The Authenticity and Commercialization of Heritage Attraction in Batangas Province Authenticity can be divided into the physical fabrics

and intangible values of heritage. The fact about authenticity in cultural tourism is that most tourists want to consume senses of µauthenticity¶ but indeed not necessarily reality. Many tourists are interested in cultural heritage but most have minimal knowledge about the past. Authenticity is then a social construct that is determined in part by the individual¶s own knowledge and frame of reference. The concept of authenticity has received a significant amount of attention recently as people search for meaning and happiness, particularly in their work lives. How one chooses to try to live more authentically depends on their own perspective on authenticity. Like many other popular concepts, different people have different views about authenticity and many people feel very strongly about their own views. Some people might assert that an individual is being authentic if they are being completely honest and participating in the here-and-now, e.g. an honest conversation with a friend, completely focused on cleaning out the garage, etc. There are others who assert that authenticity involves many other features, including, e.g., always being cantered with themselves and others, living in a completely integrated fashion with their own values and principles, always feeling complete meaning or sense of purpose in their lives, etc. Regardless of others' perspectives on authenticity, it's important for people in management to live and work as authentically as possible -- a goal that is usually often difficult to achieve, particularly in large organizations. As mentioned above, how one chooses to live a more authentic life depends on their perspective. A person might choose to appreciate more their own current approach to life, or meditate on a regular basis, or journal (write down) their thoughts, or engage in regular retreats, or sign up for a more complete program, etc. The objective of this study is to design a way that maintains the quality of tourist attraction in the Province of Batangas and retains and capitalizes on what makes Batangas special. The central question of the study will focus on the authenticity and commercialization of tourism industry. The assessment of this industry will answer that question and boost the value of tourism in Batangas Province. The present study will focus in the following attractions accredited by the DOT; Lago de Oro, The Farm Spa, Mabini Shrine, Miguel Malvar Historical Landmark, Taal Volcano, Submarine Garden in Lobo, Marcela Marino Agoncillo Museum And Monument- Talaga Tanauan, Leon Apacible Historical Landmark, Museo Ng Batangas at Aklatang Panlalawigan, Hotel Pontefino and Days Hotel.

The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction2

The researcher pursued with this study beyond authenticity and commercialization because they will be part of tourism and hospitality industry. They will benefit the most in conducting this study because it will enhance and reinforce their awareness on the authenticity and commercialization of tourist attraction and its significance in developing and maintaining tourist attraction in Batangas City. The researcher also chose Batangas Province as locale of this study because the place is known to be predominating place in Southern Luzon area and is experiencing a trend toward the creation of evening dining/entertainment venues. Objectives of the Study The aim of this study is to determine the level of authenticity and commercialization of tourist attraction in Batangas Province. It specifically will seek to answer the following: (1) identify the most frequently visited natural heritageattractions in Batangas City; (2) determine the level of authenticity; (3) the level of commercialization; (4) analyze the significant relationship between the most visited tourist attraction and level of authenticity and commercialization Literature on Objective 1 Batangas is the home of sages and the birthplace of the country's notable nationalist. These historical places are the legacies of the old colonial era. The province is also widely known as the home of baraco coffee (rich, robust-tasting coffee beans) and dedicate embroidery crafts on locally woven jusi and piña fibers. Nature has endowed Batangas with natural resources and picturesque sceneries. Coconut, orchids and mango trees lie alongside smooth sand beaches and their submarine gardens. Just a few kilometers from the shore will bring you to diverse dive sites - from the ones fit for novices (relatively shallow, constant water current), up to those which can pose a big challenge to experts. Without question, the most popular attraction is the Taal Volcano and Lake. Batangas used to lie along the route of the Spanish Galleon Trade from Mexico to Manila. The recent discovery of the San Diego Galleon in Nasugbu, Batangas yielded precious artifacts, including Ming dynasty jars which were exhibited in Paris, France during this decade. The San Diego is considered one of the foremost archeological finds of the 90's. Batangas is the characterized by elevations such as Mt. Makulot where the trainee pilots of the Philippine Air Force Flying School in Lipa City practice their maneuvers. The blue waters of Anilao Beach can prove alluring to swimmers. The well-preserved town of Taal boasts of its old churches, handicrafts, and historical landmarks. Batangas is the home of one of the country's national heroes, Apolinario Mabini who is known as the "Sublime Paralytic".

municipal library and reading facilities. The ground floor is bare and makes a good contrast. to 5:00 p. Philippines. The library is open everyday from 8:00 a. Visiting the place is only made available by appointtment. it was donated to the Philippine Government as a historical site and public library. The Mabini shrine is about 5 minutes drive from the toll plaza. and some of the books he wrote. Laurel was donated to the Philippine Government to serve as a historical site and public library. the house where he lived in including the furniture. and move towards the Talisay . To date. The Shrine also contains souvenir items. The personal property of the late President Jose P. Tanauan.. The interior has gold leaf neo-gothic arches and the decorations on the ceiling were made by Japanese artisans. Batangas' pre-eminence in the area of ecoindustrial growth cannot be disputed. It provides an in depth view of his life. The house relies mainly on the structural elements for its beauty Capiz windows with diamond and square patterns cover entirely the upper facade. There are more possibilities to unravel about Batangas which investments can nurture. It is a good example of a geometric style of the Filipino Hispanic house because there are hardly any decoration on the facade. Laurel. He was noted as the last Filipino general to surrender to the Americans. with eco-tourism and the controlled use of natural resources as strategies for socio-economic development. General Miguel Malvar is an icon of great courage and bravery. This is one of the ancestral houses in Batangas. where he was born. Buses from Manila bound for Lemery pass by the house. Tanauan exit.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction3 The proximity of Batangas to Manila and the good quality of most of the main roads make the province very accessible thereby fueling the local tourism industry and the provincial economy. The personal property of the family of the late President Jose P. Ilagan Ancestral House is located in Marcela Agoncillo Street. A shrine . Laurel Memorial Library. The Mabini Shrine located in Barrio Talaga is about 7 kilometers from the town proper of Tanauan.m. Or. The place can be reached also by taking jeepneys and tricycles which service the town. Batangas. Built in 1870. Mabini Ave. the intensified development of Batangas Port as an alternative port to Metro Manila augurs well for the province. He was a man with an indubitable conviction and character.Tagaytay route.m. from the STAR highway take the Sambat. Located on A. It ranks as one of the country's richest provinces for being the producer of high grade coffee varieties among the other agriculture products. Taal. Jose P. which won world acclaim in the past. The Apolinario Mabini Shrine was built and dedicated to the national hero Apolinario Mabini. a true leader and a hero.

In order to keep alive Batangas culture. politics. Museo ng Batangas at Aklatang Panlalawigan showcases the cultural wealth and traditions of Batangas and the Batangueño spirit that has animated the fields of arts and the sciences. Marcela Marino Agoncillo Museum And Monument. It was originally owned by Mr.the-century type of residence. Sixto Lopez Ancestral House. he was considered the natural-born and paternally appointed patriot in the family.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction4 was created to remember his greatness and contribution to the Philippines. Hence. It was on Sixto whose greater part of his father¶s responsibility fell. Tirona. It is also a repository of Batangas memorabilia that keeps the cultural wealth active and alive. Typical fo the several Spanish Era Houses constructed in Balayan. A visitor can walk through the streets of Taal and enjoy the old Spnish ambiance because the area has not changed much since the colonial times. the Grand Old Man of Balayan was a comtemporary of Genral Malva who never recognized the American Sovereignty until his death. Alejo Acosta. The Augustinian missionaries started the construction in 1756 and took a century to achieve its present form. The facade resemble St. Taal church stand 95 meters long and 45 meters wide on a plateau in the heart of Taal. the museum was created by Executive Order #30-93 signed by Batangas Governor Vicente Mayo on 3 March 1993. Peter¶s Basilica in Rome. Reputed to be the largest in Asia. Batangas City. The Pastor House is an example of a turn-of. assuming the passion and aspiration to maintain freedom for his beloved country. The private museum has a collection of archaeological and ethnographical artifacts relating to Batangas and other provinces in the Southern Tagalog Region.Talaga TanauanBarangay Talaga. Senora Maria Castelo. It has been related that . Sixto Lopez is the eldest son by Natalio's second wife. lifestyle and history. Leon Apacible Historical Landmark (Natural Landmark). Displayed there is a photo exhibit of Filipino-American War.. Basilica de San Martin de Tours . Taal How to get there : The museum is just walking distance from the town proper. including oil paintings and other mementos. economics and society in the country through the preservation and display of Batangas memorabilia and antiques which show how the Batangueño culture has been preserved through the ages. Don Sixto Lopez. Location : Marcela Agoncillo St. the distinguished Taaleña matron who helped sew the first Philippine flag is now a public viewing place. Batangas This ancestral house belonging to Marcela Agoncillo. Pastor House located in C. the barrio Captain of Batangas in 1883. Its tabernacle is the only one of its kind in the Philippines. The ancestral house of Leon Apacible with the family collection of relics and memorabilia. Tanauan City.

´ Bona fide ³implies good faith and sincerity of intention´. Built in 1857. the bullet that would have ended his life is still lodged in one of the doors of the house.´ Authentic means ³worthy of acceptance or belief as conforming to or based on fact´ and is synonymous with the terms genuine and bona fide. ³Given in Rome. To this day. and during his visit. or entitled to acceptance. The present church began in 1851 due to the increased population. This thesis attempts to investigate how ³the image of place´ is consumed commercially and how the ³public-owned tourist space´ is privatized in tourism activities Literature on Objective 2 Authenticity is defined as ³the quality of being authentic. either inadvertently or intentionally. they usually take a structuralism perspective. Although the amount of tourist studies has been grown significantly for the most recent two decades. the presumption of authenticity must be supported by evidence that a record is what it purports to be and has not been modified or corrupted in essential respects. If there are some.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction5 William Howard Taft. the tenth of our Pontificate -1948. It was granted Basilica status by Pope Pius XII. imitated. with the seal of the Fisherman. Father Pedro Cuesta. digital information technology creates significant risks that electronic records may be altered. The first name entered on Feb. visited this house. . Batangas City Basilica Of the Immaculate Conception & Infant Jesus. the preserver must be able to establish its identity and demonstrate its integrity. ignoring how the ³tourist places´ are produced and consumed in concrete contexts. Sketch of the baptismal book of Batangas Catholic Basilica. at St.´ Text from a copy of the actual letter written in Rome to grant the Batangas Catholic Church its appointment as Basilica. his assassination was attempted by a sniper. In both archival theory and jurisprudence. records that the creator relies on in the usual and ordinary course of business are presumed authentic. the parish priest undertook the construction after having the torn down the old church. However. . or adulterated and connotes definite origin from a source. Peters. To assess the authenticity of a tourist attraction. 1635 is Francisco Magtibay The tourist industry is one of the most rapid growing industries of all in the second half of the twentieth century. the Governor General assigned in the Philippines during the American Occupation. in the case of records maintained in electronic systems. From these definitions it follows that an authentic record is a record that is what it purports to be and is free from tampering or corruption. Genuine ³implies actual character not counterfeited. studies on the commodification of the tourist space are relatively few. on the 13th day of February in the year 1948. Therefore. 19.

manufactured and the mass-produced in a world seemingly full of falseness is evolving. and community resources² the foundations of identity²are safeguarded in all business endeavors. This will ensure that the benefits to the discerning consumer will be more widely promoted. cultural.e. writer.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction6 The identity of a tourist attraction refers to the distinguishing character of a tourist attraction.. its date(s) of creation (i. industry. As the experience economy matures. nationally and locally. the expression of its archival bond. managers. Along with incentives for reinvesting a significant share of profits. that is. addressee. A review of tourism literature reveals a fundamental tension over the use. and at the same time translated into benefits for tourism. and staff. such as promotion. reinvesting a significant share of tax revenues from tourism in the facilitation of tourism services: direct. which links it to other tourist attraction participating in the same action. names of the persons concurring in its formation (i. an indication of the action or matter in which it participates.e. philosophical tensions regarding the nature and function of historic resources have hampered collaboration (Deepak. the date it was made) and its date(s) of transformation. function. the virtual.. From an archivaldiplomatic perspective. Despite the intent to work together. it evolves into authenticity because consumers search for real experiences rather than µproducts¶ which are manufactured. travel futurologist explains how this trend away from impurity. both heritage resource managers and economic development professionals have advocated collaborative partnerships to develop historic resources for heritage tourism. not contaminated by being fake or impure. the attributes of a natural resources that uniquely characterize it and distinguish it from other attraction. and originator). such attributes include: the history of the attraction. Recognizing the current and potential economic benefits of tourism. and indirect. new local and foreign investment and participation in the industry will be strongly encouraged on the condition that such investment is consistent with the objectives of this strategy and that it uses and develops Batangas tourist Attraction. the spun. and communities will adopt attitudes and take measures necessary to ensure that natural. such as infrastructure. The government needs to take a lead in this endeavor. entrepreneurs. 2008). Enhanced development of interpretive services is suggested as a way to preserve authenticity while also providing a more engaging experience. It is a conceptual debate also presents a quandary for heritage tourism planners and developers. its author. The government. There is a growing desire to find experiences and products that are original and real. and degree of authenticity of natural resources used for tourism development. Dr Ian Yeoman. Hotels and other accommodations will offer standards of service that reflect Croatian .

for example taking a career break to travel through Africa or to undertake a similar adventure. people are concerned about wider issues such as the environment. Tourism began as an acknowledgement. the theatre and so on. eating out. and natural wonders unique to the place. places. . The movement to selfactualisation is a search for a deeper meaning and finding a sense of worth beyond material possessions.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction7 cultural standards but also meet the expectations of target markets. of an almost sacred connection between people. Students who came late to tourism research call the same cultural complex post-modernity. it has become a mainstream activity. Educational and training functions serving the cluster will teach people the skills and creativity needed to deliver to international guests a sense of what it means to be Batangas in many original ways. Wilmott (2005) has identified the complexity of consumerism. building on the local tradition of gastronomy and exposing historic influences of other cuisines. The architectural and design elements of all businesses in the cluster will build on Croatia¶s identity and historical influences in a creative way. to take a pause for breath. with consumers seeking new meaning. At one level it results in increased spending on holidays. The key characteristic of the culture of tourism is that every place on Earth is theoretically a destination and every tourist destination begins to resemble every other destination and place where the tourists are from. A culture of tourism has emerged on a global base. Egypt and its Pyramids. animal rights or Third World hunger. Africa and its animals. It is a fulfilment of self which moves beyond goods and services and on to experiences. London and its Bridge. with the same hotels and the similar theme parks at every major destination. Whether they are young professionals or baby-boomers in their fifties. Tour operators will highlight cultural. and themselves. while owners of attractions will develop activities that make visiting these wonders a world-class experience. a chance to take life by the scruff of the neck and give it a shake. Restaurants will offer innovative cuisine that draws on Croatian customs and local ingredients. consistent with Maslow¶s self-actualisation concept. and their symbols: Switzerland and is Alps. Japan and Mount Fuji. Tourism. There have been many changes in formerly remote places as a result of their having become popular tourist destinations. But it also includes special experiences such as white-water rafting or spending a weekend at a health spa. perhaps even a celebration. whether profoundly influences the ways every person defines a place. Career breaks are gap years for adults. more and more people are taking time out to travel the world in an authentic way. Initially. historical. to grab an opportunity to fulfil a lifelong dream. foreignness. The desire for new experiences which are truly authentic and meaningful has resulted in more people.

The study revealed that high perception of authenticity can be achieved even when the event is staged in a place far away from the original source of the cultural tradition. performance. Mon pottery and costume. is a major issue in sustainable tourism. it is socially constructed and therefore negotiable. This study analyzes the role of perceived authenticity as a measure of product quality and as a determinant of tourist satisfaction. and the inter-play with power relations that give meaning to our understanding of how villagers relate to. tourists and tourism. differences of perspective between tourists. the maintenance and wise management of cultural and natural resources is equally important. and experience. A common view in the anthropology of tourism literature is that tourism turns culture into a commodity. 2005). its authenticity reduced (Taylor. and the local government have important consequences for development in Ngadha villages. photography. 1986). as we will see. These heritages include the tangible cultural expressions (i. Tourists and event organizers were asked to evaluate the authenticity of specific festival events on a Likert scale. Authenticity is not fixed. Important differences in perceived authenticity were observed among various groups of visitors. While the economic gain from tourism is crucial for achieving sustainability objectives. Further. temples. resulting in a loss of authenticity. The loss of cultural authenticity with commoditization of cultural heritage. it changes over time. Authenticity is a value placed on a setting by the observer and is a notion embedded with power implications (Appadurai. the competing voices. which arises from creating cultural attractions merely for commercial and exploitative reasons (George & Reid. According to the study of Pairin and Catibog-Sinha entitled Heritage Tourism and People: Connectivity and Challenges in Sustaining Tourism in Koh Kred. this may be true for other small rural destinations in developing countries. it varies according to the tourist and their point of view (Cohen. the local community. Taylor has suggested that the moment a culture is defined as an object of tourism. Achieving sustainable tourism is a big challenge for small communities such as Koh Kred. hospitality and identity have been transformed by the presence of tourists. local cuisine). he discussed that the study found out that residents had a general agreement on the importance of the heritage features. but as Barker (2006) analysis of Balinese dance demonstrates. packaged and sold to tourists. The event studied was the Flora Macdonald Scottish Highland Games held in North Carolina (United States). which they themselves initially identified for this study.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction8 Authenticity does not have an objective quality. intangible . According to the study of Chhabra et al (2008) that much of today¶s heritage tourism product depends on the staging or re-creation of ethnic or cultural traditions. It is the different meanings of authenticity. Researchers have examined how crafts. 1988). 2001).e.

the meanings and values they attach to the notion vary. There was a strong agreement on the importance of natural heritage features and tangible cultural heritage features because of the direct benefits they derive from these resources to sustain their livelihoods and religious/cultural practices. Mon language and dance as well as natural heritage features (i. and/or material) placed by the local community on their heritage are important elements in sustainable tourism. marketing or business development. Authenticity is associated with the past. The level of agreement was consistent with the perceived and expressed value attached to these features. there has been a debate on authenticity among social scientists in tourism. 2002). The attributes. Authenticity is a western cultural notion that implies genuine of undisputed origin. The Commercialization process has three key aspects: The funnel. While accepting the notion is problematic I use it because so many of the tourists that visit Ngadha do. Literature on Objective 3 Commercialization is the process or cycle of introducing a new tourist attraction into the market. sales promotion. and attractions as determined by the local community are useful information in creating the tourism image suitable for a particular destination (Green. The meanings and values (emotional. and other marketing efforts. It is essential to look at many ideas to get a business that can be sustained longterm. 2005). symbolic. The Tourist. or established authorship (Oxford English Dictionary). It is a stage-wise process and each stage has its own key goals and milestones. Commercialization is often confused with sales. and in opposition to modernity. The ³commodification of a culture´ is considered as a negative impact of tourism when inherent meanings of cultural artefacts and performances are lost. festivals. clay used in pottery. and sacred fig trees). agricultural farms/crops. resources.41).The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction9 cultural expressions (i. as they are modified to suit tourists markets. Further analyses have attempted to deconstruct the notion. with primitive order.e. Olsen. The actual launch of a attraction is the final stage of new tourist attraction development and the one where the most money will have to be spent for advertising. Since MacCannell¶s (1976) provocative work. The local insights into the notion of nature-culture linkage in the context of tourism and livelihoods were also found to be essentials. but they were not ranked as high as tangible and material components of heritage. The Koh Kred residents interpreted each of the heritage features based on their local knowledge and personal understanding of what is important to them from the symbolic and pragmatic points of view. . The respondents also agreed that intangible cultural heritage features were important (LS= 4.e. It is vital to involve key stakeholders early. including tourist. Debates about the commodification of culture are inter-linked with debates about authenticity and identity. Chao Praya River. However. The view of a dichotomy between premodern (authentic) and modern (inauthentic) has been criticized (Meethan 2001.

tradition. Majority of the local and foreign tourists who visited Batangas are male. With the help of the Lyceum Family including the students of the College of International Hospitality Management that Batangas Tourism Office may tie-ups and spearheads viable projects and programs for the improvement of the tourism programs in the province.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction10 While cultural commodification is frequently regarded as a negative aspect of tourism. Just as. Literature on Objective 4 In this case is a technical way of describing why tourist visits certain attractions again and again. At the same time. Sightseeing is . Either local or foreign tourists were satisfied and enjoyed visiting beaches due to the warn accommodation of the Filipino staff and personnel. Batangas are visited due to its affordability of the tourist attractions and destinations including the amenities offered. The authentic attractions as objects of ultimate value tourist means to say certain places will only have true value to us if we consider them ³authentic´ in one way or another. Tourists have a collective desire to travel because we desire as a ³modern´ society to find a level of authenticity that we consider absent in the society they embedded within. Far from rendering culture superficial and meaningless. the system of going to see certain sights educates and perpetuates a social system in the tourist. results revealed that the most frequently visited attraction are beach resorts for it is a venue for diving and aqua sports activity. identity and authenticity. of telling their own story and establishing the significance of local experiences (McDonald. The private sector and educational institutions like Lyceum of the Philippines University can help the Batangas Tourism Office in the implementation of the program and other projects to boost the Tourism Industry. The tourist. The programs spearheaded by Tourism in Batangas geared towards developing Batangas as a beautiful place for relaxation accessible to its infrastructure and transport development. The tourist helps to understand and reinforce the tourist attraction here in Batangas Province. Tourism is used to support a variety of versions of culture. 1997). They go and see things that are real and valuable. 19961998). commodification can be seen as part of a very positive process by which people are beginning to reevaluate their history and shake off the shame of peasantry (Abraham. as this case describes. They held important act to gain glimpse in the attraction to became authentic and commercialize. In the study of Vizconde (2009). this ethnography will present an alternative view. in peak season tourist prefer to visits tourist attraction that has a collective travel desire. People can use cultural commodification as a way of affirming their identity. as an individual acts as an important role to determine when our tourist attraction became authentic and commercialize. commodifications may be a pragmatic response for the poor and can also be a step on the ladder to empowerment. And. Tourates are active strategists and they manipulate their ³otherness´ to their own ends.

The fact about authenticity in cultural tourism is that most tourists want to consume senses of µauthenticity¶ but indeed not necessarily reality. interact. And in order to maintain authenticity the tourist defines attraction to become more negotiable and a primitive source in any part of the province. Most authentic tourists of all may be those wanting to visit friends and relations. They are fulfilling the role thinking that attraction is unique. tourist play an important role in the tourist attraction. They are the people who give an opinion to know the real situation in our attraction. A specific act of sightseeing is. exchange that they are no longer consuming and so no longer just perpetuating and feeding the Province. in itself. According to the tourist they perceived everyday world and environment. making place or context an object of consumption. a ratification at once caused by and resulting in a gathering of tourists around an attraction and measurable to a certain degree by the time and distance the tourists travel to reach it. They say that there is no problem in searching for authenticity but in the belief that as µthe authentic tourist¶ they can be satisfied with a holiday package. Authenticity can be divided into the physical fabrics and intangible values of heritage. which itself are a . 2007). they are concentrate and focus on viewing other attraction where they can chose which is better to become authentic and commercialize. To become an authentic and commercialize. The tourist has always a value held importantly by that attraction and acts as a model for behaviours in order to achieve the relation to anything in the real Province. The image of the tourist attraction is the product of visits to them is more enduring than any specific visit. at the same time. who will determine to perpetuates the modern or if there is a changes in a global society. The tourist seems a lot to see and to experience the commercialize attraction which they can be quite happy. (Scott. the ultimate reason for the orderly representation of the social structure of modern society in the system of attractions.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction11 probably less important than the ceremonial ratification of authentic attractions as objects of ultimate value. Authenticity is then a social construct that is determined in part by the individual¶s own knowledge and frame of reference. they processes and created it and the consequences of one's engagement with it. reducing it to a product or object. Cultural differences notwithstanding. Many tourists are interested in cultural heritage but most have minimal knowledge about the past. tourists-resident tensions arise if there is a misunderstanding about the status of a cultural performance or other tourism products in terms of their perceived µauthenticity¶. A number of trends are then identified as far more significant for tourism flows and consumption as for authenticity and commercialization. weightless and. But tourist can say the facts when they are actually participate in certain ways. The actual act of communion between the tourist and attraction is less important than the image or the idea of society that the collective act generates.

Basically the core objective of the study was to consider the perception of host communities towards the presence of tourists and tourism development and thus. management and employees. Establishing tourism success from the perspective of primary stakeholders such as the Destination itself and Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) like the National Tourism Boards is vital. such as. this view is not helpful. As tourism within a destination develops. On one level it can be argued that everything. 2005). so do the needs and expectations of the stakeholders involved. For instance. visitors. central. suppliers. including fake copies of local arts. the success of tourism is dependent on the ³input´ and ³output´.e. is the non traditional culture that is being practice in the backstage any less authentic than the tepee displayed in the frontstage. those people and institutions which have a stake in the organization. A more conventional view is to consider authentic goods and experiences as those that embody the actual culture of the destination community. The tourism industry is extremely . But even this is problematic. or local government. This is indeed true as companies that strive to achieve profit from their products tend to invest heavily in advertising the existence and benefits of their products as a means of generating sales. This is because it enables destinations to benchmark their performance in order to measure their success relative to that of their competitors. There is increasing evidence that costs and benefits from tourism do not accrue equally to residents. seek to gauge residents support for the industry as a part of wider issues of development. (Kala) The marketer needs to understand the power structures of the organization in terms of its stakeholders. since the concept can then no longer be used to distinguish between different tourism products and experiences. i. because of the simple fact that it exist and conveys some kind of meaning. groups and individuals depending upon their value and attitudes and the nature of the heritage resource and is also significant in the future further development of tourism development in the region.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction12 contentious and highly subjective concept. True to the stakeholder concept. owners. According Ritchie and Crouch. In the example of the Native American village noted earlier. pressure groups and trade organizations. As the tourism sector develops the need to involve the perspectives of various groups¶ who are affected or capable of affecting tourism success becomes imperative (Getz et al. However. since it represents a contemporary reality of that group of people? (David. 2005) Heritage is significant to different communities. local community. is authentic µgenuine¶. mass tourism raised awareness on the need to involve the local community and environmental supporters to ensure protection of culture and resource base through sustainable tourism development practices for future tourism. regional. the tourism industry is a great illustration as to why stakeholder management is required in order for a destination to remain competitive.

Preservation or Conservation is a professional endeavour that seeks to preserve. the main economic benefits are not flowing to the local community making tourism at the destination unsustainable. conserve and protect buildings. interview and observation.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction13 competitive. participants. Countries are aggressively promoting themselves as ideal holidaying destinations in a bid to realize the long term profits available within the sector. Design The study made use of descriptive research method to identify the authenticity and commercialization of tourist attraction in Batangas Province. Therefore. Descriptive survey is a method of research which uses the library. a Community Benefit Tourism is proposed. instruments. for achieving sustainable tourism development at the destination through multiple stakeholders¶ partnership. Descriptive research is the second . commercialization of landscape and congestion. The dependent variable consist of the level of authenticity and commercialization of the tourist attraction in the province of Batangas. used procedure and data analysis of the study. Destinations are therefore challenged with having to distinguish themselves from the competition to gain competitive advantage. Method This part presents the research design. Conceptual Framework Heritage Attraction Most Frequently Visited Level of Authenticity and Commercialization Fig. The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction in Batangas Province The figure above shows the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Tourism development in the form of degradation of environmental resources. objects. questionnaires. The independent variable consist of the heritage attraction most frequently visited by the respondents. 1. landscapes or other artefacts of environmental significance.

the following statistical treatment will be used: Weighted Mean was used to determine the tourist attraction frequently visited. 2008) Participants The researcher used 100 tourists and residents of Batangas as their participants in this study to apprehend their points of view regarding the Authenticity and Commercialization of tourist attractions in Batangas. Eta-Squared was used in determining the significant relationship of the tourist attraction frequently visited and the authenticity and commercialization of tourist attraction in the Province of Batangas. Procedures The researchers read past researches to help them choose their topic. They consulted other professors about how to prepare questionnaires. . The copies of the questionnaire were then distributed personally by the researchers to the respondents and they were given adequate time to answer all queries. After being granted to do so.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction14 broad class of non-experimental studies. The researchers retrieved all the copies distributed personally. The first part include the tourist attraction that is frequently visit by the respondents. describe and document aspects of situation as it naturally occurs and sometimes to serve as a starting point for hypothesis generation of theory development. The researchers saw to it that there were enough items to collect data to cover all aspects of their problem. After deciding what topic they will study. Instrument The main tool in gathering information that was used in this study is a selfmade questionnaire which is divided into three parts. the researchers utilized self made questionnaires to collect the data. Its purpose is to observe. they consulted their adviser for approval. authenticity and commercialization of tourist attraction in the Province of Batangas. (Poli. They looked for some related studies and literature to have a basis in doing their research study. The second part include the authenticity of the tourist attraction and the third part include the commercialization of the tourists attraction in the Province of Batangas. Analysis To interpret the gathered results.

03. Sixto Lopez Ancestral House 6.35 3. It also have its educational purposes to help the residents of Batangas and it become a central element of tourism economy in Batangas. Jose P. Pastor House 11.P. Mabini Shrine 4.27. Jose P.03 3. It shows that the respondents often visits Museo ng Batangas at Aklatang Panlalawigan as it got the highest weighted mean of 3. Laurel Highway which is very accessible. Basilica de San Martin de Tours 7.11 3. Leon Apacible Historical Landmark 9.15 3.29 3. The Leon Apacible Historical Landmars is often visited as it obtain the weighted mean of 3.11.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction15 Results and Discussion This part presents the data gathered by the researchers.30 and Sixto Lopez Ancestral House with weighted mean of 3. The most visited is the Museo ng Batangas at Aklatang Panlalawig an because it is found in J. Tourist attraction is now . its analysis and its interpretation. Batangas City Basilica Of the Immaculate Conception & Infant Jesus Composite Mean WM 3. Ilagan Ancestral House 3.22 and 3. Museo ng Batangas at Aklatang Panlalawigan 10. Marcela Marino Agoncillo Museum and Monument 8.20 Often Table 1 shows the weighted mean distribution on tourist attraction most frequently visited.29. and Ilagan Ancestral House with weighted mean of 3. Table 1 Weighted Mean Distribution on Tourist Attraction Most Frequently Visited Indicators 1.27 3. They often visits Miguel Malvar Historical Landmark.10 3.15 respectively.5 2.12 3. Laurel Shrine/Memorial Library with 3.10 and the least among the items which is Marcela Marino Agoncillo Museum and Monument with weighted mean of 3.35 followed by Pastor House and Batangas City Basilica Of the Immaculate Conception & Infant Jesus which got the weighted mean of 3.12.30 3. Basilica de San Martin de Tours . Miguel Malvar Historical Landmark 5.5 3. Mabini Shrine with weighted mean of 3. Laurel Shrine/Memorial Library 2. 3.22 3.30 Verbal Interpretation Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Often Rank 10 7 9 5 4 6 11 8 1 2.

Furthermore heritage tourism and attraction is important for various reasons. accurate interpretation of resources. There is also the possible conflicts and contradictions between the traditional ideology of museums and modern tourism. archaeology and interaction with local people. the conservation of cultural resources. 1996). in recent years µculture¶ has been rediscovered as an important marketing tool to attract those travellers with special interests in heritage and arts. and the stimulation of the earned revenues of cultural resources. Culture. it helps preserve the cultural heritage. as well as marketing and promotion. This trend is evident in the rise in the volume of tourists who seek adventure. which won world acclaim in the past. authentic visitors experience. achieving economic and social benefits. culture. providing financial resources for protection. therefore. We can see. Heritage attraction has a number of objectives that must be met within the context of sustainable development such as. heritage and the arts have long contributed to appeal of tourist destination. it establishes and reinforces identity. management and protection of the heritage values but it must also be involved in understanding the impact of tourism on communities and regions. This dependency has often been regarded as a challenge to the scholarly quality of the exhibits. . it has a positive economic and social impact. Cultural heritage tourism defines as cultural heritage tourism is the fastest growing segment of the tourism industry because there is a trend toward an increase specialization among tourists. However. history. it supports culture and helps renew tourism (Richards. According to Johanson (2008) that museums become part of tourism because of their dependency as a part of income. This argues that the involvement in tourism has less impact on what is represented by the museum and more on how the museum needs to represent the exhibition and its context. Batangas' pre-eminence in the area of eco-industrial growth cannot be disputed.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction16 recognized by those people who need travel in order to seek out new experiences and ways of life for themselves. The proximity of Batangas to Manila and the good quality of most of the main roads make the province very accessible thereby fueling the local tourism industry and the provincial economy. that cultural heritage tourism is not only concerned with identification. with culture as an instrument it facilitates harmony and understanding among people. It ranks as one of the country's richest provinces for being the producer of high grade coffee varieties among the other agriculture products.

The heritage attraction has distinctive quality and identity which enables their guests to be part of the exceptional beauty of history 2.5 4. Provides an activity in which individual explore a culture that is foreign to us 6.11.36 and ³heritage attraction has distinctive quality and identity which enables their guests to be part of the exceptional beauty of history´ with weighted mean of 3.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction17 Table 2 Weighted Mean Distribution on the Level of Authenticity of Heritage Attraction N=100 Indicators 1. Composite Mean WM 3. Among the low value items it shows that the response ³The attraction offer to bear a unique and exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which has disappeared´ got the weighted mean of 4.30 Verbal Interpretation Yes Rank 3 4. The attraction offer to bear a unique and exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization which has disappeared.36 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 6.46 with verbal interpretation of yes followed by the response ³Some areas of the attraction are tangibly associated with events or living tradition´ with weighted mean of 4.46 3.14 Yes 6.5 1 10 4 2 4. It qualifies as a place where a temporary leisured person who voluntarily visits a place for a purpose of experiencing a change 9. It shows that the response ³It offers for a modern man to explore the real life of others´ got the highest weighted mean of 4. 7. It offers a well preserve heritage attraction 10.06 Yes 9 4.14 4. It offers for a modern man to explore the real life of others 4.95 4. The response . The heritage attractions are tangibly associated with events or living tradition.20 4. It make sense of our self and world within a highly differentiated culture 5.09 Yes Table 2 shows the weighted mean distribution on the level of Authenticity of Heritage Attraction.11 Yes Yes 5 8 4. It offers the most important and significant part of historical events and development 8. It gives spiritual and emotional quest 3.25 4.30.

The level of Authenticity of Tourist Attraction obtained the composite mean of 4.95 respectively. The heritage attractions are tangibly associated with events or living tradition. folklores. but usually specimens collected and embalmed especially for him. This shows that the different heritage attraction in Batangas Province is authentic and presents the heritage of the place. and ³It make sense of our self and world within a highly differentiated culture´ with weighted mean of 4. land use. It requires us to identify the ethical values. It gives information on the culture of the Bataguenos and how they lived and all the important events in history is well preserved. or sea use which is representative of a culture (or cultures). social customs. and social attractions of an urban centre. historic. People look to the Western world for examples and knowledge on nature conservation while their forefathers left them with lessons and coded information in their buildings. Recognizing the current and potential economic benefits of tourism. nature and history has just been erased by some action. or attractions specifically staged for him. The authenticity of each preserve heritage will bring them back to the past and be part of the development of human kind. or with beliefs.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction18 ³It offers the most important and significant part of historical events and development´. They have failed to decode and use this information and the one living encyclopedia and information bank for culture. The heritage attraction offers for a modern man to explore the real life of others. with ideas.09 and verbal interpretation of yes. tales and stories. It is a conceptual debate also presents a quandary for heritage tourism planners and developers. or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change. This holiday may be based on the cultural. or on the appeal of a different environment. beliefs or myths of which intangible heritage is the sign and expression. To be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions. this is in contrast to recreation which involves leisure activities lasting less than twenty-four hours. Urban tourism increases the importance of the central place while tourism at the periphery can provide the income for economic development. The significance of architectural or urban constructions and the transformation of natural landscapes through human intervention are more and more connected to questions of identity. Today what [the tourist] sees is seldom the living culture. However. both heritage resource managers and economic development professionals have .06 and 3. This means that the quest for the ³message´ of cultural properties has become more important. with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance and to be an outstanding example of a traditional human settlement. Enhanced development of interpretive services is suggested as a way to preserve authenticity while also providing a more engaging experience.

and especially are able to minimizing the commodification of the attraction 5.5 4.85 4. They promote simple repetition or replication of cultural forms 4.11 Yes 7 4. philosophical tensions regarding the nature and function of historic resources have hampered collaboration (Deepak. They provide itinerary plan for the tourists.13 4. Table 3 Weighted Mean Distribution on Commercialization of Heritage Attraction N=100 Indicators 1. The physical setting of place speaks for itself with a support of explanation.21 3.03 4. Uses historical fact but translate fact to sustain and support memory values.24 4. They accommodate their guests through services 7. followed by ³They promote simple repetition or replication of cultural forms´ with weighted mean of . 10.49 and verbally interpreted as yes. 2008). They provide well developed infrastructure but maintains the heritage of the place 6.5 Table 3 shows the weighted mean distribution on the level of Commercialization of Heritage Attraction. 8.16 Yes Yes Yes 3 10 4 3.49 Verbal Interpretation Yes Rank 1 4.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction19 advocated collaborative partnerships to develop historic resources for heritage tourism. 2.13 Yes Yes Yes 8 2 5. Despite the intent to work together. 3.13 Yes Yes 5.95 Yes 9 4. They provide an appropriate level of ambiance both within the premises and in the physical location of the premises. They considered to be significant importance to the local tourism industry 9. It shows that the response ³Uses historical fact but translate fact to sustain and support memory values´ got the highest weighted mean of 4. They had strong commitment to service tourist Composite Mean WM 4. They operate with more professional team with a good technique of presentation.

falsify history.85 respectively. Among the low value items. they align us with forebears whose virtues we share and whose vices we shun. construction and the bombing repeats itself for more than ten years. The level of Commercialization of Heritage Attraction obtained the composite mean of 4. the past forward. heritage clarifies pasts so as to infuse them with present purposes Heritage is not history. We are apt to call such communion history. It uses historical fact but translates fact to sustain and support memory and values. History maintains a significant role. falsify history. The interpretation of these war heritages is seemingly designed to dispel.21. Legends of origin and endurance. Heritage is. thus. The illustrated story about the origin.95 and 3. it shows that the response ³They provide an appropriate level of ambiance both within the premises and in the physical location of the premises´ and ³They provide itinerary plan for the tourists´ got the weighted mean of 3.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction20 4. rather than unfold. This shows that these tourist attraction mainly uses historical fact but translate fact to sustain and support memory values.24 and the response ³The physical setting of place speaks for itself with a support of explanation´ got the weighted mean of 4. Heritage is then what we absorb from the past and part of the growing dependence we have on the past where we may.13 and verbal interpretation of yes. of victory or calamity. But has the lure of heritage overtaken history as a prime way of recovering the past as ventures to suggest. Heritage is. But has the lure of heritage overtaken history as a prime way of recovering the past as Lowenthal (2008) ventures to suggest. In domesticating the past people enlist it for present causes. project the present back. in fact. ³They accommodate their guests through services´ got the weighted mean of 4. History maintains a significant role. There is no cultural transmission or heritage interpretation.03. not our prime or sole link with the past. History explores and explains pasts ever grown more opaque over time. but it is actually heritage. . not our prime or sole link with the past. They promote culture for tourism we tend to make the mistake of promoting simple repetition or replication of cultural forms. what there is the result in interruption of the process and the atrophy of cultural forms into marketable products. The distinction is vital. in fact. The same dance is performed over and over again. Heritage is then what we absorb from the past and part of the growing dependence we have on the past where we may. It uses historical fact but translates fact to sustain and support memory and values. thus.

and level of commercialization.05 level of significance. the respect due to all cultures requires that heritage properties must be considered and judged within the cultural contexts to which they belong. the following are the foregoing conclusions of the study: 1. Added to this. . the obtained r-values of 0. This means that the relative integrity of a place.458 show a highly significant relationship between the level of authenticity.000 Highly Significant Table 4 shows the relationship between Level of Authenticity. On the contrary. They also answered ³yes´ to the commercialization of the heritage attraction in Batangas Province such as historical fact but translate fact to sustain and support memory values. an object or an activity in relation to its original creation. At 0. Thus. In the context of living cultural practices. Museo ng Batangan at Aklatang Panlalawigan is the most frequently visited heritage attraction in Batangas.359 . 2. Furthermore. and even within the same culture.458 . the null hypothesis is rejected. authenticity can encompass the accuracy or extent of its reconstruction to a known earlier state According to the investigation of Lowenthal (2007) that authenticity may differ from culture to culture. 3. heritage attraction and level of commercialization. The respondent¶s response is ³yes´ when they were asked about the authenticity of the heritage attractions which also means that they agree that all tourist attraction is authentic in its real sense. It is thus not possible to base judgments of values and authenticity within fixed criteria. In the context of an µhistoric place¶ or µobject¶. the fact about authenticity in cultural tourism is that most tourists want to consume senses of µauthenticity¶ but indeed not necessarily reality. the context of authenticity responds to the evolution of the traditional practice. heritage attraction.The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction21 Table 4 Relationship Between Level of Authenticity. Conclusions Based on the results.000 Highly Significant Level of Commercialization 0. the respondents often visited tourist attractions that are approved by the DOT.359 and 0. Authenticity is then a social construct that is determined in part by the individual¶s own knowledge and frame of reference. Heritage Attraction and Commercialization Level of Authenticity r p-value Verbal Interpretation Heritage Attraction Most Frequently Visited 0. Many tourists are interested in cultural heritage but most have minimal knowledge about the past.

Recommendations 1. There is a highly significant relationship between the heritage attraction frequently visited. This yields possibility that the enhancement of these tourist attraction will benefit the tourist and the residents of Batangas Commercialization must also be supported by the local residents and government to help the economic growth of tourism industry in Batangas. Based on the foregoing conclusions. 4. people who are directly associated with the tourist attraction in Batangas Province. .The Authenticity and Commercialization of Tourist Attraction22 4. 3. as well as. It is necessary to discuss the perception of the community members or the residents of Batangas on the preservation of tourist attractions. 2. level of authenticity and level of commercialization. the following are recommended: It is recommended that the CITHM must sponsor seminars regarding preservation of tourist attraction for the students. Future study is recommended.

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