Minimum Wages

&


2 October 2010 - 17 November 2010

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Contents
Chapter 1 Crisis in MGNREGA: Priority Issues 6

Chapter 2 Mazdoor Haq Yatra and Satyagraha 10
Section 1 About the Mazdoor Haq Yatra and Satyagraha 10
Section 2 Calendar of events 14

Chapter 3 Important documents related to the issues raised in the satyagraha 18
Section 1 Indira Jaising’s legal opinion 18
Section 2 Andhra Pradesh High Court Order 23
Section 3 Re. 1 per day payment in Gudilya village, Tonk district 26
Section 4 Relevant Recommendations from the Working Group on Transparency
and Accountability with MoRD’s Response and Working Group’s
Rejoinder
30
Section 5 Government order denying registration for the Rajasthan Mazdoor
Union
35
Section 6 Minutes of the meeting on Policy for Revising Wage Rate in NREGA on
10
th
July 2009
39
Section 7 File notings on the minimum wage issue 44
Section 8 Letter from Government of Rajasthan to the Government of India
seeking minimum wages for the MGNREGA
50
Section 9 Open statement from eminent jurists on non-payment of minimum
wages to MGNREGA workers
52
Section 10 Emergency recommendations on NREGA wage policy by the CEGC
Working Group on Wages (May 2010)
55
Section 11 Relevant portions of The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 59
Section 12 NAC press release on minimum wages 65
Section 13 Letter from Ashok Gehlot to Manmohan Singh 66
Section 14 Letter to C. P. Joshi about his incorrect statements in the media 68
Section 15 Letter from Rosaiah to Manmohan Singh 69

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Section 16 Letter from Sonia Gandhi to Manmohan Singh 70
Section 17 Signed agreement with the Government of Rajasthan on the basis of
which the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha stopped
81
Section 18 People’s Pay Commission 82

Chapter 4 Articles of note from the media coverage of the issue 92
Section 1 On guarantees anymore, 3
rd
October 2010, The Hindu 93
Section 2 The wages of discontent, 23
rd
October 2010, The Hindu 95

Chapter 5 Letters written to the Government of Rajasthan during the Mazdoor Haq
Satyagraha
99

Chapter 6 Flexes used in the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha 129

Chapter 7 Songs from the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha 139

Chapter 8 Press releases of the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha 151



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Chapter 1
Crisis in MGNREGA: Priority Issues

Section 1

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) is a path-
breaking legislation offering hope to millions of poor people in India. It has already led to
many positive achievements: large-scale employment generation (more than 50 million
women and men worked on MGNREGA in 2009-10), empowerment of rural women,
slowdown of rural-urban migration, creation of many productive assets, increase in acutely
depressed wages earned by the poor among others. However, a series of emergency measures
are required if the gains made through MGNREGA are to be preserved and consolidated.
Some of the immediate areas of serious concern are summarized below.

1. Violation of the Minimum Wages Act
The current policy on wages of the government of India violates the fundamental rights of
workers as well as Supreme Court and High Court decisions, by contravening the Minimum
Wages Act. Shockingly, the union government takes the view that it is not bound to pay
minimum wages to MGNREGA workers, thereby effectively destroying the sanctity of one
of India’s most important legislations for the unorganized poor. [See Chapter 2, Section 3]
The effective “freeze” of NREGA wages at Rs 100/day also directly violates the Minimum
Wages Act, since all workers are entitled to the statutory minimum wage applicable in their
respective states. This has already been challenged and set aside in the Andhra Pradesh High
Court and is likely to be struck down, sooner or later, by the Supreme Court. Wage policy for
MGNREGA needs to be urgently reconciled with the Minimum Wages Act.

2. Crisis of Wage Policy
The Finance Minister in his budget speech of July 2009 promised that a real wage of Rs. 100
would be assured to all MGNREGA workers in the country. In fact the notification now in
operation (dated 1 January 2009) has in effect capped wages at Rs 100/day in nominal terms
across the country. The real value of wages is steadily declining every month, as prices
increase without any corresponding increase in money wages. This is a violation of the UPA-
2 government’s promise to ensure a “real wage” of Rs 100/day for MGNREGA workers.
Meanwhile, MPs and bureaucrats are insisting – successfully – on massive salary increases.

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The MoRD’s response to the recommendations of the Working Group on Wages (WGW) has
been to delay the matter further by referring it to other committees [see Chapter 2, Section 4].

3. Continued Delays in Wage Payments
Reports of long delays in wage payments have been pouring from all over the country in the
last two years. This is threatening to undermine the entire programme, as delays in payments
discourage workers from joining MGNREGA worksites. Yet, very little has been done to
address this problem. Some remedial measures have recently been suggested by the Central
Employment Guarantee Council’s “Working Group on Wages”. There have been examples in
different states through which compensation and interest has been paid. However, instead of
universalizing these mechanisms for payment of compensation for delays in payment of
wages and the automatic payment of interest, the issues has been deliberately avoided by
saying that this is a matter for the states to decide. For workers on the edge of survival, timely
payments are crucial to their faith in the Act.

4. Lack of Accountability
The MGNREGA is the first of a series of social policy legislations in the entitlements
framework. In this paradigm the worker should have the facility to access entitlements easily,
through a series of well understood mechanisms under her/his control - like the application
for work. The accountability aspects therefore need to be legally and administratively
structured in a manner that the worker has the power to enforce rights, and have grievances
redressed, and control the public vigilance and monitoring aspects independently of the
implementing agency.
a) Undermining Accountability
Unfortunately, all the accountability provisions of MGNREGA (especially (i) unemployment
allowance, (ii) compensation for delayed payments, and (iii) penalty for dereliction of duty)
have been quietly and structurally sidelined, so that all the power remains in the hands of
bureaucrats and those responsible for implementation. This defeats the purpose of the Act,
which is to give workers enforceable entitlements. The accountability provisions of
MGNREGA urgently need to be activated. We present one extreme case of gross violation of
basic entitlements from Tonk District in Rajasthan where workers were paid wages of Re.
1/day! [See Chapter 2, Section 5]
b) Undermining Public Vigilance and Social Audits
Another aspect of the deliberately weakened accountability structure is the undermining of
social audit provisions. Specifically, a damaging amendment was recently made to Section 13
of MGNREGA, preventing the participation of independent parties in social audits, and
making the social audit an exercise controlled by the implementing agency. This amendment

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needs to be reversed, and positive provisions are also required to make social audits and
public vigilance processes open, inclusive and participatory. The MoRD acknowledges the
restrictive and closed “social audit process” after this amendment, and that as a result no state
except Andhra Pradesh has carried out effective social audits. However, instead of adopting
the Andhra model as suggested by the Transparency and Accountability Working Group, the
MoRD has deliberately dragged its feet and undermined the social audit process [see Chapter
2, Section 6].

5. Dysfunctionality of the Central Employment Guarantee Council
The Central Employment Guarantee Council (CECG) has wide powers and responsibilities
under the Act. It was intended to act as an independent watchdog for MGNREGA at the
national level. However, the CECG has failed to fulfill its mandate under the law. It rarely
meets, does not have an Executive Committee, and did not submit any of the annual reports it
is supposed to prepare for Parliament. This is unlikely to change unless the Council is
restructured and enabled to carry out its mandate of being MGNREGA’s independent
monitoring body at the national level.

6. Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Seva Kendras
In mid-2009, the Ministry of Rural Development launched a wholly misconceived
programme of construction of “Bharat Nirman Rajiv Gandhi Seva Kendras” under
MGNREGA. An executive amendment was quietly made in the Act, to add this to the list of
permissible works, and enormous pressure was put on the states to give top priority to the
construction of BNRGSKs. This programme is acting as a backdoor entry for exploitative
contractors and a new fountain of corruption in MGNREGA. It is also draining the resources
available for material expenditure in MGNREGA, because the material-labour ratio in
BNRGSK is very high (up to 90-10), while a cap of 40-60 applies in MGNREGA as a whole.
The construction of BNRGSKs should be undertaken, if at all, under other programmes than
MGNREGA (such as BRGF), with only the labour component coming under MGNREGA.
The worst aspect of this top-down directive of a material intensive construction program is
that it blatantly violates the statutory right and autonomy of the Gram Sabha to plan and
choose the works to be undertaken in the Panchayat.

7. Securing the workers’ fundamental right to association
To make matters worse, even independent efforts of the poor to secure entitlements are being
discouraged. For fulfillment of entitlements under MGNREGA, it is crucial that the workers’
right to organize is protected and facilitated. Unfortunately, what is noticed is that all those
who are “managers” such as rozgar sahayaks, panchayat secretaries, sarpanches, engineers,

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accountants and even program officers have formed the unions and begun to agitate for better
service conditions. While this is certainly part of their fundamental rights, strangely enough
the registration of workers’ unions have been obstructed and even barred in some places (see
Chapter 2, Section 7), using a number of questionable excuses, including the ridiculous
contention that the MGNREGA workers are not workers at all!

We take this opportunity to express our solidarity with all organizations and individuals,
especially workers’ organizations, which are fighting for the rights of MGNREGA workers
and against the undermining of MGNREGA by vested interests. For our part, we shall
endeavour to strengthen ongoing programs of action to secure the entitlements of the
MGNREGA workers such as Raichur Dharna (Karnataka), Mazdoor Haq Yatra and
Satyagraha (Rajasthan), NREGA Sahayata Kendras (Jharkhand), Labour Federations in
Andhra Pradesh, NFIW organizational efforts on MGNREGA etc. See the next chapter for
details about the Mazdoor Haq Yatra and Satyagraha.



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Chapter 2
Mazdoor Haq Yatra and Satyagraha

Section 1
About the Mazdoor Haq Yatra and Satyagraha
Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha
The Suchna Evum Rozgar ka Adhikar Abhiyan (S. R. Abhiyan) began a Mazdoor Haq
Satyagraha from the 2nd of October, 2010 near the Statue Circle in Jaipur.
The S. R. Abhiyan organized a Mazdoor Haq Yatra, in which there were 5 groups – one each
in Ajmer, Jodhpur, Kota, Rajsamand and Udaipur. The yatras started on the 15th of
September, 2010 and will be converging near the Statue Circle in Jaipur on October 2nd. The
response to these yatras has been overwhelming. Workers and farmers across the state have
endorsed the critical need to establish dignity and justice for themselves. These discussions
have built up a discourse enriched by people’s analysis of crucial issues under assault and
debate, such as the control and right to access resources of the state and the consequent
question of equitable sharing. This has strengthened the Abhiyan’s resolve to establish non-
negotiable entitlements for basic life and livelihood. The people who have attended
the yatra meetings in street corners of small towns and villages have supported these yatras
with contributions of food, shelter, fuel and money, so that each yatra has been self-
sufficient.
The significance of the Satyagraha beginning on 2nd October is manifold.
The Satyagraha raises issues of the “last person” so critical a focus of Gandhiji’s life and
work. It is also an ironical comment on a government wanting to deny permission to a non-
violent “satyagraha” beginning on Gandhi Jayanti to draw attention to the basic entitlements
of ordinary people and the ethics of governance! We say this because there have been
attempts by some individuals in the government to refuse us permission to use the place for
the Satyagraha.
The first issue will, therefore, be the right for the marginalised and the unheard to have and
access platforms of dissent and non-violent protest. By merely prefixing MG to the NREGA
the government has not “improved” upon legal entitlements of workers since the real
entitlements for labour are being steadily undermined.
The central government has de-linked minimum wages from wages under the MGNREGA.
In addition the “wage rate” has been frozen for almost two years. Even the so called “wage
rate” is systematically violated with people being paid as little as one rupee a day, and an
average payment of Rs. 75 per day being paid in Rajasthan making even the Rs. 100 a day a

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charade. The S. R. Abhiyan is unwilling to let any employer (much less the government)
undermine the sanctity of minimum wages for any worker in the state and country.
The other broad concern is the manifest corruption which derails and denies access to
entitlements and benefits. In this broad area are the rights that lie with the newly acquired
RTI regime; and the ensuing entitlements within the MGNREGA for transparency and
accountability. This is a general empowerment under RTI to citizens to access and use
information to monitor governance. Of specific concern is the exercise of social audit, a
mandate entitled in the MGNREGA. Innumerable problems have been created both at the
level of amendments to the schedule of the Act in the Ministry of Rural Development,
Government of India, and in the organised reaction of those who are being monitored for
mismanagement and fraud at the village and panchayat levels. This is a reflection too of the
feudal and repressive nature not only of the social structure, but of governance itself.
The satyagraha will also be a platform which will raise issues of dignity and basic
entitlements for the primary producers in the country – the mazdoors, who are also very
often kisans; the sanctity of democratic space, peaceful protest and the accountability of
democratic structures to the people of the country.
This Satyagraha will continue indefinitely until at least two of the above demands are
addressed: a direct and clear commitment from the government to implement social audits
and an increase in minimum wages for workers under MGNREGA. On different days of the
indefinite Satyagraha we have planned activities of different duration. On the first day, 99
workers who got paid Re.1/day for 11 days work in Tonk district intend to come and donate
their earnings to the CM’s Relief Fund towards the payment of government employees’ daily
allowance (D.A.). One the first day we will also announce and begin to setup:
• a Mazdoori Jan Aayog [People’s Commission on Wages] to discuss the sanctity of
minimum wages and to fix wages for workers.
• a Chote Kisan Jan Aayog to take up issues of farmers, including land, subsidies,
seeds, fertilizers, insurance, credit and minimum support prices [M.S.P.].
• a Panchayati Raj Sashaktikaran Sammelan for real the strengthening of the
Panchayati Raj Institutions [P.R.I.s].
• Public Hearings on MGNREGA to look into the status of implementations of the
ten entitlements under MGNREGA
• a People’s Commission on the Implementation of the RTI Act and a charter for
transparent governance through proper implementation of Section 4 of the Act, which
is about proactive disclosure.
• the demand for setting up of an Accountability Commission to decide tasks and
measure work that government ‘servants’ do. This happens for MGNREGA workers,
so why not have accountability and penalty for government servants as well?

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• discussions on issues related to Food Security. This will be done in partnership with
the Right to Food Campaign and the themes in the discourse will include the right to
minimum nutritional entitlements and issues of food productivity, procurement,
storage & distribution.
• last but not least, sessions on the theme of ‘Save Democracy’. There have been
systematic attempts to muzzle peaceful protest. This is done by cultivating a mind set
in those who administer to convert all protest into a law and order issue, thereby
defusing and sometimes destroying the rule of law. Refusing us permission to
peacefully protest is just an example. Distinction between peaceful demonstrations
and violent protest must be made, and space must be provided for the former if
democracy is to function effectively.
The mandate and message we carry with us from the people we met during the yatras is
unambiguous: Take our message to Jaipur and we will come there to join the Satyagraha. Not
only have daily wage labourers promised to come, they have even offered to support us in
cash and through other means.
We are making an appeal to all supporters of these issues to give time, spread the word,
join the campaign and to donate at least one day’s wages (more is of course welcome) to
support what may turn out to be a long and decisive struggle for dignity and
justice. Please let us know as soon as possible if and when you would like to come so that we
can plan the logistics. Contact details can be found below. Media persons are advised to
contact the control room. This is not to restrict the numbers who might want to come, but to
facilitate planning. We would be strengthened by your support and participation. We look
forward to seeing you at the Satyagraha.
Aruna Roy, Bhanwar Meghwanshi, Hariom Soni, Moti Lal, Richa Odichya, Nikhil Dey,
Shankar Singh, Ram Karan and R D Vyas, Naveen Narayan, Renuka Pamecha, Rawata Ram.
(On behalf of the Rozgar Evum Suchna ke Adhikar ka Abhiyan, Rajasthan)
Sign up on this website to keep receiving regular email alerts. There is a button to do so at the
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Contact details

Suchna evum Rozgar Ka Adhikar Abhiyan (S R Abhiyan)
Address: 20, Narain Nagar, Badgaon, District Udaipur, Rajasthan
Fax: +91 294 2451391
Email: srabhiyan@gmail.com

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RTI Manch
Address: Plot number S-9, Rajshree Apartments, Jyoti Nagar Extension, Behind Amroodo ka
Baag, Jaipur – 300205
Landline: +91 141 2740019
Mobile: +91 9252489519
Email: rtiraj@gmail.com

Control Room
Address: BARC, P-1, Tilak Marg, C Scheme, Jaipur, Rajasthan – 302001
Landline: +91 141 2385254



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Chapter 2

Section 2
Calendar of events
Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha – A Platform for Democracy

The Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha is an on-going protest by the workers to demand the payment
of inflation-indexed minimum wage, which was arbitrarily frozen through a Government of
India notification in January 2009. The “dharna” also functions as a platform for democratic
governance. Every day, issues of relevance to the workers are taken up for discussion
facilitated by a panel of eminent persons in that domain. The Satyagraha is also demanding
an effective implementation of social audits under the MGNREGA. The highlights of the
dharna are as under:

15
th
September 2010 - 1
st
October 2010: The S. R. Abhiyan organized Mazdoor Haq Yatras
in 5 divisions of Rajasthan (Ajmer, Jodhpur, Kota, Rajsamand and Udaipur). During the
yatras the S. R. Abhiyan found that there was a strong response by people to the injustice
being delivered by the government on the issue of wages under the MGNREGA.
27
th
September 2010: A press conference was organised in Delhi in which, among others, two
CEGC members voiced their concerns about persistent challenges in the effective
implementation of social audits and the crisis of wages in MGNREGA across the country.
2
nd
October 2010: The S. R. Abhiyan started the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha which is an
indefinite protest making two major demands: first, minimum wage linked to inflation must
be paid under MGNREGA and clear commitment from the government to implement social
audits. On this day the S. R. Abhiyan announced the following activities:
• a Mazdoori Jan Aayog [People’s Commission on Wages] to discuss the sanctity of
minimum wages and to fix wages for workers.
• a Chote Kisan Jan Aayog to take up issues of farmers, including land, subsidies,
seeds, fertilizers, insurance, credit and minimum support prices [M.S.P.].
• a Panchayati Raj Sashaktikaran Sammelan to strengthen the Panchayati Raj
Institutions [P.R.I.s].
• ‘Public Hearings on MGNREGA’ to look into the status of implementations of the ten
entitlements under MGNREGA.

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• a ‘People’s Commission on the Implementation of the RTI Act’ and a charter for
transparent governance through proper implementation of Section 4 (proactive
disclosure) of the Act.
• the demand to establish an ‘Accountability Commission’ to decide tasks and measure
work that government ‘servants’ do.
4
th
October 2010: The Government of Rajasthan announced an increase in minimum wages
but does not link it to MGNREGA. Wage rate under MGNREGA thus lower than the state
minimum wage.
7
th
October 2010: The S. R. Abhiyan demanded an ‘Accountability Commission’ from the
State Government following a spot survey of 48 offices in Jaipur which revealed that a
majority of the senior and middle rung officials failed to come to office on time.
8
th
October 2010: Some members of the S. R. Abhiyan visited the chowkti (mazdoor mandi)
to talk about the Satyagraha and received overwhelming support for the issues. The labourers
there also made a contribution of Rs. 200 for the dharna.
9
th
October 2010: The Government of India announced that it has set up a committee to be
headed by Pranob Sen to look into the minimum wage issue under MGNREGA.
10
th
October 2010: A public hearing was held on people with disability in MGNREGA at the
Satyagraha. Here the Minister for Rural Development, Government of India was reminded of
his promise made in 2009 to ensure work for people with disabilities under the MGNREGA.
12
th
October 2010: The Right to Information Act completed 5 years on this day. The S. R.
Abhiyan organised a Suchna Mela at the Satyagraha. The Khazana Rath Yatra lampooning
an unaccountable and unresponsive state made its maiden trip. The S. R. Abhiyan also
submitted a request to the Chief Minister of Rajasthan to lodge FIRs against the Assistant
Engineer in Tonk district for committing fraud by submitting fake measurement books for
work worth 4.2 lakh rupees in the matter of the 99 labourers who were paid 1 Re per day for
eleven days of work.
13
th
October 2010: The S. R. Abhiyan members met the Chief Secretary and Principal
Secretary Finance and Policy Planning and were informed that the Government of Rajasthan
will write to Government of India to increase minimum wages under the MGNREGA (letter
dated October 18, 2010 attached)
14
th
October 2010: Participants at the Satyagraha prepared a brief status report on delayed
wage payments from 8 districts in the MGNREGA. The S. R. Abhiyan members met with the
Chief Minister and submitted a letter demanding compensation payments as provided under
the Act.
20
th
October 2010: A public hearing on single women households in MGNREGA was held at
the Satyagraha where the Ekal Shakti Sangathan expressed its solidarity with the Mazdoor
Haq Satyagraha. Women who came shared that only single women with an annual income of

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less than Rs 1500 were eligible for pension (Rs 500 per month). They also shared that HIV
positive women were initially denied work under the MGNREGA, which was finally given
only after pressure. HIV positive women were also given an allowance of 50% work.
21
st
October 2010: A public hearing on marginalised communities (Valmikis, Kalbeliyas,
Banjaras and Kherwas) in MGNREGA was held at the Satyagraha. The main demands were
land titles for nomadic communities, residential schooling for children and the establishment
of a state level position and committee to monitor and oversee issues related to marginalized
communities
30
th
October 2010: A review of the status of the 10 entitlements in the MGNREGA was held
at the Satyagraha. Following this all the people who were at the Satyagraha took part in a
rally which proceeded from Udyog Maidan (near Statute Circle) to the Collectorate at Jaipur.
A delegation met with the Chief Minister of Rajasthan who assured the Satyagrahis that he
would send a letter to the Prime Minister of India asking for minimum wages to be paid
under the MGNREGA.
5
th
November 2010: While government employees got a Diwali bonus of approximately Rs.
230 crore, workers in the MGNREGA were still fighting to get a bare minimum wage. To
protest the misplaced priorities of the government, the Satyagrahis observed a Kali Diwali
(Black Diwali).
10
th
November 2010: A public hearing on was held on forest land rights. Based on the
testimonies made at the Satyagraha on dalit, land right and forest rights issues a delegation
met with the Principal Secretary issued orders that the anomalies should be inquired into.
12
th
November 2010: A national public hearing on the MGNREGA was held in New Delhi.
A letter from the Chairperson of the NAC to the Prime Minister of India saying that
minimum wages need to be paid to all MGNREGA workers.
14
th
November 2010: P. Sainath came to the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha and spoke to the
satyagrahis.
16
th
November 2010: A talk on the UID was held. A delegation from the Mazdoor Haq
Satyagraha met with a team of senior bureaucrats from the Rajasthan government headed by
the Chief Secretary. The government agreed to the following demands of the satyagrahis:
• After the Government of India decides in principle to link the wage rate in the
MGNREGA to an index, the minimum wage applicable in the State of Rajasthan will
also accordingly be linked to the Consumer Price Index.
• When there is a delay in the payment of wages in the NREGA, appropriate
procedures as outlined in the Payment of Wages Act, 1936 will be followed.
• The Collector of Tonk District will conduct an investigation on the case of payment of
Re. 1 in the Gudilya village of Tonk district by 30
th
November.

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• Once an appeal is filed in the Labour Department with regard to the registration of the
NREGA workers’ union, the appropriate decision will be taken.
• Detailed orders have been issued to implement the piece-rate system properly in
NREGA on 15
th
November 2010 and appropriate training for this will be provided. If
required this system will be further strengthened.
17
th
November 2010: Based on the fact the Government of Rajasthan agreed to certain
demands on the previous day the dharna is lifted. This is also the day on which the first
assembly/public-hearing of the People’s Pay Commission takes place.





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Chapter 3
Section 1



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Chapter 3
Section 2
Andhra Pradesh High Court Order


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Chapter 3
Section 3
Part 1: Letter written by the workers from Gudliya village, Tonk district to the Chief Minister
of Rajasthan about being paid Re. 1 per day in the MGNREGA


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Chapter 3
Section 3
Part 2: The muster-roll which records the work for which workers in Gudilya village, Tonk
district got paid Re. 1 per day in the MGNREGA


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Chapter 3
Section 4
Relevant Recommendations from the Working Group on Transparency and
Accountability with MoRD’s Response and Working Group’s Rejoinder

I. Issue: Implementing agency same as auditing
Working Group Recommendation: Constitutions of Directorate of Social Audit as apex
body for conduct of Social Audit in the state, independent of implementing agencies. To have
Technical Wing to inquire into MGNREGA accounts, other financial records at all levels &
examine quality of works
MoRD’s Response:
1. AP has established an independent and autonomous body under the name of
Society for Social Audit, Accountability and Transparency (SSAAT) which is
responsible for facilitating conduct of Social Audit by the rural poor. The
Commissioner, Rural Development of the State enters into an MoU with SSAAT
for conduct of Social Audit on the basis of a calendar prepared for the same. The
Government is bound to act on the findings of Social Audits. Till so far
discrepancies/ misappropriations to the tune of Rs.88 crores have been deduced in
the State of Andhra Pradesh and more than 4600 officials have been proceeded
against it. In rest of the country, the Social Audit is being conducted by the Gram
Sabha presided over by the Sarpanch and all put together have not detected
irregularities even at any significant scale. On the other hand, there have been
any number of complaints from some of the areas which are not getting captured
through the Social Audit process.

2. The Directorate of Social Audit may be set up by States on a Reimbursement
Model with Central assistance for the next 5-8 years and to be handed over to the
State Government.

Response of the Chairperson of the Working Group:
The ministry should not just fund the setting up of a directorate of social audit, but ensure that
the directorate is independent and able to carry out its task in the manner that Andhra Pradesh
has done. The ministry needs to seriously consider why no other state has managed to capture
discrepancies through social audits even though all state governments are reporting
successful completion of social audit processes.

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II. Issue: Gram Sabha meetings not held for SA
Working Group Recommendation: the mandatory assembly of the Gram Sabha held every
six months for this purpose may be called the ‘Social Audit Forum’
MoRD’s Response:
This may be called the Social Audit Gram Sabha instead of Social Audit Forum since Act
mentions gram, sabha not social audit forum
Response of the Chairperson of the Working Group:
There is a fundamental issue that is to be considered. The working group was not questioning
the need for the gram sabha to carry out the social audit. However, as the ministry has
pointed out the current interpretation of section 13 (1)(B) as amended makes the gram sabha
a completely exclusive restrictive body. No accountability mechanism for any citizen in India
can be restricted on the basis of ‘autonomy’. The social audit gram sabha must therefore have
special arrangements to ensure that the people of the gram sabha are facilitated and supported
in making fully informed decisions.

III. Issue: SA not open and inclusive. Restricting the outsiders to Social Audit Gram Sabha
Working Group Recommendation: Revised formulation of Schedule 1-13 (b), Social Audit
Forum shall be an open and inclusive forum to encourage broad based public participation.
Any individual or association of individuals shall be allowed to participate, testify and place
their observations on record. However, they will have no voting rights
MoRD’s Response:
1. Section 17 of the Act provides “The Gram Sabha shall monitor the execution of works
within the Gram Panchayat. 2) The Gram Sabha shall conduct regular social audits of
all the projects under the Scheme taken up within the Gram Panchayat. 3) The Gram
Panchayat shall make available all relevant documents including the muster rolls,
bills, vouchers, measurement books, copies of sanction orders and other connected
books of account and papers o the Gram Sabha for the purpose of conducting the
social audit.”
2. Provision 13(b) (ix) of Schedule I provides “the Social Audit shall be open to public
participation. Any outside individual person apart from the Gram Sabha shall be
allowed to attend the Social Audit as observers without intervening the proceedings of
the Social Audit.” According to this provision, participation in the social audit being
conducted by the Gram Sabha for any person, who is not a member of that Gram
Sabha except as a spectator is prohibited by these provisions.

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3. Gram Sabha as provided under Article 243 (b) of the Constitution means “a body of
persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area
of Panchayat at village level”. Article 243 (A) further provides: “A Gram Sabha may
exercise such powers and perform such functions at the village level as the
Legislature of a State may, by law, provide.” In other words, a Gram Sabha
comprises the registered voters from that Panchayat and stands to exercise such
powers and functions as may be delegated to it by the State Legislature.
4. The basic objective of a social audit is to ensure public accountability in the
implementation of projects, laws and policies. One simple form of social audit is a
public assembly where all the details of a project are scrutinized. However, ‘social
audit’ can also be understood in a broader sense, as a continuous process of public
vigilance. However, as per the law, no institution other than the Gram Sabha is
recognized and therefore “Social audit Forum” cannot be created.
5. Earlier the practice had been that in the State of Rajasthan Social Audit was being
conducted with the aid of MKSS in different Panchayats. The Hon’ble Jaipur High
Court have decided on the basis of the Provision 13(b) (xi) that active participation of
any outside agency in the process of Social Audit would be against the provisions of
the Act and its Rules so much so that even the participation of Minister (RD) or the
Secretary (RD) in the Social Audit process would be against the afore provisions.
6. The Government of Andhra Pradesh have come out with the National Rural
Employment Guarantee Scheme-AP Social Audit Rules, 2008 under the powers
conferred by Section 32 (1) of the Act read with Section 23 (3). v. It has, therefore,
become necessary that the Social Audit must develop into effective instrument.
Therefore, it is proposed to suitably amend 13(b) of Schedule I. It is further proposed
to circulate the draft model Social Audit Rules to the States which they can notify
under Section 32 (2) read with Section 23(3) with / without modification. Model
rules may make the suggestion and states may decide in the manner of adoption as
Article 243 A of the Constitution defines Gram Sabha and States have power to
determine the functioning of Gram Sabha in their State Panchayati Raj Acts
Response of the Chairperson of the Working Group:
1. The ‘proposed suitable amendment to 13 (1) (B) is not’ included in the ministry’s
views. This should have been placed before the CEGC now itself so as to avoid
another round of consultations and potential problems. The working group has
suggested and drafted a set of amendments to enable the Andhra model of social
audit. Shall we assume that these are the ‘proposed amendments’? This is the most
crucial aspect of the working group’s recommendations on social audit.
2. The social audit gram sabha must have special arrangements to ensure that the
people of the gram sabha are facilitated and supported in making fully informed
decisions. In fact this would be true of the planning gram sabha, also seldom held,

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as well where the gram sabha needs assistance for preparing itself for projects and
labour budgets.
3. The gram sabha is also responsible under section 17 (1) for monitoring the
execution of works within the gram panchayat. This definition of the gram sabha
offered by section 13 (1) (B) mean that nobody else, including government
officials and public representatives, could monitor execution of the works within
the gram panchayat.
4. Article 243 (A) and (B) do not exclude anyone in the manner that the amendments
under 13 (B) do. The level of restriction is acknowledged in the ministry’s
response when it says that ‘even the minister RD and the secretary RD could not
participate in the social audit process’
5. In the working group the member from the CAG had the following points to
make:
a. since amounts of more than 1 crore are being spent in one panchayat, avenues
for public participation should be wider.
b. Civil society organizations should be allowed to facilitate the gram sabha.
c. A suitable amendment to 13 (B) would:
i. Be like AP social audit
ii. Look into composition of social audit team
iii. Gram Sabha will not be chaired by anyone in charge of implementation at panchayat
iv. Allowing outside participation but no voting rights

IV. Issue: Implementing and auditing agency are one, if sarpanch chairs the gram sabha for
SA
Working Group Recommendation: Social Audit Forum Gram Sabha shall not be chaired
by anyone who is involved in the implementation of MGNREGA, including the Gram
Panchayat Sarpanch (President etc.) as the Gram Panchayat is the main implementing agency.
MoRD’s Response:
1. Articles 243(b) and 243(A) of the Constitution do not provide that the Gram
Sabha meeting will be chaired by the Sarpanch. Section 17 also does not make
provisions to this effect. However, the Panchayat Acts of the State contain
provisions to the effect that the Gram Sabha meetings shall be presided over by
the Sarpanch of the Panchayats.

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2. The model rules circulated also contain provision to the effect that the periodic
Gram Sabha organized to undertake social audits shall select its own chairpersons
other than the Sarpanch. It is for the State to accept or modify this provision.
States may adopt/ modify their PRI Acts
Response of the Chairperson of the Working Group:
The working group was of the opinion that to protect the independence of all audit processes
there must be no conflict of interest. Therefore, it cannot be left a particular state or gram
sabha to decide who will chair a social audit meeting. The special circumstances of a social
audit make it mandatory that the implementing agency occupies not position of authority in
the audit process. Doing so would severely compromise the entire process.

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Chapter 3
Section 5
Government order denying registration for the Rajasthan Mazdoor Union


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Chapter 3
Section 6
Minutes of the meeting on Policy for Revising Wage Rate in NREGA on 10
th
July 2009


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Chapter 3
Section 7
File notings on the minimum wage issue


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Chapter 3
Section 8
Letter from Government of Rajasthan to the Government of India seeking minimum wages
for the MGNREGA


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Chapter 3
Section 9


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Chapter 3
Section 10
Emergency recommendations on NREGA wage policy by the CEGC Working Group on
Wages (May 2010)

23 May 2010

Dr. B.K. Sinha
Secretary, Rural Development
Krishi Bhawan
New Delhi 110 001

Dear Dr. Sinha,

Emergency Recommendations on NREGA Wage Policy

The deliberations of the “Working Group on Wages”, formed under the auspices of the Central
Employment Guarantee Council, are in full swing, and the working group’s report is being drafted.
Meanwhile, the working group unanimously decided (at its first meeting, held in Delhi on 3 May
2010) to make three emergency recommendations. These are:

(A) Indexing of NREGA wages: As you know, paying a real wage of (at least) Rs 100 per day is a long-
standing promise of the UPA-2 government. It was made, inter alia, in the Finance Minister’s Budget
Speech on 6 July 2009: “We are committed to providing a real wage of Rs 100 a day as an
entitlement under the NREGA”. But instead, NREGA wages have effectively been frozen at Rs 100
per day in nominal terms (i.e. without any periodic adjustments for inflation). With prices increasing
by leaps and bounds, especially food prices, this freeze is eroding the real value of NREGA wages
month after month. The erosion of real wages threatens to undermine the entire programme, and in
any case, it is a gross injustice to NREGA workers, all the more so when millions of them are
struggling to survive under severe drought conditions.


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Meanwhile, we understand that the Ministry has appointed a “task force” (chaired by Dr. Pronab
Sen) to examine the possibility of creating a separate price index for NREGA workers. This is a
misguided initiative. As pointed out by several members of the Central Employment Guarantee
Council at its last meeting (on 22 February 2010), a suitable price index already exists: the Consumer
Price Index for Agricultural Labourers (CPIAL). The working group unanimously felt that this price
index is adequate for the purpose of indexing NREGA wages, and that there is no need to devise a
separate price index for NREGA workers. Aside from being unnecessary, this would lead to further
delays in the process of indexing (an informal communication from Dr. Pronab Sen suggests that it
may take up to a year to devise and compute a separate index).

Our considered recommendation is as follows:

(1) NREGA wages should be immediately indexed to the price level, using the Consumer
Price Index for Agricultural Labourers (CPIAL), with 1 April 2009 as the “base”, so that
the real value of the wage is at least Rs 100 per day at April 2009 prices. As long as
NREGA wage rates are set by the Central Government, they should be promptly
revised upwards every six months – or at most every twelve months - in line with the
CPIAL. (States that had wages notified at more than Rs 100/day at the time of the 1
January 2009 notification should have their wages indexed with their notified wage as
a base.)

(B) Compliance with Minimum Wages Act: The working group is also very concerned about the
implicit “overriding” of the Minimum Wages Act 1948 involved in switching from Section 6(2) to
Section 6(1) of NREGA, as a basis for setting wage rates. The relevant sections of NREGA are as
follows:

6.(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the Minimum Wages Act, 1948, the Central
Government may, by notification, specify the wage rate for the purposes of this Act:

Provided that different rates of wages may be specified for different areas:

Provided further that the wage rate specified from time to time under any such notification
shall not be at a rate less than sixty rupees per day.


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(2) Until such time as a wage rate is fixed by the Central Government in respect of any area
in a State, the minimum wage fixed by the State Government under section 3 of the
Minimum Wages Act, 1948 for agricultural labourers, shall be considered as the wage rate
applicable to that area.

Until January 2009, Section 6(2) was the basis of NREGA policy - state governments were setting
minimum wages for NREGA. On 1 January 2009, however, the Central Government issued a
notification that effectively “froze” the NREGA wages state-wise. Later, state governments were
allowed to raise the NREGA wages up to Rs 100 per day (if it was below that on 1 January 2009). This
new policy effectively activates Section 6(1) of the Act, which involves a potential if not actual
overriding the Minimum Wages Act. Indeed, it would be illegal for any state governments to pay
NREGA workers anything less than the minimum wage for the relevant occupation. And it is the
prerogative of state governments (not the Central Government) to set minimum wages. The Central
Government’s commitment, for its part, does not go beyond Rs 100 per day. An unacceptable
situation is thereby arising where NREGA workers in some states are being paid less than the
statutory minimum wage. There is, thus, a potential conflict between the current wage policy and
the Minimum Wages Act. This potential conflict needs to be resolved at the earliest, by amending
NREGA is need be, but in the meantime, what is of paramount importance is to avoid any actual
overriding of the Minimum Wages Act, so that the sanctity of this Act (affirmed by the Supreme
Court) is respected. In short, our recommendation is as follows:

(2) NREGA policy must be consistent with the Minimum Wages Act. In no circumstances
should this Act be overridden.

(C) Shorter work hours: A third urgent concern is the prolongation of NREGA working hours from
“seven hours” (the initial formulation, under Para 8(1) of Schedule I) to “nine hours” (the new
formulation, as per notification of 14 January 2008, amending Para 8(1) of Schedule I). Considering
the exacting nature of NREGA work, and the fact that many NREGA workers are undernourished, this
new provision is unfair and unnecessary, even if the said nine hours including one hour of rest, as
was subsequently clarified by the Ministry of Rural Development. We recommend a return to the
initial formulation:

(3) Para 8(1) of Schedule I of NREGA (“The Schedule of Rates of wages for various
unskilled labourers should be so fixed that an adult person working for nine hours
would normally earn a wage equal to the wage rate”) should be amended so that the
words “nine hours” are replaced with “seven hours”.


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We would be grateful if you would give urgent and positive consideration to these emergency
recommendations.

Yours sincerely,



Jean Drèze
(Member, Central Employment Guarantee Council and Chairperson, Working Group on Wages)
on behalf of the Working Group

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Chapter 3
Section 11
The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976


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Chapter 3
Section 12
NAC Press release on the minimum wage issue


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Chapter 3
Section 13
Letter from Ashok Gehlot, Chief Minister of Rajasthan to Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime
Minister of India seeking minimum wages for the MGNREGA


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Chapter 3
Section 14
Letter to Dr. C. P. Joshi, Minister for Rural Development, Government of India about his
incorrect and false statements in the media


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Chapter 3
Section 15
Letter from K. Rosaiah, Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh to the Dr. Manmohan Singh,
Prime Minister of India seeking minimum wages in the MGNREGA


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Chapter 3
Section 16
Letter from the Sonia Gandhi, Chairperson of the NAC to Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime
Minister of India seeking minimum wages in the MGNREGA


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Chapter 3
Section 17
Signed agreement with the Government of Rajasthan on the basis of which the Mazdoor Haq
Satyagraha stopped

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Chapter 3
Section 18
Part 1: Terms of reference of the People’s Pay Commission
Terms of Reference of the People’s Pay Commission

Purpose

On 2
nd
October the workers at the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha in Rajasthan decided to form a
People’ Pay Commission. This decision comes in light of the present situation where the
Minimum Wages Act (1948) has been violated via a Government of India (January 2009)
notification which froze minimum wages under MGNREGA at Rs. 100.

Rising prices of basic necessities has adversely affected the poor the most and the Fifth and
Sixth Pay commissions have increased the salaries of government servants significantly.

This Commission will be applicable to all skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers. The
recommendations of this Commission will be presented to the public for debate, consultation,
suggestions and review.

The People’s Pay Commission is being constituted with the purpose of providing a platform
for workers to publicly discuss debate and determine the value of a days work especially for
those who earn on the basis of physical labour.

Terms of Reference

A. The Peoples Pay Commission will be accountable to the workers.

B. To examine the principles, the date of effect thereof that should govern the structure
of pay, allowances and other facilities/benefits whether in cash or in kind to workers
in all forms of employment already covered as well as those not covered by the
schedule. The Commission will discuss the need for omnibus minimum wage rate for
all.

C. To discuss and adopt primary criteria (need based or work based) to decide worth of a
day’s wage.

D. To put in place a mechanism that enables workers to decide and review at regular
intervals (half-yearly or annually?) the recommendations of this Commission.

E. To make recommendations with respect to the general principles, financial parameters
and conditions which should govern payment of wages and the desirability and
feasibility of introducing productivity linked wages. Should such criteria be
determined and finalised as time-rate/piece-rate payment?

F. To work out comprehensive mechanisms to review how the recommendations of the
Commission have affected:

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• pay
• conditions
• compensations
• pensions
• employment

for informal sector workers in general as well as for workers from different age
groups, women, marginalised communities and people with disabilities?

G. To examine the principles which should govern the structure of compensations,
pension, death-cum-retirement gratuity, family pension, insurance & other welfare
benefits (terminal or recurring) having financial implications to the present and
former workers in the categories of employment mentioned in (A).

H. To deliberate whether it will take up the ineffectiveness and dysfunctionality of
existing mechanisms within formal institutions like the Labour department, Labour
Commissions and labour courts.

I. To examine desirability and the need to fight for any interim relief till the time the
recommendations of the Commission are made and accepted by the Government.

General Principles to decide minimum wages

1. Are the “needs based’ formula and the norms laid down by the 15
th
Indian Labour
Conference (1957) and the Supreme Court decision in Workmen vs. Management of
Raptakos Brett & Co Ltd. (1992) a good starting point?

- Minimum food requirements
- Clothing requirements
- Cost of living
- Fuels costs
- Children’s education
- Medical requirement
- Minimum recreation including festivals/ceremonies
- Provision for old age
- Marriages

2. Since the “needs based” formula from the 15
th
Labour Conference (1957) mention linking
minimum wages to cost of living, should minimum wage be linked to Consumer Price Index
(CPI)?

3. Based on the norms laid down in the 1992 Supreme Court decision in Workmen vs.
Management of Raptakos Brett & Co Ltd. mention cost of children’s education, healthcare,
old age pension should amount to 25 percent of minimum wage, how should workers be
provided old age pensions, provident fund and access to free healthcare, children’s education
and provident fund benefits?

4. Should more than 7 day delay in wage payments be accompanied by an effective
mechanism for compensation payment with interest for each day of delay? Should these

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mechanisms be drafted after revisiting older laws and legal frameworks such as the Payment
of Wages Act?

Composition

The Commission is being constituted with an interim working and an advisory group. The
members of the People’s Pay Commission will comprise of unskilled, semi-skilled and
skilled persons, farmers and eminent people from public life, including academics,
economists, journalists, lawyers, jurists, retired civil servants, trade unionists, social activists,
industrialists and others.

Procedures

1. The Commission will discuss and adopt procedure suggested here and may appoint
such advisers, institutional partners, as it may consider necessary. It may request for
information and support for its final formulation/recommendations, as it may consider
necessary from partners and advisers.

2. The Commission will have its headquarters in Jaipur. It will also have a website on
which all information including memos, minutes of meetings, documents and material
related to the deliberations and decisions of the Commission.

3. The Commission will have a full time Secretary who will interact with the
commissions working group members and advisory group. For an interim period of 6
months Ruchi Gupta’s name is being proposed for consideration.

4. The Commission, in its first meeting, held on 17
th
November will first finalise this
draft Terms of Reference and deliberate over an interim work-plan.

5. The interim work-plan will detail the mechanisms for implementation and
enforcement of its recommendations.

6. For all its major recommendations, pronouncements the Commission will prepare an
exploratory Green Paper, which outlines the broad objectives in order to stimulate a
public debate.

• A Green Paper must be followed by a White Paper, with concrete proposals by
the Commission specifying the direction it wants to proceed in.
• All recommendations and suggestions of the Commission must be must be
placed in the public domain one month prior to an open public consultation
before arriving at a conclusion.
• All Green and White Papers and draft recommendations/ suggestions should
be placed on a dedicated website so that they are easily accessible (in English
and Hindi as well as other languages), without being drowned by other
information.
• All Green and White Papers and draft recommendations/suggestions must also
specify the name and contact details of the person responsible for receiving
comments and suggestions from the public and from stakeholders.

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• All the comments and suggestions received on the
recommendations/suggestions of the Commission must themselves be publicly
available.


7. The Commission will make its recommendations within 24 months of the date of its
constitution. It may consider, if necessary, sending reports on any of the matters as
and when the recommendations are finalised.


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Chapter 3
Section 19
Part 2: A note on the People’s Pay Commission

…when a person provides labour or service to another against receipt of remuneration, which is less
than the minimum wage, he is acting under the force of some compulsion which drives him to work
though he is paid less than what he is entitled under law to receive… What Article 23 prohibits is
'forced labour' that is labour or service which a person is forced to provide and 'force' which would
make such labour or service 'forced labour' may arise in several ways …There is no reason why the
word 'forced' should be read in a narrow and restricted manner so as to be confined only to physical
or legal 'force' particularly when the national charter, its fundamental document has promised to
build a new socialist republic where there will be socioeconomic justice for all and every one shall
have the right to work, to education and to adequate means of livelihood…
- People’s Union for Democratic Rights Vs. Union of India (1982)



Jaipur, 2
nd
October 2010



The People of Rajasthan decided to form a People’ Pay Commission on 2
nd
October 2010. This
decision comes in light of the present situation where the Minimum Wages Act (1948) has been
violated while the rising prices of basic necessities has adversely affected the poor the most and the
Fifth and Sixth Pay commissions have increased the salaries of government servants significantly.
This Commission will be applicable to all workers, skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers. The
recommendations of this Commission will be presented to the public for debate, consultation,
suggestions and review.

Statement of reason


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1. The Constitution of India guarantees all citizens of India a right to life of dignity and equality. A life
of dignity means ability to access adequate food and nutrition, basic health care, housing and
shelter, children’s education, clean environment, old age benefits and all other benefits deemed
necessary for human beings. All these are possible when adequate work/employment opportunities
are made available. Any employment enables the worker to earn appropriate wage to provide for
his/her family if wages earned are above a certain threshold, which is what the minimum wage is
supposed to be.
.
2. The Minimum Wages Act (1948) established powers of the Government of India to fix minimum
wages. The Act holds that minimum wages should be revised at intervals not exceeding 5 years.

The 15
th
Indian Labour Conference (1957) put forward a “needs based” formula for fixing minimum
wage that would take into consideration the following components:
- Minimum food requirements
- Clothing requirements
- Cost of living
- Fuels costs
These recommendations were made binding by the Supreme Court in the case of Unnichoyi vs. State
of Kerala (1961)

In the case of Workmen vs. Management of Raptakos Brett & Co Ltd. (1992) the Supreme Court held
that the following components should be added to the “needs based” formula put forward by the
15
th
Indian Labour Conference (1957):

- Children’s education
- Medical requirement
- Minimum recreation including festivals/ceremonies
- Provision for old age
- Marriages
These should amount to twenty five percent of the total minimum wage.

3. After independence all the needs of the organized sector workforce have been ensured and
regularly improved upon. Every ten years the government of India constitutes a Pay Commission
whose recommendations are duly implemented. Other than serving as a regular mechanism to
revise salaries of all public officials/employees and linking the revisions to the consumer price index,
the Pay Commission also looks into the provision of pensions for this particular segment. The
workforce whose salaries and benefits are decided by Pay Commissions is the same as the pool from
which members of these Commissions are drawn.

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4. Similarly, Members of Parliament (MPs) at the centre and Members of Legislative Assemblies
(MLAs) in the states can on their own discuss and approve revisions and increases to their salaries
and other benefits. Judges too can revise and increase their salaries trough a simple passing of an
order. The only segment of the employed population that does not have a mechanism or platform to
look into matters related to their wages is the unorganized labour force. This labour force has been
systematically exploited, marginalized and its interests have been systematically ignored for several
years in spite of existing legal frameworks and obligations.

5. Such an unequal approach towards the workers in the unorganized labour force who are
burdened by poverty, drought and unemployment was questioned almost 35 years ago in Rajasthan
when workers working on Famine Relief Works took up the issue of non payment of minimum
wages. Women workers on these worksites organized a protest demanding payment of minimum
wages.

6. Eighteen years since the Workmen vs. Management of Raptakos Brett & Co Ltd decision of the
Supreme Court that laid down what should be the minimum wage as per standards laid down by law
and the Courts there has been no significant increase in minimum wages for the unorganized sector.
In the current situation of rising prices of basic necessities the unorganized labour force often
continues to receive wages below the minimum wage stipulated by the state government.

7. The minimum wage in Rajasthan has been stagnant at Rs. 100 per day for the last 4 years. In a
situation in which minimum wage laws are rarely enforced especially in the unorganized sector, the
only way to ensure regular increase in wages is to increase wages under the Mahatma Gandhi
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), which will effectively push up the wages
outside of the MGNREGA as well. One of the greatest successes of the MGNREGA is that, even in
geographical areas where implementation has been poor, it has managed to give workers bargaining
power to fight for minimum wages.

8. The Government of Rajasthan announced a thirty five percent increase in minimum wages but did
not extend the same to the MGNREGA. The index for ‘Food Articles’ rose to 179.0 in September
2010 from a base of 100 fixed in 2004 - 05. At a time when inflation in staple food items has
increased by about eighty percent the Government of India fixed the wage rate at Rs. 100 thereby
pushing the minimum wage in many states below the official minimum wage of the state. As a result
State Governments with minimum wage rates exceeding Rs 100 (AP Rs. 112- 162, Goa Rs. 157,
Jharkhand Rs. 144, Karnataka Rs. 120, Punjab Rs. 137, MP Rs 114, HP Rs. 110, and Maharashtra Rs.
144-160) have been restrained and have not been able to pay workers under MGNREGA.


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 89
9. While the Government of India through its Sixth Pay Commission substantially increased the
salaries of public officials to reflect the rising costs/inflation, it refuses to create mechanisms to
adjust the MGNREGA wages to similar standards. At a time when the real wages of workers are
decreasing everywhere in India it is imperative that the minimum wage both inside and outside the
MGNREGA be regularly adjusted to reflect increasing cost of living and basic necessities.

General Principles to decide minimum wages

As a result this Commission puts forward the following General Principles on Minimum Wage for
public debate:

1. Are the “needs based’ formula and the norms laid down by the 15
th
Indian Labour Conference
(1957) and the Supreme Court decision in Workmen vs. Management of Raptakos Brett & Co Ltd.
(1992) good:

- Minimum food requirements
- Clothing requirements
- Cost of living
- Fuels costs
- Children’s education
- Medical requirement
- Minimum recreation including festivals/ceremonies
- Provision for old age
- Marriages

2. Since the “needs based” formula from the 15
th
Labour Conference (1957) mention linking
minimum wages to cost of living, should minimum wage be linked to Consumer Price Index (CPI)?

3. Since the norms laid down in the 1992 Supreme Court decision mention cost of children’s
education, healthcare, old age pension should amount to 25 percent of minimum wage, should
workers be provided old age pensions, provident fund and access to free healthcare, children’s
education and provident fund benefits?

4. Should more than 15 day delay in wage payments be accompanied by a mechanism for
compensation payment with interest for each day of delay?

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 90
Chapter 3
Section 20
Part 3: Some issues for the consideration of the People’s Pay Commission


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 91


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 92
Chapter 4
Articles of note from the media coverage of the issue

Section 1
On guarantees anymore, 3
rd
October 2010, The Hindu


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 93


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 94


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 95
Chapter 4
Section 2
The wages of discontent, 23
rd
October 2010, The Hindu


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 96


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 97


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 98




Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 99
Chapter 5
Letters written to the Government of Rajasthan during the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha

Section 1
l(·i ¬ ·z ¬·- (º ·a
¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº
¬¤¤ º

l(·i¤ n i- n (l¬¤i ¤ ¤i¤n ¬l-ln÷¬l·¤iºi l¬¬i÷-i ¬ - -¬( ºi ¬i (i n: ¤¬
ª¤¤ ¬i -¬(ºi ¤º l¬¬i ¤ ’ii¬· riºi ¬-·i · ¬ ¬- - +

-ri (¤

¬¤ºi ·n l(·i¤ - r- ¬-¤n -n··i r l¬ -i ¬ l¬¬ ¬ n (l¬¤i ni( - ¤¬ ª¤¤ ¤¬ ª¤¤ ¤¬ ª¤¤ ¤¬ ª¤¤ ¬i
-¬(ºi ¬i l¬¬i ¤ ’ii¬· ¤( ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬-·i · l-¬ ºri r + r- :¬ -i-¬ -
¬: (iº ¬i¤ ¬i ¤¤ riºi ¬(nn ¬ºi ¤ ¬ r +

-i ¬ l¬¬i ¤ ’ii¬· riºi (i n: lº¤i - - ¤i¬i· (i¬ n·¤ ·¬º ¬in r+ lº¤i - ¬rni
r l¬ «sa«/z ª¤¤ ¬i ¤- (i (·i ¬i º ¤ - ·- r ¬i ¬(l¬ ¬ri ·i¤ ¬ ¬· ¬iº -i¤
cas·a ª¤¤ ¬i ¬i- -i¬ ¤º l-¬i+ ¬n ¤¬i ¤- (i (·ni ºri+ lº¤i - (·· ¬
(i( ·ii l¬¬i ¤ ’ii¬· :¬ ¤¬i ¤- (i ¬ l¬¤ ¬ s ·ii ¬i¤ (iri ·ri ¬º ºri r +
ºii¤( :¬l¬¤ l¬ (i ¬(¬ -¬(ºi ¬i (i ·ii -i· ºri r +



Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 100
l¬¬ ¤: ¤· · ¤¬ ª¤¤ ¬i º ·/·z·s ª¤¤ ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ l¬n ¬i r (i ªi ( (¤i·
(ni r l¬ ¬( (r l(·i ¬÷ ·sarza·a ¬i -i¬ ¤º n¤i n( ·ra ¬i ni - ¬ cs
-¬(º ri ¬i- ¤º ·i + ---ººi ¬ - ¬· ¤l-·iln ¬ ¬¬i(i «« -¬(ºi ¬ ·i- ¤¬i
(¬ ·i + ¬(i¬ ¤r ¬-ni r l¬ ¬( ¤: ¤· -i ¬ ¤º ¤r ¤ ni ¬·ri · :· «« ¤¬i ·i-
(¬ ri · ¤º nºn ri ¬i· ·i ¬i¤ (iri ·¤i ·ri ¬i ¬iº ¬· «« -¬(ºi ¬i ¬· ¤l-·iln
(¬ ¬º ¬¤· (-nªin ·¤i ·ri l¬¤ +

:¬¬ -¤·- rini r l¬ ·¤ni ¬ ¤º -i-¬ - - - ¬i º ¤: ¤· ¬i l-¬i·inn ·ii+ ¬i º
:¬¬ (i( (i¬ ¤ªi(i· - ·ii / ·« ¤( ·s ¬i ri ¬i¬n º - l(¤i r+ ¬i - r·n¬’i
-¬(ºi ¬ ¬i·i ¬·¤i¤ r+

·¤i ¬ ( l·in ¤: ¤· ¬ lªi¬i¤ ¬i¤ (iri ·ri r : ¬i ¤ ’ii¬· ¬i ri lº¤i - ¬ (i ·ii
¬il(n ri ºri r+ ¬i·i - :¬¬ (·i ¬·¤i¤ ·¤i ri ¬¬ni r l¬ ¬i -¬(º ¬i- ¤º
¬i¤ ¬i º ¬i- l¬¤i ¬·r ·ii ¬¤·i - r·n ¬i -¬(ºi ·ri l(¤i ¬i ºri r ¬iº ¬·¬i
(¬ºi ¬i ¬-i ¬i ªiil-¤i¬i ·i nn·i ¤· ºri r+ ¤r -i-¬ ( ¬ ¬ ·i- ¤º ¤¬
¬il¬’i r ¬iº ¬i¤ ·ii -i· n l¬ :¬ l¬¬i ¬ºn - -(i¬iºi ·ri ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ +

¬nº :¬ ¤º ¬l¤n ¬i¤ (iri ·ri r : ¬i º ¬i- ¬º· (i¬ -¬(ºi ¬i ¬¤·i ¤ºi
-¬(ºi ·ri l-¬i÷ ¬iº ¬i·i÷¬i·i (i ·ii ¬º¬iºi ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¤º ¬i¤ (iri ·ri ¬º ni
l·l’¤n ri ¤¬i -i·i ¬i¤ ni l¬ ¬º¬iº ( l¬¬i ¤ ’ii¬· ¤¬ ¬i ni ¬i ¬-·i · ( ºri
r ¬i ¬i· · ¬i ¬~ ·i· ni ¬º ri ºr r ¬i·i ri nºi( -¬(ºi ¬i ºii ·iºi ·ii ¬ºn r+

l·-· l¬lªin l(·( ¬i ¤º r- ¬--i( ¬ºn r l¬ r- :·¬i ¬(i( l(¤i ¬i¤ni+
• l(·i ¬ :·.s.za·a ¬i ¬l·i’ii¬i ¬l·i¤ni -i ¬ ¬i ¬·¤·ini - - ~¤i ¬· lº¤i - ¬
¬·¬iº :¬ ¬i¤ - «sa«/z ª. ¬i -i¤¤ l-n¬i ·iºi n¤i r ¬(l¬ -i¤
cas·aª. ¬i ¬i- -i¤i n¤i r+ :¬¬i ¬·i r l¬ ºi ·i ºil’i ¬i ¤¬i ¤-.(i.
·iºi n: + ¬¬ ¤-.(i. ¤º ¤¤.¬i: .¬iº. ¬i¬ n¬ ·¤i ·ri (¬ r : +
• l¬· : l¬l·¤ºi · :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i ¤¬i ¤-.(i. ·iºi ¬·¬ :¬ ºil’i ¬i lº¬(º
¬º· ¬i ·¤i ¤ l¬¤i ¤¬i: ¬i ºri r +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 101
• :· ¤¬i ¤-.(i. ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ¬¬ ¬ri ¬i ¬¬ni r l¬ l¬¬ ¤ªi(i· - l¬¬
-¬(º · l¬n·i ¬i- l¬¤i ` ¬n l¬¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ¤r (in ¬ri ¬i ºri r l¬
¬iº ss -¬(ºi · ¤¬÷¤¬ ª¤¤ ¤ lnl(· ¬i ¬i- l¬¤i+
• -i ¬ l¬¬i ¬¬·-º ¬i ¬¤·i lº¤i - l¬ªi· ¬ ¬-¤ ¤r ·¤i ·ri ¬ni l¬
l¬· : l¬l·¤ºi · ¤¬i ¤-.(i. ·iºi ·ii ¬·¬ lªi¬i¤ ¬i¤ (iri ¬º `
• ¬i- - ¬-i ri · ¬ (i(¬ ( ¤ l¬¬i ·ii ¬ºn - ·¤i¤i l¤n ·ri ri ¬¬ni r
l¬ -i¤ ¬ ¬· ¬iº ·i nni· ri ¬i º rº -¬(º ¬i -i¤ (ºi(º -i·i ¬i ¬¬ +
¤: ¤· ¬i -ilªi¬ lº¤i - n·ii (¤i· ¬ ¬i º ·ii -¤·- r ¬i r l¬ ¬ s ¬i ni ·
ni ¬i- ri ·ri l¬ ¬i º ¬ s · ¬i- l¬¤i+ l¬¬i ·ii ¬nr ·i nni· - ¤¬
·¤l·n ¬i ¬-i ¬i (¬º ·¤l·n ¬ ¬¤º ·ri ·i¬i ¬i ¬¬ni r + ¤l( ¤ ¬i
·¤(-·ii ¬º·i r ni r- ¤irn r l¬ ¬º¬iº -i:- º - ¬ ri ·i nni· ¬º +
¬i·i÷¬i·i r- ·ii( ¤i- ¬i º ¤ · ~-i ¬i ·¤(-·ii ¬º¬iºi (¤nºi - ·ii ¤irn
r+
• ¬i- ·i¤·i n·ii ¬i- ¬ºi· ¬i l¬-- (iºi ¬i¤ ¬iºi ¤¬ ¬i ¬i rini r+ ¬(
¤i¬ º - ¬i ¬i·iiº ri ¬¬n÷¬¬n ·¤ni ¬iº ¬¬n÷¬¬n (i- ( ·i r ni ¬(
-¬(ºi ¬i ¬i ¬n -¬(ºi ( ·i ¬ºi¬º n¬n r ¬i º :¬ ¤i¬ º - ·ri -i·i ¬i
¬¬ni r+ ¬-(l··in ¬i¤i - ¤¬ ·ri ¤iº ¤ªi(i·i n¬ ¬i ¬n- ·i nni· ri
rini ºri+ :¬ n ·iiº ¬-i ¬ l¬¤ ¬i¤ ¬iºi ¤¬¬i ¬i l¬-- (iºi r l¬ :·
¤lºl-·iln¤i - -i:- º - -¬(ºi ri (i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤+
• ¤l( ¤i¬ º - ¬i ¬ri ·¤ni ¬i º ·i nni· ¬i ·¤(-·ii ·ri (- ¬¬ni r ni r-
¤irn r l¬ ¬--n ·º ni ¬i¤i - -i:- º - ¬ ¤- - ri ¬i º ¬º¬iº ¤ºi ¬i¤
¬º(i· ¬i l¬-- (iºi ¬ +

r- ¬·ii ·ii :¬ -i-¬ ¬lrn ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬-(l··in ¬: -i-¬i - ·iº· - (-
r ¤( ·¤i¤ l-¬· n¬ r-iºi ¬-¤in r ¬iºi ºr ni+

·i((i¤


¬l·i¤i· ¬i ¬i º ¬


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 102
Chapter 5
Section 2

l(·i ¬ ·z.·a.·a
¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº
¬¤¤ º

l(·i¤ ºi¬-·ii· - -ri·º ni ¬ -¬(ºi ¬i ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ( · ¬ ¬- - +

-ri (¤

¬ ¬i l¬ ¬i¤ ¬i nin r l¬ r- l¤s¬ (¬ l(·i ¬ ·º ni -¬(ºi ¬i ·¤ ·n-
-¬(ºi ¬ r¬ ¬ l¬¤ ¬-¤in r ¬ºn ¬i ºr r + ¬( r- ¬i¤¬ l-¬ ·i ni ¬i¤·
r- ¬(nn ¬ºi¤i ·ii l¬ ¬i¤ ¬i ¬i ¤ r l¬ -ri·º ni ¬ -¬(ºi ¬i ·¤ ·n-
-¬(ºi l-¬·i ri ¤ilr¤ ¬ l¬· :·¬i -¬(ºi ¬ ·( i¤ ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬i·i ¤ilr¤+

¤º·n ¬( r- ¤ - ªi ºii¬· ¬l¤( ¤( n i-iºi l(¬i¬ l(·iin ¬ ¬·¤ ¬l·i¬ilº¤i ¬
l-¬ ni r- ¬i’¤¤ r ¬i l¬ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº · ¬ ·( i¤ ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬i : ¬in r ·ri
·i ¬i r+ :¬ ¤¤ ¬ ¬i·i r- ¬ ·( ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬ s (-ni( ¬i ¬i ¤ ’i ¬º ºr r
l¬¬- ¬ ·( i¤ n i-iºi l(¬i¬ -¤i¬¤ ·iiºn ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬l·i¬ilº¤i ¬i -i··i r l¬
MGNREGA ¬ ¬i¤i - ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ( ·i ¬l·(i¤ r + ¬ l¬· ·aa ª. ¬ +¤º
¬i ºil’i ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬i ri ( ·i ¤· ni+


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 103
·« ¬n-n zaas ¬i n i-iºi l(¬ ·« ¬n-n zaas ¬i n i-iºi l(¬ ·« ¬n-n zaas ¬i n i-iºi l(¬ ·« ¬n-n zaas ¬i n i-iºi l(¬i¬ -¤i¬¤ ¬i ¤¬ (-¬ - ·iiºn ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬ (º i¬ -¤i¬¤ ¬i ¤¬ (-¬ - ·iiºn ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬ (º i¬ -¤i¬¤ ¬i ¤¬ (-¬ - ·iiºn ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬ (º i¬ -¤i¬¤ ¬i ¤¬ (-¬ - ·iiºn ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬ (º
l·¤i- - ·- · ¬ri r l¬ l·¤i- - ·- · ¬ri r l¬ l·¤i- - ·- · ¬ri r l¬ l·¤i- - ·- · ¬ri r l¬ ¬ri ·ii ¬ri ·ii ¬ri ·ii ¬ri ·ii ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- l¬¬i ·ii ¬ºn - ·ri ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- l¬¬i ·ii ¬ºn - ·ri ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- l¬¬i ·ii ¬ºn - ·ri ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- l¬¬i ·ii ¬ºn - ·ri
l(¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ + l(¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ + l(¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ + l(¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ + ¬- ( ·i ¬ l(·ii· ¬i ¬~ ·i· r+ ¬- ( ·i ¬ l(·ii· ¬i ¬~ ·i· r+ ¬- ( ·i ¬ l(·ii· ¬i ¬~ ·i· r+ ¬- ( ·i ¬ l(·ii· ¬i ¬~ ·i· r+

ri ¬¬ni r l¬ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·( ¬ :¬ n¬ ¬ ¬r-n r l¬ ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ni
( ·i ri ¤· ni ¬ l¬· ·º ni - ·aa ª¤¤ ¬ +¤º ¬i lr-¬i ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº (r·
¬º ni+ :¬l¬¤ ¬ ·( i¤ ¬º¬iº ¬i ¤¤ ·ri ·i ¬ ºri r+

:¬¬ ¬¬i(i ¤¬ ri l(¬~¤ ºrni r l¬ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬¤· ¬i¤ ¬i ·¤ ·n-
-¬(ºi ¬i· · ¬ ¤º -i·ni r ¬iº ºi·¤ - ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i· · ¬i ¬~ ·i· ·
¬(¬ ri · ( ni (l~¬ -(¤ ri ¬º ni+ ¤¬i ¤lºl-·iln¤i - r- ¤irn r l¬ ºi·¤
¬º¬iº -¤·- ¬º l¬ ¬º¬iº ¬i -i··i r l¬ ºi·¤ - -¬(ºi ¬i ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi
¬i r¬ ·ri r+

:· ¤lºl-·iln¤i - ºi¬-·ii· ¬ -¬(º ni ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi -i n· ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬
¤i¬ ¬i¤ n + ¤l( ¬·r ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- l(¤i ¬i¤ni ni (i ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº
riºi ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i· · ¬i ¬~¬ ·i· ri ni+ r- -¤·- ª¤ ¬ ¬r·i ¤irn r l¬
l¬¬i ·ii ¬i¤ - ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- ( ·i ¬¬(·iil·¬ r ¬i º -i·(¬l·i¬iºi ¬i
¬~¬ ·i· r + ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- -¬(ºi ( ·i l¬¬i ·ii ¬ºn - -(i¬i¤ ·ri r
¬i º :¬ (¬r ¬ r-iºi ¬-¤in r ¬iºi ºr ni+
¬ ¬··÷ ¬ ¬··÷ ¬ ¬··÷ ¬ ¬··÷
• ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ - r ¤º ·iiºn ¬º¬iº ¬i ¤i:¬ ·i l- n (¤l·’i·¬ ¬ ¬ -ºi
¤( ¤i:· lºi¤¬ ¤·(i:¬º÷ ¬ºl(·( -i¤iºi- ¬ºl(·( -i¤iºi- ¬ºl(·( -i¤iºi- ¬ºl(·( -i¤iºi-)
• ¬-¤ ·( ¬ -iº l¬ r ÷ ·i¤º ·-º -ri--i ni ·ii ·º ni ¬i ¬i··i ¤ ( ºi ¬º¬iº
¬i l¤- -i
·i((i¤

¬l·i¤i· ¬i ¬i º ¬

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 104
Chapter 5
Section 3
l(·i ¬ ·«.·a.·a


¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº
¬¤¤ º

l(·i¤ -ri--ii ni·ii ºi·- i¤ n i-iºi ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¬i· · - -¬(ºi ¬i (ºi ¬
·i nni· ¬º· ¤º - ¬i(¬i ( · ¬ ¬- - ¬º¬iº ¬ riºi ¬i( ’i l·¬i¬· (i(n

-ri (¤

¬¤ºi ·n l(·i¤ - l·( (· r l¬ -ri--ii ni·ii ºi·- i¤ n i-iºi ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¬i· · ¬
ºi · ¤ ¬ II ·iiºi :a ¬ nrn ¤l( l¬¬i ·ii -¬(º ¬i ·r l(· ¬ (i( ·i nni· l-¬ ni
¬·r -¬(ºi ·i nni· ¬l·il·¤- ·s:c ¬ nrn ·i nni· l(¤i ¬i·i ¤ilr¤+ :¬ ¬i· ·
¬i ·iiºi ·r(:) ¬ nrn rº -¬(º ¬i ¬- ¬ ¬- ·raa ª. ¬iº ¬l·i¬n- :aaa ª.
¬i - ¬i(¬i l(¤i ¬i· ¤( ¤l( ¤r ¬i¤ (iri rin ¬-¤ -¬(ºi ¤ ¬i: n¤i r ni
¬l·i¬n- - ¬i(¬i zaaa ª. ( · ¬i ¤ i(·ii· r +

ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ¬i l¬¬i · l¬¬i ¤ il·i¬ººi ¬i l¤l·rn ¬º·i ¤· ni ¬i :· -i-¬i
¬i ¬ ·(i: ¬º¬ l·¤-i¤ +


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 105
:¬ ¬l·il·¤- ¬ nrn l¤l·rn ¤il·i¬ººi ¬i : -ir ¬ ¬·(º ¬ ·(i: ¬º¬ -i-¬i
l·¤-i·i ¤· ni+

¬ ¬ ¬i r-· ¬i¤¬ « ¬·- (º ¬i (ini - (ni¤i ¤r ¤ l¬¤i niºªi · - ri ¤ ¬i r+
niºªi · - ºi·-¤ln ºii¬· ¬ (i ºi· ºi·¤¤i¬ ¬ ¬i¤i ¬¤ ¬ l·¬¬ ¬i( ’i (« ¬ ·
zaas) ¬ nrn ¤r ¤ l¬¤i ¤ iº ·i r : + :¬ ¬i¤i ¬¤ ¬i( ’i - ¬- l(·iin ¬i :· -i-¬i
¬i ¬ ·(i: ¬º· ¬ l·( ’i l(¤+ ªi -i l¬¬ - :¬¬ nrn (¬ l¬¤ n¤ ¤ ·i- ¤ ¬ººi
- ·/« ·º ni -¬(ºi ¬i zaaa ª. ¤ ln ·¤l·n - ¬i(¬i l(¤i n¤i+ :¬¬i ¬ ¬ ºil’i
:«saaa ª. (·i+ :¬¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i ·º ni ¬i· · ¬ ·iiºi zr ¬ nrn ¬ ( l·in
¬l·i¬ilº¤i ¤( ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¤º ·aaa÷·aaa ª. ¬i ¬ -i ·i ·ii ¬ni¤i n¤i+


:¬¬i (¬r ¬ ¤º ºi·¤ - (ºi ¬ ri ºr ·i nni· - ¬i¤i ¬ ·iiº r ¬i ¬i º ¬ri ¬-¤
¤º ·i nni· ri · ¬n n¤i+

¬i¬ :¬i ·iº· - ¬: ¬(irººi ¬i-· ¬i¤ ¬ri ¬·ii ·ii ¬¬·i -¬(ºi ¬i ni·÷¤iº
-lr·i ¬ ¬¤·i ·i nni· ·ri l-¬i+ ¬ s ¤¬ ·ii ¬(irººi r ¬ri -¬(ºi ¬i ¤¬ ¬
(i ¬i¬ n¬ ·i nni· ·ri r ¬i r+ ¬ ( l·in ¤ ¤¤ ¬ ¬·· r+

:¬i ºi·¤ - r-iºi ¬i·¬iºi - (i ¬(irººi (·ii¬(i·i ¤( ·iºn¤º) r ¬ri ¤º ·i nni·
- l(¬-( ri · ¬ ¬iººi -¬(ºi ¬i ·¤i¬ ¬lrn ·i nni· l¬¤i n¤i n·ii (i ·ii
¬l·i¬ilº¤i ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬ ¤r ºil’i (¬ ¬i n: ¬i ·i nni· ·¤(-·ii ¬ ·iiº· ¬i l(’ii -
¤¬ ¬ºir·i¤ ¬(- r+ r-iºi ¬i¤¬ l·( (· r l¬ :¬i ¤ ¬iº ¬i ·¤(-·ii rº l¬¬ -
¬i ¬i¤ ¬ri l¬¬i ¬l·i¬iºi ¬¤· -nº ¤º :¬ ·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬ l·l’¤n ¬º ¬¬ +


r- ¬i¤¬ ¬· ºi ·i ¬i º l·( (· ¬ºn r l¬ ¬i¤ n i-iºi l(¬i¬ l(·iin ¤( ¬- l(·iin
¬i l·( l’in ¬º l¬ ( niºªi · ¬i n¬ ¤º -¬(ºi ¬i (ºi ¬ ·i nni· ¬i - ¬i(¬i
l(¬i· ¬i ·¤(-·ii ( -i¤+ ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¬i· · ¬i ¬in r ¤ ¤i ¤ ¬i¬ ri · (i¬ r +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 106
r- ¬: l(·i ¬ ¤ -i n ¬ºn ¬i ºr r + r-iºi l·( (· r l¬ :¬- ¬iº l(¬-( ·ri
ri ¬i º ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¬i· · ¬ ¤ i(·ii·i ¬i ¤i¬·i nºn ¬ l·l’¤n ¬i ¬i¤+ :¬¬i
¬º· ¬ r- ¤r ·ii l(’(i¬ r l¬ ¤ ( ’i - ¬nr÷¬nr ¤º ·i nni· - ri ºr l(¬-( -
¬ ·iiº ri ni ¬i º nºi( -¬(ºi ¬i ¬¤·i -¬(ºi ¬i ¤¬i ·ii ¬-¤ ¤º l-¬ ni+

r-iºi ¤ºi l(’(i¬ r l¬ ¬·n - ( (i ¤º ¬i¤ nºn ¬i¤(iri ¬º¬ ¬ ( l·in
l(·iin¬l·i¬ilº¤i ¬i l·( ’i ¬iºi ¬º n l¬¬¬ ·º ni -¬(ºi ¬i ¬·¬ r¬ l-¬
¬¬ +

·i((i¤




¬ªºii ºi¤ ¬iº.·i.·¤i¬ lº¤i ¬i l(·¤ l·lªi¬ ·


¬ ¤·i ¤( ºi ¬niº ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i·

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 107
Chapter 5
Section 4

¬i -i· l(·i ¬÷ ·s.·a.·a
·iºn l¬ r ¬i
-¤i ¤ ¤i¤n ºi¬ ¤( n i-iºi l(¬i¬ l(·iin
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº

-ri (¤
:¬ ¤¤ ¬ ¬i·i r- ¬i¤¬i ·º ni ¬ nrn -¬(ºi ¬ ·a r¬i ¬i (i-nl(¬ni ¬ n·¤ ¤ ºi ¬i ¬·
¬i ¤ ºr r + :¬- - ª¤ ª¤ ¬ (ºi ¬ ·i nni· ¬i ¬--¤i ( r( ª¤ - l·¬¬¬º ¬i: r +
r- ¤irn r l¬ :· ¬--¤i¬i ¤º n ·iiºni ¬ l(¤iº ri ¬i º (ºi ¬ ·i nni· ¤º ¬ ( l·in -¬( ºi ¬i
n ºn ri l·¤-i· ¬iº ·¤i¬- ¬i(¬i l(¤i ¬i¤ +

·i·¤(i(
·i((i¤




¬ªºii ºi¤ l·lªi¬ · ~¤i ¬iº.·i. ·¤i¬ º ºi ¬i ¤i- ¤i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 108
Chapter 5
Section 5

l(·i ¬ z/.·a.·a
¬i-i· - ª¤ ¬l¤( -ri (¤
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº
¬¤¤ º (ºi¬.)

l(·i¤ ÷ ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ - ·n ¬º· n·ii ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¬ r¬ ¬ l·l’¤n ¬º(i·
(i(n +

-ri (¤

¬¤ºi ·n l(·i¤ - l·( (· r l¬ ·¤i¤ºi (¬¬¬ºi) nr¬i¬÷l¬’i·n ¬ l¬¬i÷(iºi ¬
¤ ¬i’i ¬iniºi- -¬ªii· n·ii ¬i ·i (i: ¬rlº¤i · ¬¤¤ º - -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¤º ¤¬
ºr -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r - zs ¬·- (º za·a ¬i ¬i¬º (ni¤i l¬ ¬·¬ ¤i¬ · ni
ºi’i· ¬i÷ r ¬i º · ri ¬i(¬i÷ (· r ¤ r+ ¤r ¤lº(iº ¬: (·ii ¬ ·i¤ ¬ (( n
l¬¬i·i ¬ ¤ri ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¬l·i’i·n r+ -ri (¤ r-iºi -i n r l¬
¬¤ºi ·n ¬·ii ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ - l·n l(¬i: ¬i¤ n·ii ( ·i ¬i ¬-
¬º(i ºr ¬i ni ¬ l(ª- ¤¤.¬i: .¬iº. (¬ ¬º ¬÷i ¬i¤ (iri ¬i ¬i¤ +

¬i-i· ¬ ¤·i ¬iº ºi ¬niº ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· · ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¬ ¬·ii ·a r¬i
¬i ¬ l·l’¤n ¬º· ¬i (iº÷(iº -i n ¬i r ·¤i l¬ r-iºi -i··i r l¬ ¬nº ¬(¬i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 109
¬i(¬i÷ l-¬ n·ii -i n· ¤º ¬i- l(¤i ¬i¤ ni ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¤º -(n ri ¤i( (i ¬n
¬¬ni r+ ¬n ¬i¤ ºi·¤ - ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¬i· · ¬ ¬·ii ·a r¬i ¬i ¤i¬·i
¬ l·l’¤n ¬ºi( n·ii ·¤i¤ ºi (¬¬¬ºi) ¬ ¬¤ºi ·n (lºi n ¬i ni ¬i ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬
- ·n ¬ºi( +

¬i¤ (iri ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬lrn
¬i(º +
¬ ¬··
·. ¤ ¬i’i ¬iniºi- -¬ªii· n·ii ¬i ·i (i: ¬rlº¤i ¬i ¤¤

·i((i¤







¤ lnl¬l¤
·. ¤ - ªi ºii¬· ¬l¤( ¬- -¤i¬¤ ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ¬¤¤ º

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 110
Chapter 5
Section 6
l(·i ¬ z/.·a.·a

¬i-i· - ª¤ ¬l¤(
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº
¬¤¤ º

l(·i¤ ÷ ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ - l·n l(¬(i· ¤( ºi’i· ¬i÷ ( ¬i( ¬i÷ (·(i· (i(n +

-ri (¤

¤ i·ii ¤i ¬i ·i (i: ¤-·i -·iºi ¬i¬ ¬- rs (·i ¬iln ¬rºi¤i ¬il((i¬i ni(÷·¤i¤ºi
(¬¬¬ºi) ¤ ¤i¤n ºi·i (÷i ( ¤ ¤i¤n ¬l-ln l¬’i·n ¬ l¬¬i (iºi - ·a (·i ¬ ¤ln
( ¤lº(iº ¬ ¬i·i ºr ºri r + -º ni· ( - ¬·¬i (r ¤ ¤( z ( l- ( ¬·¬ (i-i( ¬
¬i·i ¤ri ·a (·i ¤r¬ ªini - n r ¬i ¤¬¬ ¬i-· ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ l¬¤ ¤ln ¤(
¤lº(iº ¬ ¬i·i ¬i: + -º ¤ln ¬i ¤ ’n ·i ni( ¬ (¬ºi ¤ ¤i¤n ¬ºiº l¬¬i º¤i ¤ º
-·¤¤ ( ’i ¬i si ÷ ¬º ·¤i¤ ºi (¬¬¬ºi) - (¬ n: + -º ¤ln ¬ ¤ ’n ·i ni( - ·
¬-i· r ¬iº · ri ¬i· ¬i ¬riºi+ ¬i¬ -º ¤º ¤lº(iº ¬ ¤i¬ ·a (·ii ¬ ¤¬ ¬nr
ºrn r ¤ ·ii · ºi’i· ¬i÷ r ¬iº · ri ¬i( ¬i÷ r+ ¬( ·ii ¤ ¤i¤n - n¤ n( n(
¤r ¬r¬º -·i ¬º l(¤i l¬ n - :¬ ni( ¬ ºr· (i¬ ·ri ri +

¬i¬ -º (i ( - ¤( ¤¬ (i-i( ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ l¬¤ -¬(º r+ ¤ºi ¤lº(iº ·i ªi ¬i
¬niº ¤º ªi÷i r+



Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 111
( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬º· (i¬ ¬i l((ººi ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬º· (i¬ ¬i l((ººi ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬º· (i¬ ¬i l((ººi ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬º· (i¬ ¬i l((ººi ÷ ÷÷ ÷

¬ ¬¬ ¬. .. .¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ . .. . ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬i ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬i ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬i ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬i
·i- ·i- ·i- ·i-
l¬¬¬ ¤i¬ l¬¬¬ ¤i¬ l¬¬¬ ¤i¬ l¬¬¬ ¤i¬
( ·i ¬i r ( ·i ¬i r ( ·i ¬i r ( ·i ¬i r
l¬n·i l¬n·i l¬n·i l¬n·i
¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬ ¬¬
l¬¤i l¬¤i l¬¤i l¬¤i
¬( l¬¤i ¬( l¬¤i ¬( l¬¤i ¬( l¬¤i ·¤i n¤ ·¤i n¤ ·¤i n¤ ·¤i n¤
l¬¤i l¬¤i l¬¤i l¬¤i
·¤i (ni r ·¤i (ni r ·¤i (ni r ·¤i (ni r
·. ¤ ¬iºi ¤¤
¤ r¬i(
r¬ºi¬ ·ii¬÷
¬¬¬ºi n.
l¬’i·n ¬

«aaa º. r (·i ¤( ·raa º.
-lr·i
zr l¬¬i n r ¤ ln -ir ¬·ii
zaa ¬·ii raa º. ¤ ln -ir
¤i ·i-¬ ·ii¬÷
ni(÷l-ni¤i:
(l¬¬¬ ¤i¬
·i ¬ l(¤i n¤i)
··aaa
º.
/ -ir
¤(
·· -ir
¬ (i(
zaaaa
º. (i
za l¬¬i n r ¤ ln -ir ( saa
º. ¤ ln -ir l(¤ zs ¬·- (º
za·a ¬i ¤i-i: ¬i ni ·iin
¬º ¬i n¤i (i ¬ni r zraaa
º. ¬-i ¬ºi¬i
z. ¬iniºi- ¤ ¤
-·iºi ¬i¬
¬ n¬iºi¬
·ii¬÷
ni(÷¬¬¬ºi
n.÷l¬’i·n ¬
·aaaa r (·i ¤( ¬ s ·ri zr l¬¬i n r ¤ ln-ir raa º.
¤ ln -ir
s. -¬ªii· ¤¤
-·iºi¬i¬
¬ --i ¤i¤i
ni(÷¬¬¬ºi
n.÷l¬’i·n ¬
raaa r (·i ¤( ¬ s ·ri zr l¬¬i n r ¤ ln-ir raa º.
¤ ln -ir

¬iniºi- ( -¬ªii· ¬i¬ ·ii ( ·i ¬i r ¬¤·i -º¬i ¬ (¬ºi ¬nr ¬i- ¤º ·ri ¬i
¬¬n :·¬ ¤lº(iº ¬i ·i ºi’i· ¬i÷ r ¬i º ·i ri ¬i( ¬i÷ (·i r+ ¤ ¬i’i (i-iº
ri · ¬ ·iº ¬i n¤i ¬¬¬i zs ¬·- (º za·a ¬i ·iº ( ¬i¬º r¬ºi¬ ( ¤i ·i-¬ ·
l¤-i: ¬i ¬iº ¬ri zraaa º. ¬-i ¬ºi¬i (º·i n -riºi ¤-·i ¬i r-iº ¤i¬ si ÷
¬i¬i r- :¬¬ ¬¬ ¤ ¬ ¬ n +

¬ ¤¤i l·( (· r l¬ -º ¤lº(iº ¬i -ºi ºi’i· ¬i÷ ( ¬i( ¬i÷ (·(i· ¬ ¬i( ’i
¬ºi( n·ii -º (i-i( ¤ ¬i’i ¤ ¤ ¤ r¬i( ¬i ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ - ·n ¬ºi( ¤( zs
¬·- (º za·a ¬i ¤ ¬i’i ¬ ¬i·i -iº¤i- ¬º· ¬i - ¬(-i (¬ ¬ºi( + ¬¬¬ºi ·ii· -
lº¤i - (¬ ¬º(i: ¬ l¬· ¬i : ¬i¤ (iri ·ri ¬i n: + ¬iniºi- ( -¬ªii· ¬i l¬ - º

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 112
¤ ¤ r :·r ·ii ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ - ·n ¬º(i· n·ii :¬¬ ¤lº(iº ¬ ¬i(¬i÷ ( ºi’i·
¬i÷ (·(i· ¬ ¬i( ’i ¬ºi( +

¬·r¤i¬i¬ ¤ ¤ riºi¬i¬ -ºi (i-i( r :¬¬i ·ii ¬i(¬i÷ ( ºi’i· ¬i÷ (·(i· l¬
¬· -ln l(¬(i: ¬i¤ +

·i((i¤


¤ ¬iºi ¤ ¤ ¤ r¬i( nini ¤-·i ¤ ¬i’i ¬i ·i (i: ¤-·i -·iºi ¬i¬

ni(÷·¤ ni(÷·¤ ni(÷·¤ ni(÷·¤i ii i¤ ºi ¤ ¤i¤n÷ºi·i (÷i ( ¤ ¤i¤n ¬l-ln÷l¬’i·n ¬ l¬¬i÷(iºi ¤ ºi ¤ ¤i¤n÷ºi·i (÷i ( ¤ ¤i¤n ¬l-ln÷l¬’i·n ¬ l¬¬i÷(iºi ¤ ºi ¤ ¤i¤n÷ºi·i (÷i ( ¤ ¤i¤n ¬l-ln÷l¬’i·n ¬ l¬¬i÷(iºi ¤ ºi ¤ ¤i¤n÷ºi·i (÷i ( ¤ ¤i¤n ¬l-ln÷l¬’i·n ¬ l¬¬i÷(iºi

¤ lnl¬l¤÷
·. ¤ - ªi ºii¬· ¬l¤( ¬- l(·iin ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº
z. ¬¬ ·-º (iºi

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 113
Chapter 5
Section 7
l(·i ¬ zs.·a.·a
¬i ¬i ¬i ¬i ¬i ¬i ¬i ¬i. .. .¤i ¤i ¤i ¤i. .. .¬i ’ii ¬i ¬i ’ii ¬i ¬i ’ii ¬i ¬i ’ii ¬i
¤ ¤i¤niºi¬ ¤( n i-iºi l(¬i¬ -¤i ¤ ¤i¤niºi¬ ¤( n i-iºi l(¬i¬ -¤i ¤ ¤i¤niºi¬ ¤( n i-iºi l(¬i¬ -¤i ¤ ¤i¤niºi¬ ¤( n i-iºi l(¬i¬ -¤i
·iiºn ·iiºn ·iiºn ·iiºn ¬º¬iº ¬º¬iº ¬º¬iº ¬º¬iº

-ri (¤ ¬i

z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ -- ·¤ ¬¬ ¬ ¬¤¤ º - -¬(ºi ¬ r¬ ¬i º ¬l·i¬iºi ¬i ¬ º·ii ¬i
¬ ¬º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r ¤¬ ºri r + l¬¬- - ª¤ ª¤ r-iºi ¤ - ªi -i n
l·-·i·¬iº r÷

• -ri--i ni ·ii ·º ni ¬ -¬(ºi ¬lrn ¬--n -¬(ºi ¬i -¬(ºi zaa º. ¤ lnl(·
¬i ¬i¤ + ¬·ii ri¬ - ri ¬i¤· ºi·¤ ¬i ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ·sr ª¤¤ ¬i r
¬ l¬· :¬ ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i ·º ni ¬ -¬(ºi ¬ (irº ºªi·i l(~¬ ¬ ri
¬-i·(i¤ ¬¬(·iil·¬ ¬i º n º ·¤il¤¬ r+

• ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i -r ni: ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ nil¬ ¬ ¬ ÷¬ ¬ -r ni: (« -¬(º
¬i ·ii -¬(ºi ¬¤· ¬i¤ (« +

• -ri·º ni ¬ ¬ ÷ -i¬( ºi ¬i ·i nni· ¬i· · ¬ ¤ i(·ii· ¬ ¬·¬iº ·r l(· -
¬(’¤ l¬¤i ¬i¤ ¬·¤·ii -¬(º ¬i - ¬i(¬i l(¤i ¬i¤ + - ¬i(¬i ¬ · ¬ l¬¤
¤¬ ¤ºi ·¤(-·ii l(-i: ¬i¤ +

• ¤l( -i-¬ ¤i¬ º - ¬ -¬(ºi (i ¬i ºri r ni ¬¬n÷¬¬n ·n¤i ¤(
¬¬¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ·i nni· ¬i ·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬ l·l’¤n ¬º·i ¬º¬iº ¬i l¬-- (iºi
r l¬· ¤lºl-·iln¤i - rº ¬- r ¬i ·i¤ l·¬i¬¬º ¬i- ¬ ¬· ¬iº ·i nni· ·ri
l¬¤i ¬i ºri r (ri -i:- º - ¬ ·i nni· ( ·i ¬ln¬i(’¤¬ r

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 114

• ¤i¬ º - - ¤l( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- ¤ ¬iºi l(¤i ¬i ºri r ni ·¤i(i ¬-i·
¬i -i¬i l-¬·i ¤ilr¤ n·ii ºi·¤ ¬i ¬i ¬n· -¬(ºi ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬ºi(
ri ni

• ¬i¬ ºi·¤ ¬i /r º¤¤ ¬i ¬n -¬(ºi ¬¤· ¬i¤ - -¤·- ¬ºni r l¬ ·¤ ·n-
-¬(ºi ¬i· · ¬i n ·iiº ¬~¬ ·i· ri ºri r ¤ri n¬ l¬ -¬(ºi ¬i ·z/s·z
º¤¤ ¬il( ·ii ¬i ¬n· l(¤i ¬i ºri r

• r- ¬· ¬--n ¬nri - -i:- º - ¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i -i n ¬ºn r ¬ri ¬i ¬n·
-¬(ºi ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬- l(¤i n¤i r+ ¤l( ¬i- - ¬-i r
ni ¬¬¬i l¬-- (iºi ¬i¤ ¬iºi ¤¬ ·¬i ¬i r+
• ¬º¬iº ¬¤· ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬ (n· n¤ ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¬¤· ªi ( ¬ ¬l·i¬ilº¤i ¬
¬(-¤ni ¬i (n· ¬i¤i n nl-n ¬ºni r+ ¬i¬( ( l(·ii¤¬ ¬¤· (n · ªi (
n¤ ¬ºn r + ¬·¤ ·¤i¤i¬¤ ¤( ¬(i ·¤ ·¤i¤i¬ ¬¤· ·¤i¤i·ii’ii ¬ (n· n¤
¬ºn r + ¬n ( ’i ¬ ¬(¬ nºi( ¬i ni ¬ ¤i¬ ªi ( ¬i ¬i¤i n (·i· ¬
¬¬i(i ¬i : ¤iºi ·ri r+ ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬ ÷ :· ¬--n - ( (i ¬ l¬¤ r-
-¬(ºi ¬i ¬· ¬i¤i n -·iil¤n ¬º ºr r+ :¬- r- -¬(ºi ¬ ¬¬i(i ¬-i¬
¬ ¬¬n÷¬¬n (ni ¬ ¬i ni ¬i ·ii ¬i ÷ n + r- ¤irn r l¬ ¬º¬iº ·ii :¬
-¬(º ¬· ¬i¤i n - ¬¤· ¤ lnl·l·i ·i ¬ +
• ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi ( ’i ¬ ¤ -¤ ¬ ·inlº¬ ¬ l¬¤ ªi ¬i ri ¬º¬iº n i- ¬·ii¬i
- (i-nl(¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi ¬º(i¤ n·ii ¬¬- ¬(¬i ºiil-¬ ¬º + ¤ ¤i¤n ºi·i l(·iin
¬ ¬i·i ¬·¤ l(·iin ¬i ·ii ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi ri +
• ¤r ¬il(n ri ¤ ¬i r l¬ -ri·º ni · n i-iºi ·iiºn ¬ nºi( ( ( l¤n (n ¬i
ºi ¬niº ¬ ¬(¬º l(¤ r n·ii ni(i - ¬¤¤i ni ¤lº¬ ¤l-n¤i ¬ l¬n r : r
¤¬i¤· ª¬i r ¬i º nºi(i ¬- ri ºri r ¤¬ - ¤r ¬ººi r l¬ ¬i- ¬ l(·
(«i¤ ¬i º (n -i· - l(¤ ¬i ºr ·aa l(· ¬ ¬i- ¬ i («i¬º zaa l(· ¬º
l(¤i ¬i¤ +
• r- ¬·i ¤( ¬i-i·n l¬¬i·i ¬ l¬¤ ·ii ¬·¬i ¬-i· ªii( (i¬ ¤i·i l(¬¬i
~ºi (i-i n·ii ªiºi( - ~¤ ¬i ºi·¤ - ¤¬ ¤¬i ·iln ¬i l··iiººi ¬i -i n
¬ºn r l¬¬¬ ¬·¬ r¬i ¬i º·ii ri ¬¬ ¬i º ( ¬--i· ¬ ¬¤·i n ¬iºi ¬º
¬¬ + :¬ l(’ii - r- :¬i ¬-¤in r ¬ (i ºi· ¤¬ l¬¬i· ¬· ¬i¤i n ¬i n-·
¬º n ¬i :· - ¤i ¤º l(¤iº l(-’i ¬º n + r- ¤ir n l¬ ¬i¤¬ ¤ lnl·l·i ·ii :¬
¬· ¬i¤i n - ºiil-¬ ri +
• -¬(ºi ¬i ¬ nl-n ri ¬º ¬¤·i (in ¬r· ¬i r¬ l-¬ + ºi·¤ - ·º ni -¬(ºi
¬i ¤ l·¤· ¬i ¤ ¬i¬ n l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 115
• ¬º¬iºi ¬l·i¬iºi¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬ ¬ ¬ ri -¬(ºi ¬i ·ii ( «i¤ - ¤ ’i·
(¬--i·¬·¬) l-¬ +

¬iºii r l¬ ¬i¤ ¬¤ºi ·n -i ni ¤º n-·iiºni¤( ¬ l(¤iº ¬º n + n·ii -¬(ºi ¬ lrn -
l·ºi ¤ ¬º ¤iº(l’i ni ¬ l·l’¤n ¬º n nil¬ -ri·º ni ¬ ¬ -r-(¤ ºi ¬i¤ ¬- ¬i
·i ·-i¤iº ¬ (¤i¤i ¬i ¬¬ ¬i º -¬(ºi ¬ ¬i(· -nº ¬i ¬¤º ¬-i¤i ¬i ¬¬ +
:·ri ¬¤ ·ii¬i ¬ ¬i·i
·i((i¤ ·i((i¤ ·i((i¤ ·i((i¤




¬ººii ºi¤ l·lªi¬ ÷ º ºi ¬i ¤i- ¤i



·(i· ·iºi¤ºi ¬¤l¬ r ¬i(i · ~¤i ¬il(·¤ ·i (º - ·i( ’ii rlº¬i -
¬i ·i

¬ ¤·i ¤( ºi ¬niº ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ¬iº ¬

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 116
Chapter 5
Section 8

l(·i ¬ zs.·a.za·a
¬i ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº

l(·i¤ ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ ¬ ( ·i - zs.·a.za·a ¬ (l·¬ ·ii-¬º ¬ ¤ ·- ¬ ª¤i ·a ¤º
(iºi l¬¬ ¬ ¬¬·-º ¬ n º l¬-- (iºi·i (·n·¤ ¬ ¬ ( ·i - +

-i·¤(º
¬º¬iºi ¬l·i¬iºi nºi(i ¬i ·¤·ii ¬ ¤ ln l¬n· ¬¬( (·’ii¬ r :¬¬i ·- ·i
(iºi ¬ ¬¬·-º ¬i ·(i· ¬· ¬i ¬ªi(iº - s¤i (·n·¤ r+
¤r ¤ ºin¤i ¬-¤ r l¬ (iºi l¬¬ - nºi(i :n·i ·¤i(i r l¬ ¬¬ nºi( ¬i
ºi -i ªii· ¬ l¬¤ · ¬i· ·¤i÷·¤i ¬º·i ¤÷ni r+ :¬i ¬i ¤lººii- r l¬ ¬i ·¤l·n
(ri ·a ¬i¬ ¬ ºr ºr r ¬ ¬ ÷¬ ¬ n ¬º (¬º ¬º ºr r + · ¬·¬i ºi’i· ¬i÷ ¬iº
· ¬i( ¬i÷ (·i¤i ¬ini r + ¤lººii--(ª¤ ¬·r ( ·i ¬i -¬(º (··i ¤÷ni r+ :¬
(in ¬i ¬-n· ¬ (¬i¤ ¬¬·-º ¬ir( ¬¤ri¬ ¬º ºr r l¬ ¬nº (r ( ·i ¬i -¬(º
r ni ·iº· ¤º ¬ ¬ ¬i¤i` ¬nni r ¬·r · ni ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi l·(iººi ¬i· · ·s/s ¬i
ni· r ¬i º · ri ¬i ni ¬i s-¤-ir- ( nºi(i ¬ ¬·¬i ¬i : (i--ii r+ ¬·¬ (·n·¤
¬i r- l· (i ¬ºn r ¬iº ¬i¤¬ -i¤ n ¤r ¬ ¤·i ¤irn r l¬ nºi(i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i
¬¤ri¬ · ¬º ¬i º l-·iln - ((¬i( ¬ l¬¤ ¬i- ¬º +

r- (iºi - ( ·i ¬i - l·n ¬ l¬¤ (·i ¬n ¬ni ¬l-ln ¬i ni· ¬i¬ ¬i lº¤i -
¬i ·ii ¬i( ¬l·¬ ¬º· ¬i - ’ii ¬ºn r+

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 117
¬i’ii r l¬ ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i n º·n - ·n ¬ºi¬º ¬·¬ ¤ · ·ii¬ ¬i ·¤(-·ii
¬º n + ¬·¬ ¬i( ¬i÷ ( ºi’i· ¬i÷ (·(i¤ n ¬i º ¬·r (i¤i¤¬ ¬i ¬--n ¬ l(·ii¤
¤ (i· ¬º n +
¬i·iiº ¬lrn




l·lªi¬ ÷ º ºi ¬i ¤i- ¤i ºi ¬º l¬ r


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 118
Chapter 5
Section 9

¬i -i· n·-¤ ¬ -iº ¬i -i· n·-¤ ¬ -iº ¬i -i· n·-¤ ¬ -iº ¬i -i· n·-¤ ¬ -iº l(·i ¬÷ s l(·i ¬÷ s l(·i ¬÷ s l(·i ¬÷ s. .. .·· ·· ·· ··. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a
¬i¤ ·n ¤( ¬i¤ ·n ¤( ¬i¤ ·n ¤( ¬i¤ ·n ¤( ºii¬· ¬l¤( : ¬i¤¬ ºii¬· ¬l¤( : ¬i¤¬ ºii¬· ¬l¤( : ¬i¤¬ ºii¬· ¬l¤( : ¬i¤¬
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº

-ri (¤

ºi¬-·ii· ·iº ¬ -¬(º z ¬·- (º ¬ ¬niniº ¬-¤in r ¤º ( - r + ¬-¤in r ¬i ¬i¬ ss (i l(· r
¬iº :· l(·i - r-· ¬i¤¬ l(·iin ¤( ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬: - ( (i ¬i º ¬--¤i¬i n·ii ·iln¤i ¬ ( l·in
¤¤ ¬i ¤ r + ¬ s÷¬ s ¤i¬i - ¬i¤ ¬ l(·iin ¤iºi ¬i¤ (iri ·ii ¬i ¬i ºri r ¬ ¬i l¬ r-·
ºi-l·(i¬ - rni ¬i ¬ l-¬¬º ¬i·i+ ¬ l¬· ¬·ii ·ii ¬: l(·( ¬i ¤º l(·iini¤ l·( ’i ¤( -¤·-ni
¬i(’¤¬ r l¬¬¬ l¬¤ r- ¬i¤ l·in r + (i :¬ ¤ ¬iº r +

·. ¬ ¤·i ¤( ºi ¬niº ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¤iºi ºi·¤ ¬i ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi (º ¬i ¬i· ··
·º ni -¬(ºi ¬i ·ii ·ii ( · rn ¬: ¤¤ ¬i ¤ r + r- ¬i·¬iºi - r l¬ ¬i¤¬ l(·iin
¤( - ª¤-¤i ¬i ¤iºi ¬ ·( ¬i :¬ (i(n ¤¤ ·ii ¤ l·in l¬¤ n¤ r + ¬ l¬· ¬·ii n¬
r- l¬¬i ·ii ¤ ¬iº ¬i l¬lªin ¬(i( ¬i¤ ¤iºi ·ri l-¬i r + ¬ ¤¤i (n -i· ¤lºl-·iln
¬ r- ¬(nn ¬ºi¤ + (¬ ¬··÷ ·) (¬ ¬··÷ ·) (¬ ¬··÷ ·) (¬ ¬··÷ ·)
z. n (l¬¤i -i ¬ (i¬ -i-¬ - ni ¬º¬iº ¤iºi ri ¬i ¤ ¬i n: ¬iº r-· ¬i¤¬i ¤¤ (
l(-n n l((ººi ¬ ¬i·i÷¬i·i ¬ ( l·in ¤: ¤· ¬ (¤i· ¬i ¬i¤i ·ii ¬i ¤i r l¬¬-
¬i¤÷¬i¤ (r (i ·ii ¬il(n ri ºri r + r- ¬i’¤¤ ¬·¬ r l¬ :n· n ·iiº ¬i º ¬il(n
ri ¤ ¬ ¤ ¬ººi - ¬i¤ ¤iºi ¬i¤ (iri ·¤i ·ri r : r + ¬nº ¬i¤ (iri ·ri rini r ni
l·l’¤n ri ¬·¤ ¬nri ¤º :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬ ¬i º ·ii ¤ ¬ººi ¬i-· ¬i¤ n ¬iº
¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¬i ºi ¬·i ·ii - ’l¬¬ ri ¬i¤ ni+ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ z zz z) )) )
s. r-· ¬i¤¬i ¬¬n÷¬¬n l¬¬i - ·º ni ¬ ·i nni· - ri ºri (ºi ¬i l(-n n ¬i·¬iºi
¬ ¬i·i -¬(ºi ¬i ¬l¬ ¤i ¬i º ¤¤ ¬i ¤ ·i + r- ¤irn r l¬ ª¬ r ¤ ·i nni· n º n
¤ ·ii( ¬ºi¤ ¬i¤ n·ii ¬i· ·· - ¬i(¬i ·ii l(¬i¤i ¬i¤ + l¬¬¬ l¬¤ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº
¤iºi l·¤- (·i¬º -¤·- ¬i( ’i ·ii ¬iºi l¬¤ ¬i¤ + (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷s ss s) )) )
«. r-iº ¤iºi ¬i¤¬i s· ¤ ¤i¤ni - r : l(’i ·i ¬i l÷- - ¤i¤ n¤ (i ·ii ·¤l·n¤i ¬
lªi¬i¤ ¬i¤ (iri ¬i º n(· ¬i n: ºil’i ¬i (¬ ¬i ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¤¤ ( ¬i ¬÷ i ¬i
ºii- ¬i ¤i n: ·ii + l(¤iº ¬º· (i¬i (in r l¬ ªi ( ¬º¬iº · ri ¬n·in s ¬ºi ÷
¬i ¬l·¤l-nni¤ l·¬i¬i ¬ l¬· ¬i¤(iri ·ri ¬º ¤i ºri r + n( ni- ¬·ii ¤iºi
¬i-il¬¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi - ¬¬inº ¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¤º ¬i¤(iri ¬ ¬ ri ni+ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷« «« «) )) )

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 119
r. r-· ¬i¤¬ l(·iin ¬i r ¬¬ ·-ºi ¤iºi ·º ni - ¬i n: ¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¬ ( ·ii l(-n n
l((ººi ¬i ¤i ·ii+ :· ¤º ¬i¤ (iri rn ¤ ¤i¤n ºi¬ -¤i ( ¤( ¬i¤ ·n : ¬i¤¬ ¤iºi
¬i¤ (iri rn l¬¤ilº’i ·ii ¬i r ¬ l¬· ¬i¬ l(· n¬ ¬i¤(iri ¬i¤ l·in r +
(¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷r rr r) )) )
s. r-iº ¤iºi ¬: (iº ·º ni ¬i¤-·i¬i - ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬ l·( ’ii ¬ ¬· ª¤ ·¤ni
·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬~¬ ·i· ¬º· (i¬i ¬ lªi¬i¤ ¬ªn ¬i¤ (iri ¬º· rn ¬· ¬i ¤¤ ¬i ¤
r +
¬· ¬ ¬(irººii ¬ -¤·- rini r l¬ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº r÷r ¬ ¬- r ¬ ¬· ª¤ ·¤ni
¬iº ¬- r(iº ·i nni· ( · ¬i ·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬in ¬º· - ¬¬¤¬ ri ºri r + ¬ l¬· :¬
·¤·i-·ii ¬i l·l’¤n ri -¬(n (·i¤i ¬i ¬¬ni r ¤l( :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i ¬i( ’i l·¬¬
l¬ ·i nni· ¬- r (iº ·¤ni ¬ ¬· ¬iº ri ri n ¤l( ·i nni· ¬- r (iº ·ri ri ni ¤ ºi
·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬·iin -i:- º - ¬ ·i nni· ri ni+ l·l’¤n ri :¬ ¬i( ’i ¬i ¤ ·ii(
·¤ni ·¤(-·ii ¬i -¬(ni ¤ (i· ¬º· (i¬i ri ni+
/. r-iº ¤iºi ¬i¤¬i ¤¬ ¤¤ l(¬¬i n ·¤l·n¤i ¬ ¬ ( l·in ·ii ¬i ¤i n¤i r l¬¬- ·º ni
- l(¬¬i n ·¤l·n¤i ¬ l¬¤ ¬i- l(’i ·i ( ¬¬n ¬i( ¬i÷ ¬i ·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬i·i
¬i¤ l·in r + :¬ rn ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¤iºi -¤·- ¬i( ’i ¬iºi l¬¤ ¬i¤ + nil¬ ¬·¬i
¬i-il¬¬ ( ªiin ¬º·ii ¬ l·l’¤n ri ¬¬ ¬i·i ri (r -¬(ºi ¬ r¬ ¬i ·ii ¤i·n ¬º
¬¬ + (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷s ss s) )) )
s. ni¬i(i÷ ¬i º ·ii¬(i÷i¤ - ¬ ¤·· ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi l¬¬- ¬· ¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i
¬l·¤l-nni¤ ¬iº ·i ·-i¤iº ¬¬inº r ¤ ¬·¬i l’i¬i¤n ¬iº ¬i ¤ ·ii r : + ¬º¬iº
¤iºi ¬i ¤ - -i-¬ l¬- ·ii r ¤ ¬ l¬· ¬i¬ l(· n¬ l¬¬i ·ii ¤ ¬iº ¬i ¬i¤ (iri
·ri r : + :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i «i¬ ¬ (i l·i¤i - · ni ·i¤ ¤ (i ri ºri r · ri ¬·ni -
¬i-il¬¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi ¬ ¬i ¤ l ¬ ¤i - l(’(i¬+
s. ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬ l·( ’ii·¬iº ¤ -¤ ¬ ¤ ¤i¤n - ¬- ¬i-ni ¬i l((ººi (i(i¬ ¤ l·- n ¬
-i·¤- ¬ ¤ (l’i n ri ·i ·ii+ ¬n-n za·a n¬ (·i as÷as ¤( as÷·a ¬i ¬ ¤·i¤ ¤ ·-
ri ¬i·i ·ii+ ¬ l¬· r-iº ¤iºi ¬i¤¬i ¬: ¤¤i ¬ -i·¤- ¬ (ni¤i l¬ ¬· ¬i ¬nr
¬ ¤·i¤ ·ri l¬ªii n: r ¤l( ¬ ¤·i¤ ¤ ·- ·ii r : r ni ( ¬-¤·- ¬·iºi ·ii-¬ ¤(
¬i-ni ¬i ¬ ¤·i¤ ni ¬ n ¬i :¬i: - l¬ªii n: r + ¬ ¬ ÷ (¤-·iº «a CFT ¬il()+ :¬
l(·i¤ ¬i n ·iiºni ¬ ¬ ¬º ¬i¤ (iri ¬i¤ l·in r +
·a. ºi·¤ ·iº - ¬n-n -ir - ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi ¬i¤i l¬n r ¤ ¬ l¬· ¤ ¬ ¬ ·iºi · ni
l·¤-i·¬iº r ¤ ¬iº · ri ¤ ·ii(i ª¤ ¬ r ¤ r + :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬ ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ ¬ ·iºi · ri
¤iº(l’i ni ¬i -·iil¤n ¬ºn r ¬i º · ri ¬(i(( ri ¬i + r-· ¬i¤¬i l(l·i·· l¬¬i -
r ¤ ¬ ¬ ·iºii ¬i (i-nl(¬ni ¤¤i ¬ -i·¤- ¬ (ni: ·ii+ ºi¬-·ii· ¤ ¤i¤ni ºi ºi¬-·ii· ¤ ¤i¤ni ºi ºi¬-·ii· ¤ ¤i¤ni ºi ºi¬-·ii· ¤ ¤i¤ni ºi¬ ¬ ¬ ¬
¬l·il·¤- ¬l·il·¤- ¬l·il·¤- ¬l·il·¤- ·ss« ·ss« ·ss« ·ss« (¬¬i l·in) (¬¬i l·in) (¬¬i l·in) (¬¬i l·in) l¬¬- -¤·- l¬ªii r ¬i r l¬ (i÷ ¬·ii¬i - ¬i-il¬¬
¬ ¬ ·iºi ri ni + ¬i·i ri (i÷ ¬·ii - ri ¬i¤i ¬i ¤i ¬·i ¤--i- - (·i·i ¬iº ¤¬i ¤(
¬i¬i ¬iºi ri ni + ¬i· · - l¬ªi :¬ -r-(¤ ºi ·iin ¬i n ·iiºni ¬ ¬in l¬¤i ¬i¤ +
(¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷/ // /) )) )
··. r-· ¬i¤¬i ¤ ¤i¤ni - ¬º¤ ¤i ¤iºi ¬i-ni ªiºi( ¬ l(ºi ·i - ¤¤ ¬i ¤i r + r-iºi
-i··i r l¬ ¤ ºi· ¬· ·i(i ¬ ¬iªin r ¤ r- ¤ ¤i¤n ¬l-ln ¤iºi ªiºi( ¬i ¤ l¬¤i ¬i
ri (ri¬ ºªi·i ¤ilr¤ + ¬i º ¬º¤ ¤i ¬i l·nºi·i ¬º· ¬ l¬¤ ¤ lºn ¬º·i ¤ilr¤ +
·z. ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬ l(·i ¬ z.·a.·a ¬ ¬i( ’i ¬ . : z(ss) ¬ ¬· ¬iº ¬º¤ ¤i ¬i -·ii¤i
¬ln - ºil’i raa ª. ¬i ¬i-i ¬i («i¬º ·aaaa ª. ¬º (i n: r + r- ¬nni r l

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 120
¬:¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i l·ºi ¤ ¤( - ¬º¤ ¤i ¤iºi ¬i n: ¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¬i ·¬º (i¬ ¬º ¬
l¬¤i n¤i r + ¤( ¬· ¬i ni ¬i -i n ¤º l¬¤i n¤i r ¬i ¤ ¬i ¬i ¬i º ( ¤ ¤i n ¬º·i
¤irn r + (¬ ¬··÷s ¬i( ’i ¬i ¬i ¤i) (¬ ¬··÷s ¬i( ’i ¬i ¬i ¤i) (¬ ¬··÷s ¬i( ’i ¬i ¬i ¤i) (¬ ¬··÷s ¬i( ’i ¬i ¬i ¤i)
·s. (iºi l¬¬ - ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ ¬ ( l·in ¤ ¬ººii ¤º ¬º¬iº ¬i l¬lªin ¤¤ ¬i ¤i ·ii
¬i·i ri ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ ·i- ¬i º ¬·¬i ºii ·iºi ¬º· (i¬i ¬ ·i- ¬i¤¬i ¬i ¤ ·i +
¬· ¬i ni ¬ ¬i( ¬i÷ ni (· n¤ ¬ l¬· ¬·¬i ¬º¤ ¤ ¤iºi ÷ºi¤i ·i-¬i¤i ¬i ºri
r + (ri ¬ ¤ ·ii(i ¬i ni · ¬i-i ¤·¬i (i¬i ¤i ¬·¤ ¬ l(·ii (i¬i ¬i ¬r ºªii r l¬
:· ¬i ni ¬i ¬i : ·ii ¬i- ·ri ¬º·i+ ¬( ( ·s ¤lº(iº ¬i¤i - l’¬¬i ¬i ¬i-·i
¬º ºr r +
l(¤iº ¬º· (i¬i (in ni ¤r r l¬ (iºi ¬¬ ·-º :· ¬i ni ¬i ( ·i ¬i -¬(º -i·· ¬i
n ¤iº ·ri r · ri ¬·¬ lªi¬i¤ l¬¬i ·ii ¤ ¬iº ¬i ¬i¤ (iri ri ºri r ¬i :¬¬
l¬¤ l·i-- (iº r + ¬i¤¬ ¬in r r l¬ :¬ - ( ( ¬i n ·iiºni ¬ ¬ ¬i º ¬·¤ ¬i ¤lº(iº
( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i ¬i(· n ¬iº ºr r ¬·r ·ii - ·n ¬ºi· rn ¬÷ ¬(- ¬-i¤ +
(¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷s s s s ) )) )

:¬ ¬-¤in r - ¬·ii nºi( ¬i n ¬¤· ÷¬¤· ·iºi (·¤i -( l’i¤i ¬iº ªini (i÷i ¬i si ÷ ¬º
:¬ ¬i¬ - ( - r l¬ ¬º¬iº -¬(ºi ¬i lrn ·ii r ¬i º ¬·i¬ ¬i(· ¬i· ¬ ¬( ·iil·¬ r¬i
¬i ¬º·ii ¬º ni+
¬i’ii r l¬ ¬i¤ :¬ ¤¤ - ºiil-¬ ¤¬÷¤¬ l(·( ¬i n ·iiºni ¬ ¬ n ¬i º ¬(¬ nºi( -¬( ºi
¬i ·¤i¤ l(¬i· - -(( ¬º n ¬i·i ri ¬i¤ l·in ¬i¤ (ilr¤i ·ii ¬º n +

¬r¤i n ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬ ¬i·i.......................

·i((i¤ ·i((i¤ ·i((i¤ ·i((i¤

¬--n ¬--n ¬--n ¬--n -¬(º r¬ -¬(º r¬ -¬(º r¬ -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in ri ºi¬-·ii· ¬-¤in ri ºi¬-·ii· ¬-¤in ri ºi¬-·ii· ¬-¤in ri ºi¬-·ii·



l·lªi¬ ÷ l·lªi¬ ÷ l·lªi¬ ÷ l·lªi¬ ÷ -ini¬i¬ -ini¬i¬ -ini¬i¬ -ini¬i¬ ºi ¬º l¬ r ºi ¬º l¬ r ºi ¬º l¬ r ºi ¬º l¬ r rlº¬i - ¬i ·i rlº¬i - ¬i ·i rlº¬i - ¬i ·i rlº¬i - ¬i ·i
¤( ¬l·i¤i· ¬ ¬·¤ ¬i·ii ¤( ¬l·i¤i· ¬ ¬·¤ ¬i·ii ¤( ¬l·i¤i· ¬ ¬·¤ ¬i·ii ¤( ¬l·i¤i· ¬ ¬·¤ ¬i·ii



Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 121
Chapter 5
Section 10

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 122
Chapter 5
Section 11

¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in ¬i ¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in ¬i ¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in ¬i ¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in ¬i l(·i ¬÷ s l(·i ¬÷ s l(·i ¬÷ s l(·i ¬÷ s. .. .·· ·· ·· ··. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a
- ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº

-ri (¤

¬ ¬i l¬ ¬i¤ ¬i·n r l¬ -¬(ºi ¬ r¬i ¬i ¬ º·ii ¬ l¬¤ -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¤º z ¬·- (º
¬ -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r ¬iºi r + ¬i¬ ¬-¤in r ¬i ss (i l((¬ r + ¬i º r-iº ¤i¬ ¬·ii n¬ :¬
¤ ¬iº ¬i ¬i’(i¬· ·ri ¬i¤i r l¬¬¬ r- ¬n l·- ¤( ¬ ·iº· ¬ ¬- ¬¬ +

r- ¬i·n r l¬ ¬i¤· ¬-i· ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi l-¬ ¬i º ¬¬ -r ni: ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ :¬
l(·i¤ ¬i n ·iiºni ¬ l¬¤i ¬iº ¤ ·ii·-¤i ¬i ¬i ¬in r ¤¤ ·i ¬i+ :¬¬ l¬¤ r- ¬i¤¬i ·i·¤(i(
(n r +

:¬¬ ¬¬i(i ¬i ¤i¬ ºi·¤ -nº ¬ ri r¬ ri ·i r ¬· ¤º ·ii n ·iiºni ¬ l(¤iº ¬º
l·-niººi rn r- ¬·ii ·ii ¬i¤ l·in r + r- ¬ ( l·in l(·iini¤ ¬l·i¬ilº¤i ¬ ·ii l-¬ ºr r + ¬ l¬·
¬·ii ·ii (rn -¤·- nºi¬ ¬ · ni r- -i lªi¬l¬lªin ¬(i( l-¬i r · ri ¬i¤ (ilr¤i ri ºri
r + ¬(l¬ ¬ s -i-¬ ni ¬º¬iº ¤iºi ri ¬i ¤ ¬º l¬- ¤i¤ n¤ r +

r- ¤ · ¬ s l(·( ¬i ¤º ¬i¤¬i ·¤i· ¬i¬l·i n ¬º·i ¤irn r +

• ¤iº(lºini÷ ¤iº(lºini÷ ¤iº(lºini÷ ¤iº(lºini÷ ¬ ¤·i ¬ ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · l·l’¤n ri ¤iº(l’i ni ¬i º ¬(i(( ri -·iil¤n ¬º·
¬ l¬¤ ¤¬ ¬’i·n -i·¤- r + ¬i º l(·i :¬¬ ¤¬ -(·s ·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬~¤·i ·ii ·ri ¬i
¬i ¬¬ni r +


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 123
¬i· · ¬i ·iiºi « ¬i· · ¬i ·iiºi « ¬i· · ¬i ·iiºi « ¬i· · ¬i ·iiºi « ¬ ¬· ¬iº l(·iin ¬i ¬--n ¬i·¬ilº¤i ¬i( ¬l·¬ ª¤ ¬ ªi ¬i ri ·i
¤ilr¤ + ¬ l¬· ºi·¤ ·iº - ºii¤( ri ¬i : l(·iin ri ¬ri :¬ -r-(¤ ºi ·iiºi ¬i ¬-¬ -
¬i¤i n¤i ri + :¬ ·iiºi ¬ ¬in rin ri l·l’¤n ri ¬i( (· ¬º· (i¬i ¬i ¬ ª¤i - ¬-i
¬i¤ ni ¬iº ¬i- ¬·ni ¬i ¬r¤i n ¤ ’ii¬l·¬ ¬i¤i - ri · ¬n ni+

÷ ·º ni ¬ nrn ¬- ¬i-ni ¬i ¬ ¤ ºi l((ººi ¬i( ¬l·¬ ª¤ ¬ (i(i¬i ¤º ¤ ·- ri
l¬¬¬ l¬¤ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬ ¬· ¬i (iº ¬ªn ¬i( ’i l·¬¬ r ¬· ¤º ¬: ¤ ¤i¤ni ¬i
l’i¬i¤n r-· ¬ ( l·in l(·iini ¬i ¬i ¤i r + l¬¬- ¬ ¤·i¤ ÷ ¬·iºi ¬-¤·- ¬i º ·i i-¬ ¬ ¤·i¤ ÷ ¬·iºi ¬-¤·- ¬i º ·i i-¬ ¬ ¤·i¤ ÷ ¬·iºi ¬-¤·- ¬i º ·i i-¬ ¬ ¤·i¤ ÷ ¬·iºi ¬-¤·- ¬i º ·i i-¬ l¬ªii
n: r + l¬· ¤º ¬i¤ (iri ¬i¤ l·in r +

• ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i - rni: ¬ ¬i ¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i - rni: ¬ ¬i ¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i - rni: ¬ ¬i ¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i - rni: ¬ ¬i ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ºi·¤ ¬i ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i ¬¤·ii ·ni - ~¤ ¬¤·ii ·ni - ~¤ ¬¤·ii ·ni - ~¤ ¬¤·ii ·ni - ~¤
¬ ¤¬i ¬ ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ ¬ ¤¬i ¬ ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ ¬ ¤¬i ¬ ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ ¬ ¤¬i ¬ ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ nil¬ ¬¬ ÷¬ ¬ - rni: (« ( ¬ ÷( ¬ ·¤ ·n- -¬( ºi ¬i (º ·ii
(« + l¬¬¬ (iº÷(iº -¬(ºi ¬i ¬·¬i -¬(ºi («i· ¬ l¬¤ ¬ ·i·i ¤i ¬i (i ¬· · ¬º·
¤÷ +
• ·º ni -¬(º ¤ l·¤·÷ ·º ni -¬(º ¤ l·¤·÷ ·º ni -¬(º ¤ l·¤·÷ ·º ni -¬(º ¤ l·¤·÷ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº · ·º ni -¬(ºi ¬i ¤ l·¤· ¬i ºl¬--÷ ¬º· ¬
-·i l¬¤i r + l·l’¤n ri ¤r -¬(ºi ¬ r¬ ¤º ¬i·iin r ¬i·i ri ¬¬( ·iil·¬ r +
¤ ¬i( ¤l’¤- ( ni¬ ¬º¬ ¬il( ºi·¤i - ·º ni -¬(ºi ¬i ¤ l·¤· ºl¬--÷ ri ¤ ¬i r +
¬ ¤¤i :¬ ¤º l(¤iº ¬º + ( (( (-¤·-i -¤·-i -¤·-i -¤·-i¬ººi ¬ººi ¬ººi ¬ººi ¬ ¬··÷ ·) ¬ ¬··÷ ·) ¬ ¬··÷ ·) ¬ ¬··÷ ·)

• n (l¬¤i - · ª n (l¬¤i - · ª n (l¬¤i - · ª n (l¬¤i - · ª. .. . ¬i ¤ ¬iºi÷ ¬i ¤ ¬iºi÷ ¬i ¤ ¬iºi÷ ¬i ¤ ¬iºi÷ n (l¬¤i l¬¬i -i ¬ (i¬ -i-¬ - ¬·ii n¬ l¬¬i ·ii ¤ ¬iº
¬i ¬i¤(iri ·ri ¬i n: r + · ni -¬(ºi ¬i ¬·¬i - r·n ¬i ¤ºi ¤¬i l-¬i r ¬iº ·
ri l¬- ri ¤ ¬ (i ·ii ¬- ¤ilº¤i l¬- ri ¤ ¬ (i ·ii ¬- ¤ilº¤i l¬- ri ¤ ¬ (i ·ii ¬- ¤ilº¤i l¬- ri ¤ ¬ (i ·ii ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬ lªi¬i¤ ¬i¤ (iri ri ºri r +
• l(’ l(’ l(’ l(’i ·i ¬il÷-÷ i ·i ¬il÷-÷ i ·i ¬il÷-÷ i ·i ¬il÷-÷ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¤iºi s· ¤ ¤i¤ni - l(’i ·i ¬i l÷- ¬º ¬n·in s ¬ºi ÷ ¬i s ¬ºi ÷ ¬i s ¬ºi ÷ ¬i s ¬ºi ÷ ¬i
lº¬(ºi lº¬(ºi lº¬(ºi lº¬(ºi ¬iº ¬i¤ (lr¤i ¤-nil(n ¬i n: ·ii+ ¬ l¬· ºi ª¬in - ri ¬(¬ sa ¬iªi ¬(¬ sa ¬iªi ¬(¬ sa ¬iªi ¬(¬ sa ¬iªi ¬
¬n·in lº¬(ºi ri ¤i: r ºi ·i ·ri r : r + (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ (¬ ¬··÷ z zz z) )) )

• (ºi ¬ ·i nni· ¤º - ¬i(¬i÷ (ºi ¬ ·i nni· ¤º - ¬i(¬i÷ (ºi ¬ ·i nni· ¤º - ¬i(¬i÷ (ºi ¬ ·i nni· ¤º - ¬i(¬i÷ ºi·¤ ·iº - ·º ni ¬i ·i nni· ¬i ¬n· z ¬ s -ir - ri ºri
r ¬(l¬ ¬i· ·· ·i nni· / ¬ ·r l(·i - ri ¬i·i ¤ilr¤ ·ri ni - ¬i(¬i l-¬· ¬i
¤ i(·ii· ¬i· · - l(¤i r + r- ¤irn r l¬ - ¬i(¬ ¬ ¤ i(·ii· ¬i ¤ l¬¤i ¬i º l·¤- - ¬i(¬ ¬ ¤ i(·ii· ¬i ¤ l¬¤i ¬i º l·¤- - ¬i(¬ ¬ ¤ i(·ii· ¬i ¤ l¬¤i ¬i º l·¤- - ¬i(¬ ¬ ¤ i(·ii· ¬i ¤ l¬¤i ¬i º l·¤-
(·i¬º :¬ ·¤(-·ii ¬i -¬(ni ¬ ¬in (·i¬º :¬ ·¤(-·ii ¬i -¬(ni ¬ ¬in (·i¬º :¬ ·¤(-·ii ¬i -¬(ni ¬ ¬in (·i¬º :¬ ·¤(-·ii ¬i -¬(ni ¬ ¬in ¬ºi( ¬ºi( ¬ºi( ¬ºi( + niºªi ÷ - :¬ ·¤·i-·ii ¬i ¬in ¬ºn ri
·i nni· - ri ºri (ºi - ¬-i ( ªii ¬i ¬¬ni r +
• (·i ¬i -¬(º (·i ¬i -¬(º (·i ¬i -¬(º (·i ¬i -¬(º ÷ (iºi l¬¬ - ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i ¤ ¬ººi l¬¬ ¬i¤¬ ¬-·i ºªii ·ii ¬¬ ¤º
¬i l’i¬ ¬i¤ (iri ni r : r ¬ ¬ ÷ ¬i( ¬i÷ ¤i (i¤i¤¬ ¬i÷ (··i+ ¬ ¬¬ ¬ l¬· l¬¬i ¬¬ ·-º l¬· l¬¬i ¬¬ ·-º l¬· l¬¬i ¬¬ ·-º l¬· l¬¬i ¬¬ ·-º
¬ ¬· ¬iº ( ( ·i ¬i -¬(º · ri ¬º ri¬i r + ¬ ¬· ¬iº ( ( ·i ¬i -¬(º · ri ¬º ri¬i r + ¬ ¬· ¬iº ( ( ·i ¬i -¬(º · ri ¬º ri¬i r + ¬ ¬· ¬iº ( ( ·i ¬i -¬(º · ri ¬º ri¬i r +

¬(l¬ nin r l¬ ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬l·il·¤- - -¤·- r l¬ ri¬i ¬ ª¤ - ¬i- ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬l·il·¤- - -¤·- r l¬ ri¬i ¬ ª¤ - ¬i- ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬l·il·¤- - -¤·- r l¬ ri¬i ¬ ª¤ - ¬i- ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ¬l·il·¤- - -¤·- r l¬ ri¬i ¬ ª¤ - ¬i-
¬ºi·i ·ii ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ (i¤º - ¬ini r+ ¬ºi·i ·ii ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ (i¤º - ¬ini r+ ¬ºi·i ·ii ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ (i¤º - ¬ini r+ ¬ºi·i ·ii ( ·i ¬i -¬(ºi ¬ (i¤º - ¬ini r+ ¤l( :·r ( ·i ¬i -¬(º ·ii l·in ·ri
l¬¤i ¬i¤ ni ni l·¤-i· ¬iº l-¬· (i¬i ºirn ¬ ( ¬·ii ( l¤n ºr ¬i¤ n +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 124

l¤¬ri¬ ¬· ·s ¤lº(iºi ¬i ÷ºi¤i ¬i º ·i-¬i¤i ¬i ºri r ¬i·i ri ·ii ln÷·ii ln ¤ ¬iº ¬
¤º ’ii· ·ii l¬¤i ¬i ºri r + ¬ ¬ ÷ ¤·¬i - ¬i-i ·ri ¤i¬·i r º÷¤ ¤ · ¬n· ( ·i ¬il(+

• ¤ ¤i¤ni - ¬ln - ºil’i÷ ¤ ¤i¤ni - ¬ln - ºil’i÷ ¤ ¤i¤ni - ¬ln - ºil’i÷ ¤ ¤i¤ni - ¬ln - ºil’i÷ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬ l(·i ¬ z.·a.·a ¬ ¬i( ’i ¬. z (ss) ¬ ¬· ¬iº
¬º¤ ¤i ¬i -·ii¤i ¬ln - ºil’i raa ª. ¬i ¬i-i ¬ («i¬º ·aaaa ª. ¬º (i n: r + r-
¬nni r l¬ :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i l·ºi ¤ ¤( - ¬º¤ ¤i ¤iºi ¬i n: ¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¬i ·¬º (i¬ :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i l·ºi ¤ ¤( - ¬º¤ ¤i ¤iºi ¬i n: ¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¬i ·¬º (i¬ :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i l·ºi ¤ ¤( - ¬º¤ ¤i ¤iºi ¬i n: ¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¬i ·¬º (i¬ :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i l·ºi ¤ ¤( - ¬º¤ ¤i ¤iºi ¬i n: ¬l·¤l-nni¬i ¬i ·¬º (i¬
¬º ¬ l¬¤i n¤i r + ¬º ¬ l¬¤i n¤i r + ¬º ¬ l¬¤i n¤i r + ¬º ¬ l¬¤i n¤i r + ¤( ¬· ¬i ni ¬i -i n ¤º l¬¤i n¤i r ¬i ¤ ¬i ¬i ¬i º ( ¤ ¤i n
¬º·i ¤irn r +


:¬ ¬-¤in r - ¬·ii nºi( ¬i n ¬¤· ÷¬¤· ·iºi (·¤i -( l’i¤i ¬i º ªini ¬i si ÷ ¬º :¬ ¬i¬ -
( - r l¬ ¬º¬iº -¬(ºi ¬i lrn ·ii r ¬i º ¬·¬ ¬i(· ¬i· ¬ ¬( ·iil·¬ r¬i ¬i ¬º·ii ¬º ni+

¬i’ii r l¬ ¬i¤ :¬ ¤¤ - ºiil-¬ ¤¬÷¤¬ l(·( ¬i n ·iiºni ¬ ¬ n ¬i º ¬(¬ nºi( -¬( ºi ¬i
·¤i¤ l(¬i· - -(( ¬º n ¬i·i ri ¬i¤ l·in ¬i¤(ilr¤i ·ii ¬º n +


¬r¤i n ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬ ¬i·i........................ ·i((i¤ ·i((i¤ ·i((i¤ ·i((i¤
¬--n -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in ¬--n -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in ¬--n -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in ¬--n -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in ri ºi¬-·ii· ri ºi¬-·ii· ri ºi¬-·ii· ri ºi¬-·ii·




¬ªºii ºi¤ ¬ªºii ºi¤ ¬ªºii ºi¤ ¬ªºii ºi¤ ºi ¬º l¬ r ºi ¬º l¬ r ºi ¬º l¬ r ºi ¬º l¬ r -ini ¬i¬ -ini ¬i¬ -ini ¬i¬ -ini ¬i¬ rlº¬i - ¬i ·i rlº¬i - ¬i ·i rlº¬i - ¬i ·i rlº¬i - ¬i ·i

¤( ¬ ¤·i ¤( ºi ¬niº ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬ ¬--n ¬il·i¤i ¬i ¬iº ¬

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Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 126
Chapter 5
Section 12
9 November 2010
Mr. Manohar Kant,
Principal Secretary,
Labour and Employment
Government of Rajasthan

Dear Sir,
Sub: In relation to the order refusing registration of “the Rajasthan Rojgar Guarantee
Majdoor Union” under the Trade Unions Act, 1926
Ref: Order of the Registrar of Trade Unions dated 3.8.2010 numbered as F.1/RTU/A-4/2010
– 24180
This is in relation to the order of the Registrar of Trade Unions dated 3.8.2010 rejecting the
application to get the Rajasthan Rojgar Guarantee Majdoor Union registered under the Trade Unions
Act, 1926. In this behalf, we want to submit the following clarifications:
1. In para 6 of the order, the Registrar has observed that the applicant union was asked by the
department “to clarify as to how the persons employed under NREGA can be considered
workmen and how NREGA can be trade or industry for the purpose of registration of trade
union under the Trade Unions Act, 1926”. It has also been observed in this relation that the
applicant union did not submit any clarification to this query of the department.
We want to put on record that the applicant union never received any such query from the
department in the first place. There has been correspondence between the department and
the applicant union, but the office of the Registrar never sought a clarification of the nature
mentioned in para 6 of the order.
2. It is noteworthy that the purpose of the Trade Unions Act, 1926 is to foster an environment
which will facilitate collective assertion of the rights of the workers. In the decision of Bank
of India Employees’ Association v. Reserve Bank of India, (1983) 2 LLN 872 (Bom), the court
also emphasized collective bargaining as the primary purpose of this trade unions legislation.

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 127
While interpreting a benefical legislation like the Trade Unions Act, it is paramount that the
administrative authority while interpreting the Act bears in mind the purpose and intent of
the legislation. Supreme Court has also endorsed this view in Bharat Singh v. New Delhi
Tuberculosis Centre (1986) 2 SCC 614, in the following terms:
It is here that the court has to evolve the concept of purposive interpretation which
has found acceptance whenever a progressive social beneficial legislation is under
review.
Also, due regard must be given to the nature of MGNREGA in relation to which the applicant
union is seeking to take benefit of the registration under the Trade Unions Act. MGNREGA is
the first of the rights based legislations in the legislative history of this country providing for
a legal guarantee of 100 days employment. Any union which has its primary aim to further
the implementation of a beneficial right based legislation like MGNREGA, therefore, should
receive full advantage of the Trade Unions Act which was enacted to enhance the bargaining
power of the workers to claim their duly recognized rights.
In light of the above, we put forward the claim of the Rajasthan Rojgar Guarantee Majdoor Union for
registration under the Trade Unions Act, 1926.

Yours Sincerely,



Paras Banjara,
Secretary
Rajasthan Rojgar Guarantee Majdoor Union
Village Devdungari, Post Barar
District Rajsamand - 313341

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 128



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Chapter 6
Flexes used in the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha











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Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 139
Chapter 7
Songs from the Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha
¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ ......... ......... ......... .........
n - (i ¬ ¬i ¤i ¬i ’ii ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
-¬(ºi («i¬ ¬i¤ n n - ( ªin ºlr¤i
-¬(ºi -r ni: ¬ ¬ ÷(i¤ n n - ( ªin ºlr¤i

·¤ ·n- ¬ ¬- · l-¬ ¤ ¬i - ¬i ¤º-i· r ÷ z
-¤i¬¤ - ((i ºªii ¤ ¬i - ¬i ¬¤-i· r ÷ z
-i¬(ºi ¬ l¬·¬i ¬i(· ¤¬·i ¬¬ ¬·ni ¬i ¤ ¬º-i· r +
¬·( ªii ¬º ¬·ni ¬ r¬ ¬i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
¬ · ·ri -¬( ºi ¬i ¬i ¤¬ - ¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ........
-¬(ºi......................................................................

¬¤·i -i·¬º (i - l(¤i n -r l(~¬i - ¤r ¤i¤i r ÷ z
-¤i (·i -¬(º l(ºi ·ii ¤¬i ·iln (·(ini r ÷ z
¬( ¬·ni · ¬i(i¬ ¬-i: ni -- ¬i (in (nini r ÷ z
¬·ni ¬i n -ºir l¬¤i ¤¬ - ¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
-¬(ºi......................................................................

¤i( ºªi·i (i - ni ¬·ni ¬ ri ¬ ·i r
n -r (i¤¬ ¤ri ¬i·i r ·ii ÷ i ¬·ni ¬ ÷lº¤i
-¬(ºi.......................................................................

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 140

n¬ ÷ (il(¬i ¬ni ¬i¬ ·iiºi niºi ºi ºiºiniº n¬ ÷ (il(¬i ¬ni ¬i¬ ·iiºi niºi ºi ºiºiniº n¬ ÷ (il(¬i ¬ni ¬i¬ ·iiºi niºi ºi ºiºiniº n¬ ÷ (il(¬i ¬ni ¬i¬ ·iiºi niºi ºi ºiºiniº........... ........... ........... ...........

nr¬in ¬ ºi ·¤ ·i º ¬i -¬( ºi (iºii (in
·i ni ( ªii ·¤ ·i º ·iiºi (¤nº - ¬i¤ +
·i ni ( ªii ·¤ ·i º -i¬i ¤ ¤i¤n - ¬i¤ +
¬ ¤· ¬ - -¤i( º -i¬i ¤ ¤i¤n - ¬ ¤
(i÷i¤i ¬ - -¤i( º -i¬i ¤ ¤i¤n ¬ -i¤...........·i ni ( ªii ·¤ ..............

n -i ¬i ¬÷i ·i ¬ ¬l¤( ¬in¬i ¬ -i¤
nr¬in ¤ s ·¤ ·i º ·ii ¬i ¤-(iºi · ¬i¤
¤ ni lºº(n ªii( º -ri¬i ¬-i·i ¬ -i¤
¬º¬iº ¤ s ·¤ ·i º ·ii¬i -i--ºi · ¬i¤
¤ ni -i ÷i -i ÷ i ¬i( l(· - ( ni ri ¤¬ ¬i¤ ....... ·i ni ( ªii .........

¬º¬iº ( ªi ·¤ ·i º ·ii¬i ¬¤iªii·i ¬i ri¬
÷i ·-º l¤¬ ¬i ¤··º - -lº¬ ri ºiri ( ri¬
¤ ni ri n·¤i ri ·¤i º (¤nº·iiºi -i¬i-i¬
¤ ni ni(i ni(i ¬i ¬i n ·ii· l(¤i ·iºii (i -
·¤ ¬º·¤i ¬º·¤i º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬¤º ¤i - ÷ z ·i ni ( ªii .........

¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i
¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 141

¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr ¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr ¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr ¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr
¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr + ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr + ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr + ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr +
l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr
¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ ¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ ¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ ¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ .......... .......... .......... ..........¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i........ ........ ........ ........
nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr
¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ........... ........... ........... ...........¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i.................. .................. .................. ..................
rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr
·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ........... ........... ........... ...........¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( .............. .............. .............. ..............
l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr
¬¬( ¬i ¬¬( ¬i ¬¬( ¬i ¬¬( ¬i n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ .......... .......... .......... ..........¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ............. ............. ............. .............
-¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr -¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr -¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr -¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr
¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ............... ............... ............... ...............

¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i
¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 142

n¬ ÷ :·ri ¬i ni · n¬ ÷ :·ri ¬i ni · n¬ ÷ :·ri ¬i ni · n¬ ÷ :·ri ¬i ni · . .. ............... .............. .............. ..............

- rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni - rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni - rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni - rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni
¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬
ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i( ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i( ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i( ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i(
¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: ¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: ¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: ¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: .................... .................... .................... ....................
·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i ·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i ·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i ·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i
r¬ r¬ r¬ r¬ l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬i + + -r ni: l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬i + + -r ni: l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬i + + -r ni: l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬i + + -r ni: ................. ................. ................. .................
rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º( rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º( rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º( rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º(
-r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ -r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ -r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ -r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ......... ......... ......... .........
¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni
¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ª ¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ª ¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ª ¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ªii ¤ ¤ºi ¬( ii ¤ ¤ºi ¬( ii ¤ ¤ºi ¬( ii ¤ ¤ºi ¬(
¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ .............. .............. .............. ..............
¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i- ·¤i(i ¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i- ·¤i(i ¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i- ·¤i(i ¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i- ·¤i(i
¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni( ¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni( ¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni( ¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni(
·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i
¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 143

¬¤·i ni ¬ ¬ n ¬ ·ii ÷i ¤¬ ¤i ( ¬ ¬- ¬i¤ ni
¬i¤¬i ·¤i ri ni ¬º¬iº ¬i ¤i

¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii («ni (i(i¬i ¬i (i ·¬ (-ni
-¬(ºi ( ri÷ i ·i-ni ·¤i l¬ ¤ ¬º¬iº ·-ni
ni l¤º ¬i¤¬i ·¤i ri ni ¬i ¬º¬iº ¬i ¤i

¬i - ¬i ¤º-i· ¬i¤i -¬(ºi ¬ lrn - ¤i¤i
n -· ¬·ni ¬ ls¤i¤i -¬( ºi ¬ l¬¤i s¬i(i
(ri·i -- ¬i (·i¤i
¬( ni ¬·ni · ¬i·i ¬i ni · n -¬i ¤r¤i·i
l¬ ¤i ¬ ªi ¬ n: ¬iºi ¬i ¬º¬iº ¬i ¤i

¤i ¤ ¬i¬ ¬( ¤ºi ri ni l¤º ¬i¤ ¬i -i¬ - ri ni
ni(i - ¬( ¬i·i ri ni (i -i ¬i ¬( ni·i ri ni
n( ¬i¤¬i ·¤i ri ni ¬i ¬º¬iº ¬i ¤i

·iººii ¤ ( - ºr n -¬(ºi («(i ¬ ºr n
·i ·-i¤iºi ·ri ¬r n r¬ r-iºi ¬ ¬ ºr n
( ªin ri ºr·i ¬i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬i
¬i¤¬i ·¤i ri ni ¬º¬iº ¬i ¤i

¬¤·i ni .........................................................................


-¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 144

¬º¬iº r-iºi ¬ ºi ¬ ¬º¬iº r-iºi ¬ ºi ¬ ¬º¬iº r-iºi ¬ ºi ¬ ¬º¬iº r-iºi ¬ ºi ¬i ·i -¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬-i ¬i ·i i ·i -¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬-i ¬i ·i i ·i -¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬-i ¬i ·i i ·i -¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬-i ¬i ·i

-ri·i +¤º ·iººii ri ·¤i ¤ ’ii¬· ¤ºi ¬i lº¤i
¬º¬iº ¬i ·i ( ¬÷ ¬i ·i
-¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬- ¬i ·i.......................................

¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii («i( ¬l·i¬ilº¤i · -i ¬ ¬ºi(
(i ·¬ (ni ·- : ¬i ·i
-¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬- ¬i ·i.......................................

¬i ª¤¤i ¬i º - (ni( ¤ ·~-i -i¬ ¤ºi ¬ni(
¤¬ ª¤¤i (ni ºiº- ¬i( ¬i ·i
-¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬- ¬i ·i.......................................

- rni: ¬i («ni ¬i(i -¬(ºi -i¬i ·i--i ¬i(
¤ - ·iº ºi -i l-¬ ¬i ·i
-¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬- ¬i ·i.......................................

¬( n¬ ª¤¤i (i ¬i ·: (( ·iººii -i¬i ¤i¬ º(
(i¤i(¬i ¤ l(¤i ¬¬ ¬i ·i
-¬(ºi ¬i ·iººii ¬- ¬i ·i.......................................


-¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 145

¬iºni ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬iºni ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬iºni ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬iºni ¬º¬iº ¬i..... ..... ..... .....
ri¤ ri¤ ¬º¬iº rº (i ¬i ri¤ ¬º¬iº rº
¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬ ·i--i n·ªii ÷(¬ ¬º
(i ¬i ÷ ri¤ ¬º¬iº rº .......................................

n - ¬·ni ¬ ·i·i¬ ªii¬º ¤ - ·iº ÷z
·:¤i ÷ ( r-iºi n -riºi ·i( ¤¬ ++ ri¤÷ri¤................

- rni: l·n («ni ¬i( ¬(¬ ·ii( ¤«
(i(i¬i ¬i (i ·¬ ( ·i ri n -¬i ¤÷ ++ ri¤÷ri¤..........

·iº· ¤º -¬(º ( - ¬·¬i ·iri ¬ ·
ªii¬i ¬º ªi¬i·i ln¬iºi ¬¤·i ·iº ++ ri¤÷ri¤..........

lºº(nªiiºi («i( ·i ·-i¤iº ¬º (i ¬i .............
¤ ¬i nºi( ¬i ªii( ¤¬i ºi¬ ¬º ++ ri¤÷ri¤..........

(i(i¬i ¬i ¬i( (¤nº (i¤ ¬¬ (i ¬i ................
ºr ¬ ·iºi -¬(ºi ¬ ¬i¬i l((i¬i ¬º ++ ri¤÷ri¤.......

-¤i ¬i ’ii ¬i ¬iºln ¬i ¬i : ¬· ni(
(i¬i -¬(ºi ·i- ¬i( (i¬ ¤ · ~-i ¬i(
(i¬ ¤¬ ª¤¤i ¬i( (i¬i ª¤¤i ªii ¬i(
¬rn -¬(º ¬º¬iº ¬ -i n ¤ºi ¬º ++ ri¤÷ri¤.........

-¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r z ¬·- (º za·a ¬ ¬iºi -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 146

¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ n¬ ÷ n - (i ¬ ......... ......... ......... .........

n - (i ¬ ¬i ¤i ¬i ’ii ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
-¬(ºi («i¬ ¬i¤ n n - ( ªin ºlr¤i
-¬(ºi -r ni: ¬ ¬ ÷(i¤ n n - ( ªin ºlr¤i

·¤ ·n- ¬ ¬- · l-¬ ¤ ¬i - ¬i ¤º-i· r ÷ z
-¤i¬¤ - ((i ºªii ¤ ¬i - ¬i ¬¤-i· r ÷ z
-i¬(ºi ¬ l¬·¬i ¬i(· ¤¬·i ¬¬ ¬·ni ¬i ¤ ¬º-i· r +
¬·( ªii ¬º ¬·ni ¬ r¬ ¬i ¤¬ -¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
¬ · ·ri -¬( ºi ¬i ¬i ¤¬ - ¤i ¬ (l¤¤i ........
-¬(ºi......................................................................

¬¤·i -i·¬º (i - l(¤i n -r l(~¬i - ¤r ¤i¤i r ÷ z
-¤i (·i -¬(º l(ºi ·ii ¤¬i ·iln (·(ini r ÷ z
¬( ¬·ni · ¬i(i¬ ¬-i: ni -- ¬i (in (nini r ÷ z
¬·ni ¬i n -ºir l¬¤i ¤¬ - ¤i ¬ (l¤¤i
-¬(ºi......................................................................

¤i( ºªi·i (i - ni ¬·ni ¬ ri ¬ ·i r
n -r (i¤¬ ¤ri ¬i·i r ·ii ÷ i ¬·ni ¬ ÷lº¤i
-¬(ºi.......................................................................

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 147

nr¬in ¬ ºi ·¤ ·i º ¬i -¬( ºi (iºii (in
·i ni ( ªii ·¤ ·i º ·iiºi (¤nº - ¬i¤ +
·i ni ( ªii ·¤ ·i º -i¬i ¤ ¤i¤n - ¬i¤ +
¬ ¤· ¬ - -¤i( º -i¬i ¤ ¤i¤n - ¬ ¤
(i÷i¤i ¬ - -¤i( º -i¬i ¤ ¤i¤n ¬ -i¤...........·i ni ( ªii ·¤ ..............

n -i ¬i ¬÷i ·i ¬ ¬l¤( ¬in¬i ¬ -i¤
nr¬in ¤ s ·¤ ·i º ·ii ¬i ¤-(iºi · ¬i¤
¤ ni lºº(n ªii( º -ri¬i ¬-i·i ¬ -i¤
¬º¬iº ¤ s ·¤ ·i º ·ii¬i -i--ºi · ¬i¤
¤ ni -i ÷i -i ÷ i ¬i( l(· - ( ni ri ¤¬ ¬i¤ ....... ·i ni ( ªii .........

¬º¬iº ( ªi ·¤ ·i º ·ii¬i ¬¤iªii·i ¬i ri¬
÷i ·-º l¤¬ ¬i ¤··º - -lº¬ ri ºiri ( ri¬
¤ ni ri n·¤i ri ·¤i º (¤nº·iiºi -i¬i-i¬
¤ ni ni(i ni(i ¬i ¬i n ·ii· l(¤i ·iºii (i -
·¤ ¬º·¤i ¬º·¤i º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬¤º ¤i - ÷ z ·i ni ( ªii .........

¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i
¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 148

¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr ¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr ¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr ¬i· · (·i r-¬i -i¬ ºr
¬¤¬º (i( -¬ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr + i -iº ºr + i -iº ºr + i -iº ºr +
l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr l(· l(· ·iº r- n÷ ÷i ªii ( ºr
¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ ¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ ¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ ¤ºi -¬(ºi r-¬i ·i ( ºr ++ .......... .......... .......... ..........¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i........ ........ ........ ........
nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr nºi(i ¬i ªi · ¤ ¤i ºr
¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ++ ........... ........... ........... ...........¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i ¬i· · (·i. .. .................. ................. ................. .................
rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr rº s -lr·i - n·ª(i («i ºr
·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ·i-ni ¬¬n ¬ ¬ ºr ++ ........... ........... ........... ...........¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( .............. .............. .............. ..............
l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr l(·ii¤¬ ¬i n·ªii ( n·i ¤r ¬º ºr
¬¬( ¬i n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ ¬¬( ¬i n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ ¬¬( ¬i n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ ¬¬( ¬i n·ªii lnn·i («i ºr ++ .......... .......... .......... ..........¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ¬¤¬º (i( ............. ............. ............. .............
-¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr -¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr -¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr -¬(º ¬i -¬(ºi ¬i- ºr
¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ¬¤¬º (i( -¬i -iº ºr ............... ............... ............... ...............

¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i
¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 149


- rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni - rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni - rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni - rni: (« ni -¬(ºi ·i-ni
¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¬¤¤º - ·iººii ¬ni l(¤i ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬
ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i( ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i( ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i( ni( ni( ¬ -¬(º ¬i( n r (i¬ºi ¬i·i ¬i(
¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: ¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: ¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: ¤ (i ¬i ·ii ¤¬i (( ¬º¬iº ¬ · ¬ ++ - r(i: .................... .................... .................... ....................
·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i ·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i ·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i ·ii¬ ·iºi¬ - ·ri ¬i¤iªiº¤i - ¬i·i - ¬i¤i
r¬ l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬ r¬ l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬ r¬ l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬ r¬ l¬¤i (i( ¬i¤¬i + + -r ni: i + + -r ni: i + + -r ni: i + + -r ni: ................. ................. ................. .................
rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º( rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º( rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º( rº ri·i ¬i ¬i- ( ( ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¤ºi ¬º(
-r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ -r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ -r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ -r ni: ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷ ( ( « ¤i ¬i ¤ ºi· ¬º¬ ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ......... ......... ......... .........
¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni ¬- ¤ilº¤i ¬i n·ªii (« ni ( n·i (« ni lnn ·i (« ni
¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ªii ¤ ¤ºi ¬( ¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ªii ¤ ¤ºi ¬( ¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ªii ¤ ¤ºi ¬( ¬i¬ - s -lr·i ¬i- ¬i (( n·ªii ¤ ¤ºi ¬(
¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ¤i ¬ s-i (n· ¬ni( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ .............. .............. .............. ..............
¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i · ¤i(i ¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i · ¤i(i ¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i · ¤i(i ¬ (r ¬- - ·º ni - ¬i(i ¤ini ¬ - ¬i · ¤i(i
¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni( ¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni( ¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni( ¤ºi ¬i- ¬i ¤ ¬i ·ri (( ¤ ¬ ·-i -i¬ ¬ni(
·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ·r l(· - ·i nni· l(¬i( ++ ¬º¬iº ¬ ·¬ ...................... ...................... ...................... ......................

¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i ¬ ¤·i ¤(- ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i· ¬i ni·i
¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i ¬¤¤º ·iº·i

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Chapter 8
Press notes


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¤¬ l(nl·n ¤¬ l(nl·n ¤¬ l(nl·n ¤¬ l(nl·n
· º¤¤ ¬i ·i nni· · º¤¤ ¬i ·i nni· · º¤¤ ¬i ·i nni· · º¤¤ ¬i ·i nni·
ln·i¬ ( ¬ ¬i¤ (~÷ lº¬i÷ - (¬ l¬ ln·i¬ ( ¬ ¬i¤ (~÷ lº¬i÷ - (¬ l¬ ln·i¬ ( ¬ ¬i¤ (~÷ lº¬i÷ - (¬ l¬ ln·i¬ ( ¬ ¬i¤ (~÷ lº¬i÷ - (¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ ¤i ¬i¤ ¤i ¬i¤ ¤i ¬i¤
¬¤¤º s ¬·- (º+ ·¤ ·n- -¬(ºi ¬i -r ni: ¬ ¬i ÷ · ¬ l¬¤ -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¤º l(¤ ¬i ºr ·iº· ¬ ¬i ni · n¤
l¬¤i l¬ ri¬ ri - ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ¬ ¤iºi -i ¬ l¬¬ ¬ n (l¬¤i ni ( ¬ -ri·º ni -¬( ºi ¬i l(¤ n¤ · º¤¤
¬ ·i nni· ¬i ln·i¬ ( ¬ ¬i ¤ (~÷ lº¬i÷ - ºiil-¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤+ :¬¬ l¬¤ ¬ ¤·i ¤( ºi ¬niº ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·i¤i·
¬ ¤iºi ¤r ¬ ¤·i ln·i¬ ( ¬ ¬i¤ (~÷ lº¬i÷ ¬i l·i¬(i: ¬i¤ni+
·iº·i -·i¬ ¤º (ni¤i n¤i l¬ ¬ini-i l(·i - -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r ¬ (i ºi· l(l·i·· ¬-- ¬· ¬i¤i l¬n ¬º·
¤-nil(n r + l(·i ¬ s ¬·- (º ¬i ·º ni ¤( ¬ ¤·i ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ·iiºi « ¤º ¤¤i ¬i ¬i¤ni ·a ¬·- (º ¬i
·º ni ¬i º l(¬¬i n -¬(º
¬-- ¬· ·r ¬·- (º ¬i ·º ni - -¬(ºi ¬ ·a r¬i ¤º ¬· ¬ ·(i: zr ¬·- (º ¬i ·º ni ¬i º ¤ ¤i¤ni ºi¬
¬’il·n¬ººi ¬-- ¬· ( sa ¬·- (º ¬i -¬(º ¬i¤i n ¤ ln( (· ¬i ¤-n ln (i ¬i¤ni+
/ l¬n-(º ¬i ss l¬¬i ¬ ¬¬ ·-ºi ¬ ¬ ¤·i ¬ ¬l·i¬iº ¬ nrn ¬ ¤·i -i ni ¬i¤ni l¬ l¬¬ - -ri·º ni ¬
¬nnn l¬¬i -nº ¤º l¬n·i ¬i-n i ªiºi(i n: ( ¬i-n i ªiºi( ¤º l¬n·i ªi¤ l¬¤i n¤i+
¬i¬ -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¤º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r ¬º ºr -¬(ºi · -¬(ºi ¬i («i· ( («i¬º -r ni: ¬ ¬i ÷ · ¬i
-i ni ¬i ¬ ¬º º·i ¤ln ºi·i( ºi¬iºi- ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬·-ln ( ·in(i· ni¬º ·iº· ¬i ¬iº ·i l¬¤i+ ·iº· - ni(i ¬
-¬(ºi ¬i ¬i·i ¬niniº ¬iºi r + (ri ¬¤¤º ¬ -¬(º ·ii ·iº· ¬ ¬ ÷ ºr r +
¬i¬ ·iº· - ¬(¤¤º l¬¬ ¬ ªi º(i÷i ¬i -÷i ( ni÷i ¬ ºi¬¬-·( l¬¬ ¬ º ¬- nºi (iºi l¬¬ ¬ ri-ºi (
·ini º l¬¬ ¬ + -(il¬¤i ¬ -¬ (º ¬i¤+ ·ini º l¬¬ ¬ + -(il¬¤i ni ( ¬ ¬i¤ ¬ºi l¬ r l¤ni ¬n- l¬ r
ºi¬¤n · ·iº· ¬ ¬i ni ¬i (ni¤i l¬ ¬·r -ri·º ni - ¬i- ¬i ¤ºi ¤ ¬i ·ri l-¬i+ ¬·ri · + -(il¬¤i ¬
¬iººi¤ºi n¬ n(¬ ¬÷ ¬ l·-i ºi ¬i¤ - ·s l¬n-(º ¬ sa l¬n-(º zaas n¬ ·z l(· ¬i- l¬¤i+ ¬·¬ ªiin -
·z l(· ¬ ¬i- ¬ ((¬ ·ra º¤¤ ri ¬-i r ¤+ ¬(l¬ ---ºi ¬ ·-(º rsrsrs - ssa º¤¤ ¤«i¤ n¤ ·i + l(··iº
¬i- ¬º· ¬ (i(¬ ( -i¤ sa º¤¤ ¤ lnl(· ¬ lr¬i( ¬ ¤« i¤ n¤ ·i ¬ l¬· (i ·ii ·ri l-¬ + :·ri · ¬i ¤¬º ¤ºi
·i nni· ¬º(i· ¬ l¬¤ ¬l¤( ¬ : ¤· l(¬i¬ ¬l·i¬iºi ¬ -i n ¬i ¬ l¬· l¬¬i · ·ri ¬ ·i+ ¬·ri · (ni¤i l¬
-¬(ºi ¬ r¬i ¬i ¬ ¬º l¬¤ ¬i ºr -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r ¬ (iº - ¬i·¬iºi l-¬i ni (r ¬¤¤ º ¤¬ ¬i¤+

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 177
(iºi l¬¬ ¬i ºiir(i( nr¬i¬ ¬ ri-ºi ni( ¬ ¬i¤ - - ¬i·¬i ¬i¬ ¬rlº¤i · (ni¤i l¬ ri-ºi ni( ¬ sa
-¬(ºi · n i- ¤ ¤i¤n l« ¬-·i ¤iºi -ri·º ni ¬ ¬nnn ¬º(i¤ n¤ ¬i¤ - · ¬ · ¬ sa ¬ · za·a n¬ ¬i¤
l¬¤i+ ¬ l¬· ¬·ii n¬ ·i nni· ·ri r ¬i r + -ri·º ni ¤ i(·ii·i ¬ ¬·¬iº ·r l(· - ·i nni· ri ¬i·i ¤ilr¤+
¬i·¬i ¬i¬ · (ni¤i l¬ ¬i¬ n¬ ·r l(· - ·i nni· ·ri r ¬i r + ¤ ¬i ( ¬ - ¬-i r ¬i ¤i ·ri r ¬i :¬¬i
¬i·¬iºi ni- ¬(¬ ¤i ºi ¬niº ¬ri¤¬ ¤iºi ·ri (i ¬ini r + ¤¬ - ·i nni· ¬i ¬i·¬iºi ¬ l¬¤ ·ii r- (iº
(iº ( ¬ - ¬i·i ¤÷ ºri r +
¬i¬ ·iº·i -·i¬ ¤º ¬¤¤º ¬ l·-i ºi -¬(º ¬ ·i ¬ rº¬ ’i ¬ -iº · (ni¤i l¬ s ¬·- (º ¬ ¬¤¤º ¬ lrºi¤ ºi
¤i(ni·nº (¬·¤i(-ni) ¬ ’ii¬¤ºi (¬·¤i(-ni) ¬ ¬¤·nº ( ’ii¬i·nº ¬ -¬( º -¬(º r¬ ¬-¤in r ¬ ¬ ÷ n +
¬·ri · (ni¤i l¬ nº ¬º¬iºi ¬i-i ¬ l·-i ºi -¬(º ( ÷i - l--¬ -¬( ºi ¬i ri¬n (¤·i¤ r + ¬¤¤º ¬
÷i - l--¬ -¬(ºi ¬i -r¬ saa ¬ raa º¤¤ l(¤ ¬in r + ¤¬ - ¬·r ¬: ·iºi - ¬i¤ ¬º·i ¤÷ni r l¤º ·ii
-r ni: ¬ (i º - ·iº ¤¬i·i - l’¬¬ ri ºri r +
¤i -i ¬¬·· ÷
(iºi l¬¬ ¬ ¬i¤ - - ¬i·¬i ¬i¬ ¬rlº¤i
l·lªi¬ ÷ --ni ¬ n¬i ¬iº.÷i. ·¤i¬
¬l·i¤i· ¬i ¬iº ¬

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Please see Sections 6 and 7 of Chapter 3


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See Section 8 of Chapter 3

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ni¤· ni¤· ni¤· ni¤·
l(·i ¬ z·.·a.·a
¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ ¬i nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº
¬¤¤ º

¤iºi÷- ª¤ ¬l¤( -ri (¤ ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ¬¤¤ º

l(·i¤ ºi¬-·ii· ¬ ·i -·n ¤( ( l¤n (ni ¬ ·inlº¬ ¬l·i¬iº ¬ l·l’¤n ¬º· ¬ ¬-
- +

¬ (·i ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· za·a

-ri (¤

¬¤ºi ·n l(·i¤ - l·( (· r l¬ z· ¬·- (º za·a ¬i -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¬¤¤º ¤º
¬i¤i l¬n ·i -·n ¤( ( l¤n (ni ¬ ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· - ¬i¤ ( ¬iºi ¬i¬( l¬¤i
ªi ª¬i (inlº¤i (i~-il¬ :-¤il( ¬iln¤i ¬ ¬ ÷ ¬i ni ¬i ¬--¤i¬i ¬ l·ºi¬ººi r n
l·-· -i n ¬i¤¬ ¬ºn r ÷
• ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤- - ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤- - ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤- - ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤- - :· ·i -·n ¤( ( l¤n ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i n ¬ri ·ii (¬ r ¤ r ¬·r
¬¬i ¬nr ¤º ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤- - l(¤ ¬i¤ +
• -¤ ’i¬ -¤ ’i¬ -¤ ’i¬ -¤ ’i¬ ¬ ¤i · - ·¬i· ¬ ¤i · - ·¬i· ¬ ¤i · - ·¬i· ¬ ¤i · - ·¬i· rº ¬º¬iºi ¤i ¬·i - ¬¤ºi ·n (ni ¬ l(¬i¬ ¬ l¬¤
l(’i ·i ¤i ¬·i¤ (·i: ¬i¤ n·ii ¬¬¬ l¬¤ l(’i ·i (¬- ¬i ¤i(·ii· l¬¤i ¬i¤
¬i ¬(¬ :·ri (ni ¬ l¬¤ ªi¤ l¬¤i ¬i¤ +
• l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤i ¬i l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤i ¬i l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤i ¬i l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤i ¬i -·ii¤·i -·ii¤·i -·ii¤·i -·ii¤·i ¤ l¬ ·i -·n ( ( l¤n (l¬n ¬- (i¤i ¬i
¤ ¬iln¤i (i¬i ¬-i¬ ¬ ¬-i r : ºrni r n·ii (i l’i·iºi ¬ ( l¤n ºr ¬ini

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 218
r :·¬i ¤¬ -·ii· ¤º ¬i : -iº l-¬i·i ·ii ·ri ri ni r :¬l¬¤ (·¤ ·ri
¤« ¤in r + ¬n :· (ni ¬ (i¬¬ (il¬¬i¬i ¬ l¬¤ l(’i ·i ¬i(i¬i¤
l(ni¬¤i ¬i -·ii¤·i ¬i ¬i¤ +
• l(’i ·i ¬l·i¬iºi ¬i l·¤ ·n l(’i ·i ¬l·i¬iºi ¬i l·¤ ·n l(’i ·i ¬l·i¬iºi ¬i l·¤ ·n l(’i ·i ¬l·i¬iºi ¬i l·¤ ·n ·i -·n ( ( l¤n (ni ¬i ¤ -¤ ¬ ¬iln ¬i ¬ ·(i: (
¬i¤ (iri ¬ l¬¤ ºi·¤ -nº ¤º ¤¬ l(’i ·i ¬l·i¬iºi l·¤ ·n l¬¤i ¬i¤ ¬i :·
¬- (i¤i ¬i ¬--¤i¬i ¬i l·ºi¬ººi ¬º +
• ºi·¤ -nºi¤ ¬(i( ºi·¤ -nºi¤ ¬(i( ºi·¤ -nºi¤ ¬(i( ºi·¤ -nºi¤ ¬(i( ¬¤ºi ·n ¬- (i¤i ¬i ¬--¤i¬i ¤º ¬º¬iº ¬ -nº ¤º
(in¤in ¬ l¬¤ ¬¤¤ º - ¤ -¤ ¬ -ir - ¤¬ ºi·¤ -nºi¤ ¬(i( ri l¬¬- ¬·
¤ lnl·l·i ¬º¬iº -’ii·ºi ( ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ¬ l-¬¬º (-¬º (in¤in ¬i ¬i
¬¬
• s ¬isn ·i (·ii( ¬-¤i¤iº ( ¬-¤i÷ · ¬ (¤i( s ¬isn ·i (·ii( ¬-¤i¤iº ( ¬-¤i÷ · ¬ (¤i( s ¬isn ·i (·ii( ¬-¤i¤iº ( ¬-¤i÷ · ¬ (¤i( s ¬isn ·i (·ii( ¬-¤i¤iº ( ¬-¤i÷ · ¬ (¤i( :· (ni ¬ ¬i·i s ¬isn
·i (·ii( ¬-¤i¤iº ( ¤ l¬¬ ¬-¤i÷ · ¬i- (in r+ :¬l¬¤ :¬¬ (¤i( rn ºi·¤
( l¬¬i -nº ¤º -i·i-lº n ¬- l-¤i ¬i n-· l¬¤i ¬i¤ +
• ·iln l· ·iln l· ·iln l· ·iln l··ii ººi ·ii ººi ·ii ººi ·ii ººi ¬¤ºi ·n ¬- (i¤i ¬i (i-nl(¬ ¬i-il¬¬ ( ¬il·i ¬ n·ii
ºi·ilºi¬ l-·iln ¬ ¬· ª·i ¬-i·ii ¬i ¬i¤ n·ii ¬-¤ ¬-¤ ¤º ¬·¬ lrn -
·iln¤i (·i: ¬i¤ +
• ¬--i·¬·¬ ¬i¬il(¬i ¬--i·¬·¬ ¬i¬il(¬i ¬--i·¬·¬ ¬i¬il(¬i ¬--i·¬·¬ ¬i¬il(¬i :· ¬iln¤i ¬i ¬--i·¬·¬ ¬i¬il(¬i ¬ l¬¤
(¬l~¤¬ ·¤(¬i¤ rn l(’i ·i ¤¬ ¬ l(¤i ¬i¤ +
• ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤ ¬- (i¤ ·inlº¬ni ¬ ¤r¤i· ¤¤i ¬ ·ii ( l¤n r :·r
ºi’i·¬i÷ ¬i(¬i÷ (i -º ¬i÷ ¬ ¬ ¤r¤i· ¬ l¬¤ ¤ -iºi ¤¤ n ºn ¬iºi l¬¤
¬i¤ +

r- ºi¬-·ii· ·iº ¬ ¬i¤ l(l·i·· ( l¤n ( (l¬n ( ·i -·n ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i n ¬i¬ z·
¬·- (º za·a ¬i ¬¤¤º ¬ -- ·¤ ¬l¬ ¬ ¤º ¬i¤i l¬n ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· - ¬(
¬--ln ¬ ¬¤ºi ·n -i ni ¬ l·ºi¬ººi rn ¤ -ni( ¤ilºn ¬º ¬i¤¬ ¤ º¬iº -i n ¬ºn r
l¬ :· (ni ¬i -i ni ¤º n ·iiºni ¬ ¬ ·(i: ri ¬· ¤º ¤ ªni ¬i¤(iri ri ¬i¤ (iri
¬ ¤º¤in ¬·¤ (ni ¤iºi ri · (i¬i ¤ lnl¬¤i¬i ¬ ¬·¬i ¬º·ii ¬i ¬i¤ n·ii ºi·¤ -
¬·r rº ·i¤ - ·iini(iº (·i¤i ¬i¤ +

r- ¬i¤¬ ¤r ·ii -i n ¬ºn r l¬ ¤ ¬- (i¤ ºi·¤ - ¬·ii ·ii l(~¬ ¬ ri ¬¤ l·in
( l¤n ¤( ¤il÷n r :·¬i -i ni ¤º ¤ºi ¬( (·’ii¬ni ( n ·iiºni ¬ ¬i¤ (iri ¬i ¬i¤
nil¬ l(¬i¬ ¬i - ª¤·iiºi - ril’i¤ ¤º ¤÷ :· ¬- (i¤i ¬i ·ii ¬i ÷i ¬i ¬¬ +

¬i¤ (iri ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬lrn

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 219



·i((i¤

¬ ¬··
·. ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬i -i n ¤¤
z. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i -i n ¤¤
s. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i -i n ¤¤
«. ªiº(i ¬- (i¤ ¬i -i n ¤¤
r. ¬·¤ ( l¤n (ni ¬ -i n ¤¤

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 220
ni¤· ni¤· ni¤· ni¤·

l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z·. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a

¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº


¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ - ª¤ ¬l¤( -ri (¤ ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº

l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ ·i -·n ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬-·i ¬i ºri ¬--¤i¬i ¬ -(lºn l·ºi¬ººi ¬ ¬ ( ·i
- +

¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· (z· ¬·- (º za·a -- ·¤ ¬¬ ¬) ¬ (i ºi· ¬- - ( ( +

-ri (¤ -ri (¤ -ri (¤ -ri (¤

¬¤ºi ·n l(·i¤ - l·( (· r l¬ ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· - ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬ ( l·in
l·-· ¬--¤i¤ ¬i-· ¬i: +

1. ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬-÷ :·¬ ¤i¬ ºiºi· ¬i÷ ¤i -i ¤r¤i· ¤¤ ¬il( ¬i :
(-ni( ¬ ·ri r+ l¬¬¬ ¤ ¬º¬iºi ¬ l(·ii¬i ¬i ¬i·i ¬ ¬¬ +
2. ¬i(i¬ ¬i(i¬ ¬i(i¬ ¬i(i¬ ÷ ¬: ¬i ni ¬ ¤i¬ ¬i(i¬ ·ri r n·ii ¬ s ¬i n l¬¬i -·ii· ¤º
¬il(¬ r ni ¬·r n i- ¤ ¤i¤n ¤i -·ii·i¤ ¤ ºii¬· ¬i¤ l(· l(-·iil¤n ¬ºn
ºrn r+

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 221
3. ¬i ¬i ¬i ¬i¬ ¬¬ ¬i ii il(¬i l(¬i l(¬i l(¬i ÷ ºi¬-·ii· ni( ºii¤ ¤ºi ((·i ¬i ¤ ln·i ·i ¬i º ¬-·ii¤i ¤(¬· ¤i
l·¤i n ¬i l(l·¤-·) ¬l·il·¤- ·ssr ¬i ¬i÷ - n·ii¬l·in lr·( -((i(i ¬ n-·
¤ l¬¬ ¬ l-¬i·inn ¬º¬ l(l·i·· ¤ ºi - ¬i ¬ ¬i ºri nil÷ ¤i ¬i n¬iºii ¬ºn
(·n ¤ºi -il¬¬ ( ¬iºi -¤i ¤ ª·ii (·¤i ¬ ¬i·i -iº¤i- ¬ºn r ¬·¬ º¤¤
si· ¬n r n·ii ¬·n ¬l·il·¤- ¬i l(l·i·· ·iiºi¬i - - ¬(-i (¬ ¬º(i ( ¬i
¬i :·ri ¬l·in ¬ n-·i ¤iºi ¬ ¤il¬n ni ºii¬i¬i ¬i ¬ ¤ ( ¬º l(¤i ¬ini r +
¤º-¤ºinn ·¤i¤iº ¬ ¬- - r n·ii ¬i : nºi-i¤ ºi ·¤i¤iº ¬i l(¬~¤ ·ri r+
4. - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ ÷ ¬: ( ¬iºi (l-n¤i - ¤i·i l(¬¬i l¤l¬-¬i ¬i ¬i : ¬ l(·ii
·ri r
5. lºi·ii÷ lºi·ii÷ lºi·ii÷ lºi·ii÷ ¬(( ·i -·n ¬i(· ¤i¤· ¬ºn r l¬¬¬ ¤¬n :·¬ (·¤ ¤« ·ri ¤in
¬i º ¬º¬iº · :·¬ l¬¤ ¬i : lºi·ii ¬i l(ºi ·i ·¤(-·ii ·ri ¬i r+
6. -ri·º ni -ri·º ni -ri·º ni -ri·º ni ÷ :·¬ ¤i¬ ºiºi· ¬i÷ ·ri ri · ¬ ·º ni ¬ nrn ¬i( ¬i÷ ·ri
(· r+ ¬n :·¬i ·º ni ¬ nrn ¬i- ·ri l-¬ni r+
7. ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ºi·¤ - ( ¬iºi ¬i .(i.¬i. - ¬ini r n ¬ º ¬i (i ¬· ¬ (i( ¤¬.(i.¬i.
- ÷i¬i n¤i l¬·n ¬·¬iln - ¬i· ¤i ·¤ ( ¬iºi ¬i :¬ ¬iº·iºi ¬ ¬i : ¬i·i
l-¬· (i¬i ·ri r+
8. ( ¬iºi ¤º ¤ºinn (· - ºr· (i¬i ¬iln r ¬ l¬· (· ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · zaar ¬
nrn :·¬i ¬·¬ r¬i ¬ ( l¤n ºªii n¤i r+


-i n -i n -i n -i n
r-iºi -i n :¬ ¤ ¬iº r r-iºi -i n :¬ ¤ ¬iº r r-iºi -i n :¬ ¤ ¬iº r r-iºi -i n :¬ ¤ ¬iº r ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
1. ¬·ii ¬i ¬( ¬º ¤¬ ºiºi· ¬i÷ ¤i -i ¤r¤i· ¤¤ ¬il( (·i¤ ¬i( ¬i ¬·¬i
·i -n ¬i(· ºi¬i ¬ ¬·¬iº ¬i- ¬i ¬¬ +
2. :·¬i l·ºi ~¬ ¬i(i¬i¤ ·i ªiº÷ l(¤ ¬i¤ n·ii ¬ri ºr ºr (ri n i-iºi ·i ¤ -
¤ ¤i¤n ¬i º ºirºi ·i¤ - -·ii·i¤ l·¬i¤ l·ºi ~¬ ¤- - ¬º + ¬i·i ri :·¬
l¬¤ l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤i ¬·i (·i: ¬i¤+
3. ¤º ¤ºinn ·¤(¬i¤ ¬i ·¤i· - ºªi¬º :· ¤º ¬i : ¬-¤i¤iº ·ri ri ·i ¤ilr¤+
¬n ¬ l·i ¤i ·¤ ( ¬i ¬i ¬¤ l(¬¤ ¬º· ¬i ¬i:¬ ·¬ l(¤i ¬i¤ +
4. :¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i (i.¤i.¤¬. - ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ + l¬·¬ ·º ni ¬ nrn ¬i( ¬i÷ ·ri
(· r ¬·¬ ¬i(¬i÷ (·i¤ ¬i¤ +
5. ( ¬iºi ¤º ºi¬-·ii· ni( ºii¤ ¤ ºi ((·i ¬i ¤ ln·i ·i ¬iº ¬-·ii¤i ¤(¬· ¤i
l·¤i n ¬i l(l·¤-·) ¬l·il·¤- ·ssr ¬ nrn ·ssr ¬ ¬( n¬ l¬n· ·ii
- (¬- (¬ r ¤ r ¬·¬i l··¤·i ¬i ¤ ¤( ¬-i·ii ¬ l¬¤ ¬- -i ¬i n-· l¬¤i
¬i¤+
6. ¤i·i l(¬¬i l¤l¬-¬i ¬ ¬i - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi: ¬i¤ n·ii lºi·ii ¬
l¬¤ l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ si¤i(i¬ ªii ¬ ¬i¤+

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 222
7. :·¬ ¬i·i ri · (i¬ ·i (·ii( ( ¬-¤i¤iº ¤º ¬( (·ºii¬ni ºªii ¬i¤ +
8. ¬rlº¤i ¬i n¬ ¤º l(ºi ·i l(¬i¬ ¤i ¬·i (·i: ¬i¤ +
9. :¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬i-il¬¬ ¬il·i ¬ ºi·ilºi¬ l-·iln ¤º l(ºi ·i ¬·¤¤· ¬ºi¤i
¬i( +
10. ( ¬iºi ¬i ¬· ¬ l¤n ¬· ¬iln - ¬l--l¬n l¬¤i ¬i¤ n·ii ¬i ( ¬iº (·i -
¬il(¬ r ¬·r (· ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · zaar ¬ nrn ¤- - ¬iºi l¬¤ ¬i¤ + ·¤i
l¬ ( ¬iºi ·ii (·i - l·(i¬ ¬º· (i¬i ¤º ¤ºinn ¬iln r +
11. ºi·¤ - ·i -n ¬i¤i n (·i¤i ¬i¤+

-ri (¤ ¬i¤¬ l(·- ¬in r r l¬ ¬·n ¬--¤i¬i ¤º n ·iiºni ¬ l(¤iº ¬º ¬-i·ii·
rn ¬i(º¤¬ ¬(- ¬-i¤ ( l·ºi ¤ l¬¤ ¬i¤ +

¬r¤i n ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬ ¬i·i..............


·i((i¤

¬--n ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ºi¬-·ii·

¬ ¬··
·. ( ¬iºi ¤¬ ¤lº¤¤ (lr (i ·ii·ii - )
z. ( ¬iºi ¤¬ ¤lº¤¤ (¬ n ¬i ·ii·ii - )
s. ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬-(l··in ¬¬ --÷i¬

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 223
Banjaras: Their Lives, Issues and Demands
Of several nomadic communities of Rajasthan, Banjaras is one of the largest nomadic groups. They
are spread over all the districts of the state and are known by their sub-caste names like Bamaniya,
Labana, Maru Bhaat, Bagora Bhaat, Baldiya, Rao Bhaat, Gavariya etc. It is believed that ‘Gypsies’ or
‘Roma’ of Europe have their origin in western Rajasthan. There is a striking similarity in their
language and western Rajasthan’s Banjari language. Even today, there are many similar words used in
these regions.
Unlike many other nomadic groups, Banjaras have been open about allowing others to become part of
their community. While being constantly mobile, they always allowed other people to join caravan
and gradually become part of the community.
Historically, this community has never accepted or bound itself to a physical regional boundary and
have always chosen and valued their freedom and mobility over sedentarisation. Seeing this mobility
as a threat, British rule brought in one of the most draconian laws, Criminal Tribes Act in 1871 to
curb their mobility and freedom declaring them criminals. Under this act, many such nomadic
communities were declared criminal tribes.
Traditionally they used to carry and sell grains, salt and other utility items from one place to another
and played an important role in distribution of various essential products. They were also involved in
bullock trade. Their silent contribution through distribution in the economic growth of a region has
never been recognized.
In Rajathan, salt selling was one of the main source of livelihoods for Banjaras. They used to transport
salt loaded on bullocks from the salt mines in Sambhar, Phulera, Nawa, Pachbadra, Lunkaransar,
Revasa to various non salt producing regions. Heavy taxation and ban on the movement of salt during
British rule had serious impact on Banjara’s traditional occupation.
After the independence, they are no more ‘criminals’ but their being ‘nomadic’ has never been
acknowledged as a dignified lifestyle.
In villages, they live one or two kilometers away from the main village in their community
settlements known as ‘tanda’. Most of them have no land entitlement for a house in the village. As a
result, though many of them have houses, they have no electricity connection; water facilities and
most importantly have no security and rights over their home land. The level of education is very low
amongst Banjaras. Many of them have no election or ration cards. 3000 families living in Jaipur for
more than 20 years, have no ration cards till date.
Currently, many of them are involved in the trade of bullocks, buffaloes, gum, blankets, fodder, geru,
cots etc. Many of them have migrated to the cities and live in temporary settlements / shanties. A
significant number of them are also involved in casual labour.
On 25 August, 1995, a major jolt came to their livelihood when the state government passed an act
allegedly under the pressure from Hindu fundamentalist organizations, the Rajasthan Bovine Animal
(Prohibition of Slaughter and Regulation of Temporary Migration or Export) Act, 1995. This made it
very difficult for the Banjaras to continue their bullockr trade. When found moving with bullocks,
their bullocks were often confiscated under the pretext of being carried for slaughter.

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 224
Despite having all the official documents for sale of the bullocks, many Banjaras have lost their
bullocks under this Act often taken by the fundamentalist groups. Confiscated bullocks are often put
in goshalas run by such organizations. Many times while coming from cattle fairs, they are stopped
by the police, their vehicles are searched, money snatched and cases are filed against them.

Issues
Some of the major issues of Banjara community –
1. Identity – Many Banjaras have no ration cards, election cards or any other official identity
documents necessary for obtaining benefits under the Government schemes.
2. Livelihood – Difficulty in carrying out traditional occupation and lack of any alternative
livelihood options.
3. Primary Facilities – Many Banjara settlements do not have easy access to water, electricity
and health.
4. Education – Leading a nomadic lifestyle for a living implies that their children constantly get
left out of schooling and the government has not thought of any specific system for them.
5. NREGA – Those who do not have ration cards can not get job cards under NREGA and get
left out of NREGA works.
6. Reservation – Banjaras were accorded OBC status and after the Gurjar agitation, came under
SBC but this classification is unlikely to be of any help. In fact, they deserve to be classified
as tribes.
7. Forest Rights Act - Some of Banjaras sub-castes are traditionally forest-dwellers but under the
Forest Rights Act 2005, they have been kept bereft of their rights.

Demands
1. A survey of all Banjara groups should be done to issue ration cards, photo identities etc to all
those who do not posses it. Keeping in view their mobile lifestyle and migration patterns they
should be given mobile ration cards valid over their migratory route.
2. They should be given free residential land and where they are currently residing (whether in
rural or urban area), the concerned local body should provide them with free pattas. A special
housing scheme should also be made for them.
3. Traditional occupation of bullock trade should be acknowledged and all the necessary support
must be provided to them for carrying it out in a dignified manner without any harassment.
They should be given licenses for purchase and sale of bullocks meant for agriculture.
4. Job cards for all those who don’t have them under NREGA. This community must be
included in the BPL category.

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 225
5. An unbiased and fair investigation should take place into all the cases registered against
Banjaras under the Rajasthan Bovine Animal (Prohibition of Slaughter and Regulation of
Temporary Migration or Export) Act, 1995 from 1995 until now and a committee should be
formed to monitor it. Greater sensitivity to the discrimination and atrocities against them.
6. Water, electricity, health care - all these basic facilities should be provided to them. Special
residential hostels to be opened for their children, so they can get an education.
7. A special development scheme or program to made on the lines of that for Sahariyas.
8. A specific study to be undertaken to understand the social, financial and educational level of
this community.
9. Banjaras should be included as a Scheduled Tribe. Those Banjaras who reside in the forests
should be given pattas under the Forest Rights Act 2005, as they are also a community who
have been inhabiting forests for generations.
10. State Commission for Nomads to be constituted.


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 226
( ¬iºi ¤¬ ¤lº¤¤ ( ¬iºi ¤¬ ¤lº¤¤ ( ¬iºi ¤¬ ¤lº¤¤ ( ¬iºi ¤¬ ¤lº¤¤

ºi¬-·ii· ¬ ¬: ·i -n ¬- (i¤i - ( ¬iºi ¤¬ - ª¤ ¬- (i¤ r+ ¤r ºi·¤ ¬ l(l·i··
l¬¬i - (i-lºi¤i ¬(i·i -iª·ii- (iniºi ·ii- (i¬l(¤i ºi(·ii- n(ilº¤i ¬¤¬iln -
l(n-i· r + ¤ºi ¤ ¬ l¬·¬i ¬·i(i ºi -i ¬iln¤i ¬i ¬( n- -·i¬ ºi¬-·ii· -i·i ¬ini
r+ :¬i ¬iººi ¬·¬i ¬iº ( ¬iºi ·ii·ii - ¬i¤i ¬-i·ni ¤i: ¬ini r+ ¬i¬ ·ii ¬·¬
¬: ºi·( ºi¬-·ii· ¬i ( ¬iºi ·ii·ii ¬ l-¬n r +

¬·¤ ·i -n ¬- (i¤ ¬ :nº ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ - n º ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ·ii ºiil-¬ rini ºri
r+ n º( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ :·¬ ¬iº(i - ¬ ÷ ¬º ·iiº ÷·iiº ( ¬iºi ri (· n¤+

¤lnril¬¬ ¬-¤ ¬ ri :¬ ¬- (i¤ · ¬¤·i ¬i¬i(i ¤( nln’ii¬ni ¬i (º¬ºiº ºªin
r ¤ ¬·ii ·ii ¬¤· ¬i¤ ¬i l¬¬i -·ii· l(’i ·i ¬i l¬-i¬i - ·ri (i ·ii+ :¬i ¤( ln ¬i
ªinºi -i·n r ¤ ¬ n ¬i · (-·i--¬ ·iln ¬¤·i: ¬i º ·s/· - ¬¤ºil·i¬ ¬·¬iln
¬l·il·¤- ¬ ¬i ¬-i·(i¤ ¬i· · ¤ilºn l¬¤i l¬¬- ( ¬iºi ¬lrn ¬: ¬iln¤i ¬i
¬·-¬in ¬¤ºi·ii ·ii l·in l¬¤i n¤i+

¬·i¬ ·-¬ ¬i º ¬· ¬¤¤i ni (-n ¬i ¬i ¤¬ -·ii· ¬ (¬º -·ii· ¤º ¬ ¬i¬º
( ¤·i n·ii ¬ l·i ¬i¤ rn ( ¬i ¬i ¬¤ l(¬¤ ¬º·i ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤º-¤ºinn
·¤i¤iº ºri r+ ¤º·n l(÷-(·i r l¬ ¤lº(r· l(nººi ¤( (ilºi·¤ ¬ ·i¤ - ( ¬iºi
¤iºi -·ii·i¤ ¬·i ·¤(-·ii - l¬¤ n¤ ¬n ¬·i¤ ¤i n(i· ¬i ¬-i¬ - ¬·ii -i·¤ni ·ri
l-¬i +

·-¬ ¬i ·¤i¤iº ( ¬iºi ¬i ¬i¬il(¬i ¬i - ª¤ -¤in ºri r+ ¤ ¬i ·iº ·i(i ¤ ¬ ºi
¤¤¤(ºi ¬ ºi¬ººi¬º º(i¬i ¬il( ·-¬ ¬i ªii·i ¬ ( ¬i ¤º ·-¬ ¬i(¬º ( ’i ¬
l(l·i·· :¬i¬i - ( ¤n ·i + ¬ n ¬ ºii¬· ¬ (i ºi· ·-¬ ¤º ¬-¤l·i¬ ¬º ¬i º ·-¬
·¤i¤iº ¤º ¤ ln( ·i · ( ¬iºi ¬i ¬i¬il(¬i ¤º (r n ri (ºi ¬¬º ÷i¬i+


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 227
¬i¬i(i ¬ ¬¤ºin ( ¬iº ¬¤ºi·ii ni ·ri ºr l¬·n :·¬i ·i --¬÷ ¬i(· ºi¬i ¬i
¬·ii ¬-i¬ · ¬--i· ¬i ( l·- ¬ ·ri ( ªii+

( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬¬n (-ni rini r l¬¬ -i ÷i ¬ri ¬ini r ¬i l¬ ni( ¬ ¬ s
(ºi ¤º rini r+ ¬i-ni º ¤º ¤ l¬¬ ¬nr ¤º ·iº (·i¬º ¬il(¬ r ¬¬¬ ¤- - ·ri
r l¬¬¬ ¤¬n ¬: ¬i ni ¬i ¬i(i¬ ¬ l(·ii rin r ¤ ·ii l(¬¬i ¤i·i ¬i(i¬ ¬i r¬
¬i º ¬º·ii ·ri r+ ( ¬iºi ¬i l’i·ii ¬i -nº (rn ri ·¤ · r+ ( ¬iºi ¬ ¤i¬ ¬i¬ ·ii
ºi’i· ¬i÷ ( ¤r¤i· ¤¤ ·ri r l¬¬¬ :· ¤º ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬¬ - (·i ºrni r+
¬¤¤ º - za (·ii ¬ ¬l·i¬ ¬-¤ ¬ ºr ºr saaa ¤lº(iºi ¬i ¬i¬ ·ii ºi’i· ¬i÷ ·ri
l-¬ r+

(n -i· - ¬: ( ¬iº ( ¬ ·i ¬ ni ( ¬-(¬ ·ii¬ (¬ ªi¬i) n ª ¬i º ¤iº¤i: ¬¬i
¤i¬i ¬ ·¤i¤iº - ¬ ¬·· r + ¬i·i ri ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬: ¬i n ¤¬i¤· ¬º ºirºi
- ¬i n¤ r l¬·r ¤ri n ·ni÷ni ¤÷i - ºr¬º -¬(ºi ¬º· ¬i -¬(º ri ·i ¤÷ ºri
r+

lr·( -(i(i ¬ n-·i ¬ ((i( ¬ ¤¬n ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº · zr ¬n-n ·ssr ¬i ¤¬ ¬i· ·
(·i¤i l¬¬¬ ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬i¬il(¬i ¬i nn÷i n-¬i ¬ni+ ºi¬-·ii·
ni( ’ii¤ ¤ºi ((·i ¬i ¤ ln·i ·i ¬iº ¬-·ii¤i ¤(¬· ¤i l·¤i n ¬i l(l·¤-·) ¬l·il·¤-
·ssr ¬ ¬iººi ( ¬iºi ¬i ( ¬i ¬ ·¤i¤iº - ¬: l(·¬ni ¬i ¬i-·i ¬º·i ¤÷ ºri
r+ ¬( ¤ (¬i ¬i ( ¤· ¬in r n( ni( ’i r-¤i ¬ ¬ ( r ¬i (ri·i (·i¬º :·¬ ( ¬
si· l¬¤ ¬in r ( -iº¤i- ¬i ¬ini r+

¬·ii ¤ -ilºin (-ni( ¬ ri · ¬ (i(¬ ( ·ii (rn ¬ ( ¬iº :¬ ¬i· · ¬ l’i¬iº r ¤ r
¬i º ¬¤· ( ¬i ¬i n(i·i ¤÷i r+ ¤¬ ¤¬÷ r ¤ ( ¬i ¬i ¬·¬º ¬·n ¬º ni ’ii¬i ¬i
¬¤ ( ¬º (n r + ¬: (iº ¤ºi - ¬i ¬ ¬in (·n ¤ l¬¬ ( ¬iºi ¬i ºi ¬ni r nil÷ ¤i
¬i ¬i ¤ ¬i ¬ini r :·¬ ¬i·i -iº¤i- ¬i ¬ini r :·¬ ¤¬ si· l¬¤ ¬in r ¬iº
:·¬ l(ª- l(l·i·· ·iiºi¬i - - ¬(-i (¬ ¬º l(¤i ¬ini r+



Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 228
¬--¤i¤ ¬--¤i¤ ¬--¤i¤ ¬--¤i¤
¬i¬ ( ¬iºi ¬- (i¤ l·-· ¬--¤i¬i ¬i ¬i-·i ¬º ºri r÷
1. ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬- ¤r¤i· ¬i ¬ ¬-÷ :·¬ ¤i¬ ºiºi· ¬i÷ ¤i -i ¤r¤i· ¤¤ ¬il( ¬i :
(-ni( ¬ ·ri r+ l¬¬¬ ¤ ¬º¬iºi ¬ l(·ii¬i ¬i ¬i·i ¬ ¬¬ +
2. ¬i(i¬ ¬i(i¬ ¬i(i¬ ¬i(i¬ ÷ ¬: ¬i ni ¬ ¤i¬ ¬i(i¬ ·ri r n·ii ¬ s ¬i n l¬¬i -·ii· ¤º
¬il(¬ r ni ¬·r n i- ¤ ¤i¤n ¤i -·ii·i¤ ¤ ºii¬· ¬i¤ l(· l(-·iil¤n ¬ºn
ºrn r+
3. ¬il¬l(¬i ¬il¬l(¬i ¬il¬l(¬i ¬il¬l(¬i ÷ ºi¬-·ii· ni( ºii¤ ¤ºi ((·i ¬i ¤ ln·i ·i ¬i º ¬-·ii¤i ¤(¬· ¤i
l·¤i n ¬i l(l·¤-·) ¬l·il·¤- ·ssr ¬i ¬i÷ - n·ii¬l·in lr·( -((i(i ¬ n-·
¤ l¬¬ ¬ l-¬i·inn ¬º¬ l(l·i·· ¤ ºi - ¬i ¬ ¬i ºri nil÷ ¤i ¬i n¬iºii ¬ºn
(·n ¤ºi -il¬¬ ( ¬iºi -¤i ¤ ª·ii (·¤i ¬ ¬i·i -iº¤i- ¬ºn r ¬·¬ º¤¤
si· ¬n r n·ii ¬·n ¬l·il·¤- ¬i l(l·i·· ·iiºi¬i - - ¬(-i (¬ ¬º(i ( ¬i
¬i :·ri ¬l·in ¬ n-·i ¤iºi ¬ ¤il¬n ni ºii¬i¬i ¬i ¬ ¤ ( ¬º l(¤i ¬ini r +
¤º-¤ºinn ·¤i¤iº ¬ ¬- - r n·ii ¬i : nºi-i¤ ºi ·¤i¤iº ¬i l(¬~¤ ·ri r+
4. - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ ÷ ¬: ( ¬iºi (l-n¤i - ¤i·i l(¬¬i l¤l¬-¬i ¬i ¬i : ¬ l(·ii
·ri r
5. lºi·ii÷ lºi·ii÷ lºi·ii÷ lºi·ii÷ ¬(( ·i -·n ¬i(· ¤i¤· ¬ºn r l¬¬¬ ¤¬n :·¬ (·¤ ¤« ·ri ¤in
¬i º ¬º¬iº · :·¬ l¬¤ ¬i : lºi·ii ¬i l(ºi ·i ·¤(-·ii ·ri ¬i r+
6. -ri·º ni -ri·º ni -ri·º ni -ri·º ni ÷ :·¬ ¤i¬ ºiºi· ¬i÷ ·ri ri · ¬ ·º ni ¬ nrn ¬i ( ¬i÷ ·ri
(· r+ ¬n :·¬i ·º ni ¬ nrn ¬i- ·ri l-¬ni r+
7. ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ºi·¤ - ( ¬iºi ¬i .(i.¬i. - ¬ini r n ¬ º ¬i (i ¬· ¬ (i( ¤¬.(i.¬i.
- ÷i¬i n¤i l¬·n ¬·¬iln - ¬i· ¤i ·¤ ( ¬iºi ¬i :¬ ¬iº·iºi ¬ ¬i : ¬i·i
l-¬· (i¬i ·ri r+
8. ( ¬iºi ¤º ¤ºinn (· - ºr· (i¬i ¬iln r ¬ l¬· (· ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · zaar ¬
nrn :·¬i ¬·¬ r¬i ¬ ( l¤n ºªii n¤i r+

-i n -i n -i n -i n
1. ¬·ii ¬i ¬( ¬º ¤¬ ºiºi· ¬i÷ ¤i -i ¤r¤i· ¤¤ ¬il( (·i¤ ¬i( ¬i ¬·¬i
·i -n ¬i(· ºi¬i ¬ ¬·¬iº ¬i- ¬i ¬¬ +
2. :·¬i l·ºi ~¬ ¬i(i¬i¤ ·i ªiº÷ l(¤ ¬i¤ n·ii ¬ri ºr ºr (ri n i-iºi ·i ¤ -
¤ ¤i¤n ¬i º ºirºi ·i¤ - -·ii·i¤ l·¬i¤ l·ºi ~¬ ¤- - ¬º + ¬i·i ri :·¬
l¬¤ l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤i ¬·i (·i: ¬i¤+
3. ¤º ¤ºinn ·¤(¬i¤ ¬i ·¤i· - ºªi¬º :· ¤º ¬i : ¬-¤i¤iº ·ri ri ·i ¤ilr¤+
¬n ¬ l·i ¤i ·¤ ( ¬i ¬i ¬¤ l(¬¤ ¬º· ¬i ¬i:¬ ·¬ l(¤i ¬i¤ +
4. :¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i (i.¤i.¤¬. - ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ + l¬·¬ ·º ni ¬ nrn ¬i( ¬i÷ ·ri
(· r ¬·¬ ¬i(¬i÷ (·i¤ ¬i¤ +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 229
5. ( ¬iºi ¤º ºi¬-·ii· ni( ºii¤ ¤ ºi ((·i ¬i ¤ ln·i ·i ¬iº ¬-·ii¤i ¤(¬· ¤i
l·¤i n ¬i l(l·¤-·) ¬l·il·¤- ·ssr ¬ nrn ·ssr ¬ ¬( n¬ l¬n· ·ii
- (¬- (¬ r ¤ r ¬·¬i l··¤·i ¬i ¤ ¤( ¬-i·ii ¬ l¬¤ ¬- -i ¬i n-· l¬¤i
¬i¤+
6. ¤i·i l(¬¬i l¤l¬-¬i ¬ ¬i - ¬·in ¬ l(·ii¤ ¬¤¬··i ¬ºi: ¬i¤ n·ii lºi·ii ¬
l¬¤ l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ si¤i(i¬ ªii ¬ ¬i¤+
7. :·¬ ¬i·i ri · (i¬ ·i (·ii( ( ¬-¤i¤iº ¤º ¬( (·ºii¬ni ºªii ¬i¤ +
8. ¬rlº¤i ¬i n¬ ¤º l(ºi ·i l(¬i¬ ¤i ¬·i (·i: ¬i¤ +
9. :¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬i-il¬¬ ¬il·i ¬ ºi·ilºi¬ l-·iln ¤º l(ºi ·i ¬·¤¤· ¬ºi¤i
¬i( +
10. ( ¬iºi ¬i ¬· ¬ l¤n ¬· ¬iln - ¬l--l¬n l¬¤i ¬i¤ n·ii ¬i ( ¬iº (·i -
¬il(¬ r ¬·r (· ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · zaar ¬ nrn ¤- - ¬iºi l¬¤ ¬i¤ + ·¤i
l¬ ( ¬iºi ·ii (·i - l·(i¬ ¬º· (i¬i ¤º ¤ºinn ¬iln r +
11. ºi·¤ - ·i -n ¬i¤i n (·i¤i ¬i¤+



Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 230
ni¤· ni¤· ni¤· ni¤·

l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z·. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a

¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº


¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ - ª¤ ¬l¤( -ri (¤ ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº

l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬-·i ¬i ºri ¬--¤i¬i ¬ -(lºn l·ºi¬ººi ¬ ¬ ( ·i - +

¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· (z· ¬·- (º za·a -- ·¤ ¬¬ ¬) ¬ (i ºi· ¬- - ( ( +

-ri (¤ -ri (¤ -ri (¤ -ri (¤

¬¤ºi ·n l(·i¤ - l·( (· r l¬ ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· - ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬ ( l·in
-i n :¬ ¤ ¬iº r ÷

¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n

1. ¤º ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i (i.¤i.¤¬. - ºiil-¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ +


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 231
2. ºi¬-( lº¬i÷ - l¬· ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i ni ¬ ·i- ¬ ¬i·i ·i·i ¬·i(i ¬i ni l¬ªii
r ¬i r ¬·¬i ºi¬-( lº¬i÷ ¬i ºi l¤¬ººi l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

3. ¬i ·ii ¬i¬( l¬¤i ·¤l·n l¬¬ ·ii ni( - l¬¬ ·ii ·i l- ¤º ·iº (·i¬º ºr ºri
r ¬¬ (ri ¤º ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤- -i ( ¬º ·i-(il--( l(¤i ¬i¤ +

4. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ si¤ si¤i¬i ¬ ¬·¤¤· rn l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤
(·i¤ ¬i¤ + ¤ si¤i(i¬ ¬-( ÷¬º ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤ ¬·i(i ¬-nº(i nii·ii
¬i(i¬i¤ l(·ii¬¤i ¬i n¬ ¤º (· +

5. ¬rlº¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i n¬ ¤º ¬--n ¬i¬( l¬¤i¬i ¬i ¬i n·(i÷i ¬i ¬i·i ( ·
¬ l¬¤ ¤ -¤ ¬ ¬i¬( l¬¤i (--ii - -i (i÷i ¤i ¬·i ªii ¬i ¬i¤ +

6. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬il·i ¬ ¬i-il¬¬ ¤( ºi·ilºi¬ l-·iln¤i ¤º ¤¬
¤ -ilºi¬ ¬·¤¤· ( ºii ·i l¬¤i ¬i¤

7. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni ¬i - -¤ ri · ¤º ¬·¬i (¤·i· ¬ -i-¬i - ¬i
ºri ¬--¤i¬i ¬ -( ( ·¬º ¬·r º-ºii· ·i l- ¤¬i- ¬i ¬i¤ +

8. n - - ¬(-i ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ¬·¬º ri · (i¬ ¤ l¬¬ ¬-¤i÷ ·i ¬i ºi ¬i ¬i¤ +

9. ·i l-ri· ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¤lº(iºi ¬i ¬ l·i ·i l- ¬i ¬i(-· l¬¤i ¬i¤ l¬·¬ ·i- ¤º
·iiºi s· ¬i º¬i( (·i r : r¬·¬i (ri ·i l- ¬¬i- ¬º l(¤i ¬i¤ +

10. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ l¬¤ ¤·¬ -¬i·i ¬ l·-iºi r n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i(i¬i¤
¤i ¬·i (·i: ¬i¤ +

11. -ri--i ni ·ii ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¤i ¬·i - ¬·ii ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¤lº(iºi ¬ ¬i( ¬i÷
(·i¤i ¬i¤ -i n· ¤º ¬i- l-¬ n·ii ¬i¤ -·i¬ ¤º ¤i·i l¤¬i· ¬ ¬i- - ¬·r
¤ i·il-¬ni ¬ ¬ni¤i ¬i¤ + ºi ¬niº niºº-i - ri · (i¬ ·i (·ii( ¬i ºi ¬i ¬i¤ +

12. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni ¤iºi ºi¤·i ¤¤ ( · ¤º ¬¬¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ¬iln
¤ -iºi ¤¤ ¬iºi l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

13. l¬· -·ii·i ¤º ¤º·i - ¤ºinir ·i l- ¤º ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i n (¬ n¤
r ¬¬ ·i l- ¬i l¬-- ¤lº(ln n ¬i ¬i¤ nil¬ ¬i(i(i ·i l- ¬ ¬·r ·i -(il--(
l-¬ ¬¬ +


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 232
14. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ r-n lºi~¤· -¤ ¬ nin ¬¬i ¤º-¤ºinn ¬¬i¬i (
¬i-¬ ln¬ ·iºi rºi ¬i ¬º ·iºi ( ¬( ·i · l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

15. ¤i· ¬ l¬¤ -(·s ¤i·i ¬(¬ l¬¤ -(i-·¤ ¤( l·ºi ~¬ lºi·ii n·ii l(n n
¬· ·ºi· ¬·ii ¬i¬( l¬¤i (l-n¤i n¬ ¬l(~i-( ¤r ¤ ¤¬i r- ¤ º¬iº -i n ¬ºn
r+

-ri (¤ ¬i¤¬ l(·- ¬in r r l¬ ¬·n ¬--¤i¬i ¤º n ·iiºni ¬ l(¤iº ¬º ¬-i·ii·
rn ¬i(º¤¬ ¬(- ¬-i¤ ( l·ºi ¤ l¬¤ ¬i¤ +

¬r¤i n ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬ ¬i·i..............


·i((i¤






¬--n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ºi¬-·ii·



¬ ¬··
«. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤lº¤¤
r. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬¬ --÷i¬

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 233

¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i - ª¤ -i n

·. ¤º ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i (i.¤i.¤¬. - ºiil-¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

z. ºi¬-( lº¬i÷ - l¬· ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i ni ¬ ·i- ¬ ¬i·i ·i·i ¬·i(i ¬i ni l¬ªii
r ¬i r ¬·¬i ºi¬-( lº¬i÷ ¬i ºi l¤¬ººi l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

s. ¬i ·ii ¬i¬( l¬¤i ·¤l·n l¬¬ ·ii ni( - l¬¬ ·ii ·i l- ¤º ·iº (·i¬º ºr ºri r
¬¬ (ri ¤º ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤- -i ( ¬º ·i -(il--( l(¤i ¬i¤ +

«. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ si¤ si¤i¬i ¬ ¬·¤¤· rn l(ºi ·i ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤ (·i¤
¬i¤ + ¤ si¤i(i¬ ¬-( ÷¬º ¬i(i¬i¤ l(ni¬¤ ¬·i(i ¬-nº(i nii·ii ¬i(i¬i¤
l(·ii¬¤i ¬i n¬ ¤º (· +

r. ¬rlº¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i n¬ ¤º ¬--n ¬i¬( l¬¤i¬i ¬i ¬i n·(i÷i ¬i ¬i·i ( · ¬
l¬¤ ¤ -¤ ¬ ¬i¬( l¬¤i (--ii - -i (i÷i ¤i ¬·i ªii ¬i ¬i¤ +

s. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬il·i ¬ ¬i-il¬¬ ¤( ºi·ilºi¬ l-·iln¤i ¤º ¤¬ ¤ -ilºi¬
¬·¤¤· ( ºii ·i l¬¤i ¬i¤

/. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni ¬i - -¤ ri · ¤º ¬·¬i (¤·i· ¬ -i-¬i - ¬i ºri
¬--¤i¬i ¬ -( ( ·¬º ¬·r º-ºii· ·i l- ¤¬i- ¬i ¬i¤ +

s. n - - ¬(-i ¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ¬·¬º ri · (i¬ ¤ l¬¬ ¬-¤i÷ ·i ¬i ºi ¬i ¬i¤ +

s. ·i l-ri· ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¤lº(iºi ¬i ¬ l·i ·i l- ¬i ¬i(-· l¬¤i ¬i¤ l¬·¬ ·i- ¤º
·iiºi s· ¬i º¬i( (·i r : r¬·¬i (ri ·i l- ¬¬i- ¬º l(¤i ¬i¤ +


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 234
·a.¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ l¬¤ ¤·¬ -¬i·i ¬ l·-iºi rn ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i(i¬i¤ ¤i ¬·i
(·i: ¬i¤ +

··. -ri--i ni ·ii ºi ¬niº niºº-i ¤i ¬·i - ¬·ii ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¤lº(iºi ¬ ¬i( ¬i÷
(·i¤i ¬i¤ -i n· ¤º ¬i- l-¬ n·ii ¬i¤-·i¬ ¤º ¤i·i l¤¬i· ¬ ¬i- - ¬·r
¤ i·il-¬ni ¬ ¬ni¤i ¬i¤ + ºi ¬niº niºº-i - ri · (i¬ ·i (·ii( ¬i ºi ¬i ¬i¤ +

·z. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni ¤iºi ºi¤·i ¤¤ ( · ¤º ¬¬¬ ¬i·iiº ¤º ¬iln ¤ -iºi
¤¤ ¬iºi l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

·s. l¬· -·ii·i ¤º ¤º·i - ¤ºinir ·i l- ¤º ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i n (¬ n¤ r
¬¬ ·i l- ¬i l¬-- ¤lº(ln n ¬i ¬i¤ nil¬ ¬i(i(i ·i l- ¬ ¬·r ·i-(il--( l-¬
¬¬ +

·«. ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ r-n lºi~¤· -¤ ¬ nin ¬ ¬i ¤º-¤ºinn ¬¬i¬i (
¬i-¬ ln¬ ·iºi rºi ¬i ¬º ·iºi ( ¬( ·i · l¬¤i ¬i¤ +

·r. ¤i· ¬ l¬¤ -(·s ¤i·i ¬(¬ l¬¤ -(i-·¤ ¤( l·ºi ~¬ lºi·ii n·ii l(n n
¬· ·ºi· ¬·ii ¬i¬( l¬¤i (l-n¤i n¬ ¬l(~i-( ¤r ¤ ¤¬i r- ¤ º¬iº -i n ¬ºn
r+





¬¬ --÷i ¬¬ --÷i ¬¬ --÷i ¬¬ --÷i÷ · ÷ · ÷ · ÷ ·
¬-¤i¤iº ¬i r( ¬-¤i¤iº ¬i r( ¬-¤i¤iº ¬i r( ¬-¤i¤iº ¬i r(

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 235
·ii¬(i÷i l¬¬ ¬i -iº÷¬ nr¬i¬ ¬ ¬(¬i ¬i ªi ÷i l·(i¬i l¬’i· ·i·i ¬i¬( l¬¤i
¬i l¬ ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬--iil·n ·¤l·n r+ ¬· ¤º ¬-ºl¬ r ¬i l¬ l¤ni÷ n«
l¬¬ ¬ ªi lº¤i (i(÷i ¬i l·(i¬i r · r-¬i ¬º -iº¤i- ¬i ¬iº ni¬i n¬i ¤ ¬º
¬¤-il·n l¬¤i+ ( ¬ ¤r ¬-ºl¬ r ¬i¤ l(· ¬ ~- ¬ºni ºrni r+ ¬·ii ¤r lº(i~(º
¬ ¬º ·i -ni r ¬iº ¬i( ¬l·¬ niº ¤º ·i-¬i (ni r ¤i · ¤º -iº· ¬i ·i-¬i ( ni r
l¬¬¬ ¬-i¬ - ·i¤ ¬i -iri¬ r+

÷z÷ ÷z÷ ÷z÷ ÷z÷
- ni ni ((i l·(i¬i ¤º¤ºi n i- ¤ ¤i¤n ·i ªii nr. ·ii(¬i l¬¬i ¬(¤¤º ¬i ºr·
(i¬i r + -ºi ¤lº(iº l(nn «a (·ii ¬ ¤ª¤ ºi ni( - ºr ºri r -ºi ·iº l¬¬ ¬-i·
¤º (·i r ¬i r ¬¬- ¬ ¬i·ii ·i l- l(¬i·i- r ¬iº ¬i·ii ¤iºinir r+ «a (·ii ¬
ºr· ¬ (i(¬ ( nr¬i¬ ¬ ¬-i· ( -¬i· ªii¬i ¬º· ¬i ¤¬ ·i l-¬ ¬i¤i r+
l¬¬- ¬·n ¬-i· ( -¬i· ¬i ¤i ¤ l(· - ªii¬i ¬º· ¬i( ’i r+ n·ii nr¬i¬ -
( ¬i¤i r+
÷s÷ ÷s÷ ÷s÷ ÷s÷
l-- -i ·i·i l¤ni ( ºiiºi- l·(i¬i n ni - ºii nr. ·i(¬º l¬¬i l¤ni÷n« ºr· (i¬i r
- «a ¬i¬ ¬ ¬·n ni ( l·(i¬ ¬º ºri r+ - «a ¬i¬ ¬ ¤º·i - ¤º ªini ¬º ºr ·i
( l’i(¬i¬ ni÷ºi ) ¬·n ·¤l·n ¬i ªiin (iºi r¬ ( l(¤i n¤i ¤º·n - n ¬i¬ n¬
¬·n ·i l- ¬i ªiin (iºi r¬ ·ri l-¬i r ni :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬i ·i (·ii( ·¤i `

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 236
¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬-i¬ ¬-i¬ ¬-i¬ ¬-i¬
¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬- (i¤ ¤º ºi¬-·ii· - (¬i r ¬i r+ ¤ri ¤º ¤ºinn ¤(
·i -·n ¬i(· ¬in r+ ºi¬-·ii· - :·r ¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i ni ¬¤ ºi
¬il( ·i-i ¬ ¬i·i ¬ini r+ ¤ ¬i ¤ ¤¬÷·i ( ¤-·iº l·i¬· ¬i
¬i¤ ¬ºn r ( ¬: ·i¤i - l·i·ii( l-n ¤( ·ni·i ¬i ·¤(-ii¤ ( ¬i ¬
· -¤ ¬i ¬i¤ ·ii ¬ºn r+

¬i-il¬¬ ¬il·i ¬ ºi·ilºi¬ ¤( ºi¬·iln¬ ª¤ ¬ ¬-¤n l¤s÷ ·i -·n
¬i¬( l¬¤i ¬i¬ ·ii ¤r¤i· ¬i(i¬ ¬i¬il(¬i ·i (·ii( ¬-¤i¤iº
¬-¤i÷ · ¤( ·i l-ri·ni ¬ ¬ ¬- ¬ n ¬º ºr r+ ri¬il¬ ¤ ¬· ¬ l¤n
¬iln - ºiil-¬ r ¬ l¬· ¬¤·i ªii·i((i¬ ¬i(· ºi¬i ¬ ·i -·n
¬- (i¤i ¬i lr-¬i r+


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 237
ni¤· ni¤· ni¤· ni¤·

l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z· l(·i ¬÷ z·. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a. .. .·a ·a ·a ·a

¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in ¬i-i· ¬ºii ¬ nr¬in
- ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i - ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº


¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ ¤iºi÷ - ª¤ ¬l¤( -ri (¤ ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº

l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ l(·i¤÷ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬-·i ¬i ºri ¬--¤i¬i ¬ -(lºn l·ºi¬ººi ¬ ¬ ( ·i - +

¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ¬ (·i ÷ ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· (z· ¬·- (º za·a -- ·¤ ¬¬ ¬) ¬ (i ºi· ¬- - ( ( +

-ri (¤ -ri (¤ -ri (¤ -ri (¤

¬¤ºi ·n l(·i¤ - l·( (· r l¬ ·inlº¬ r¬ ¬-- ¬· - (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬ ( l·in
l·-· ¬--¤i¤ ¬i-· ¬i: +

(i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ·ii ¬·¤ ¬- (i¤i ¬i nºr -(¤ ¬¤· ¬·(ª·i ¬--¤i¬i ¬ ¬ n ºri
r+ ¬ l¬· ¤ri ¬ s ¤¬i ri ¤ - ªi ¬--¤i¬i ¬i º ªii l¬n l¬¤i ¬i ºri r ¬i
¬(·iil·¬ ¤( ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬(i(( ri ¬ ¬·nn n ·ii ¬ini r+

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 238
1. ¬- (i¤ ¬i nlº-i -·ii¤·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬i(’¤¬ r l¬ ¬º¬iº -¬i ¤ ·ii ¬ ¤ ln·i ·i
¬ l¬¤ -i¬ ¤i ¬·i¤ n¤iº ¬º l¬¬ ¤il÷n ¤lº(iº -·ii¤i ni º ¤º ¬¤·i ¬¬ +
( ¬l~¤¬ ºi ¬niº ¤( ¤ l’i·iºi ¬i¤ ¬- n ¬i ¬ ¤¬i¤ ¬i¤ +
2. nlº-i -·ii¤·i ¬ l¬¤ ¤r ·ii ¬i(’¤¬ r l¬ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬ s
¬l¬¤ ¤ lnl·l·i ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ n-·i ¬ ¬i·i l-¬¬º :¬¬i -i l·-lº n ¬- -i
n¤iº ¬º ¤( s ¬isn ¬-¤i¤iº lr¬i ¤( ¬º¬iºi ¬-·ii· ¤lº¬º -·i¬i ¤º
·il-n ·i-·i¬i ¬ -(lºn l·(iººi ¬i ¤i ¬·i n¤iº ¬i ¬i¤+
3. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i nlº-i -·ii¤·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¤ lnril¬¬ ·¤l·n¤i ¤(
¬- (i¤ ¬i ni º(il·(n ¬º· (i¬i ¬¤¬l··i¤i ¬i -¬ ¬ ¤i- ¤¬-i - ¬l·(i¤
ª¤ ¬ ¬l--l¬n l¬¤i ¬i¤+
4. ¬i-il¬¬ ·¤i¤ ¤( ¬l·i¬ilºni l(·iin ¤iºi ¬ ¤il¬n ¬·ii ss -(·s¬iº ri --¬i
- ¬l·(i¤ ª¤ ¬ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ¬i ·i-i l¬n ¬ºi· ¬i ¤ l¬¤i
ºi ª ¬i ¬i¤ ¤( :¬¬ ¬l¬¤ l¬¤i··i¤· ¬ ¬i¤ ¬- rn l(’i ·i ª¤ ¬ ¬- (i¤
¬i l’i·ii ¬ ¬ ÷i ¬ -·ii¬i ¬ n-·i ¬i ¤ i -¬ilrn l¬¤i ¬i¤+
5. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ n ·iiº -i-¬i ¤·ii -iº¤i- r-¤i (¬i-¬iº s ÷ si÷ ¬ ¬i
·i-·i¬i ¬i ºi ¬· rn n i- ¤ ¤i¤ni ¬i ¬· ¤i¬·i ¬ ¬ªn l·( ’i l(¤ ¬i¤ +
6. ¤ (i¬i ¬i ºi ¬niº ¬·¤ l’i·ii - ¤ i ¤ ’i·¬ ¤¬ ¬ ’i· rn ~ºi ¤i ¬·i¤ ¬in
l¬¤i ¬i¤ + ¬÷ l¬¤i ¬ ¬·¤¤· ¬i ¤ i -¬ilrn ¬º· rn l(’i ·i ¤i ¬·i¤ ¬in
¬i ¬i¤+
7. ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i nl-n ¬i ¬i¤ ¤( :¬- ¬l¬¤
¬-i¬ ¬l- ¤i ¬i ¬l--l¬n l¬¤i ¬i¤+
8. ¬·¤ (ni ¤iºi (i~-il¬¤i ¬i ¬·¬i: ¬-i·i ¤º (i¤¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬·¬i
l(¬i¤i ¬i¤+
9. (l-n¤i - ¬÷ ¬ ·i¬i ¤i·i ¬i ¬i(’¤¬ ·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬i¤ nil¬ ( ¤i·i ¬
l¬¤ ¬·¤ (n ¬ -¤ini ¤º l··iº · ºr ¬¬ + l·l’¤n ª·i ¬ :¬ ¤ l¬¤i ¬
¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i·i s ¬isn -iº¤i- ¬ ¤ ¬ººii - ¬-i ¬i¤ni+
10. ¬ªºn- ( (i~-il¬¤i ¬i ¬( ¬º ¬i(’¤¬ ª¤ ¬ (i.¤i.¤¬. - ºiil-¬ l¬¤
¬i¤ ¤( :l·(ºi ¬i(i¬ ¬ nrn -¬i· l·l-n l¬¤ ¬i¤+
11. -¬ ¬i ¬i¬ ¬i - si¤÷si¤i¬i ¬ ¬i·i ·i (·ii( ( ( ri ¤( ¬·r si¤( ln
l(nººi ¬ ¬l·(i¤ ¬i( ’i ¤ilºn l¬¤ ¬i¤ +
12. (l-n¤i ¬ ¬ (º ¤( ¬¬¬ ·¬(i¬ ºiºi( ¬ - ¬i ¬i · l¬¬i -i-º ¬i (ºi ¤º
-·ii·inlºn l¬¤i ¬i¤+ ¤¬i ·ri ¬º· (i¬i ¬ ¬i¤¬¬ l·¬ l(n l¬¤ ¬i¤+
13. ¬i n·(i÷i ¬ ·( ºi’i· ¬i ( ¬i·i ¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬i·i ¬ ( l¤n ·ri l¬¤i
¬i¤+ ¬n¤( ¬·r ¬l¬¤ l(’iil·( ’ii ¬i( ’i ¤ilºn ¬º ¤ ln-ir ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni
¬ ¤ -ilºin lº¤i - - ni: ¬i¤+
14. ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni ¬i -ri·º ni ¬ ¬i(’¤¬ ª¤ ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ ¤( ¬i:- ¤º ri ·
(i¬i s ¬isn ¬i ºi ¬i ¬i¤ ( ·i nni· ¬i ¬·l¤l-nni¬i ¬i n ºn ºi ¬i ¬i¤+
15. - ¤ n ¤( ¬l·(i¤ l’i·ii ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · zaas ¬i ¤ ·ii(i « n ¬ ¬in ri +
16. ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ¬i (i¬¬- - ¬i· ¬ ºi ¬· ¬ l¬¤ ¬ªºi r l¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬
-lr¬i÷¤ ª·ii ¬ l¬¤ -(ºi ¬niº ¤( ¤ ·(i¬ ¬i ·¤(-·ii ¬ l·l’¤n ¬i ¬i¤ +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 239
17. ºi·¤ ¬¤i: ¬-i ¤iºi ¬i¤i n ¬i ¬ ( « ¤( ( r-nº (·i¤i ¬i¤ +
18. ¬in·(i÷i ¬ ·( i ¤º l·¤l-n ¬i º ¬l·(i¤ ª¤ ¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i n·i (ni
-ini¤ ¬i º ·ii¤i -ini¬i ¬i ¤i ·iºi l(nlºn ¬º· ¬ ¬l·(i¤ ¬i( ’i ¤ilºn l¬¤
¬i¤ +
19. ºi¬-·ii· ºi·¤ ¬¤i: ¬- ¤iºi ¬i¤i n ¬i ºii·i n-· ri +

-ri (¤ ¬i¤¬ l(·- ¬in r r l¬ ¬·n ¬--¤i¬i ¤º n ·iiºni ¬ l(¤iº ¬º ¬-i·ii·
rn ¬i(º¤¬ ¬(- ¬-i¤ ( l·ºi ¤ l¬¤ ¬i¤ +

¬r¤i n ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬ ¬i·i..............


·i((i¤






¬--n (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ºi¬-·ii·


¬ ¬··
s. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤lº¤¤
/. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬--¤i¤ ¤( -i n
s. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬¬--÷i¬

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 240
(i (i (i (i~-il¬ ¬-(i¤ ~-il¬ ¬-(i¤ ~-il¬ ¬-(i¤ ~-il¬ ¬-(i¤

¬i-il¬¬ l-·iln ¬i-il¬¬ l-·iln ¬i-il¬¬ l-·iln ¬i-il¬¬ l-·iln
(l¬ni - ·ii ¬ln (l¬n (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ·iiºn ¬ l·i··÷l·i·· ·i ¤i - ¬¬n÷¬¬n
·i-i ¬ ¬i·i ¬ini r + ¬ ¬ ÷ ·i ni - rnº ¤ r÷i ªii¬ºi(÷i - r¬i¬ªiiº n·ii ¬ri
¬ri ¤º ¬i¬( ni ¬ ·i- ¬ :¬ ¬¤i: -¬(º (n ¬i ¤r¤i·i ¬ini r+ ¬i¬ ¤ri
¬¤i: ¬l-¬ (n ¬- ¤ ¬-nº ·iiºn - ¤¬ ¬¬ l·-( ¬i: ÷ l·-l- ¬ ª· - ¬·iº ¬º
¬i-· ¬i¤i r+ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬: ·i¤i - rlº¬· ¬ ·i- ¬ ·ii ¬i·i ¬ini r+
ri¬i l¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i (i l-¬ n(¬i (i~-il¬ ·i- ¬ ¤ lnril¬¬ ¬ ÷i( ¬i ¬ ¬º ¬:
¤ ¬iº ¬ (¤ilº¬ ¬·n¤ ·( - r +
·iiºn - ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬i- ¤r¤i· r + ¬¤i: ¬i¤ ¬i ¬- (i¤ ¬·ii ·ii ¤i·il-¬ni ¬
¬i¬il(¬i ¬ ª¤ - ¬ºni r+ (÷ ¤-i· ¤º (·¤ -lr¬i¤ ¬i º ¤(i ( ¬ n :¬ ¬i¤
¬ ¬ ÷ r+ l¬¬ ¬iººi ¬·ii ·ii (·¤ -¬ ¬ ¬ (irº r + :¬ ¬¤i: ¬i n ( ¬i º n·(
¬i¤ · ¬·¬ -(i-·¤ ¬i º ¤i ·iºi ¤º n-·iiº ¬¬º ÷i¬i r+
·i l¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i (il¬¬i¤ ¬¤· -ini÷l¤ni ¬ ¬i·i ¬¤i: ¬i¤ -·i¬ ¤º ¬in r
¤lººii-n ( -¬ ¬ ¬ (irº ºr¬º l’i·ii ¬ ( l¤n ºr ¬in r + ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ¬
¬i·i -¬ ¬i - ·i (·ii( ·ii (÷i ¬ ª¤i - ÷ i¤ ¬i¬- ¬i ¬iººi r+ (i¬¬÷(il¬¬i¤ ¬i
-¬ ¬i - l·¤l-n -rºi( ¬º·i ¬·ii ·ii ¤¬ (÷i ¤ ·i ni ¬ ª¤ - r+ ¤¬ ·ii n·¤
¬i-· ¬i¤ r l¬ -¬ ¬ - ¬¤i: ¬i¤ -i¤¬ - ·¬i· (¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ (··ii ¬ ri
¬ºi¤i ¬ini r +

¬i ¬i ¬i ¬il·i ¬ l-·iln l·i ¬ l-·iln l·i ¬ l-·iln l·i ¬ l-·iln
(i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤n ¬ ¤( ¤º-¤ºinn ºi ¬niº ¬¤i: ¬- ri ºri r+ ¬·ii ( rn
-nº ¤º -¤ l·l¬¤¬ ¬iº¤iº ’i· ¤( l(ºn ¬i¤ (¬ ¬-i·i ¬¤i: ¬i¤ ) ¬i ri ¬i¬il(¬i
¬i ¤ - ªi ¬i·iiº (·i¤i r ¬i r+ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬i¬il(¬i ¬i (r n ¬-ni ¬- -i·i ¬ini
r+ :¬ ¤ ¬iº ¬-n ¬- ¬i ¬i¬il(¬i · ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬il·i ¬ ª¤ l¤si÷ ºªii r ni
(¬ºi nº¤ nlº-i-¤ ¬i(· ¬i· ¬ l(ª- ¤¬ (÷i ¤ ·iln ¬ ª¤ - ¬i-· r+


Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 241
ºi¬·iln¬ l-·iln ºi¬·iln¬ l-·iln ºi¬·iln¬ l-·iln ºi¬·iln¬ l-·iln
¬- (i¤ ¬i ºi¬·iln¬ l(’¬ ·iºi ·ii l·¤¬ ¤i¤(i· ¬i ri -i·i ¬i ¬¬ni r+ ¬- (i¤
¬ ·¤i(inº ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ n-· ¬iln ¬ ¬ (ª·i ¬-i÷¤-¬ ¬ ¬ n ºr r ¬iº (
¤¬(- l¬¬i ¬ ’i¬ ·n -( ¬·ii( - r+ ¬i ¬·ii ·ii ¬i- lr¬ ¤r¬ - ¬i· ¬i l-·iln
- ·ri rin r ¤ri ¬iººi r l¬ ¬-nº ·iiºn - ¬i¤ l(· lr¬i ¬i º ¬·¤ ( ·i -·i¬i ¬
ªii¤·i¬ l¬-¬ ¬i-· ¬in ºrn r + ¤ ni ¬ n-· (ri ¤º ni-¬il¬¬ ¤r¬ ni ¬ n r
¬ l¬· ¬ ·i·i - l¬¬i -i¬ ·ni¬ n¬ ¤r¤· ¬ ¤r¬ ri (- ni ÷ (n r + :¬ ¤ ¬iº
ºi¬·iln¬ ·n -( ¬i ·ii ¬iºi¬- - ¬·ii( r+





ºi ·ilºi¬ l-·iln ºi ·ilºi¬ l-·iln ºi ·ilºi¬ l-·iln ºi ·ilºi¬ l-·iln
l’i·ii ¬i ¬l·i¬iº l’i·ii ¬i ¬l·i¬iº l’i·ii ¬i ¬l·i¬iº l’i·ii ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · (· ¬i· ¬ (i(¬ ( (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤ ¬·ii ·ii
-¬ ¬ ¬ (irº r+ ¬i º n·ii¬l·in ¬·¤(ni ¤ l’i·iºinºi ¬·r -¬ ¬ - ¬i· ¬ :·s ¬
·ri r+
l¬· -¬ ¬i - (·¤ r (ri ¬·¬ ¬i·i ¤-.÷i.¤-. - ·i (·ii( ¬·ii ¬·i - ¬·¤
n·ii¬l·in ¬·¤(ni ¤ (i¬¬÷(il¬¬i¬i ¤iºi ·i (·ii( ¬iºi r+ ¬l·i¬i ’i -¬ ¬i -
¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ¬ ri ¬¤i: ¬i¤ ¬ºi¤i ¬ini r+ (rn ¬ -¬ ¬i - ni ¬i·( n¬º
¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ¬i ¬-(·s¬iº si¤( ln ¬-(·s¬iº si¤( ln ¬-(·s¬iº si¤( ln ¬-(·s¬iº si¤( ln ¬i ¬i·i ¬ · ¬ ( l¤n l¬¤i ¬ini r ¤i
¬-·ii ¤ ·ii·i ¤iºi ¬iln·i ( ¬i ·ii(·i ¬ ¬iººi ¬ ¤i (·i¬º ri ·ri ·i ¬i ¬ini r +
:¬¬ ¬¬i(i -¬ ¬i - (·¤ ¬: ¤ ¬iº ¬ ·i ( ¬ l’i¬iº ri · ¬ ¬iººi -¬ ¬i ¬ ÷ i¤
¬i¬- ri ¬in r +
-(i-·¤ -(i-·¤ -(i-·¤ -(i-·¤ ¤( ¤( ¤( ¤( ¤i ·iºi ¤i ·iºi ¤i ·iºi ¤i ·iºi ¬i ¬i ¬i ¬i l-·iln l-·iln l-·iln l-·iln
¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ÷-lr¬i÷¤ ª·ii ¬ -(i-·¤ - ·iiºi lnºi(- r + ¬in·(i÷i ¬ ·(i -
¬l·i¬i ’in n·i (ni ( ·ii¤i -lr¬i¬i ¬i º si - (·¤i ¬ ¬i·i ·i (·ii( l¬¤i ¬ini r ¤i
¬·r ¬ ·( i ¬ ¬i ÷i ri ·ri ¬ini+ ¤¬i l-·iln - ( ¬º¬iºi ¤i ¬·i¬i ¬i ~ii·i ¬ · ¬
( l¤n ºr ¬in r +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 242
¬niniº ¬l’i·ii (ini(ººi ¬ ºrn ( -(i-·¤ ¬i º ¤i ·iºi ¬ ¬l¤n -i¤(º÷i ¬i ·ri
¬-n ¤in r ¬iº ¬: (iº -n(i n ·iiº ¬il·i ¬ l(·¬ni ¬ ¬iººi l·¤l-n ¬l¤n
¬iriº ¬ ( l¤n ºrn r + ¤¬i l-·iln - (·¤i ( -lr¬i¬i ¬i ¬ri ¤i ·iºi ·ri ri ¤i·
¬ ¬iººi l(l·i·· ¤ ¬iº ¬ ºi ni ¬ n l¬n ºrn r ¤( ¬¬-¤ ri - -¤ ¬ l’i¬iº ri
¬in r +

(i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi ¬--¤i¤ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi ¬--¤i¤ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi ¬--¤i¤ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi ¬--¤i¤
¬- (i¤ ¬·ii ·ii ¬·nl·n ¬--¤i¬i ¬ ¬ n ºri r + :· ¬--¤i¬i ¬ ºrn ¬- (i¤ ¬
l(¬i¬ ¬i nln ¬ri ÷¬ri ni l(~¬ ¬ ¬(ª- ri n: r ni ¬ri l(~¬ ¬ ·ii-i nln -
r+ ·nºi¤ ¤( n i-iºi ¬·¤¤·i ¬ ¤r ¤ni ¬ni¤i ¬i ¬¬ni r+ ¤ri ¤ - ªi ¬--¤i¤
l·-·l¬lªin r÷
¬i¬il(¬i ¬i¬il(¬i ¬i¬il(¬i ¬i¬il(¬i
• (i.¤i.¤¬. ¬ l¤ - n i- ¤ ¤i¤ni ¬ ¬ilnnn ·i (·ii( ¬ ¬iººi ¬i·i ¬ ( l¤n ri ·
¬i ¬--¤i¤
• (i~-il¬ ¤lº(iºi ¬i ·ii ÷i (rn ¬ l·i ·i l- ¬i ¬·¤ (ni ¤iºi ¬·¬i ¬º· ¬i
¬--¤i+
• ¬¤i: ¬i¤ -¬i «i · ¬ ¬i¤ ¬ l(¬~¤ ¬i ¬i : -i¬ ¬·¤ ·¤(¬il¤¬ ¬i¤
¬i ·ri ri ·i+
• ¬i- ¬¬i’i¤i ¤º s ¬isn ¤( ¤i·i ¬i n ·iiº ¬--¤i¤ +

l’i·ii÷ l’i·ii÷ l’i·ii÷ l’i·ii÷
• -¬ ¬ - (·¤i ¬ ¬i·i s ¬isn ¬i ¬--¤i+
• ¬-(·s¬iº si¤( ln l(nººi - ·i (·ii( ¬i ¬--¤i+
• ¬i-il¬¬ ·¤i¤ ¤( ¬l·i¬ilºni l(·iin ¤iºi ¬ ¤il¬n ¤iºi ss -(·s¬iº ri --¬i
- ¬ r· -(·s¬iº ri--¬i - ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¤¬ ·ii (·¤ ¬i ·i-i ¬· · ri ·i ¬i
¬--¤i+
• ¤ ln·ii’ii¬i si¤÷si¤i¬i ¬ l¬¤ ¬·¤ ¬·¤¤· ¬i ¬ l(·ii¤ · ri ·i+
• ¬l·i¬i ’i ¬nri ¤º ¤i·il-¬ l(ni¬¤i ¬i (l-n¤i ¬ ¬i¤i (º ri ·i l¬¬
¬iººi si - (·¤ -¬ ¬ ·ri ¬i ¤in r +
• ºii¬i¤( l’i·ii ¬i (l-n¤i - ¬i n·(i÷i ¬ ·( i ¤iºi ·¤(-·ii · ¬º·i+
• l¬¬i - ª¤i¬¤i ¤º ¬i¬ ¬ l’i·ii rn l(nil·i ¤i ¬ l¬¤ si¤i(i¬i ¬i ¬ l(·ii¤
· ri ·i+

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 243

¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷ ¬iº·iºi÷
• ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬·¬ l¤n ¬iln ¬ l¬¤ ¬in ¬iº·iºi ·¤(-·ii ¬ l¬¤ ¬¤· ¬ln
¬i-il¬¬ ºi¬· ln¬ ºi ·ilºi¬ l¤s÷ ¤· ¬ ¬iººi ¬i·i · ¬ · ¬i l-·iln - ·
ri ·i

lr¬i ÷ lr¬i ÷ lr¬i ÷ lr¬i ÷
• r-¤i -iº¤i- (¬i-¬iº s ÷ si÷ ¬in¬·i ¬ ¤iºi ¬- (i¤ ¬i r- ’ii
n·ii¬l·in ¬·¤ ¬iln(i(i -i·l¬¬ni ¬ ¬i ni ¤iºi ªii¤ - ºªii ¬i·i+ r- ’ii
¬l·i¬nº -i-¬i ¬i ((i· ¬ l¬¤ ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬¤º ri n - - ¬(- -i ¬·i+
-i·(il·i¬iº ¬i ¬i(i¬i ¬i ((i· ¬i ¤ ¤i¬ ¬º·i+
• ¤ ’ii¬· ¤( ¤ l¬¬ ¤iºi ¬- (i¤i ¬i ¬r¤i n · l-¬·i



¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¤ - ªi -i n -i n -i n -i n

(i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ·ii ¬·¤ ¬- (i¤i ¬i nºr -(¤ ¬¤· ¬·(ª·i ¬--¤i¬i ¬ ¬ n ºri
r+ ¬ l¬· ¤ri ¬ s ¤¬i ri ¤ - ªi ¬--¤i¬i ¬i º ªii l¬n l¬¤i ¬i ºri r ¬i
¬(·iil·¬ ¤( ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬i ¬(i(( ri ¬ ¬·nn n ·ii ¬ini r+
20. ¬- (i¤ ¬i nlº-i -·ii¤·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬i(’¤¬ r l¬ ¬º¬iº -¬i ¤ ·ii ¬ ¤ ln·i ·i
¬ l¬¤ -i¬ ¤i ¬·i¤ n¤iº ¬º l¬¬ ¤il÷n ¤lº(iº -·ii¤i ni º ¤º ¬¤·i ¬¬ +
( ¬l~¤¬ ºi ¬niº ¤( ¤ l’i·iºi ¬i¤ ¬- n ¬i ¬ ¤¬i¤ ¬i¤ +
21. nlº-i -·ii¤·i ¬ l¬¤ ¤r ·ii ¬i(’¤¬ r l¬ ºi·¤ ¬º¬iº ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬ s
¬l¬¤ ¤ lnl·l·i ¬i-il¬¬ ¬ n-·i ¬ ¬i·i l-¬¬º :¬¬i -i l·-lº n ¬- -i
n¤iº ¬º ¤( s ¬isn ¬-¤i¤iº lr¬i ¤( ¬º¬iºi ¬-·ii· ¤lº¬º -·i¬i ¤º
·il-n ·i-·i¬i ¬ -(lºn l·(iººi ¬i ¤i ¬·i n¤iº ¬i ¬i¤+
22. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i nlº-i -·ii¤·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¤ lnril¬¬ ·¤l·n¤i ¤(
¬- (i¤ ¬i ni º(il·(n ¬º· (i¬i ¬¤¬l··i¤i ¬i -¬ ¬ ¤i- ¤¬-i - ¬l·(i¤
ª¤ ¬ ¬l--l¬n l¬¤i ¬i¤+
23. ¬i-il¬¬ ·¤i¤ ¤( ¬l·i¬ilºni l(·iin ¤iºi ¬ ¤il¬n ¬·ii ss -(·s¬iº ri --¬i
- ¬l·(i¤ ª¤ ¬ (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ¬i ·i-i l¬n ¬ºi· ¬i ¤ l¬¤i

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 244
ºi ª ¬i ¬i¤ ¤( :¬¬ ¬l¬¤ l¬¤i··i¤· ¬ ¬i¤ ¬- rn l(’i ·i ª¤ ¬ ¬- (i¤
¬i l’i·ii ¬ ¬ ÷i ¬ -·ii¬i ¬ n-·i ¬i ¤ i -¬ilrn l¬¤i ¬i¤+
24. (i~-il¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ n ·iiº -i-¬i ¤·ii -iº¤i- r-¤i (¬i-¬iº s ÷ si÷ ¬ ¬i
·i-·i¬i ¬i ºi ¬· rn n i- ¤ ¤i¤ni ¬i ¬· ¤i¬·i ¬ ¬ªn l·( ’i l(¤ ¬i¤ +
25. ¤ (i¬i ¬i ºi ¬niº ¬·¤ l’i·ii - ¤ i ¤ ’i·¬ ¤¬ ¬ ’i· rn ~ºi ¤i ¬·i¤ ¬in
l¬¤i ¬i¤ + ¬÷ l¬¤i ¬ ¬·¤¤· ¬i ¤ i -¬ilrn ¬º· rn l(’i ·i ¤i ¬·i¤ ¬in
¬i ¬i¤+
26. ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i ·i l- ¬l·i¬iº ¬i ¤ ¤( l¬¤i·(¤· ¬- -i nl-n ¬i ¬i¤ ¤( :¬- ¬l¬¤
¬-i¬ ¬l- ¤i ¬i ¬l--l¬n l¬¤i ¬i¤+
27. ¬·¤ (ni ¤iºi (i~-il¬¤i ¬i ¬·¬i: ¬-i·i ¤º (i¤¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬·¬i
l(¬i¤i ¬i¤+
28. (l-n¤i - ¬÷ ¬ ·i¬i ¤i·i ¬i ¬i(’¤¬ ·¤(-·ii ¬i ¬i¤ nil¬ ( ¤i·i ¬
l¬¤ ¬·¤ (n ¬ -¤ini ¤º l··iº · ºr ¬¬ + l·l’¤n ª·i ¬ :¬ ¤ l¬¤i ¬
¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i·i s ¬isn -iº¤i- ¬ ¤ ¬ººii - ¬-i ¬i¤ni+
29. ¬ªºn- ( (i~-il¬¤i ¬i ¬( ¬º ¬i(’¤¬ ª¤ ¬ (i.¤i.¤¬. - ºiil-¬ l¬¤
¬i¤ ¤( :l·(ºi ¬i(i¬ ¬ nrn -¬i· l·l-n l¬¤ ¬i¤+
30. -¬ ¬i ¬i¬ ¬i - si¤÷si¤i¬i ¬ ¬i·i ·i (·ii( ( ( ri ¤( ¬·r si¤( ln
l(nººi ¬ ¬l·(i¤ ¬i( ’i ¤ilºn l¬¤ ¬i¤ +
31. (l-n¤i ¬ ¬ (º ¤( ¬¬¬ ·¬(i¬ ºiºi( ¬ - ¬i ¬i · l¬¬i -i-º ¬i (ºi ¤º
-·ii·inlºn l¬¤i ¬i¤+ ¤¬i ·ri ¬º· (i¬i ¬ ¬i¤¬¬ l·¬ l(n l¬¤ ¬i¤+
32. ¬i n·(i÷i ¬ ·( ºi’i· ¬i ( ¬i·i ¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬i ¬i·i ¬ ( l¤n ·ri l¬¤i
¬i¤+ ¬n¤( ¬·r ¬l¬¤ l(’iil·( ’ii ¬i( ’i ¤ilºn ¬º ¤ ln-ir ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni
¬ ¤ -ilºin lº¤i - - ni: ¬i¤+
33. ¬- (i¤ ¬ ¬i ni ¬i -ri·º ni ¬ ¬i(’¤¬ ª¤ ¬ ¬i ÷i ¬i¤ ¤( ¬i:- ¤º ri ·
(i¬i s ¬isn ¬i ºi ¬i ¬i¤ ( ·i nni· ¬i ¬·l¤l-nni¬i ¬i n ºn ºi ¬i ¬i¤+
34. - ¤ n ¤( ¬l·(i¤ l’i·ii ¬i ¬l·i¬iº ¬i· · zaas ¬i ¤ ·ii(i « n ¬ ¬in ri +
35. ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i ¬i (i¬¬- - ¬i· ¬ ºi ¬· ¬ l¬¤ ¬ªºi r l¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬
-lr¬i÷¤ ª·ii ¬ l¬¤ -(ºi ¬niº ¤( ¤ ·(i¬ ¬i ·¤(-·ii ¬ l·l’¤n ¬i ¬i¤ +
36. ºi·¤ ¬¤i: ¬-i ¤iºi ¬i¤i n ¬i ¬ ( « ¤( ( r-nº (·i¤i ¬i¤ +
37. ¬in·(i÷i ¬ ·( i ¤º l·¤l-n ¬i º ¬l·(i¤ ª¤ ¬ ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤i n·i (ni
-ini¤ ¬i º ·ii¤i -ini¬i ¬i ¤i ·iºi l(nlºn ¬º· ¬ ¬l·(i¤ ¬i( ’i ¤ilºn l¬¤
¬i¤ +
38. ºi¬-·ii· ºi·¤ ¬¤i: ¬- ¤iºi ¬i¤i n ¬i ºii·i n-· ri +





Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 245





·i -n ¤( ·i -n ¤( ·i -n ¤( ·i -n ¤( ( l¤n ( l¤n ( l¤n ( l¤n ¬- (i¤ ¬- (i¤ ¬- (i¤ ¬- (i¤i ¬ i ¬ i ¬ i ¬ ¤ -ni( ¤ -ni( ¤ -ni( ¤ -ni(

¬¤¤ º z· ¬·- (º za·a ¬i ·i -·n ¤( ( l¤n (ni ¬ ·inlº¬ ¬-- ¬· - z·
¬·- (º za·a ¬i ¬i¤ r- ºi¬-·ii· ¬ ( l¤n ·i -·n (ni ¬ ¬i n l·-- l¬lªin ¤ -ni(
¬( ¬--ln ¬ ¤ilºn ¬ºn r+
• r- ºi¬-·ii· - -¬i ¤ ·ii ¬i ¬- ¬ ¬·- ¬· ¬º n +
• r- ¬¤· ·inlº¬ r¬i ¬i ¤ il·n rn ºii lnl¤ ¤ ¤( ¬lr¬i--¬ nºi¬i ¬ ¬ ·i·i
¼ n +
• ¬- (i¤ ¬i nlº-i -·ii¤·i ¬ l¬¤ ¬r·i-i ¬ n-·i¬-·ii¬i ·¤l·n¤i ¬ ¬i·i
¬-i·(¤ -·iil¤n ¬º ¬· ¬in ln ¬l·i¤i· ¤¬i¤ n +
• ¬i-il¬¬ ¤lº(n · ¬ :¬ l(¤iº ¬i -n ª¤ ( · ¬ l¬¤ ¤¬ ·¤i¤¬ ¤(
¬-l·(n ¤ l¬¤i ¤¬i· ¬i ¤ ¤i¬ ¬º n +
• l¬¬i ·ii l-·iln - r- s ¬i÷sn ·i (·ii( ¬-¤i¤iº · ni ¬r n ¬i º · ri l¬¬i
¤º ¬º n +
• ¬i¤ -·i¬i ¤º ri · (i¬ -lr¬i ¬-¤i÷ · ¬ (¤i( ¬ l¬¤ -lr¬i¬i ¬i ¬ nl-n
¼ n +
• n i¬ª- -il÷¤i ¬ ¬lº¤ ril’i¤ ¬i ¬i(i¬i ¬i ¬·iiº· ¬i ¤ ¤i¬ ¬º n +
• ¬º¬iº ¤iºi ¬i- (il¤¬ l(¬i¬ ¬ l¬¤ ¬ ¤il¬n ¬·ii ¤i ¬·i¬i ¬ ¬l¤n
l¬¤i·(¤· ¬ l¬¤ ¬ nl-n ¤ ¤i¬ ¬º n +
• ·i ·-i¤iº ¬i º -i·(i¤ ¬ºni ¬ l(ª- ¬i- lr¬ ¬i(i¬ ¬-i¤ n +
• ¬-i¬ - ·¤i·n (ºi:¤i ¤·ii÷ ·’ii ¬ ·il(’(i¬ (i¬ l((ir l¬ n·i ( - -¤ ·ii ¬
¬i ¬i- lr¬ ¤ ln¬iº ¬º n +

Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 246
• ¬·ii ( l¤n ·i -·n (n ¬ ºi·- i¤ -(·ii·ni ¬ n i- - ºiri( ¤ lnril¬¬ ·¤l·n¤i
¬i ¬ril·¤i ¬i ¤ ¤ilºn÷¤ ¬ilºn ¬º n ¤( ¬·r ¬i-il¬¬ ¤ n·i ¬ (ni º
¤ ni¬ ª¤ - -·iil¤n ¬º n +
• ¬il·i ¬ l(¬i¬ ¬ l¬¤ ºi ¬niº ¬ nlº-i¤ ºi (¬l~¤¬ -i·¤-i ¬i ¤ · n +
• ºi¬-·ii· ¬ ¬·ii ¬º¬iºi ss -(·s¬iº ri --¬i - ¬- (i¤ ¬ (·¤ ¬ ÷ ¬¬
:¬¬ l¬¤ ¤ ¤i¬ ¬º n +
• ºi¬-·ii· - (l¬n ºii l·in ·i -n ¬i ¬ ¬i·i ¬ri ·ii r-¤i -iº¤i- -lr¬i
¬-¤i÷ · ¬in¬·i ¬i ·i-·i¤ ri ni r- ¬·r :¬ - ¤ ¬ ¤ º¬iº nºi¬ ¬ l(ºi ·i
¼ n +

r- ¬( ·ii ·iºii ¬ºn r l¬ ¬·n ¤ -nil(n (ini ¬ ¬ ¤i¬· ¤( - ~¤i ¬· rn (il·i ¬
nlnl(l·i¤i ¤( ¤¬ ¬nn ¤ l¬¤i -·iil¤n ¬º n +



Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 247
ni¤· ni¤· ni¤· ni¤·

l(·i ¬÷ ··.··.za·a

¬i-i· ¬’ii ¬ nr¬in ¬i
- ª¤-¤i
ºi¬-·ii· ¬º¬iº


-ri (¤

ªi ª¬i ¬iln ¬i l·-· -i n r ÷
·. ªi ª¬i ¬iln ¬i ¬·¬iln ¬i (¬i l(¤i ¬i¤+
z. ªi ª¬i ¬·¬iln ¬i (i.¤i.¤¬. - ºiil-¬ l¬¤i ¬i¤+
s. ªi ª¬i ¬·¬iln ¬ ¬i ni ¬i ¬i(i¬ ¤i ¬·i ¬ ¬i·i ¬i ÷i ¬i¤+
«. ªi ª¬i ¬·¬iln ¬ ¬i ni ¬ (··ii ¬i ¬rlº¤i ¬iln ¬ (·¤i ¬i nºr ri ¬i(i¬i¤ si¤i(i¬i
- ¤ ( ’i ( ¬º l’i·ii ¬¤¬··i ¬º(i: ¬i¤+
r. (· ¬l·i¬iº ¬l·il·¤- zaar ¬ nrn ªi ª¬i ¬·¬iln ¬i ¬ l·i (· ·i l- ¬ ¤- - l(¤ ¬i¤+
-ri (¤ ¬i¤¬ l(·- ¬in r r l¬ ¬·n ¬--¤i¬i ¤º n ·iiºni ¬ l(¤iº ¬º ¬-i·ii· rn ¬i(’¤¬
¬(- ¬-i¤ ( l·ºi ¤ l¬¤ ¬i¤+

¬r¤i n ¬i ¬¤ ·ii ¬ ¬i·i.....................



Minimum Wages and Mazdoor Haq Satyagraha Page 248
·i((i¤


¬¬i (i ((i ªi ª¬i
- .¤i .÷¤i ¬·i nr.÷l¬’i·n ¬
l¬¬i÷(iºi (ºi¬-·ii·)

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See Section 9 of Chapter 3

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See Sections 11 and 12 of Chapter 3


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See Annexure 13

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See Section 15 of Chapter 3

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See Section 15 of Chapter 3

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