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“Chak De India – this time on the real field”
By Raunak Ramakrishnan And Binit Agrawal
Students of IIT Kharagpur
Case Study on Sports in India,
By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal
1. Introduction 2. Importance of Sports 3. Sports in India – Past and Present 4. Evolution of National Sports Policy 5. Aims of Comprehensive Sports Policy 2007 draft 6. Outline of the 2007 policy draft 7. Lacunae in Sports and Sports Policy of India 8. Comparison of Indian sport with other countries 9. Corruption in the system 10. Solutions to some problems 11. Conclusion 12. Sources and Acknowledgements
Case Study on Sports in India,
By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal
1978 states that “Every human being has a fundamental right of access to physical education and sport. The International Charter of Physical Education and Sport.” These points will be covered more exhaustively in our case study along with a review of 2001 & 2007 sports policy. this headline and the euphoria in our country for our “best showing” in the Olympics awakened me to the stark realities of sports in India. I came across many factors. Our neighbor China won just over 100 medals in the Beijing Olympics while we had to be satisfied by three. Hope that we have prepared an insightful case Researched By Raunak ramakrishnan Binit Agrawal Case Study on Sports in India.I- Introduction “India – the land of a billion people wins a lone gold in Beijing”. The freedom to develop physical. Lack of infrastructure Indifferent Sports policies Non transparent selection No Support Staff Lack of nationwide talent hunt Abridging Sponsors for sports other than Cricket. UNESCO. Something must be wrong somewhere-this is what I thought and now. Some of the factors areo o o o o o o Insufficient Emphasis on Sports for school children. I have ambled to find what is ailing Indian sports. thanks to this competition. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . some easily resolvable and some which needs long term attention to. intellectual and moral powers through physical education and sport must be guaranteed both within the educational system and in other aspects of social life. which are essential for the full development of his personality.
alcohol and drugs. (iv) building lasting peace. Case Study on Sports in India. v improve social behavior v reduce anti-social and criminal tendencies. v help reduce violence. health and personality development. v empower women and other weaker sections to promote their independence and selfconfidence v adopt an inclusive approach to the welfare of persons with disabilities. v leadership and team-work skills. Education and Sports: v Sports can help in personal and social development v improve academic performance in key skills such as numeracy and literacy. and healthier physical and social lifestyles and environment. v fostering volunteering through coaching and sports administration. This initiative highlighted sports as: (i) being integral to quality education with mandatory physical education as a necessary prerequisite to foster education. Health and well-being: v Playing sports have a wide range of physical. v enhance the self-image of individuals and the community as a whole. increased productivity. social and mental health benefits. strokes. v discourage use of tobacco. v break down stigmas attached to diseases like HIV/AIDS and promote social interaction and integration. v This would lead to reduced health care costs. v Sport and other forms of physical activity reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. (ii) improving the health standards of people. (iii) achieving sustainable development through inclusive growth. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . and re-engaging young people in education and retention in schools. Leadership and team-work: v Sports is a powerful tool for ice-breaking and engaging the whole of a community in a common activity. diabetes. v reduction in truancy. and contribute to strategies to improve diet. enhance functional capacity. and obesity.II. Building inclusive communities: v Promoting social cohesion through sports to help build communities and a sense of belonging among all members of the community.Importance Of Sports The United Nations General Assembly celebrated 2005 as the “Year of Sport and Physical Education” thereby emphasizing the need to integrate them into the overall development agenda. promoting personal development. which is becoming an increasingly serious problem among the urban middle-class population in India.
BCCI.Sports in India – Past and Present Professional Sport Cricket Cricket match between India Blue and India Red in progress during NKP Salve Challenger Trophy 2006 at the M. Until the mid 20th century. Cricket is the most popular Sport in India. Field hockey The popular sector-42 Hockey stadium in Chandigarh Field hockey is the official national sport of India. Its development has been closely tied up with the history of the country. The Indian player Dhyan Chand. was formed in December 1928.III. is the new apex body of the country which has the sole mandate to govern and conduct all activities for both men's and women's hockey in India. India. national and international levels. but it is not the nation's official national Sport (a distinction held by Field hockey). Chidambaram Cricket Stadium. A. the World Cup in 1975 and were runners-up in the 1973 World Cup. winning 8 Olympic gold medals. Hockey India. mirroring many of the political and cultural developments around issues such as caste. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . The highest profile rival of the Indian cricket team is the Pakistan team.The governing body.Chennai.the most famous Case Study on Sports in India. India dominated international hockey. formed on 20 May 2009. religion and nationality and is played on local. Cricket has a long history in India and is the de facto national sport of India.
Case Study on Sports in India. The sport is. Football is one of the major sports in India. was described as a 'wizard' by the European press. India was an Asian powerhouse until the sixties. but gradually the standard of football has gone down compared to other countries and currently India ranks 146 in the FIFA Rankings as of the 22nd of June 2009. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Simla. However. widely popular both as a spectator sport and as a participation sport and is played throughout the country. Badminton Badminton is a popular recreational sport in India. Chess Vishwanathan Anand is an Indian chess Grand Master and the current World Chess Champion. Indian shuttler Saina Nehwal is currently ranked 2nd in the world and has been named the Most Promising Player of 2008 by the Badminton World Federation.It is the parent body of football in India. On the 23rd June 1937 at the Army Headquarters. It was introduced during the British occupation and in some areas of the country it is equally popular as cricket. nevertheless. Football Sayed Rahim Nabi of East Bengal FC and Daniel of Chirag United SCduring I league at Salt Lake Stadium.Indian hockey player. India's recent performance have been below par and India is currently ranked 9th in the world. the All India Football Federation was formed at a meeting of the representatives of football associations of six regions where the game was very popular in those days. This is the first ever achievement by any Indian shuttler after Prakash Padukone andPullela Gopichand won the AllEngland in 1980 and 2001 respectively. The Yuva Bharati Krirangan in Kolkatta is the second largest non-auto racing stadium in the world .
young Somdev Devvarman and Yuki Bhambri are flying India's flag on atp tour.Sania Mirza is the only notable Indian woman tennis player. Rugby Like other sports founded in England and introduced during the British Raj such as cricket. Tennis Leander Paes (left). there are 17. rugby union has a long history in India. having won a WTA title and breaking in to the Top 30 WTA ranking. Yuki is the current Australian Open junior singles champion. at CFC in Calcutta. some Indian sporting clubs are embracing the game.Chess has risen in popularity in India in the last few decades primarily due to its star player GM Vishwanathan Anand. Also it is believed that the game originated from India. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . has won seven tennis Grand Slam doubles titles. The home of rugby in India is considered to be Kolkata. Kabaddi Case Study on Sports in India. It is considered the second most popular winter sport after football in India. Tennis is popular among Indians in urban areas. Although low in profile as compared to cricket or field hockey. On the men's side. He is the current World Champion and he has revolutionized the popularity of this sport in India. However. The first recorded match was played on Christmas Day 1872.500 registered players in the country and the Indian national team are ranked 80th out of 95 nations in the IRB (International Rugby Board) world rankings. Currently. along with his former team-partner Mahesh Bhupati (right). India's fortunes in the Grand Slams singles have been unimpressive although Leander Paesand Mahesh Bhupathi have won many Men's Doubles and Mixed Doubles Grand Slam Titles.
India has taken part in 4 Asian games Kabaddi and won gold in all four of them. Suranjeevi is the most played form of Kabaddi in India and the world. Fortunately the game survived in a few remote mountainous enclaves of the subcontinent. notably Gilgit. Today. USA. In India. There are three forms of kabaddi played in India. The three forms of Kabaddi are Amar. Amar is generally played in Punjab. Polo India is considered the cradle of modern polo. the founder of the Mughal dynasty in the 15th century. Canada. However. it has never lost its regal status. Ladakh and Manipur. India is the powerhouse of world Kabaddi. This is the form used in international matches generally and played in Asian games. polo is not just restricted to the royalty and the Indian Army Case Study on Sports in India. Polo almost vanished from the mainland India. the emergence of privately owned teams has ensured a renaissance in Indian polo. firmly established its popularity. and other parts of the world. and Gaminee. The period between the decline of the Mughal dynasty and the upsurgence of the British Imperial rule. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Chitral. It is one of the most popular sports in India played mainly among people in villages. Suranjeevi.Kabaddi match in progress in Haryana Kabaddi is a game in India. In the last few decades. India won the Kabaddi world championship in 2007 beating Iran 29-19. Babar. the popularity of polo has waned and risen many time.
Jitender Kumar. India. Akhil Kumar. which is currently ranked 90 in the world. dressage. India's Mary Kom won the best boxer title and also secured a hattrick of titles. India has been represented at the Olympics twice. In November 2007. and Imtiaz Anees. eventing is the most popular of the five.Lakra and Dinesh Kumar each won a bronze medal at the 2008 world championship. but popular as a common recreational sport and it is a good way to keep fit Table tennis Table tennis is a popular indoor recreation sport in India. eventing. Boxing is one of the most enjoyable profiled sports in India.L. by Wing Commander I. Supported by the Equestrian Federation of India.Lamba. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal .J. During the 2008 Beijing Olympics. which has caught on in states like West Bengal and Tamil Nadu. although it is a regular medal-holder at Asian Games and Commonwealth Games.Vijender Kumar is current world number 1 on middleweight class Cycling The history of cycling in India dates back to 1938. Equestrian Sports India also has a wide following in various equestrian sports like Showjumping. endurance and tentpegging. with teams representing the country at most Asian games. Cycling is unknown as a professional sport in India. has produced a single player ranked in the top 50. The Cycling Federation of India takes care of the sport. India had produce a world champion in any weight class. A. Sharat Kamal.Individual sports Boxing Vijender prepairing for a boxing match on a television show. Vijender Kumar won a bronze medal in the middleweight boxing category and Akhil Kumarand Jitender Kumar qualified for the quarterfinals. winning a bronze medal in the 2006 and 2002 games. The Table Tennis Federation of India is the official sports body. Mountain biking Case Study on Sports in India.
The country is all set to break the Korean stranglehold on the World Archery Championship. Tarundeep Rai and Rahul Banerjee are making waves at the big stage. Skiing. Archery Young talents like Jayant Talukdar. the government of Sikkim (Department of Tourism) introduced its own MTB race with South East Asia's biggest prize money. Himachal MTB has been organised regularly by HASTPA. T. India is emerging as an archery powerhouse. Kashmir.Mountain biking is now getting momentum. Moreover. Yohannan. Traditionally dominated by champion archers from tribal communities. a major lot of the archers come from non-tribal areas with good educational backgrounds. the general standard of competition still leaves scope for a lot of improvement. Winter sports are generally more common in the northern states of Jammu and Kashmir. It is attended by a number of national and international participants. Delhi and Chandigarh. Tour of Nilgiris is a major non-competitive/non-commercial touring event in South Asia today. archery in India has emerged as a sport with considerable recognition and has managed to score success. C. Last year. Indian Air Force. Milkha Singh. some athletes like Anju Bobby George. who have taken archery as their event. However. Winter sports Snow sports are uncommon in India due to a lack of snow except in the extreme north. today. Archery Association of India (AAI) is taking special efforts in providing infrastructure and proper training to the sportspersons. Uttaranchal. job opportunities are opening up in a big way for the sport's stars. Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. The fact that India finished second to the mighty Koreans at the 2005 World Championship is a solid proof of the growing International stature of Indian archers and the sport of archery back home. with their brilliant game and made a mark at the Olympics as well. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Skiing is more popular although India has taken part in Luge in winter olympics since 1998. Jyotirmoyee Sikdar. Athletics and Triathlon In India. snow rugby. The second edition saw 48 professional participants from across the globe. an NGO. With international laurels pouring thick and fast. Norman Pritchard. snow cycling and snow football are few of the common sports played in India. Himachal Pradesh. Even though Indian athletics has witnessed improvements in terms of facilities and infrastructure. Ski tournaments take place every winter inGulmarg. ITBP and a number of young and energetic MTB individual riders from cities like Pune. Case Study on Sports in India. that covers 1000 kilometres in under ten days. Usha and T. but it still has millions of miles to cover to reach the pinnacle of success. athletics has come a long way since the initial years. such as Indian Army. Bangalore. In the present time. Shiva Keshavan is the only India to have won a medal in international meet in winter sports. For the last four years. have done India extremely proud. P.
The famous Indian epic. Duryodhan. Many such efforts have been done by the Billiards and Snooker Federation of India in the recent past to enhance the popularity of the game in the country.  However soon after the win the President of the Gymnastics Federation of India. One of the premier characters in Mahabharata. were accused of doping offences in various international competitions in a single year. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Gymnastics Gymnastics came of age in India. play a proactive role in popularizing the game. The thirteenth century Malla Purana has the reference of a group of Gujarati Brahmin wrestlers known as Jyesthimallas. when at the 2010 Commonwealth Games. Wrestling In the ancient times. The Federation is affiliated to the Indian Olympic Association (Delhi) and is also a member of Asian Weightlifting Federation (Tehran) and International Weightlifting Federation (Budapest). Snooker Federation of India. Wrestling in India is also known as `dangal` and it is the basic form of a wrestling tournament. later the coach also revealed that "In Aug 2009. It was also used as a great way of military exercise without any weapons. In the other Indian epic. Ashish Kumar won the the firstever medal in gymnastics for India. An impressive assembly of great champions like Wilson Jones. Bhima was considered to be a great Wrestler of that time and some of the other great wrestlers included Jarasandha. Wrestling in India was mainly used as a wonderful way to stay physically fit." Also the Federation announced that no Indian Case Study on Sports in India. Mahabharata has a huge mention about the game of Wrestling in India. Wrestling in India is most famously known as Malla-Yuddha. Karna etc. Several training camps for identifying budding talent and providing them regional and state sponsorship have been organised by the Billiards and Snooker Federation in various parts of the country. Ramayana also mentions about Wrestling in India and Hanuman is described as one of the greatest wrestlers of that time. Sanamacha Chanu and Pratima Kumari. The International Weightlifting Federation banned the Indian Weightlifting Federation from participating in all international competitions for one year. Michael Ferreira and Geet Sethi has underlined the powerhouse status of the country. Some forms of Mallayuddha were practiced in India even before the invasion of the Aryan. we had no equipment.Weight-lifting and Power-lifting The headquarters of Indian Weightlifting Federation is at New Delhi. controversially asked Ashish's Chief Coach from the erstwhile Soviet Union. Ashish trained on hard floor till Feb 2010. and then we got equipment around 20 years old. Billiards &Snookers India has been a force to reckon with in world billiards competitions. a bronze?". as three Indian women weightlifters—S Sunaina. The present General Secretary of Indian Weightlifting Federation is Balbir Singh. he also won a bronze medal. Vladimir Chertkov: "Is this all that you can deliver. the comment was widely reported in the pressed. the apex body.
By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Case Study on Sports in India. The festival of Makar Sankranti is marked with competitions of this sport.team would travel to Rotterdam for the World Championships in October which would mean that Indian gymnasts automatically not qualify as a team for the 2012 Olympics. The winner gets the kancha of other boys. Kancha It is played using marbles (kancha) in cities as well as villages by small boys only as gully sport.Danda It is a sport played using one small stick (gilli) and a large stick (danda) like cricket with ball being replaced by Gilli. Kite Flying It is played by many people in India in cities as well as villages. Regional and Other Sports Gilli .
the policy emphasized the role of the Indian Olympics Committee (IOC) and National Sports Federations (NSFs) in strengthening talent identification.Evolution of National Sports Policy Post-Independence At the time of the formulation of our Constitution. international exposure and incentives to sportspersons. National Sports Policy. 1986. The policy also referred to the promotion of sports tourism and innovative resource mobilization efforts for sports. The Sports Authority of India (SAI) was created in 1984 to spot and nurture talent and promote excellence in sports. on par with “entertainment and amusements”. In 1992. if necessary by suitable legislation. v The need to have a time-bound programme for the creation of basic minimum sports infrastructure and the preservation of existing playfields and safe open spaces for sport activities. 1984 was the first move towards developing a conducive policy framework for the development and promotion of sports in the country. especially from corporate houses. 2001 The National Sports Policy 2001 was focused on the twin objectives of “Broad-basing of Sports” and “Achieving Excellence in Sports”.1984 had the following aims: v The need to develop sports infrastructure and make physical education and sports an integral part of the school curriculum. As regards the promotion of excellence in sports. This resolve was reiterated in the National Policy for Education (NPE). through an appropriate package of fiscal incentives. the policy emphasized that the primary responsibility for the creation of sports infrastructure at the grassroots level and the promotion of rural sports lies with State Governments. On the broad-basing front. Case Study on Sports in India. the policy underlined the importance of institutional support. Physical Education and Sports have been receiving support under successive Five Year Plans. athlete development and competition systems. Local Bodies and Local Clubs in promoting sports culture at the grassroots level.1984 National Sports Policy. but received attention as a subject of policy only after India hosted the IXth Asian Games in 1982. an Action Plan was devised in the shape of the National Sports Policy. The policy also underlined the role of Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs). The policy explicitly stated that the Union Government shall only play a supplementary role in regard to promoting excellence in sports. National Sports Policy. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal .IV. v With regard to the promotion of excellence in competitive sports. the primary responsibility vesting in IOA and NSFs. “sports” were seen as a form of recreation and little more. National Sports Policy. 1992 to move towards realizing the objectives of the 1984 Policy.
the Sports Authority of India and the National Sports Federations. 3. the Comprehensive Sports Policy aims at filling this gaping lacuna within a time-bound framework. VISION To make India a vibrant. as a matter of the highest priority.Vv v v v Aims of the Comprehensive Sports Policy Draft. Municipalities and Metropolitan Corporations. besides promoting national integration. in association with the National AntiDoping Authority. will aim at securing excellence in sports while ensuring that the autonomy of sport in the spirit of the Olympic movement is respected. 2007 Severe shortage of sports infrastructure everywhere in the country. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . safeguarded and reinforced. in association with State governments. The Union Government. as well as the Sports Authority of India. 2. The Union Government will adopt a more direct and proactive role to address the issue of inequality in access and opportunity in sports and games. Excessive concentration of resources and pubic support on too few team sports like cricket Need to popularize other sports. especially medal-intensive individual sports disciplines such as athletics. balanced and widespread investment in sports. To this end. gymnastics. The Union Government and State Governments. the Comprehensive Sports Policy dedicates the nation to: v creating an enabling policy environment that encourages and assures mass participation in sports and physical education for health and well-being. leading-edge sporting nation in the world within the next decade in the conviction that promoting a nation-wide. and swimming Sports medicine and sports science need particular attention Need for this policy Therefore. national harmony and national pride through excellence in sporting achievement. for in the absence of infrastructure no other objective of predecessor Sports Policies or this Policy can be achieved. Case Study on Sports in India. the Indian Olympics Association and the National Sports Federations. and encourage State governments to do the same in association with Panchayati Raj Institutions. inclusive and sustainable growth through building our stock of young human capital by equitable. PRINCIPLES 1. all-embracing sports culture is not only desirable in itself but critical to securing accelerated. personality development and recreation v achieving excellence in sports by exponentially increasing the numbers of sportspersons and athletes who perform consistently well and excel in competitive sports at the highest national and international levels. will effectively counter the national disgrace of doping and corruption in sports.
This would require a realignment of responsibilities between the Union and State Governments. most particularly the national goal of emerging as a global and inclusive. Ø Also. on the one hand. the promotion of sports among disabled and removal of gender disadvantages for participation in sports are other challenges that need to be addressed. given the size of Government funding required. In other words. enhanced performance in competitive sports. with all other stakeholders playing a promotional. the Sports Authority of India. View on Hosting of Mega Events Ø The direct economic benefit in terms of the creation of international standard sports infrastructure and facilities too would have limited impact unless this is backed by proper legacy planning.Outline of Comprehensive Sports Policy Draft 2007 The Comprehensive National Sports Policy 2007 aims at building on previous sports policies with a view to accomplishing the unfinished agenda and addressing the emerging challenges of India in the 21st century. are also important. economic power in the near future. The participant/athlete shall occupy centre-stage in the Comprehensive National Sports Policy.VI. and. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Policy Objectives Ø Ø Ø The Comprehensive National Sports Policy 2007 aims at making the framework for sports in India more effective and inclusive with the full ownership and involvement of all stakeholders. economic benefits and source of national pride that it offers. social benefits. This in turn might require Constitutional changes and the elaboration of a suitable legal framework. Special emphasis will be laid on mobilizing corporate support in the field of sports. recreation benefits. The Policy aims at adopting a holistic approach to sports development. supportive and convergent role towards achieving the goals of mass participation. the Union Government should invariably be involved from the earliest stages in the bid process and the organization and management of such mega events. between Government and the Indian Olympics Association. the policy would provide a conducive framework within which sports can develop and thrive. Ø Ø Ø Case Study on Sports in India. and corporate bodies. on the other. educational benefits. the National Sports Federations and their affiliated bodies at the state and district level. Ø Providing enhanced training and sports medicine support. through transparent and effective sports systems. but there should be a robust strategy that would ensure that these benefits have a maximum spread effect and are not confined only to a few cities and limited segments of the population. Ø The indirect spin offs. which include the upgradation of urban infrastructure and increase in sports tourism. taking into account the health benefits. expansion of the talent pool.
including the following: · a) “… coupled with the absence of sports consciousness and culture in the country. to the neglect of nearly 72 crore of our children. A look at some loopholes in policy and problems plaguing Indian Sport Meager Budgetary Allocation The 2006-2007 fiscal year’s allocation to the Sports budget works out to a mere 0.VII. thus also impairing excellence in sports. and Ø lack of effective sports systems for talent identification and training and fair selection of teams. amounts to only a third of the 0. only 5 crore or so have any access to organized sports and games. The investment made by most States in sports has been negligible. there is almost total lack of sports infrastructure at the grassroots level all over the country” b) “…the Government should plan the development of sports in a phased manner so that necessary infrastructure is built up over a period of time…” c) “ In view of the decentralization of resources to Panchayats. responsible and result-oriented. Some of the major problems identified by the Committee include Ø lack of sports culture in the country.responsive. Case Study on Sports in India. and this. although a few States have shown the way to according a higher priority to sports.Panchayat bodies should take up this responsibility”. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . The Parliament Standing Committee on Human Resource Development studied a wide range of issues concerning Sports in 1998 and emphasized the need for bringing about reforms in sports management and governance in order to make it more dynamic. or creating a national sports culture. Government should ensure that there is a sports complex in each Panchayat which should also hold sports competitions and championships periodically” d) “There is also need for scouting talent at an early age and select them on scientific basis…. we have not succeeded in providing universal access to sports. Lack of Infrastructure Ø Ø It is estimated that out of a population below 35 years of some 77 crore. Serious concern at this state of affairs has been expressed in various Parliamentary Committee Reports with wide-ranging observations and recommendations. Ø lack of coordination between all stakeholders.217% allocation made to Sports in the total outlay for the Seventh Five Year Plan. Ø non-integration of sports with the formal education system. adolescents and youth.Lacunae in Sports and Sports Policy These high and ambitious objectives of the sports policies could not be realized in significant measure both because of policy lacunae and because of the inadequacy of budgetary support to sports from the Union Government and State Governments. Ø inadequacy of sports infrastructure. in turn.073 per cent of the total Union Budget. Ø inadequate participation of women in sports. In consequence.
adolescents and youth who are not in educational institutions. sports and games. NGOs focusing on promoting international or indigenous sports should be given every encouragement. there has been little progress made in taking organized sports and games to children in rural India or in involving Panchayats in the promotion of such sports and games. supplemented by any support they might receive from corporate entities.50. a large percentage of Nehru Yuvak Kendras (NYKs) have become dormant for a variety of reasons. information secured from the University Grants Commission indicates that only 30 million of a total of about 210 million school and college-going children. These need to be reactivated. Moreover. such facilities are far less in number and quality although land is more easily available and at reasonable prices. Case Study on Sports in India. private institutions. The seventh All-India Educational Survey has estimated that less than half of our schools have any sports facilities at all. There are also wide disparities in access to sports facilities for different segments of society. along with girls. sports clubs. it has been estimated that not more than 20 million have any access to sports and games through youth clubs. Urban Scenario While the level of sports infrastructure in larger urban agglomerations is generally better than in rural areas. While the local municipal bodies try to provide a reasonable level of parks and playgrounds. of which only around 5 crore have access to organized games and sports facilities.000 youth clubs. land is at a premium.Ø Despite the passage of more than a decade since these observations were made. Ø Ø Given that the total population of those below the age of 35 is of the order of 77 crore. have shifted their attention more to socio-economic and cultural programmes in the recent past. matching an equal number of village panchayats. In smaller towns. with a network of nearly 2. Panchayats. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Non-Integration of Sports with the formal Education system Ø With regard to sports infrastructure in schools and colleges. NYKS and other community-based organizations remain the most important and widespread institutional networks available for rejuvenating the sports culture in rural areas. children and the physically challenged. public or private. while some progress has been registered. For the NYKS. a great deal still remains to be done. the magnitude of the task to still be accomplished comes into bold relief. sports associations and clubs tend to concentrate on indoor facilities and outdoor facilities only for commercially remunerative sports. mahila mandals and the like. Thus. As regards children. adolescents and youth are provisioned with facilities for physical education. who used to promote sports in their early days. Rural Scenario Nehru Yuvak Kendras. the economically weaker sections being the most disadvantaged. has the potential of being progressively geared up to the challenge of meeting the sports administration goals of the Comprehensive Sports Policy in rural areas.
especially in urban areas. and the National Sports Federations. improvements in medal tally in international sporting events but not nearly as significant as it might have been had more attention been paid to widening the base and augmenting the national reservoir of sports talent. This imbalance is sought to be addressed by the Comprehensive National Sports Policy. No such legislation has been brought on the statute books and. the use of existing open spaces for purposes other than sports and games.Lack of bold and visionary legislation for creation of sports infrastructure As regards the provisioning of space for playgrounds and the preservation of existing playgrounds. the National Sports Policy 1984 emphasized the importance of this and recommended legislation. if uneven. that is. v Persons with disability have hardly any access to sporting facilities and most of the sports infrastructure is not disabledfriendly. Case Study on Sports in India. coordination and purposive follow-through v within the Union Government v between the Union and State Governments v between State Governments and units of local self-government. on the one hand. on the other. This has resulted in some. there has been a considerable increase in Government funding. Lack of a co-ordinated approach There is not enough synergy. particularly by the Central Government. Reasons for the above problems and loop holes The above problems are mainly explained by v Absence of a holistic and integrated policy approach to building sporting excellence by broad-basing sports facilities v Low level of resources allocated to sports by the Union Government as well as the State Governments v Lack of support from the corporate sector (excepting to a few glamorous sports like cricket that have a huge commercial appeal). as also the severe shortage of land for sports and games. has become a serious issue calling for rectificatory action. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . to secure this objective. of activities by SAI and the National Sports Federations to promote excellence in sports. the Indian Olympics Association and the Sports Authority of India. v between Government. v Education remains highly academic-centric with a definite trend towards reducing school sports and extra-curricular sports. in the meanwhile. if necessary. v between Government and the Corporate Sector. the Panchayats and Municipalities. Unequal Distribution of Funds In contrast to the slow progress in financing sports infrastructure for all in rural and urban areas. v indigenous sports and games need to be brought centre-stage in the promotion of a national sporting culture.
contribute to the national sports system as sports activists or volunteers.50. VIII- Comparison with other countries Comparison with countries with sizable population India vs China China Sporting Facts (based on data for the year 2000) Percentage of population participating in sports: 37% No. Built on the belief that physical education and sports serve to develop the social.000 Part time sport instructors: 100.000professionals.000 + 3854 urban community associations Category Active Participation of population in sports (2001) Grass Roots sport organizations Sports Facilities India 5 crores (4.5 million is comparable to that of NCT Delhi.000 retired sportspersons. physical and intellectual dimensions of an individual 2.000 6.000 Comparison with small countries (India vs Cuba) Even a small country like Cuba. boasts approximately 2 million athletes.v India’s performance in international sport needs to be significantly enhanced through a holistic and sportsperson centred cradle-to-grave sports policy.000 Community Sports Institutions: 2. engaged in delivering sport and physical education at home. Currently. in turn. of people with good access to sports: 480 million Sports Instructors : 350. of whom 23. apart from another 48.5% population) Not known 2. and workplace in Cuba.000 are in the high performance category in 38 different sports disciplines at the national and international level.000 (many of which have gone defunct or have moved on to socio-cultural activities) China 48 crores (37% population) 40. school and college. whose population of about 11. 5. Case Study on Sports in India. community. National athletes are folk heroes and receive national recognition and lifetime financial support.000 Sports facilities: 620.20. 4. there are over 1.000 (for popular sports) Grassroots organizations: 40. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Retired athletes receive a high salary for life and other support and they.20. Cuba spends about 13 per cent of its national budget on sports and related activities. Cuban Sports Model 1. mental. 3.
especially since India is a country of young people with children. the latest Olympics and Pan-American Games – covering both North and South America . The way forward is to have a Comprehensive National Sports Policy backed by the provision of adequate financial and institutional resources to support the promotion of participative and competitive sports on a truly nation-wide basis covering all those sections of children. adolescents and youth accounting for about 77 per cent of the total population. adolescents and youth (and even adults and the elderly) who have remained so far outside the pale of organized sports and games. in the case of Cuba. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . for example.The outcome in terms of excellence in sports is starkly measured by comparing the number of medals in absolute numbers and the number of medals per ten million of the population won by Cuba. China and India respectively at the most recent Olympics and Asian Games put together (and. China. or even Cuba. sports in India is neither broad-based nor significant in terms of proven excellence. Cuba Compared to China. This is a matter of great concern.put together): 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 India Cuba China Medals/ 10 million population Medals Performance in Games by India. Case Study on Sports in India.
Corruption in the system The threat of Doping The underlying principle of sport is the commitment to solidarity. Corruption has been recognised as one of the biggest threats to modern sport which fundamentally undermines all Olympic ideals. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) was one of the first global civil society movements formed to achieve this aim. Bribery Scandals in Sport Bribery scandals involving individual sportspeople or referees across the globe regularly make headlines in the media. respect. to date. Investigations and convictions often prove inadequately trivial comparing to the gravity and scale of the corrupt manipulations. it deceives primarily the audience and destroys the dreams of millions of fans. where money and influence play a crucial importance replacing. The ways of corrupting sport practices are numerous and in the absence of clear legislation for tackling corruption. that support it. on many occasions. its founders dreamed of educating youth through sport for a better world without any kind of discrimination. which are then justified as a necessary procedure. offenders can easily get away unscathed. the principle of fair competition. Bribing arbiters and decision-makers. betting scandals. Moreover corruption cases of a larger scale. the IOC’s reputation and credibility have been overshadowed by votebuying accusations in the bidding process for the Games in Salt Lake City. only it has the potential to inflict much greater damage on the sport world and the communities. In 2002. which often operate huge sums of money. inadequately. impartiality and fair play. sponsors trying to influence sporting decisions as well as the existence of secret doping networks. Not only does corruption turn the game into a deception of rivals. It is as serious a threat as doping. The rise in popularity of the online sports betting services has opened up a new leeway for corruption and match-fixing.IX. for instance. concerning international sport associations and organisations. have a negative impact on the perception of sport ethics in general. When more than a hundred years ago the Olympic Movement was initiated. The sport world has responded slowly and. corruption in procurement systems and construction of sport infrastructure. representing billions of people globally. demonstrate a wide range of possibilities for corruption in sports. The Case Study on Sports in India. As a consequence some members of the Committee were expelled or resigned but there has never been a conviction. However as more financial resources have flown into sports since those times the Olympics have come to resemble any other commercial activity. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal .
The Delhi government has so far allotted 63990 million rupees for the expenses. In the year 2003 an amount of 6550 million rupees (655 crore) was allotted for the Commonwealth Games as per the estimate given. governments. The global movement of TI is working towards achieving this goal. Despite higher rates. While business principles. But what is in realty? It is high time for all for an examination of conscience. Central as well as State. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . A first step: sports organisations should clearly state their disapproval of and intention to fight criminal manipulation. According to the media reports. Everyone should join efforts to communicate that corruption in sports is unacceptable. since the year 2000. sponsors.organization Play the Game suggests that there is a need for “a rulebook that ensures sports leaders can be sentenced with similar penalties to the ones they impose on the athletes. But today the expenditure has become 11494 million rupees and the expected income will be only 17080 million rupees. They take the anti-corruption pledge. Every year. transgressions of rules. Such a move would send out a signal to potential criminals and can prompt people who suspect corruption somewhere in the chain to report it. October/November. more importantly. Case Study on Sports in India. good governance and corporate social responsibility are on the agenda of big international companies. civil society and. the Indian government has promised to take action against those found guilty. poor site management. Huge money transfers without any receipt have been reported. Sport is an integral part of our world and its aversion to corruption must be brought to the fore of the international debate. the ‘Vigilance Awareness Week’ gets religiously organized in the all the offices of the Indian Government. India’s CWG 2010 Corruption Shame Attacked from many sides regarding allegations of corruption in the Commonwealth Games. sport fans. it has been found that serious discrepancies like award of works at higher rates to bidders. Key stakeholders in this process include sport organisations. the media. it is still not the case with the IOC and the Olympic Games.” Sport is lagging behind in recent advances to achieve transparency by other sectors. The Prime Minister of India has ordered to probe into the matter and speed up the work. delays in project works and quality compromises have been observed. In 2006 TI Germany established a working group on sport and corruption issues managing to raise awareness and bring the issue to the international level. poor quality of construction and grant of work to ineligible agencies in as many as 16 different Commonwealth Games-related construction works being carried out by various departments.
Panchayati Raj Institutions will be encouraged and incentivised to remove barriers in the form of the lack of information. in convergence with appropriate existing schemes such as SGRY and NREGP. Conscious efforts shall be made with the stakeholders concerned to promote physical activity and sport in everyday context – at work and at home. to financially support the Nagarpalikas and other urban local institutions to provide basic safe places to play in poorer areas in convergence with the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. and the financial assistance from GoI should be used as seed money to raise other contributions from the public and private entities for the creation of the basic sports infrastructure. Encourage State governments. equipment and trained staff in selected sports and games in each urban area to make available sports facilities for the general public on commercial terms. and all segments of the village community. the Central Government would give priority to the following activities: Introduce and implement a major programme in urban areas. The scheme will also provide recurring financial assistance to such local institutions for procurement/replacement of sports equipment and consumables (such as footballs) and maintenance of the grounds and facilities. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . The Nagarpalikas will need to provide the minimum prescribed extent of land on a realistic basis. as well as incentivise MPLADS and MLALADS investment in such projects. to be responsible for organizing and managing sports and games in the village. · · · Urban Sector · · Bearing these factors in mind. The local municipal body will also identify an active local institution interested in working with the urban poor in the area for which the GOI will provide recurring grants for the required equipment and trained staff to enable the urban poor to learn and practice a few selected sports and games. Panchayats will be charged with the responsibility of identifying an active local institution. such as a Nehru Yuva Kendra or other local youth club. motivation and affordability to ensure the optimal utilization of sports facilities by boys and girls. All organizations shall be encouraged to provide facilities to their employees to promote physical fitness.Solutions Rural Sector · The condition of Rural sport and infrastructure calls for the introduction and implementation of a major initiative (the Panchayat Yuva Khel aur Krida Abhiyan) to provide sufficient resources. parallel to the Panchayat Yuva Khel aur Krida Abhiyan for rural areas. Apart from dovetailing Central and State schemes for rural infrastructure with the resources made available for this specific purpose by Union and State governments. with appropriate back-up from the Sports Authority of India. young and old.X. municipal bodies and private institutions to allocate more resources for investment in sports infrastructure. with particular focus on the needs of women and children as well as the physically challenged. to enable Panchayats to create the minimum sports infrastructure in every panchayat area to cover the whole country over a ten-year period. · · · · Case Study on Sports in India.
By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . especially diving and synchronized swimming. Inclusive Education: Sports in educational curriculum is a must and not in the way it is being done. Hopefully they will continue to boost India’s tally at the next Games. Many other countries perform doping tests so regularly that it becomes a way of life for the athletes who do not raise the hue and cry as done by our cricketers some months back on WADA guidelines.Doping There must be an awareness drive among all athletes and their coaches about doping and which chemicals are regarded as doping agents. Also. swimming. Doping tests should be performed regularly so that players get used to them. Mission Olympic Gold 2020: Focus on medal intensive sports like track and field events. boxing and wrestling are going from strength to strength now. There should be stringent checks even at national level so that those doping are caught and weeded out in the initial stages and before the scandal becomes a national embarrassment and leads to banning of the organization (like the Indian Weightlifting Association) The newly formed National Anti-Doping Agency (NADA) must be armed with authority to prevent errant associations from shielding their players. Case Study on Sports in India. Archery is turning to be a realistic hope for an Olympic gold. It should be given equal weightage as academics and children should be allowed to take up one sport of their preference and aptitude and practice it at all levels of schooling. there must be BIG events like city trials where the attention to rising stars can be given. Shooting. cycling and gymnastics fro mright now and there is a good chance that we may have our champs by the time 2020 games arrive. We are going toe to toe with the Koreans who are the world champions.
Conclusion Having presented this view on Indian Sports and its deficiencies. We would like to add that Indian people are world class in spirit and that given the right training and support. preparing this case study. 3. we have what it takes to beat the rest. Raunak and Binit. We hope that it will be put to practical use. By Raunak R and Binit Agrawal . Shaurya for organizing this competition Case Study on Sports in India. Google for as usual coming up with the best search results! 4. Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs for the draft of 2007 Sports Policy and for information on the earlier policies 2. Times of India for the Common Wealth games corruption article 6. Reuters for the news articles on Corruption in various Indian sports organizations 5.XI. Wikipedia for the great article on present condition of Indian sport. It was a good learning experience. IIT Kharagpur XII. It is our sincere hope that some of our suggestions and that made by the 2007 Policy draft are implemented seriously by the powers that be.Sources and Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following people for their help: 1. Thanking you.
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