa..} If the input is ab. After counting each expression. The user needs additional options. Remember the format of the Lex source: {definitions} %% {rules} %% {user routines} So far only the rules have been described. only the first rule matches. and the instances of these items may overlap or include each other. REJECT.} { . Consider the two rules a[bc]+ a[cd]+ { . that is the word the is considered to contain both th and he. whenever appropriate. . Remember that Lex is turning the rules into a program. Any source not intercepted by Lex is copied into the generated program.. REJECT.. Such source input prior to the first %% delimiter will be . There are three classes of such things. REJECT. In general. REJECT is useful whenever the purpose of Lex is not to partition the input stream but to detect all examples of some items in the input. . . \n where the REJECT is necessary to pick up a letter pair beginning at every character.Roll No: 10065 these rules are one way of changing the previous example to do just that. } .

Using {D} for the digits and {E} for an exponent field. 3) Anything after the third %% delimiter. both require a decimal point and contain an optional exponent field. The format of such lines is name translation and it causes the string given as a translation to be associated with the name. might abbreviate rules to recognize numbers: D E %% {D}+ {D}+". The delimiters are discarded. lines which begin with a blank or tab. a character set table. The comments should follow the host language convention. Any line in this section not contained between %{ and %}. This material must look like program fragments. if it appears immediately after the first %%. including the selection of a host language. or adjustments to the default size of arrays within Lex itself for larger source programs. and begining in column 1. This can be used to include comments in either the Lex source or the generated code. To correctly handle the problem posed by a Fortran expression such as 35.I. but the first requires at least one digit before the decimal point and the second requires at least one digit after the decimal point. The name and translation must be separated by at least one blank or tab."{D}+({E})? {D}+{E} [0-9] [DEde][-+]?{D}+ printf("integer"). and the name must begin with a letter. regardless of formats. or copying lines that do not look like programs."{D}*({E})? {D}*". The translation can then be called out by the {name} syntax in a rule.EQ."EQ printf("integer"). could be used in addition to the normal rule for integers. As a side effect of the above. The definitions section may also contain other commands. are passed through to the generated program. This format permits entering text like preprocessor statements that must begin in column 1. a context-sensitive rule such as [0-9]+/". which does not contain a real number. . a list of start conditions. and which contain a comment.. | | Note the first two rules for real numbers. etc. for example. Definitions intended for Lex are given before the first %% delimiter.Roll No: 10065 external to any function in the code. and should precede the first Lex rule. is assumed to define Lex substitution strings. 2) Anything included between lines containing only %{ and %} is copied out as above. is copied out after the Lex output. it appears in an appropriate place for declarations in the function written by Lex which contains the actions.

c. The output file. when one of these rules has been recognized. Yacc is written in portable C.Roll No: 10065 Yacc: Yet Another Compiler-Compiler yacc is a computer program that serves as the standard parser generator on Unix systems. yylex(void) (often generated by lex(1)). yyerror(char*).tab. In addition to compilers for C. These tokens are organized according to the input structure rules. code to be invoked when these rules are recognized. This function. . Thus. y.. then user code supplied for this rule. and a Fortran debugging system. The grammar may be ambiguous. The name is an acronym for "Yet Another Compiler Compiler. Yacc converts a context–free grammar and translation code into a set of tables for an LR(1) parser and translator. frequently. char *argv[]) program. The Yacc user prepares a specification of the input process. Yacc provides a general tool for imposing structure on the input to a computer program. etc. Pascal. or in terms of higher level constructs such as names and numbers. and with an error handling routine. actions have the ability to return values and make use of the values of other actions. Yacc generates the code for the parser in the C programming language. The class of specifications accepted is a very general one: LALR(1) grammars with disambiguating rules. The Yacc user specifies the structures of his input. specified precedence rules are used to break ambiguities. an action. Yacc then generates a function to control the input process. a document retrieval system. must be compiled by the C compiler to produce a program yyparse. called a parser. RATFOR. which typically defy easy grammatical specification. together with code to be invoked as each such structure is recognized. it is convenient and appropriate to have most of the flow of control in the user's application handled by this subroutine. calls the user-supplied low-level input routine (the lexical analyzer) to pick up the basic items (called tokens) from the input stream." It generates a parser (the part of a compiler that tries to make sense of the input) based on an analytic grammar written in BNF notation. Yacc provides a general tool for describing the input to a computer program. is invoked. The input subroutine produced by Yacc calls a user-supplied routine to return the next basic input item. This program must be loaded with a lexical analyzer function. with a main(int argc. Yacc turns such a specification into a subroutine that handles the input process. including a phototypesetter language. called grammar rules. and a low-level routine to do the basic input. this includes rules describing the input structure. APL. Yacc has also been used for less conventional languages. several desk calculator languages. The user-supplied routine may also handle idiomatic features such as comment and continuation conventions. the user can specify his input in terms of individual input characters.

–s stem Change the prefix y of the file names y.c.tab.c to give access to the token codes.tab. containing a description of the parsing tables and of conflicts arising from ambiguities in the grammar. v Create file y.Roll No: 10065 The options are –o output Direct output to the specified file instead of y.tab. containing #define statements that associate yacc–assigned `token codes' with user–declared `token names'.h.debug.tab.debug.output.h. –S Write a parser that uses Stdio instead of the print routines in libc. .tab. –d Create file y. and y. Include it in source files other than y. –Dn Create file y. containing diagnostic messages.output to stem.c. y. y.

month_name.' year . and month_name would be a nonterminal symbol. There is considerable leeway in deciding whether to recognize structures using the lexical analyzer or grammar rules. The comma ``. . Each rule describes an allowable structure and gives it a name. . An important part of the input process is carried out by the lexical analyzer. date. with proper definitions. one grammar rule might be date : month_name day '. For example. code to be invoked when these rules are recognized. terminal symbols will usually be referred to as tokens. Yacc then generates a function to control the input process. calls the user-supplied low-level input routine (the lexical analyzer) to pick up the basic items (called tokens) from the input stream. The Yacc user prepares a specification of the input process. called grammar rules. Such low-level rules tend to waste time and space. day. month_name. and year are defined elsewhere. . presumably. actions have the ability to return values and make use of the values of other actions. . recognizing the lower level structures. the rules month_name month_name : : 'J' 'a' 'n' 'F' 'e' 'b' .Roll No: 10065 1: Introduction Yacc provides a general tool for imposing structure on the input to a computer program. For historical reasons. might be used in the above example. and may complicate the specification beyond Yacc's ability to deal with it. is invoked.'' is enclosed in single quotes. and communicates these tokens to the parser. when one of these rules has been recognized. This function. a structure recognized by the lexical analyzer is called a terminal symbol. . and output subroutine. called a parser. The heart of the input specification is a collection of grammar rules. This user routine reads the input stream. month_name : 'D' 'e' 'c' . and year represent structures of interest in the input process. the input July 4. are in C as well. These tokens are organized according to the input structure rules. day. Thus. an action. For example. many of the syntactic conventions of Yacc follow C. and a low-level routine to do the basic input. Here. and have no significance in controlling the input. The lexical analyzer would only need to recognize individual letters. this implies that the comma is to appear literally in the input. while the structure recognized by the parser is called a nonterminal symbol. then user code supplied for this rule. Yacc is written in a portable dialect of C[1] and the actions. Moreover. 1776 might be matched by the above rule. The colon and semicolon merely serve as punctuation in the rule. To avoid confusion. this includes rules describing the input structure.

In some cases. the constructions which are difficult for Yacc to handle are also frequently difficult for human beings to handle. Yacc fails to produce a parser when given a set of specifications. Error handling. 3. its power compares favorably with similar systems. It is realively easy to add to the above example the rule date : month '/' day '/' year . and Section 11 gives acknowledgements. not only is the chance of reading and computing with bad input data substantially reduced. permits the reentry of bad data. the lexical analyzer would recognize the month names. Appendix A has a brief example. or by rewriting some of the grammar rules. this new rule could be ``slipped in'' to a working system with minimal effort. Literal characters such as ``. Section 6 describes a simple mechanism for handling operator precedences in arithmetic expressions. These input errors are detected as early as is theoretically possible with a left-to-right scan.[5] the Portable C Compiler. and return an indication that a month_name was seen. Section 7 discusses error detection and recovery. thus. Section 8 discusses the operating environment and special features of the parsers Yacc produces. The input being read may not conform to the specifications. Section 5 discusses various reasons why Yacc may be unable to produce a parser from a specification. the specifications may be self contradictory. While Yacc cannot handle all possible specifications. 1776 as a synonym for In most cases.'' must also be passed through the lexical analyzer.[7] The next several sections describe the basic process of preparing a Yacc specification. or they may require a more powerful recognition mechanism than that available to Yacc. Section 1 describes the preparation of grammar rules. and Section 3 the preparation of lexical analyzers. including lint. provided as part of the input specifications. and what to do about it. but the bad data can usually be quickly found.Roll No: 10065 Usually. The theory underlying Yacc has been described elsewhere. and are also considered tokens. and Appendix . Section 2 the preparation of the user supplied actions associated with these rules. 4] Yacc has been extensively used in numerous practical applications. Section 4 describes the operation of the parser. allowing 7 / 4 / 1776 July 4. the latter cases can often be corrected by making the lexical analyzer more powerful. Section 9 gives some suggestions which should improve the style and efficiency of the specifications. in this case. moreover. Some users have reported that the discipline of formulating valid Yacc specifications for their input revealed errors of conception or design early in the program development. and little danger of disrupting existing input. month_name would be a token.[6] and a system for typesetting mathematics.[2. The former cases represent design errors. Section 10 discusses some advanced topics. Specification files are very flexible. or the continuation of the input process after skipping over the bad data. For example.

The sections are separated by double percent ``%%'' marks. for reasons discussed in Section 3. and all the C escapes are recognized. the backslash ``

' is an escape character within literals. tabs. A represents a nonterminal name.) In other words. it may be useful to include other programs as well. The rules section is made up of one or more grammar rules. a full specification file looks like declarations %% rules %% programs The declaration section may be empty. Thus. but provided for historical continuity with older versions of Yacc.''. Upper and lower case letters are distinct. Appendix C gives an example using some of the more advanced features of Yacc. In addition. it is often desirable to include the lexical analyzer as part of the specification file. the second %% mark may be omitted also. and BODY represents a sequence of zero or more names and literals. Comments may appear wherever a name is legal. and. as in C and PL/I. Names may be of arbitrary length. . The names used in the body of a grammar rule may represent tokens or nonterminal symbols. . underscore ``_''. 2: Basic Specifications Names refer to either tokens or nonterminal symbols. and newlines are ignored except that they may not appear in names or multicharacter reserved symbols. Thus . The colon and the semicolon are Yacc punctuation. (The percent ``%'' is generally used in Yacc specifications as an escape character. finally. the smallest legal Yacc specification is %% rules Blanks.Roll No: 10065 B gives a summary of the Yacc input syntax. dot ``. (grammar) rules. A literal consists of a character enclosed in single quotes ``'''. and may be made up of letters. and non-initial digits. As in C. thus. Appendix D describes mechanisms and syntax no longer actively supported. */. they are enclosed in /* . every specification file consists of three sections: the declarations. if the programs section is omitted. Moreover. and programs. Yacc requires token names to be declared as such. A grammar rule has the form: A : BODY .

thus. . If the endmarker is seen in any other context. most general structure described by the grammar rules. the NUL character ('###BOT_TEXT###' or 0) should never be used in grammar rules. If there are several grammar rules with the same left hand side. By default. The parser is designed to recognize the start symbol. the parser function returns to its caller after the endmarker is seen. If a nonterminal symbol matches the empty string. Of all the nonterminal symbols. and in fact desirable. . the start symbol is taken to be the left hand side of the first grammar rule in the rules section. this can be indicated in the obvious way: empty : . Every nonterminal symbol must appear on the left side of at least one rule. In addition. and 6 for much more discussion). the endmarker form a structure which matches the start symbol. . Names representing tokens must be declared. one. It is possible. this is most simply done by writing %token name1 name2 . the vertical bar ``|'' can be used to avoid rewriting the left hand side. but not including. it accepts the input. called the start symbol. to declare the start symbol explicitly in the declarations section using the %start keyword: %start symbol The end of the input to the parser is signaled by a special token. . 5. in the declarations section. B E G B E G C F . this symbol represents the largest. (See Sections 3 . the semicolon at the end of a rule can be dropped before a vertical bar. Thus the grammar rules A A A A : : : : | | . and easier to change. called the endmarker.Roll No: 10065 '\n' '\r' '

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' '\' '\t' '\b' '\f' '\xxx' newline return single quote ``''' backslash ``

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' tab backspace form feed ``xxx'' in octal For a number of technical reasons. If the tokens up to. can be given to Yacc as It is not necessary that all grammar rules with the same left side appear together in the grammar rules section. has particular importance. it is an error. although it makes the input much more readable. C F D D . Every name not defined in the declarations section is assumed to represent a nonterminal symbol.

and alter external vectors and variables. For example. . the user may associate actions to be performed each time the rule is recognized in the input process. These actions may return values. the action may use the pseudo-variables $1. and $3 the value returned by D. 3: Actions With each grammar rule. for example. "abc" ). Moreover. such as ``end-of-file'' or ``end-of-record''. if the rule is A : B C D . The symbol ``dollar sign'' ``$'' is used as a signal to Yacc in this context. The value returned by this rule is usually the value of the expr in parentheses. Thus. $2. A : '(' B ')' { hello( 1. and may obtain the values returned by previous actions. call subprograms. As a more concrete example. the action normally sets the pseudovariable ``$$'' to some value. then $2 has the value returned by C. . which refer to the values returned by the components of the right side of a rule. This can be indicated by expr : '(' expr ')' { $$ = $2 . the lexical analyzer can return values for tokens. To return a value. . } . the action statements are altered slightly. To facilitate easy communication between the actions and the parser. } are grammar rules with actions. } and XXX : YYY ZZZ { printf("a message\n"). For example. an action that does nothing but return the value 1 is { $$ = 1. reading from left to right. An action is specified by one or more statements. if desired. flag = 25.Roll No: 10065 It is the job of the user-supplied lexical analyzer to return the endmarker when appropriate. enclosed in curly braces ``{'' and ``}''. below. see section 3. An action is an arbitrary C statement. Usually the endmarker represents some reasonably obvious I/O status. and as such can do input and output. } To obtain the values returned by previous actions and the lexical analyzer.. consider the rule expr : '(' expr ')' .

rather. $1. Yacc actually treats the above example as if it had been written: $ACT : . x = $2. output is not done directly by the actions. In the examples above. y = $3. Declarations and definitions can appear in the declarations section. a data structure. Thus. and returns the index of the newly created node. For example. and descendants n1 and n2. Parse trees are particularly easy to construct. n1. } in the specification. is constructed in memory. Actions that do not terminate a rule are actually handled by Yacc by manufacturing a new nonterminal symbol name. For example.Roll No: 10065 By default. such as a parse tree. $3 ). all the actions came at the end of their rules. B $ACT { C x = $2. suppose there is a C function node. Yacc permits an action to be written in the middle of a rule as well as at the end. accessible through the usual mechanism by the actions to the right of it. Thus. } y = $3. } /* empty */ { $$ = 1. and a new rule matching this name to the empty string. given routines to build and maintain the tree structure desired. . and y to the value returned by C. n2 ) creates a node with label L. in the rule A : B C . it may access the values returned by the symbols to its left. the value of a rule is the value of the first element in it ($1). { { $$ = 1. frequently need not have an explicit action. These declarations and definitions have global scope. } In many applications. In turn. enclosed in the marks ``%{'' and ``%}''. and transformations are applied to it before output is generated. Then parse tree can be built by supplying actions such as: expr : expr '+' { expr $$ = node( '+'. This rule is assumed to return a value. The user may define other variables to be used by the actions. written so that the call node( L. it is desirable to get control before a rule is fully parsed. A : . The interior action is the action triggered off by recognizing this added rule. so they are known to the action statements and the lexical analyzer. grammar rules of the form A : B . Sometimes. } the effect is to set x to 1.

For example. . . . . The parser and the lexical analyzer must agree on these token numbers in order for communication between them to take place. making variable accessible to all of the actions. for example. and a value equal to the numerical value of the digit. case '0': case '1': . easily modified lexical analyzers. int c. The numbers may be chosen by Yacc. If there is a value associated with that token. the only pitfall is the need to avoid using any token names in the grammar that are reserved or significant in C or the parser. . the user should avoid such names. . the ``# define'' mechanism of C is used to allow the lexical analyzer to return these numbers symbolically. . The Yacc parser uses only names beginning in ``yy''. . suppose that the token name DIGIT has been defined in the declarations section of the Yacc specification file. the token number. . The intent is to return a token number of DIGIT. . all the values are integers: a discussion of values of other types will be found in Section 10. %} could be placed in the declarations section. the identifier DIGIT will be defined as the token number associated with the token DIGIT. The function returns an integer. 4: Lexical Analysis The user must supply a lexical analyzer to read the input stream and communicate tokens (with values. c = getchar(). switch( c ) { . In either case. it should be assigned to the external variable yylval.Roll No: 10065 %{ int variable = 0. The token name error is reserved for error handling. } . and should not be used naively (see Section 7). . . . Provided that the lexical analyzer code is placed in the programs section of the specification file. case '9': yylval = c-'0'. the use of token names if or while will almost certainly cause severe difficulties when the lexical analyzer is compiled. return( DIGIT ). The relevant portion of the lexical analyzer might look like: yylex(){ extern int yylval. if desired) to the parser. or chosen by the user. representing the kind of token read. The lexical analyzer is an integer-valued function called yylex. . In these examples. . . This mechanism leads to clear.

if it needs one. while not strictly necessary. called shift. 5: How the Parser Works Yacc turns the specification file into a C program.Roll No: 10065 As mentioned above. the parser decides on its next action. the endmarker must have token number 0 or negative. The machine has only four actions available to it. The parser is also capable of reading and remembering the next input token (called the lookahead token). the parser decides whether it needs a lookahead token to decide what action should be done. and in the lookahead token being processed or left alone. it calls yylex to obtain the next token. Using the current state. Based on its current state. Names and literals not defined by this mechanism retain their default definition. The parser produced by Yacc consists of a finite state machine with a stack. The current state is always the one on the top of the stack. and does not have one. the numbers are chosen by Yacc. however. the token numbers may be chosen by Yacc or by the user. and carries it out. which parses the input according to the specification given. and error. The states of the finite state machine are given small integer labels. A very useful tool for constructing lexical analyzers is the Lex program developed by Mike Lesk. and the lookahead token if needed. This may result in states being pushed onto the stack. The default token number for a literal character is the numerical value of the character in the local character set. and understanding how it works. is relatively simple. the first appearance of the token name or literal in the declarations section can be immediately followed by a nonnegative integer. For historical reasons. accept. It is important that all token numbers be distinct. but there remain some languages (such as FORTRAN) which do not fit any theoretical framework. The parser itself. The specifications for these lexical analyzers use regular expressions instead of grammar rules. Other names are assigned token numbers starting at 257. To assign a token number to a token (including literals). Lex can be easily used to produce quite complicated lexical analyzers. The algorithm used to go from the specification to the parser is complex. initially. . and will not be discussed here (see the references for more information). This token number cannot be redefined by the user. In the default situation. thus. all lexical analyzers should be prepared to return 0 or negative as a token number upon reaching the end of their input.[8] These lexical analyzers are designed to work in close harmony with Yacc parsers. the stack contains only state 0. This integer is taken to be the token number of the name or literal. and no lookahead token has been read. and whose lexical analyzers must be crafted by hand. or popped off of the stack. 2. the machine is in state 0. A move of the parser is done as follows: 1. will nevertheless make treatment of error recovery and ambiguities much more comprehensible. reduce.

if the lookahead token is IF. In particular. and the symbol on the left side of the rule. the current state (56) is pushed down on the stack. Whenever a shift action is taken. In any case. in fact. For example. and the number of symbols on the right hand side (three in this case). and is prepared to announce that it has seen an instance of the rule. so this action is called a goto action. Reduce actions are associated with individual grammar rules. pushed onto the stack.Roll No: 10065 The shift action is the most common action the parser takes. The action . there is always a lookahead token. The parser then behaves as if it had seen the left side at that time. in state 56. leading to some confusion. A new state is obtained. and z.'') is often a reduce action. and parsing continues. and is not affected by a goto. the uncovered state contains an entry such as: A goto 20 causing state 20 to be pushed onto the stack. replacing the right hand side by the left hand side. The reduce action keeps the stack from growing without bounds. a state is uncovered which was the state the parser was in before beginning to process the rule. and state 34 becomes the current state (on the top of the stack). these states were the ones put on the stack while recognizing x. Reduce actions are appropriate when the parser has seen the right hand side of a grammar rule. and become the current state. In effect. the default action (represented by a ``. . however. If the right hand side of the rule is empty. There are significant differences between the processing of the left hand symbol and an ordinary shift of a token. the lookahead token is cleared by a shift. perform what is in effect a shift of A. but usually it is not. Grammar rules are also given small integer numbers. It may be necessary to consult the lookahead token to decide whether to reduce. first pop off the top three states from the stack (In general. while the action refers to state 34. no states are popped off of the stack: the uncovered state is in fact the current state. After popping these states. popping the states off the stack to go back to the state where the right hand side of the rule was first seen. In effect. To reduce. and no longer serve any useful purpose. the number of states popped equals the number of symbols on the right side of the rule). Using this uncovered state. The lookahead token is cleared. the reduce action ``turns back the clock'' in the parse. Suppose the rule being reduced is A:xyz. IF reduce 18 shift 34 refers to grammar rule 18. The reduce action depends on the left hand symbol (A in this case). y. in state 56 there may be an action: IF shift 34 which says.

the reduction is carried out. on the other hand. holds the values returned from the lexical analyzer and the actions. When a shift takes place. The error action. The parser reports an error. In addition to the stack holding the states. This action appears only when the lookahead token is the endmarker. $2. DONG DELL place DONG sound DING DELL When Yacc is invoked with the -v option. the external variable yyval is copied onto the value stack. another stack. the external variable yylval is copied onto the value stack. error state 2 rhyme : sound_place goto 1 goto 2 . and indicates that the parser has successfully done its job. a file called y. When a rule is reduced. cannot be followed by anything that would result in a legal input. It is time for an example! Consider the specification %token %% rhyme sound place DING : . The input tokens it has seen.output is produced. etc. and attempts to recover the situation and resume parsing: the error recovery (as opposed to the detection of error) will be covered in Section 7. : . The pseudo-variables $1. After the return from the user code. the code supplied with the rule is executed before the stack is adjusted.. represents a place where the parser can no longer continue parsing according to the specification. The y. : . with a humanreadable description of the parser. The accept action indicates that the entire input has been seen and that it matches the specification. running in parallel with it. error rhyme sound state 1 $accept : rhyme_$end $end accept .output file corresponding to the above grammar (with some statistics stripped off the end) is: state 0 $accept : _rhyme $end DING shift 3 . When the goto action is done. The other two parser actions are conceptually much simpler. together with the lookahead token.Roll No: 10065 The reduce action is also important in the treatment of user-supplied actions and values. refer to the value stack.

and the lookahead token is cleared. state 5 place . The next token. Now. state 6 : DELL_ 3 DING 2 DONG_ (2) (3) reduce : : sound 1 place_ (1) reduce sound . State 3 becomes the current state. DELL. and state 2 is uncovered. and what is yet to come. thus state 2 is pushed onto the stack. the next token. 2. so the first token. sound goto 2 is obtained. so two states. The parser needs to refer to the input in order to decide between the actions available in state 0. DONG. so state 3 is pushed onto the stack. DING. In state 4. In state 6. In state 5. so one state. 5.Roll No: 10065 DELL shift 5 . This has one symbol on the right hand side. The action is ``shift 5''. Suppose the input is DING DONG DELL It is instructive to follow the steps of the parser while processing this input. are popped off of the stack. the only action is to reduce by rule 1. is state 4. Consulting the description of state 0. and the lookahead token is cleared. the stack contains 0. 3. is popped off. The stack now contains 0. in addition to the actions for each state. sound : DING DONG This rule has two symbols on the right hand side. without even consulting the lookahead. Initially. reduce Notice that. there is a description of the parsing rules being processed in each state. uncovering state 0. and 5 on it. becoming the current state. 6 and 3. becoming the lookahead token. The action in state 3 on the token DONG is ``shift 6''. error place state 3 sound goto 4 : DING_DONG DONG shift 6 . and 4. is read. in each rule. The action in state 0 on DING is is ``shift 3''. must be read. and 6. which now has 0. The _ character is used to indicate what has been seen. the current state is state 0. and the lookahead is cleared. looking for a goto on sound. the parser reduces by rule 2. There are . so state 6 is pushed onto the stack. error state 4 rhyme . 2. is read. the left side of rule 3. In state 2. the only action is to reduce by rule 3. so state 5 is pushed onto the stack. becoming the lookahead token. The goto in state 2 on place.

etc. DING DONG. . In state 0. so the top two states are popped off. The reader is urged to consider how the parser works when confronted with such incorrect strings as DING DONG DONG. A few minutes spend with this and other simple examples will probably be repaid when problems arise in more complicated contexts. there is a goto on rhyme causing the parser to enter state 1.output file.Roll No: 10065 two symbols on the right. successfully ending the parse. the input is read. uncovering state 0 again. In state 1. The action in state 1 when the endmarker is seen is to accept. indicated by ``$end'' in the y. DING DONG DELL DELL. the endmarker is obtained.

For ε we construct the NFA i 2. For regular expression R1/R2 we construct the composite NFA N1 ε i ε N2 ε f ε ε f For R1. we proceed to combine them in ways that correspond to the way compounded regular expressions are formed from small regular expressions. For a in Σ we construct the NFA a i f 3. Having constructed components for the basic regular expressions. 2 ALGORITHM TO CONVERT REGULAR EXPRESSION TO NFA Input: A regular expression R over alphabet Σ. 1. Output: A NFA n accepting the language denoted by R Method: We first decompose R into the primitive components. R2 we construct the composite NFA i N1 N2 f . For each component we construct a finite automaton as follows.Roll No: 10065 Program No.

Roll No: 10065 For R1* we construct the composite NFA ε N i ε where i is initial state and f is final state f .

and Dtran. On seeing a. Each DFA state is a set of NFA states and we construct Dtran so that D will simulate “in parallel” all possible moves N can make on a given input string Before it sees the first input symbol.a)).a). the transition table for D. N can be in any of the states in the set €-closure(s0). the set of states of D. if U is not in Dstates then add U as unmarked state in Dstates Dtran[T. N can move to any of the states in the set move(T. States and transitions are added to D using algorithm of Subset Constructions. Each state of D corresponds to a set of NFA states that N could be in after reading some sequence of input symbols including all possible €-transitions before or after symbols are read. while there is a n unmarked state T in Dstates do begin mark T.a]:=U end end The Subset Construction We construct Dstates. A DFA D accepting the same language Method: Our algorithm constructs a transition table Dtran for D. in the following manner. When we allow for €-transitions. for each input symbol a do begin U:= €-closure(move(T. The start state of D is €-closure(s0). after seeing the a.a)). initially. A state of D is an accepting state if it is a set of NFA states containing at least one accepting state of N.Roll No: 10065 Program No. and let a be the next input symbol. where s0 is the start state of N. N can be in any of the states in €-closure(move(T. . Suppose that exactly the states in set T are reachable from s0 on a given sequence of input symbols. €-closure(s0) is the only state in Dstates and it is unmarked. 3 CONSTRUCTION OF DFA FROM AN NFA Input: Output: An NFA N.

off of stack. In this case the states of T are the given set of nodes. A simple algorithm to compute €closure(T) uses a stack to hold states whose edges have not been checked for €-labeled transitions. initialize €-closure(T) to T.Roll No: 10065 push all states in T onto stack. Such a procedure is shown in Computation of €-closure . the top element. end end Computation of €-closure The computation of €-closure(T) is a typical process of searching a graph for nodes reachable from a given set of nodes. while stack is not empty do begin pop t. for each state u with an edge from t to u labeled € do if u is not in €-closure(T) do begin add u to €-closure(T). push u onto stack. and the graph consists of just the €-labeled edges of the NFA.

Then M’ has a transition from s to r on a. that is. A DFA M’ accepting the same language as M and having as few states as Method: 1. a state d that is not accepting and that has transitions to itself on all input symbols. for each group G of ∏ do begin partition G into subgroups such that two states s and t of G are in the same subgroup if and only if for all input symbols a. Any transitions to d from other states become undefined. Note that each group of ∏final either consists only of states in F or has no states in F. If M’ has a dead state. If ∏new = ∏. Also remove any states not reachable from the start state. states s and t have transitions on a to states in the same group of ∏. 5. Let s be a representative state.Roll No: 10065 Program No. Construct as initial partition ∏ of set of states with two groups: the accepting states F and the non accepting states S-F 2. Apply the procedure to ∏ to construct a new partition ∏new. and set of accepting states F. repeat step (2) with ∏ = ∏new. Choose one state in each group of the partition ∏final as the representative for that group. let r be the representative of t’s group. Let the start state of M’ be the representative of the group containing the start state s0 of M. 3. transitions defined for all states and inputs. The representatives will be the states of the reduced DFA M’. replace G in ∏new by the set of all subgroups formed end Construction of ∏new . start state s0. and let the accepting states f M’ be the representatives that are in F. 4. Otherwise. let ∏final = ∏ and continue with step (4). set of inputs ∑. Output: possible. and suppose on input a there is a transition of M from s to t. then remove d from M’. 4 MINIMIZATION THE NUMBER OF STATES OF A DFA Input: A DFA M with set of states S.

Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO REMOVE BLANKS AND COUNT THE NO. c. else if i==’\t’. OF LINES 1. Allow the user to enter the sentence 4. Print the value of temp for removing blanks 7. else if i==’\n’. Stop . Assign temp[j++]=i and temp[j]=NULL 6. 3. of lines 8. increment the value of flag 5. Declare flag=1 as int and I. Start 2. if i==’ ‘. replace i with . b.temp[100] as char.j=0. replace i with “. Read the sentence until it is not empty a. Print the value of flag for counting the no.

else if(i=='\t') i='"'. printf("\n\nNo. temp[j++]=i.temp[100].j=0.'. char i.h> #include<conio.Roll No: 10065 Program No. 5 PROGRAM TO REMOVE BLANK SPACE AND COUNT THE NO. } temp[j]=NULL. else if(i=='\n') flag++. while((i=getchar())!='$') { if(i==' ') i='.h> #include<string. clrscr(). OF LINES #include<stdio. printf("\n\n\nAltered Sentence :: \n\n").flag). of lines = %d".h> void main() { int flag=1. printf("Enter the Sentence (add '$' at the end) :: \n\n"). } . getch(). puts(temp).

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the Sentence (add '$' at the end) :: vikas kapoor hello world welcome$ Altered Sentence :: vikas. of lines = 3 .kapoor hello"world welcome No.

increment flag 1) if str[i] is alphanum. Initialize the loop i=0. if str[j] is digit. Stop . Allow the user to enter the string 4.j=1 to i<len a. print Identifier else print Not Identifier 6. assign flag=0 5. else if str[i] is alphabet.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS IDENTIFIER OR NOT 1. Declare i.len as int and str[10] as char 3. increment flag 2) else if str[i] is not digit.j. assign flag=0 b.flag=1. if flag==0. else if str[i] is not alphanum. Start 2. assign flag=0 3) else increment flag c.

i++) { if(isdigit(str[j])) { flag=0. continue. char str[10].h> #include<conio. for(i=0. clrscr().j.len.j=1.h> #include<ctype. break. 6 PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS IDENTIFIER OR NOT #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.Roll No: 10065 Program No.flag=1. gets(str). puts("Enter the string :: "). continue. } else if(!isdigit(str[i])) { . } if(isalnum(str[i])) { flag++. len=strlen(str). } else if(isalpha(str[i])) { { flag++.h> void main() { int i.h> #include<string.i<len.

break. else puts("Identifier").Roll No: 10065 flag=0. } else if(!isalnum(str[i])) { flag=0. } . } else flag++. } } if(flag==0) puts("Not Identifier"). getch(). break.

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the string :: printf Identifier Enter the string :: 123scanf Not Identifier Enter the string :: printf_scanf Not Identifier .

Declare i. if a[i] is digit. Allow user to enter the value 4. assign flag=1 b. if flag==1. Start 2. print Value is Constant else print Value is Variable 6. flag as int and a[5] as char 3. Initialize the loop from i=0 to i<strlen(a) a. Stop . else assign flag=0 5.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS CONSTANT OR NOT 1.

getch(). } .h> #include<string. } } if(flag==1) puts("Value is constant"). puts("Enter the value :: "). gets(a).i<strlen(a). char a[5].flag. for(i=0.h> #include<ctype.Roll No: 10065 Program No.i++) { if(isdigit(a[i])) flag=1. else puts("Value is a variable").h> #include<conio. clrscr().h> void main() { int i. else { flag=0. break. 7 PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS CONSTANT OR NOT #include<stdio.

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the value :: 123 Value is constant Enter the value :: vikas Value is a variable .

Compare str and a[i] b.”break”} Allow user to enter the string Initialize the loop i=0 to i<strlen(str) a. If same.”if”. print Keyword else print String Stop . flag as int and str[10] as char Declare array a[5][10]={“printf”.”else”.”scanf”. assign flag=1 else flag=0 If flag=1.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS KEYWORD OR NOT Start Declare i.

flag. } if(flag==1) puts("Keyword"). getch(). char str[10]. break.h> #include<conio. puts("Enter the string :: ")."else".Roll No: 10065 Program No. } . } else flag=0. clrscr()."if". for(i=0. int i."break"}. else puts("String").h> void main() { char a[5][10]={"printf".a[i])==0) { flag=1. gets(str).h> #include<string.i++) { if(strcmp(str.i<strlen(str). 8 PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS KEYWORD OR NOT #include<stdio."scanf".

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the string :: printf Keyword Enter the string :: vikas String .

if str[i]==’(‘ || str[i]==’{‘. print 3 5. if str[i]==’*’. Allow user to enter the string 4. if str[i]==’)’ || str[i]==’}‘. str[20] as char 3. Stop . Declare i as int. print 2 e. print 4 b. if str[i]==’+’. if str[i] is digit. Start 2.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO GENERATE TOKENS CORRESPONDING TO A GIVEN STRING 1. increment i and print 1 d. print 5 c. Initialize the loop until str[i] is not equal to NULL a.

} .h> void main() { int i=0. } if((str[i]==')')||(str[i]=='}')) { printf("5"). char str[20].h> #include<string. } i--. printf(" \n Input the string ::"). } if(isdigit(str[i])) { while(isdigit(str[i])) { i++. } if(str[i]=='+') { printf("2").h> #include<conio. clrscr().h> #include<ctype. while(str[i]!='###BOT_TEXT###') { if((str[i]=='(')||(str[i]=='{')) { printf("4"). gets(str).Roll No: 10065 Program No. printf("1"). 9 PROGRAM TO GENERATE TOKENS CORRESPONDING TO GIVEN STRING #include<stdio. printf("Corresponding Tokens are :: ").

} getch().Roll No: 10065 if(str[i]=='*') { printf("3"). } . } i++.

Roll No: 10065 Output Input the string :: (12+23*34) Corresponding Tokens are :: 4121315 .

4. Stop. Pass this string of token to the reduction function. Print the tokens of string.” 9. 3.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT TOKEN REDUCTION 1. If d=0 then Print the message “string is in grammer ” otherwise print the message “string is not in grammer. Compare the string in token array with constant “6” and store the result in d. Get the string from the user. 2. 6. Generate the tokens of string. Start . Replace the series with “6” (using the productions ) 7. 8. If any of the following series is encountred in the token string. 5.then “646 ” or “626” of “636” or null. .

b=0.h> #include<conio. } if(str[a]=’+‘) { token[b]=’2’.d.Roll No: 10065 Program No. b++. } a--. b++.token[10]. } if(str[a]=’*‘) { token[b]=’3’. char str[20]. } a++.h> #include<ctype> void main() { int a=0. . } if(isdigit(str[a])) { while(isdigit(str[a])) { a++.10 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT TOKEN REDUCTION #include<stdio.c. b++. while(str[a]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’) { if((str[a]=’(‘)||(str[a]=’{‘)) { token[b]=’4’. token[b]=’1’. } if((str[a]=’)‘)||(str[a]=’}‘)) { token[b]=’5’. printf(“\n ENTER STRING::”). b++. b++. clrscr(). gets(str).

c++. puts(token). } b++. b=0. if(d==0) { printf(“IT IS IN GRAMMAR”). puts(token). } d=strcmp(token.”6”). while(token[b]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’) { if(token[b]==’1’) { token[b]=’6’. } b++. } . b=0. while(token[c]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’)\ { token[c]=token[c+2]. } puts(token). } token[c-2]=’###BOT_TEXT###’.Roll No: 10065 } token[b]=’###BOT_TEXT###’. while(token[b]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’) { c=0. } else { printf(“\n IT IS NOT IN GRAMMAR”). while(((token[b]==’6’)&&(token[b+1]==’2’)&&(token [b+2]==’6’))||((token[b]==’6’)&&(token[ b+1]==’3’)&&(token[b+2]==’6’))||((token [b]==’4’)&&(token[b+1]==’6’)&&(token[b+ 2]==’5’))||(token[c]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’)) { token[c]=’6’. c++. } getch().

Roll No: 10065

Output
ENTER ANY STRING::3*2 636 IT IS IN GRAMMAR ENTER ANY STRING::( 4 NOT IN GRAMMAR

Roll No: 10065

ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT LEADING
procedure INSTALL(A,a); if not L(A,a) then begin L[A,a]:= true; push (A,a) onto STACK end

The main procedure is given below:
begin for each nonterminal A and terminal a do L(A,a):= false; for each production of the form A->a or A->B do INSTALL(A,a); while STACK not empty do begin pop top pair (B,a) from STACK; for each production of the form A->B do INSTALL(A,a) end end

Roll No: 10065

Program No. 11 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT LEADING
#include<conio.h> #include<stdio.h> char arr[18][3] = { {'E','+','F'},{'E','*','F'},{'E','(','F'},{'E',')','F'},{'E','i','F'},{'E','$','F'}, {'F','+','F'},{'F','*','F'},{'F','(','F'},{'F',')','F'},{'F','i','F'},{'F','$','F'}, {'T','+','F'},{'T','*','F'},{'T','(','F'},{'T',')','F'},{'T','i','F'},{'T','$','F'}, }; char prod[6] = "EETTFF"; char res[6][3]= { {'E','+','T'},{'T','###BOT_TEXT###'}, {'T','*','F'},{'F','###BOT_TEXT###'}, {'(','E',')'},{'i','###BOT_TEXT###'}, }; char stack [5][2]; int top = -1; void install(char pro,char re) { int i; for(i=0;i<18;++i) { if(arr[i][0]==pro && arr[i][1]==re) { arr[i][2] = 'T'; break; } } ++top; stack[top][0]=pro; stack[top][1]=re; } void main() { int i=0,j; char pro,re,pri=' '; clrscr(); for(i=0;i<6;++i) {

--top.++j) { if(res[i][j]=='+'||res[i][j]=='*'||res[i][j]=='('||res[i][j]==')'||res[i][j]=='i'||res[i] [j]=='$') { install(prod[i]. } } } for(i=0.++i) { if(res[i][0]==pro && res[i][0]!=prod[i]) { install(prod[i].i<6.res[i][j]).j<3 && res[i][j]!='###BOT_TEXT###'. for(i=0.arr[i][1]). } . re = stack[top][1]. } if(arr[i][2] =='T') printf("%c ". } getch(). for(j=0. printf("\n\n").i<18.re).j<3.++i) { printf("\n\t").pri).++i) { if(pri!=arr[i][0]) { pri=arr[i][0].arr[i][j]). break. for(i=0. clrscr().++j) printf("%c\t".Roll No: 10065 for(j=0. } getch(). printf("\n\t%c -> ".i<18. } } } while(top>=0) { pro = stack[top][0].

Roll No: 10065 Output E E E E E E F F F F F F T T T T T T + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ T T T F T F F F T F T F F T T F T F E -> + * ( i F -> ( i T -> * ( i .

a).a) end end INSTALL procedure INSTALL(A.a):= false. push (A.a]:= true. for each production of the form A->αB do INSTALL(A. while STACK not empty do begin pop top pair (B. for each production of the form A->αa or A->αaB do INSTALL(A.a).Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT TRAILING begin for each non terminal A and terminal a do L(A. if not L(A.a) then begin L[A.a) onto STACK end .a) from STACK.

'E'. {'T'. char pro.'###BOT_TEXT###'.'i'.'F'}.{'F'.'$'. char prod[6] = "EETTFF".j.'F'}.'F'}.'i'.Roll No: 10065 Program No.{'F'. .{'T'.'F'}.{'T'.char re) { int i.')'. {'('.'F'}. 12 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT TRAILING #include<conio.{'F'.h> #include<stdio.'*'.')'}. break.'('.'*'. for(i=0. {'T'.{'T'.'F'}.'+'.{'E'. stack[top][0]=pro.'+'.')'.'('.i<18.{'E'. char res[6][3]= { {'E'. {'F'. clrscr(). int top = -1.{'T'. } void main() { int i=0.'F'}. char stack [5][2].')'.'i'.'$'.{'F'.'('.'###BOT_TEXT###'}.'F'}.'F'}.pri=' '.'###BOT_TEXT###'}. void install(char pro.'F'}.{'F'.'*'.'$'.'*'. } } ++top.{'E'.'+'.'F'}.{'E'.{'T'.{'i'.'###BOT_TEXT###'.'T'}.h> char arr[18][3] = { {'E'.'F'}.'F'}.'+'.{'E'.'F'}. stack[top][1]=re.'F'}.{'T'.++i) { if(arr[i][0]==pro && arr[i][1]==re) { arr[i][2] = 'T'.'F'}.'F'}.'F'}.{'F'. }.'###BOT_TEXT###'.'###BOT_TEXT###'}.'F'}.re. }.

--top. re = stack[top][1].j>=0.i<6.++i) { printf("\n\t"). .--j) { if(res[i][j]=='+'||res[i][j]=='*'||res[i][j]=='('||res[i][j]==')'||res[i][j]=='i'||res[i] [j]=='$') { install(prod[i].Roll No: 10065 for(i=0. } } } for(i=0. } } } } while(top>=0) { pro = stack[top][0]. break.arr[i][j]). for(i=0.i<18. break.re).res[i][j-1]).++i) { for(j=2.++j) printf("%c\t". break. } else if(res[i][j]=='E' || res[i][j]=='F' || res[i][j]=='T') { if(res[i][j-1]=='+'||res[i][j-1]=='*'||res[i][j-1]=='('||res[i][j-1]==')'|| res[i][j-1]=='i'||res[i][j-1]=='$') { install(prod[i].--j) { if(res[i][0]==pro && res[i][0]!=prod[i]) { install(prod[i]. for(j=0.res[i][j]).j>=0. } else if(res[i][0]!='###BOT_TEXT###') break.j<3.++i) { for(j=2.i<6.

for(i=0.arr[i][1]).++i) { if(pri!=arr[i][0]) { pri=arr[i][0]. printf("\n\n").pri). } . } getch().i<18.Roll No: 10065 } getch(). clrscr(). } if(arr[i][2] =='T') printf("%c ". printf("\n\t%c -> ".

Roll No: 10065 Output E E E E E E F F F F F F T T T T T T + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ T T F T T F F F F T T F F T F T T F E -> + * ) i F -> ) i T -> * ) i .

Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT FIRST 1. then place a in FIRST(X) if for some i.Y3.FIRST(Yi). Є } 3. If X is a terminal. and Є is in all of FIRST(Y1)------. . If Є is in FIRST(Yj) for all j=1. If X is non-terminal and X->Y1.---. then FIRST(X) is X FIRST(X)={X} 2. Y1---Yi-1=> Є. that is.Y2.k. then add Є to FIRST(X).2.----. a is in FIRST(Yi).Yk is a production. If X is a non-terminal where X->aα/ Є then add a to FIRST(X) X->+T FIRST(X)={+.

h> #include<conio. } for(i=0.i++) { scanf("\n%c".first[5][5].i<nont.&temp).p[5][5].&t[i]).i++) { scanf("%c".nont. } printf("\nEnter the productions :\n").f=0. for(j=0. for(i=0. clrscr(). first[i][0]=nt[i].nt[10]. of Terminals in the grammer: ( Enter { for absiline ) ").k=0.i++) { scanf("\n%c". scanf("%c". .&nont).temp. printf("\nEnter the production for %c ( End the production with '$' sign ) :".h> void main() { char t[5]. printf("\nEnter the no.) { j+=1.h> #include<string.i<not||t[i]=='$'.i<nont. scanf("%d".not. int i. scanf("%d".&not). of Non-terminals in the grammer:").i++) { p[i][0]=nt[i].j.p[i] [0]). printf("\nEnter the Non-terminals in the grammer:\n").Roll No: 10065 Program No.&p[i][j]).i<nont.p[i][j]!='$'. for(i=0. printf("\nEnter the Terminals in the grammer:\n"). for(i=0.&nt[i]). 13 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT FIRST #include<stdio. } printf("\nEnter the no.

f=1. for(j=1. f=1. } } for(i=0.k++) { if(f==1) break.p[i][j]!='$'. for(j=1. break.j++) { printf("%c".i++) { printf("\nThe production for %c -> ".p[i][j]). if(p[i][j]==t[k]) { first[i][j]=t[k]. first[i][j+1]='$'. . if(first[i][j]=='{') continue.Roll No: 10065 } } for(i=0.j++) { for(k=0. break.p[i][0]).i<nont.i<nont.k<not. } } } } for(i=0. } else if(p[i][j]==nt[k]) { first[i][j]=first[k][j].i++) { f=0. first[i][j+1]='$'.i<nont.i++) { printf("\n\nThe first of %c -> ".first[i][0]).p[i][j]!='$'.

j++) { printf("%c\t".first[i][j]). } } getch().first[i][j]!='$'.Roll No: 10065 for(j=1. } .

of Terminals in the grammer: ( Enter { for absiline ) 5 Enter the Terminals in the grammer: + * ( ) i Enter the productions : Enter the production for E ( End the production with '$' sign ) :(i)$ Enter the production for T ( End the production with '$' sign ) :i*E$ Enter the production for V ( End the production with '$' sign ) :E+i$ The production for E -> (i) The production for T -> i*E The production for V -> E+i The first of E -> ( The first of T -> i The first of V -> ( . of Non-terminals in the grammer:3 Enter the Non-terminals in the grammer: E T V Enter the no.Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the no.

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' is an escape character within literals. tabs. A represents a nonterminal name.) In other words. it may be useful to include other programs as well. The rules section is made up of one or more grammar rules. a full specification file looks like declarations %% rules %% programs The declaration section may be empty. Thus. but provided for historical continuity with older versions of Yacc.''. Upper and lower case letters are distinct. Appendix C gives an example using some of the more advanced features of Yacc. In addition. it is often desirable to include the lexical analyzer as part of the specification file. the second %% mark may be omitted also. and BODY represents a sequence of zero or more names and literals. Comments may appear wherever a name is legal. and. as in C and PL/I. Names may be of arbitrary length. . The names used in the body of a grammar rule may represent tokens or nonterminal symbols. . underscore ``_''. 2: Basic Specifications Names refer to either tokens or nonterminal symbols. and newlines are ignored except that they may not appear in names or multicharacter reserved symbols. Thus . The colon and the semicolon are Yacc punctuation. (The percent ``%'' is generally used in Yacc specifications as an escape character. finally. the smallest legal Yacc specification is %% rules Blanks.Roll No: 10065 B gives a summary of the Yacc input syntax. dot ``. (grammar) rules. A literal consists of a character enclosed in single quotes ``'''. and may be made up of letters. and non-initial digits. As in C. thus. Appendix D describes mechanisms and syntax no longer actively supported. */. they are enclosed in /* . every specification file consists of three sections: the declarations. if the programs section is omitted. Moreover. and programs. Yacc requires token names to be declared as such. A grammar rule has the form: A : BODY .

thus. . If the endmarker is seen in any other context. most general structure described by the grammar rules. the NUL character ('###BOT_TEXT###' or 0) should never be used in grammar rules. If there are several grammar rules with the same left hand side. By default. The parser is designed to recognize the start symbol. the parser function returns to its caller after the endmarker is seen. If a nonterminal symbol matches the empty string. Of all the nonterminal symbols. and in fact desirable. . the start symbol is taken to be the left hand side of the first grammar rule in the rules section. this can be indicated in the obvious way: empty : . Every nonterminal symbol must appear on the left side of at least one rule. In addition. and 6 for much more discussion). the endmarker form a structure which matches the start symbol. . Names representing tokens must be declared. one. It is possible. this is most simply done by writing %token name1 name2 . the vertical bar ``|'' can be used to avoid rewriting the left hand side. but not including. it accepts the input. called the start symbol. to declare the start symbol explicitly in the declarations section using the %start keyword: %start symbol The end of the input to the parser is signaled by a special token. . 5. in the declarations section. B E G B E G C F . this symbol represents the largest. (See Sections 3 . the semicolon at the end of a rule can be dropped before a vertical bar. Thus the grammar rules A A A A : : : : | | . and easier to change. called the endmarker.Roll No: 10065 '\n' '\r' 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' tab backspace form feed ``xxx'' in octal For a number of technical reasons. If the tokens up to. can be given to Yacc as It is not necessary that all grammar rules with the same left side appear together in the grammar rules section. has particular importance. it is an error. although it makes the input much more readable. C F D D . Every name not defined in the declarations section is assumed to represent a nonterminal symbol.

and alter external vectors and variables. For example. . the user may associate actions to be performed each time the rule is recognized in the input process. These actions may return values. the action may use the pseudo-variables $1. and $3 the value returned by D. 3: Actions With each grammar rule. for example. "abc" ). Moreover. such as ``end-of-file'' or ``end-of-record''. if the rule is A : B C D . The symbol ``dollar sign'' ``$'' is used as a signal to Yacc in this context. The value returned by this rule is usually the value of the expr in parentheses. Thus. $2. A : '(' B ')' { hello( 1. and may obtain the values returned by previous actions. call subprograms. As a more concrete example. the action normally sets the pseudovariable ``$$'' to some value. then $2 has the value returned by C. . which refer to the values returned by the components of the right side of a rule. This can be indicated by expr : '(' expr ')' { $$ = $2 . the lexical analyzer can return values for tokens. To return a value. . } . the action statements are altered slightly. To facilitate easy communication between the actions and the parser. } are grammar rules with actions. } and XXX : YYY ZZZ { printf("a message\n"). For example. an action that does nothing but return the value 1 is { $$ = 1. reading from left to right. An action is specified by one or more statements. if desired. flag = 25.Roll No: 10065 It is the job of the user-supplied lexical analyzer to return the endmarker when appropriate. enclosed in curly braces ``{'' and ``}''. below. see section 3. An action is an arbitrary C statement. Usually the endmarker represents some reasonably obvious I/O status. and as such can do input and output. } To obtain the values returned by previous actions and the lexical analyzer.. consider the rule expr : '(' expr ')' .

rather. $1. Yacc actually treats the above example as if it had been written: $ACT : . x = $2. output is not done directly by the actions. In the examples above. y = $3. Declarations and definitions can appear in the declarations section. a data structure. Thus. and returns the index of the newly created node. For example. and descendants n1 and n2. Parse trees are particularly easy to construct. n1. } in the specification. is constructed in memory. Actions that do not terminate a rule are actually handled by Yacc by manufacturing a new nonterminal symbol name. For example.Roll No: 10065 By default. such as a parse tree. $3 ). all the actions came at the end of their rules. B $ACT { C x = $2. suppose there is a C function node. Yacc permits an action to be written in the middle of a rule as well as at the end. accessible through the usual mechanism by the actions to the right of it. Thus. } y = $3. } /* empty */ { $$ = 1. and a new rule matching this name to the empty string. given routines to build and maintain the tree structure desired. . and y to the value returned by C. n2 ) creates a node with label L. in the rule A : B C . it may access the values returned by the symbols to its left. the value of a rule is the value of the first element in it ($1). { { $$ = 1. frequently need not have an explicit action. These declarations and definitions have global scope. } In many applications. In turn. enclosed in the marks ``%{'' and ``%}''. and transformations are applied to it before output is generated. Then parse tree can be built by supplying actions such as: expr : expr '+' { expr $$ = node( '+'. This rule is assumed to return a value. The user may define other variables to be used by the actions. written so that the call node( L. it is desirable to get control before a rule is fully parsed. A : . The interior action is the action triggered off by recognizing this added rule. so they are known to the action statements and the lexical analyzer. grammar rules of the form A : B . Sometimes. } the effect is to set x to 1.

For example. . . . . The parser and the lexical analyzer must agree on these token numbers in order for communication between them to take place. making variable accessible to all of the actions. for example. and a value equal to the numerical value of the digit. case '0': case '1': . easily modified lexical analyzers. int c. The numbers may be chosen by Yacc. If there is a value associated with that token. the only pitfall is the need to avoid using any token names in the grammar that are reserved or significant in C or the parser. . the user should avoid such names. . the ``# define'' mechanism of C is used to allow the lexical analyzer to return these numbers symbolically. . The Yacc parser uses only names beginning in ``yy''. . suppose that the token name DIGIT has been defined in the declarations section of the Yacc specification file. the token number. . The intent is to return a token number of DIGIT. . all the values are integers: a discussion of values of other types will be found in Section 10. %} could be placed in the declarations section. the identifier DIGIT will be defined as the token number associated with the token DIGIT. The function returns an integer. 4: Lexical Analysis The user must supply a lexical analyzer to read the input stream and communicate tokens (with values. c = getchar(). switch( c ) { . In either case. it should be assigned to the external variable yylval.Roll No: 10065 %{ int variable = 0. The token name error is reserved for error handling. } . and should not be used naively (see Section 7). . . . Provided that the lexical analyzer code is placed in the programs section of the specification file. case '9': yylval = c-'0'. the use of token names if or while will almost certainly cause severe difficulties when the lexical analyzer is compiled. return( DIGIT ). The relevant portion of the lexical analyzer might look like: yylex(){ extern int yylval. if desired) to the parser. or chosen by the user. representing the kind of token read. The lexical analyzer is an integer-valued function called yylex. . In these examples. . . This mechanism leads to clear.

if it needs one. while not strictly necessary. called shift. 5: How the Parser Works Yacc turns the specification file into a C program.Roll No: 10065 As mentioned above. the parser decides on its next action. the endmarker must have token number 0 or negative. The machine has only four actions available to it. The parser is also capable of reading and remembering the next input token (called the lookahead token). the parser decides whether it needs a lookahead token to decide what action should be done. and in the lookahead token being processed or left alone. it calls yylex to obtain the next token. Using the current state. Based on its current state. Names and literals not defined by this mechanism retain their default definition. The parser produced by Yacc consists of a finite state machine with a stack. The current state is always the one on the top of the stack. and does not have one. the numbers are chosen by Yacc. however. the token numbers may be chosen by Yacc or by the user. and carries it out. which parses the input according to the specification given. and error. The states of the finite state machine are given small integer labels. A very useful tool for constructing lexical analyzers is the Lex program developed by Mike Lesk. and the lookahead token if needed. This may result in states being pushed onto the stack. The default token number for a literal character is the numerical value of the character in the local character set. and understanding how it works. is relatively simple. the first appearance of the token name or literal in the declarations section can be immediately followed by a nonnegative integer. For historical reasons. accept. It is important that all token numbers be distinct. but there remain some languages (such as FORTRAN) which do not fit any theoretical framework. The parser itself. The specifications for these lexical analyzers use regular expressions instead of grammar rules. Other names are assigned token numbers starting at 257. To assign a token number to a token (including literals). Lex can be easily used to produce quite complicated lexical analyzers. The algorithm used to go from the specification to the parser is complex. initially. . and will not be discussed here (see the references for more information). This token number cannot be redefined by the user. In the default situation. thus. all lexical analyzers should be prepared to return 0 or negative as a token number upon reaching the end of their input.[8] These lexical analyzers are designed to work in close harmony with Yacc parsers. the stack contains only state 0. This integer is taken to be the token number of the name or literal. and no lookahead token has been read. and whose lexical analyzers must be crafted by hand. or popped off of the stack. 2. the machine is in state 0. A move of the parser is done as follows: 1. will nevertheless make treatment of error recovery and ambiguities much more comprehensible. reduce.

if the lookahead token is IF. In particular. and the symbol on the left side of the rule. the current state (56) is pushed down on the stack. Whenever a shift action is taken. In any case. in fact. For example. and the number of symbols on the right hand side (three in this case). and is prepared to announce that it has seen an instance of the rule. so this action is called a goto action. Reduce actions are associated with individual grammar rules. pushed onto the stack.Roll No: 10065 The shift action is the most common action the parser takes. The action . there is always a lookahead token. The parser then behaves as if it had seen the left side at that time. in state 56. leading to some confusion. A new state is obtained. and z.'') is often a reduce action. and parsing continues. and is not affected by a goto. the uncovered state contains an entry such as: A goto 20 causing state 20 to be pushed onto the stack. replacing the right hand side by the left hand side. The reduce action keeps the stack from growing without bounds. a state is uncovered which was the state the parser was in before beginning to process the rule. and state 34 becomes the current state (on the top of the stack). these states were the ones put on the stack while recognizing x. Reduce actions are appropriate when the parser has seen the right hand side of a grammar rule. and become the current state. In effect. the default action (represented by a ``. . however. If the right hand side of the rule is empty. There are significant differences between the processing of the left hand symbol and an ordinary shift of a token. the lookahead token is cleared by a shift. perform what is in effect a shift of A. but usually it is not. Grammar rules are also given small integer numbers. It may be necessary to consult the lookahead token to decide whether to reduce. first pop off the top three states from the stack (In general. while the action refers to state 34. no states are popped off of the stack: the uncovered state is in fact the current state. After popping these states. popping the states off the stack to go back to the state where the right hand side of the rule was first seen. In effect. To reduce. and no longer serve any useful purpose. the number of states popped equals the number of symbols on the right side of the rule). Using this uncovered state. The lookahead token is cleared. the reduce action ``turns back the clock'' in the parse. Suppose the rule being reduced is A:xyz. IF reduce 18 shift 34 refers to grammar rule 18. The reduce action depends on the left hand symbol (A in this case). y. in state 56 there may be an action: IF shift 34 which says.

the reduction is carried out. on the other hand. holds the values returned from the lexical analyzer and the actions. When a shift takes place. The error action. The parser reports an error. In addition to the stack holding the states. This action appears only when the lookahead token is the endmarker. $2. DONG DELL place DONG sound DING DELL When Yacc is invoked with the -v option. the external variable yyval is copied onto the value stack. another stack. the external variable yylval is copied onto the value stack. error state 2 rhyme : sound_place goto 1 goto 2 . and indicates that the parser has successfully done its job. a file called y. When a rule is reduced. cannot be followed by anything that would result in a legal input. It is time for an example! Consider the specification %token %% rhyme sound place DING : . The input tokens it has seen.output is produced. etc. and attempts to recover the situation and resume parsing: the error recovery (as opposed to the detection of error) will be covered in Section 7. : . The pseudo-variables $1. After the return from the user code. the code supplied with the rule is executed before the stack is adjusted.. represents a place where the parser can no longer continue parsing according to the specification. The y. : . with a humanreadable description of the parser. The accept action indicates that the entire input has been seen and that it matches the specification. running in parallel with it. error rhyme sound state 1 $accept : rhyme_$end $end accept .output file corresponding to the above grammar (with some statistics stripped off the end) is: state 0 $accept : _rhyme $end DING shift 3 . When the goto action is done. The other two parser actions are conceptually much simpler. together with the lookahead token.Roll No: 10065 The reduce action is also important in the treatment of user-supplied actions and values. refer to the value stack.

and the lookahead token is cleared. state 5 place . The next token. Now. state 6 : DELL_ 3 DING 2 DONG_ (2) (3) reduce : : sound 1 place_ (1) reduce sound . State 3 becomes the current state. DELL. and state 2 is uncovered. and what is yet to come. thus state 2 is pushed onto the stack. the next token. 2. so the first token. sound goto 2 is obtained. so two states. The parser needs to refer to the input in order to decide between the actions available in state 0. DONG. so state 3 is pushed onto the stack. DING. In state 4. In state 6. In state 5. so one state. 5.Roll No: 10065 DELL shift 5 . This has one symbol on the right hand side. The action is ``shift 5''. Suppose the input is DING DONG DELL It is instructive to follow the steps of the parser while processing this input. are popped off of the stack. the only action is to reduce by rule 1. is state 4. Consulting the description of state 0. and the lookahead token is cleared. the stack contains 0. 3. is popped off. The stack now contains 0. in addition to the actions for each state. sound : DING DONG This rule has two symbols on the right hand side. without even consulting the lookahead. Initially. reduce Notice that. there is a description of the parsing rules being processed in each state. uncovering state 0. and 5 on it. becoming the current state. 6 and 3. becoming the lookahead token. The action in state 3 on the token DONG is ``shift 6''. error place state 3 sound goto 4 : DING_DONG DONG shift 6 . and 4. is read. in each rule. The action in state 0 on DING is is ``shift 3''. must be read. and 6. which now has 0. The _ character is used to indicate what has been seen. the current state is state 0. and the lookahead is cleared. looking for a goto on sound. the parser reduces by rule 2. There are . so state 6 is pushed onto the stack. error state 4 rhyme . 2. is read. the left side of rule 3. In state 2. the only action is to reduce by rule 3. so state 5 is pushed onto the stack. becoming the lookahead token. The goto in state 2 on place.

etc. DING DONG. . In state 0. so the top two states are popped off. The reader is urged to consider how the parser works when confronted with such incorrect strings as DING DONG DONG. A few minutes spend with this and other simple examples will probably be repaid when problems arise in more complicated contexts. there is a goto on rhyme causing the parser to enter state 1.output file.Roll No: 10065 two symbols on the right. successfully ending the parse. the input is read. uncovering state 0 again. In state 1. The action in state 1 when the endmarker is seen is to accept. indicated by ``$end'' in the y. DING DONG DELL DELL. the endmarker is obtained.

For ε we construct the NFA i 2. For regular expression R1/R2 we construct the composite NFA N1 ε i ε N2 ε f ε ε f For R1. we proceed to combine them in ways that correspond to the way compounded regular expressions are formed from small regular expressions. For a in Σ we construct the NFA a i f 3. Having constructed components for the basic regular expressions. 2 ALGORITHM TO CONVERT REGULAR EXPRESSION TO NFA Input: A regular expression R over alphabet Σ. 1. Output: A NFA n accepting the language denoted by R Method: We first decompose R into the primitive components. R2 we construct the composite NFA i N1 N2 f . For each component we construct a finite automaton as follows.Roll No: 10065 Program No.

Roll No: 10065 For R1* we construct the composite NFA ε N i ε where i is initial state and f is final state f .

and Dtran. On seeing a. Each DFA state is a set of NFA states and we construct Dtran so that D will simulate “in parallel” all possible moves N can make on a given input string Before it sees the first input symbol.a)).a). the transition table for D. N can be in any of the states in the set €-closure(s0). the set of states of D. if U is not in Dstates then add U as unmarked state in Dstates Dtran[T. N can move to any of the states in the set move(T. States and transitions are added to D using algorithm of Subset Constructions. Each state of D corresponds to a set of NFA states that N could be in after reading some sequence of input symbols including all possible €-transitions before or after symbols are read. while there is a n unmarked state T in Dstates do begin mark T.a]:=U end end The Subset Construction We construct Dstates. A DFA D accepting the same language Method: Our algorithm constructs a transition table Dtran for D. in the following manner. When we allow for €-transitions. for each input symbol a do begin U:= €-closure(move(T. The start state of D is €-closure(s0). after seeing the a.a)). initially. A state of D is an accepting state if it is a set of NFA states containing at least one accepting state of N.Roll No: 10065 Program No. and let a be the next input symbol. where s0 is the start state of N. N can be in any of the states in €-closure(move(T. . Suppose that exactly the states in set T are reachable from s0 on a given sequence of input symbols. €-closure(s0) is the only state in Dstates and it is unmarked. 3 CONSTRUCTION OF DFA FROM AN NFA Input: Output: An NFA N.

off of stack. In this case the states of T are the given set of nodes. A simple algorithm to compute €closure(T) uses a stack to hold states whose edges have not been checked for €-labeled transitions. initialize €-closure(T) to T.Roll No: 10065 push all states in T onto stack. Such a procedure is shown in Computation of €-closure . the top element. end end Computation of €-closure The computation of €-closure(T) is a typical process of searching a graph for nodes reachable from a given set of nodes. while stack is not empty do begin pop t. for each state u with an edge from t to u labeled € do if u is not in €-closure(T) do begin add u to €-closure(T). push u onto stack. and the graph consists of just the €-labeled edges of the NFA.

Then M’ has a transition from s to r on a. that is. A DFA M’ accepting the same language as M and having as few states as Method: 1. a state d that is not accepting and that has transitions to itself on all input symbols. for each group G of ∏ do begin partition G into subgroups such that two states s and t of G are in the same subgroup if and only if for all input symbols a. Any transitions to d from other states become undefined. Note that each group of ∏final either consists only of states in F or has no states in F. If M’ has a dead state. If ∏new = ∏. Also remove any states not reachable from the start state. states s and t have transitions on a to states in the same group of ∏. 5. Let s be a representative state.Roll No: 10065 Program No. Construct as initial partition ∏ of set of states with two groups: the accepting states F and the non accepting states S-F 2. Apply the procedure to ∏ to construct a new partition ∏new. and set of accepting states F. repeat step (2) with ∏ = ∏new. Choose one state in each group of the partition ∏final as the representative for that group. let r be the representative of t’s group. Let the start state of M’ be the representative of the group containing the start state s0 of M. 3. transitions defined for all states and inputs. The representatives will be the states of the reduced DFA M’. replace G in ∏new by the set of all subgroups formed end Construction of ∏new . start state s0. and let the accepting states f M’ be the representatives that are in F. 4. Otherwise. let ∏final = ∏ and continue with step (4). set of inputs ∑. Output: possible. and suppose on input a there is a transition of M from s to t. then remove d from M’. 4 MINIMIZATION THE NUMBER OF STATES OF A DFA Input: A DFA M with set of states S.

Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO REMOVE BLANKS AND COUNT THE NO. c. else if i==’\t’. OF LINES 1. Allow the user to enter the sentence 4. Print the value of temp for removing blanks 7. else if i==’\n’. Stop . Assign temp[j++]=i and temp[j]=NULL 6. 3. of lines 8. increment the value of flag 5. Declare flag=1 as int and I. Start 2. if i==’ ‘. replace i with . b.temp[100] as char.j=0. replace i with “. Read the sentence until it is not empty a. Print the value of flag for counting the no.

else if(i=='\t') i='"'. printf("\n\nNo. temp[j++]=i.temp[100].j=0.'. char i.h> #include<conio.Roll No: 10065 Program No. 5 PROGRAM TO REMOVE BLANK SPACE AND COUNT THE NO. } temp[j]=NULL. else if(i=='\n') flag++. while((i=getchar())!='$') { if(i==' ') i='.h> #include<string. clrscr(). OF LINES #include<stdio. printf("\n\n\nAltered Sentence :: \n\n").flag). of lines = %d".h> void main() { int flag=1. printf("Enter the Sentence (add '$' at the end) :: \n\n"). } . getch(). puts(temp).

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the Sentence (add '$' at the end) :: vikas kapoor hello world welcome$ Altered Sentence :: vikas. of lines = 3 .kapoor hello"world welcome No.

increment flag 1) if str[i] is alphanum. Initialize the loop i=0. if str[j] is digit. Stop . Allow the user to enter the string 4.j=1 to i<len a. print Identifier else print Not Identifier 6. assign flag=0 5. else if str[i] is alphabet.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS IDENTIFIER OR NOT 1. Declare i.len as int and str[10] as char 3. increment flag 2) else if str[i] is not digit.j. assign flag=0 b.flag=1. if flag==0. else if str[i] is not alphanum. Start 2. assign flag=0 3) else increment flag c.

i++) { if(isdigit(str[j])) { flag=0. continue. char str[10].h> #include<conio. for(i=0. clrscr().j.len.j=1.h> #include<ctype. break. 6 PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS IDENTIFIER OR NOT #include<stdio.h> #include<stdlib.Roll No: 10065 Program No.flag=1. gets(str). puts("Enter the string :: "). continue. } else if(!isdigit(str[i])) { . } if(isalnum(str[i])) { flag++. len=strlen(str). } else if(isalpha(str[i])) { { flag++.h> void main() { int i.h> #include<string.i<len.

break. else puts("Identifier").Roll No: 10065 flag=0. } else if(!isalnum(str[i])) { flag=0. } . } else flag++. } } if(flag==0) puts("Not Identifier"). getch(). break.

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the string :: printf Identifier Enter the string :: 123scanf Not Identifier Enter the string :: printf_scanf Not Identifier .

Declare i. if a[i] is digit. Allow user to enter the value 4. assign flag=1 b. if flag==1. Start 2. print Value is Constant else print Value is Variable 6. flag as int and a[5] as char 3. Initialize the loop from i=0 to i<strlen(a) a. Stop . else assign flag=0 5.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS CONSTANT OR NOT 1.

getch(). } .h> #include<string. } } if(flag==1) puts("Value is constant"). puts("Enter the value :: "). gets(a).i<strlen(a). char a[5].flag. for(i=0.h> #include<ctype.Roll No: 10065 Program No.i++) { if(isdigit(a[i])) flag=1. else puts("Value is a variable").h> #include<conio. clrscr().h> void main() { int i. else { flag=0. break. 7 PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS CONSTANT OR NOT #include<stdio.

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the value :: 123 Value is constant Enter the value :: vikas Value is a variable .

Compare str and a[i] b.”break”} Allow user to enter the string Initialize the loop i=0 to i<strlen(str) a. If same.”if”. print Keyword else print String Stop . flag as int and str[10] as char Declare array a[5][10]={“printf”.”else”.”scanf”. assign flag=1 else flag=0 If flag=1.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS KEYWORD OR NOT Start Declare i.

flag. } if(flag==1) puts("Keyword"). getch(). char str[10]. break.h> #include<conio. puts("Enter the string :: ")."else".Roll No: 10065 Program No. } . } else flag=0. clrscr()."if". for(i=0. int i."break"}. else puts("String").h> void main() { char a[5][10]={"printf".a[i])==0) { flag=1. gets(str).h> #include<string.i++) { if(strcmp(str.i<strlen(str). 8 PROGRAM TO FIND WHETHER GIVEN STRING IS KEYWORD OR NOT #include<stdio."scanf".

Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the string :: printf Keyword Enter the string :: vikas String .

if str[i]==’(‘ || str[i]==’{‘. print 3 5. if str[i]==’*’. Allow user to enter the string 4. if str[i]==’)’ || str[i]==’}‘. str[20] as char 3. Stop . Declare i as int. print 2 e. print 4 b. if str[i]==’+’. if str[i] is digit. Start 2.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO GENERATE TOKENS CORRESPONDING TO A GIVEN STRING 1. increment i and print 1 d. print 5 c. Initialize the loop until str[i] is not equal to NULL a.

} .h> void main() { int i=0. } if((str[i]==')')||(str[i]=='}')) { printf("5"). char str[20].h> #include<string. } i--. printf(" \n Input the string ::"). } if(isdigit(str[i])) { while(isdigit(str[i])) { i++. } if(str[i]=='+') { printf("2").h> #include<conio. clrscr().h> #include<ctype. while(str[i]!='###BOT_TEXT###') { if((str[i]=='(')||(str[i]=='{')) { printf("4"). gets(str).Roll No: 10065 Program No. printf("1"). 9 PROGRAM TO GENERATE TOKENS CORRESPONDING TO GIVEN STRING #include<stdio. printf("Corresponding Tokens are :: ").

} getch().Roll No: 10065 if(str[i]=='*') { printf("3"). } . } i++.

Roll No: 10065 Output Input the string :: (12+23*34) Corresponding Tokens are :: 4121315 .

4. Stop. Pass this string of token to the reduction function. Print the tokens of string.” 9. 3.Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT TOKEN REDUCTION 1. If d=0 then Print the message “string is in grammer ” otherwise print the message “string is not in grammer. Compare the string in token array with constant “6” and store the result in d. Get the string from the user. 2. 6. Generate the tokens of string. Start . Replace the series with “6” (using the productions ) 7. 8. If any of the following series is encountred in the token string. 5.then “646 ” or “626” of “636” or null. .

b=0.h> #include<conio. } if(str[a]=’+‘) { token[b]=’2’.d.Roll No: 10065 Program No. b++. } a--. b++.token[10]. } if(str[a]=’*‘) { token[b]=’3’. char str[20]. } a++.h> #include<ctype> void main() { int a=0. . } if(isdigit(str[a])) { while(isdigit(str[a])) { a++.10 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT TOKEN REDUCTION #include<stdio.c. b++. while(str[a]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’) { if((str[a]=’(‘)||(str[a]=’{‘)) { token[b]=’4’. token[b]=’1’. } if((str[a]=’)‘)||(str[a]=’}‘)) { token[b]=’5’. printf(“\n ENTER STRING::”). b++. b++. clrscr(). gets(str).

c++. puts(token). } b++. b=0. if(d==0) { printf(“IT IS IN GRAMMAR”). puts(token). } d=strcmp(token.”6”). while(token[b]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’) { if(token[b]==’1’) { token[b]=’6’. } b++. } . b=0. while(token[c]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’)\ { token[c]=token[c+2]. } puts(token). } token[c-2]=’###BOT_TEXT###’.Roll No: 10065 } token[b]=’###BOT_TEXT###’. while(token[b]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’) { c=0. } else { printf(“\n IT IS NOT IN GRAMMAR”). while(((token[b]==’6’)&&(token[b+1]==’2’)&&(token [b+2]==’6’))||((token[b]==’6’)&&(token[ b+1]==’3’)&&(token[b+2]==’6’))||((token [b]==’4’)&&(token[b+1]==’6’)&&(token[b+ 2]==’5’))||(token[c]!=’###BOT_TEXT###’)) { token[c]=’6’. c++. } getch().

Roll No: 10065

Output
ENTER ANY STRING::3*2 636 IT IS IN GRAMMAR ENTER ANY STRING::( 4 NOT IN GRAMMAR

Roll No: 10065

ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT LEADING
procedure INSTALL(A,a); if not L(A,a) then begin L[A,a]:= true; push (A,a) onto STACK end

The main procedure is given below:
begin for each nonterminal A and terminal a do L(A,a):= false; for each production of the form A->a or A->B do INSTALL(A,a); while STACK not empty do begin pop top pair (B,a) from STACK; for each production of the form A->B do INSTALL(A,a) end end

Roll No: 10065

Program No. 11 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT LEADING
#include<conio.h> #include<stdio.h> char arr[18][3] = { {'E','+','F'},{'E','*','F'},{'E','(','F'},{'E',')','F'},{'E','i','F'},{'E','$','F'}, {'F','+','F'},{'F','*','F'},{'F','(','F'},{'F',')','F'},{'F','i','F'},{'F','$','F'}, {'T','+','F'},{'T','*','F'},{'T','(','F'},{'T',')','F'},{'T','i','F'},{'T','$','F'}, }; char prod[6] = "EETTFF"; char res[6][3]= { {'E','+','T'},{'T','###BOT_TEXT###'}, {'T','*','F'},{'F','###BOT_TEXT###'}, {'(','E',')'},{'i','###BOT_TEXT###'}, }; char stack [5][2]; int top = -1; void install(char pro,char re) { int i; for(i=0;i<18;++i) { if(arr[i][0]==pro && arr[i][1]==re) { arr[i][2] = 'T'; break; } } ++top; stack[top][0]=pro; stack[top][1]=re; } void main() { int i=0,j; char pro,re,pri=' '; clrscr(); for(i=0;i<6;++i) {

--top.++j) { if(res[i][j]=='+'||res[i][j]=='*'||res[i][j]=='('||res[i][j]==')'||res[i][j]=='i'||res[i] [j]=='$') { install(prod[i]. } } } for(i=0.++i) { if(res[i][0]==pro && res[i][0]!=prod[i]) { install(prod[i].i<6.res[i][j]).j<3 && res[i][j]!='###BOT_TEXT###'. for(i=0.arr[i][1]). } . re = stack[top][1]. } if(arr[i][2] =='T') printf("%c ". } getch(). for(j=0. printf("\n\n").i<18.re).j<3.++i) { printf("\n\t").pri).++i) { if(pri!=arr[i][0]) { pri=arr[i][0].arr[i][j]). break. for(i=0. clrscr().++j) printf("%c\t".Roll No: 10065 for(j=0. } getch(). printf("\n\t%c -> ".i<18. } } } while(top>=0) { pro = stack[top][0].

Roll No: 10065 Output E E E E E E F F F F F F T T T T T T + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ T T T F T F F F T F T F F T T F T F E -> + * ( i F -> ( i T -> * ( i .

a).a) end end INSTALL procedure INSTALL(A.a):= false. push (A.a]:= true. for each production of the form A->αB do INSTALL(A. while STACK not empty do begin pop top pair (B. for each production of the form A->αa or A->αaB do INSTALL(A.a).Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT TRAILING begin for each non terminal A and terminal a do L(A. if not L(A.a) then begin L[A.a) onto STACK end .a) from STACK.

'E'. {'T'. char pro.'###BOT_TEXT###'.'i'.'F'}.{'F'.'$'. char prod[6] = "EETTFF".j.'F'}.'F'}.'i'.Roll No: 10065 Program No.{'F'. .{'T'.'F'}.{'T'.char re) { int i.')'. {'('.'F'}. 12 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT TRAILING #include<conio.{'F'.h> #include<stdio.'*'.')'}. break.'('.'*'. for(i=0. {'T'.{'T'.'F'}.'+'.{'E'. stack[top][0]=pro.'+'.')'.'('.i<18.{'E'. char res[6][3]= { {'E'. {'F'. clrscr(). int top = -1.{'T'. } void main() { int i=0.'F'}. char stack [5][2].')'.'i'.'$'.{'F'.'('.'###BOT_TEXT###'}.'F'}.'F'}.pri=' '.'###BOT_TEXT###'}. void install(char pro.'F'}.{'F'.'*'.'$'.'*'. } } ++top.{'E'.'+'.'F'}.{'E'.{'T'.{'i'.'###BOT_TEXT###'.'T'}.h> char arr[18][3] = { {'E'.'F'}.'F'}.'+'.{'E'.'F'}. stack[top][1]=re.'F'}.{'T'.++i) { if(arr[i][0]==pro && arr[i][1]==re) { arr[i][2] = 'T'.'F'}.'F'}.'F'}.{'F'. }.'###BOT_TEXT###'.'###BOT_TEXT###'}.'F'}.re. }.

--top. re = stack[top][1].j>=0.i<6.++i) { printf("\n\t"). .--j) { if(res[i][j]=='+'||res[i][j]=='*'||res[i][j]=='('||res[i][j]==')'||res[i][j]=='i'||res[i] [j]=='$') { install(prod[i].Roll No: 10065 for(i=0. } } } for(i=0. } } } } while(top>=0) { pro = stack[top][0]. break.arr[i][j]). for(i=0.i<18. break.re).res[i][j-1]).++i) { for(j=2.++j) printf("%c\t". break. } else if(res[i][j]=='E' || res[i][j]=='F' || res[i][j]=='T') { if(res[i][j-1]=='+'||res[i][j-1]=='*'||res[i][j-1]=='('||res[i][j-1]==')'|| res[i][j-1]=='i'||res[i][j-1]=='$') { install(prod[i].--j) { if(res[i][0]==pro && res[i][0]!=prod[i]) { install(prod[i]. for(j=0.res[i][j]).j>=0. } else if(res[i][0]!='###BOT_TEXT###') break.j<3.++i) { for(j=2.i<6.

for(i=0.arr[i][1]).++i) { if(pri!=arr[i][0]) { pri=arr[i][0]. printf("\n\n").pri). } . } getch().i<18.Roll No: 10065 } getch(). clrscr(). } if(arr[i][2] =='T') printf("%c ". printf("\n\t%c -> ".

Roll No: 10065 Output E E E E E E F F F F F F T T T T T T + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ + * ( ) i $ T T F T T F F F F T T F F T F T T F E -> + * ) i F -> ) i T -> * ) i .

Roll No: 10065 ALGORITHM TO IMPLEMENT FIRST 1. then place a in FIRST(X) if for some i.Y3.FIRST(Yi). Є } 3. If X is a terminal. and Є is in all of FIRST(Y1)------. . If Є is in FIRST(Yj) for all j=1. If X is non-terminal and X->Y1.---. then FIRST(X) is X FIRST(X)={X} 2. Y1---Yi-1=> Є. that is.Y2.k. then add Є to FIRST(X).2.----. a is in FIRST(Yi).Yk is a production. If X is a non-terminal where X->aα/ Є then add a to FIRST(X) X->+T FIRST(X)={+.

h> #include<conio. } for(i=0.i++) { scanf("\n%c".first[5][5].i<nont.&temp).p[5][5].&t[i]).i++) { scanf("%c".nont. } printf("\nEnter the productions :\n").f=0. for(j=0. for(i=0. clrscr(). first[i][0]=nt[i].nt[10]. of Terminals in the grammer: ( Enter { for absiline ) ").k=0.i++) { scanf("\n%c". scanf("%c". .&nont).temp. printf("\nEnter the production for %c ( End the production with '$' sign ) :".h> void main() { char t[5]. printf("\nEnter the no.) { j+=1.h> #include<string.i<not||t[i]=='$'.i<nont. scanf("%d".not. int i. scanf("%d".&not). of Non-terminals in the grammer:").i++) { p[i][0]=nt[i].j.p[i] [0]). printf("\nEnter the Non-terminals in the grammer:\n").Roll No: 10065 Program No.&p[i][j]).i<nont.p[i][j]!='$'. for(i=0. printf("\nEnter the Terminals in the grammer:\n"). for(i=0.&nt[i]). 13 PROGRAM TO IMPLEMENT FIRST #include<stdio. } printf("\nEnter the no.

f=1. for(j=1. f=1. } } for(i=0.k++) { if(f==1) break.p[i][j]!='$'. for(j=1. break.j++) { printf("%c".i++) { printf("\nThe production for %c -> ".p[i][j]). if(p[i][j]==t[k]) { first[i][j]=t[k]. first[i][j+1]='$'. . if(first[i][j]=='{') continue.Roll No: 10065 } } for(i=0.j++) { for(k=0. break.p[i][0]).i<nont.i<nont.k<not. } } } } for(i=0. } else if(p[i][j]==nt[k]) { first[i][j]=first[k][j].i++) { f=0. first[i][j+1]='$'.i<nont.i++) { printf("\n\nThe first of %c -> ".first[i][0]).p[i][j]!='$'.

j++) { printf("%c\t".first[i][j]). } } getch().first[i][j]!='$'.Roll No: 10065 for(j=1. } .

of Terminals in the grammer: ( Enter { for absiline ) 5 Enter the Terminals in the grammer: + * ( ) i Enter the productions : Enter the production for E ( End the production with '$' sign ) :(i)$ Enter the production for T ( End the production with '$' sign ) :i*E$ Enter the production for V ( End the production with '$' sign ) :E+i$ The production for E -> (i) The production for T -> i*E The production for V -> E+i The first of E -> ( The first of T -> i The first of V -> ( . of Non-terminals in the grammer:3 Enter the Non-terminals in the grammer: E T V Enter the no.Roll No: 10065 Output Enter the no.

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