Nordlund Method Procedure

STEP 10 Compute the ultimate capacity, Qu. Qu = Rs + Rt

STEP 11 Compute the allowable geotechnical pile load, Qa.

Qa =

Qu Factor of Safety

Example 9-2

Single Piles in Cohesive Soils g Total − α-method or Tomlinson method − β-method stress method stress method g Effective .

Tomlinson or α-Method Unit Shaft Resistance. fs: fs = ca = αcu Where: ca = adhesion (Figure 9-14) α = empirical adhesion factor (Figure 9-15) .

Rs: Rs = fs As Where: As = pile surface area in layer (pile perimeter x length) .Tomlinson or α-Method Shaft Resistance.

Corrugated Steel Piles Smooth Steel Piles D = distance from ground surface to bottom of clay layer or pile toe. whichever is less b = Pile Diameter . Timber.Tomlinson or α-Method (US) Figure 9-14 Concrete.

Tomlinson or α-Method Sand or Sandy Gravels D b Stiff Clay .

Tomlinson or α-Method (US) Figure 9-15a D = distance into stiff clay layer b = Pile Diameter .

Tomlinson or α-Method Soft Clay D b Stiff Clay .

Tomlinson or α-Method (US) Figure 9-15b D = distance into stiff clay layer b = Pile Diameter .

Tomlinson or α-Method D b Stiff Clay .

Tomlinson or α-Method (US) Figure 9-15c D = distance into clay layer b = Pile Diameter .

25 . In these cases.0. divided by the effective overburden pressure.0. The ratio of cu / po’ is Ψ. the adhesion factor should be calculated according to API procedures based on the ratio of the undrained shear strength of the soil.HIGHLY OVERCONSOLIDATED CLAYS In highly overconsolidated clays. cu. α = 0. For Ψ > 1. the undrained shear strength may exceed the upper limits of Figures 9-14 and 9-15.5 Ψ-0.5 Ψ-0.5 α = 0. For Ψ ≤ 1. po’.

Tomlinson or α-Method Unit Toe Resistance. qt: qt = cu Nc Where: cu = undrained shear strength of the soil at pile toe Nc = dimensionless bearing capacity factor (9 for deep foundations) .

.Tomlinson or α-Method Toe Resistance. Rt: Rt = qt At The toe resistance in cohesive soils is sometimes ignored since the movement required to mobilize the toe resistance is several times greater than the movement required to mobilize the shaft resistance.

Tomlinson or α-Method Qu = R S + R T and Qa = QU / FS .

Example 9-3 .

Which pile has the highest toe resistance ? .

Plugging of Open Pile Sections D fso fsi fso qt b qt qt Figure 9-18 (a) Open Toe Condition (b) Plugged Toe Condition .

Plugging of H-Pile Sections Figure 9-19 .

The DRIVEN Computer Program g Developed by FHWA in 1998 g Use for calculation of static pile capacity g Demonstration of the DRIVEN computer program .

RQD values from NX size rock cores can provide a qualitative assessment of rock mass quality.Piles Driven to Rock The capacity of piles driven to rock should be based on driving observations. and load test results.25 Rock Mass Quality Excellent Good Fair Poor Very Poor . What is RQD? See Chapter 3 RQD 90 – 100 75 – 90 50 – 75 25 – 50 0 . local experience.

(Fair to excellent quality rock). . The structural capacity of the pile then governs the pile capacity.Piles Driven to Rock Except for piles driven to soft rock. the structural capacity of the pile will be lower than the geotechnical capacity of the rock to support a toe bearing pile.