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1. INTRODUCTION As far as we know there are three fundamental circuit elements namely the resistors, inductors and the capacitors. And there are four circuit parameters. They are the current, voltage the flux and the charge. Taking these elements in pairs there can be a total of 6 combinations. Of the 6 combinations two are defined using the time parameter.ie charge as the time integral of the current and flux as the time integral of the voltage. Three of the remaining combinations are defined using the three existing circuit elements. They are the relation between the voltage and current which is defined using the resistance, the relation between flux and voltage which is defined using the parameter inductor and the relation between charge and current is defined using the element capacitor. So one of the relations is left undefined. It is the relation between the flux and the charge. There comes the possibility of fourth circuit element which can define this relationship. This fourth circuit element is called the memristor. This possibility of a fourth circuit element was postulated be Leon Chua in his paper named ‘Memristor-The missing circuit element’ published in 1971. A memristor is a passive two-terminal circuit element in which the resistance is a function of the history of the current and voltage through the device. Memristor theory was formulated and named by Leon Chua in a 1971 paper.
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the current versus voltage plot shows a pinched loop where current and voltage are zero at the same point. the current-voltage (I-V) plot is a Lissajous figure (the curve formed by combining two oscillations that are perpendicular to each other)." Williams says. a senior research fellow at HP said that so far increasing performance has usually meant shrinking components so that more can be packed onto a circuit. But in this case. In other words. was in fact the outcome of memristance.” Williams also states that manufacturing and integration of memristors would be efficient. HISTORY OF THE MEMRISTORS The history of memristors dates back to 1971. even when there is no power supplied to the memristor. capacitor and inductor. Lead researcher Stan Williams. Williams's team removed some transistors and replaced them with a smaller number of memristors. "We're not trying to crowd more transistors onto a chip or into a particular circuit. Fast-forwarding to 2007. which could potentially be cheaper and more energy efficient than existing chips. Furthermore. the HP team was the first to realise that the hysteresis that was detected in the I-V curves of an extensive range of materials and structures. The team also developed a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) using memristors and transistors. Chua claimed that memristors had properties that could not be reproduced by any combination of the other three elements. The characteristic element of a memristor is that when an AC voltage is applied to the device. but it is able to alter its resistance to the amount and direction of the voltage applied.Seminar Report Memristors 2. the memristor performs similarly to a resistor. it can still ‘remember’ its resistance. when Professor Leon Chua published a controversial paper stating that a component named ‘memristor’ should be included as the fourth fundamental circuit element together with the resistor. as the chips and memristors are made out of the same material as normal integrated circuits. where the memristors were made from the semiconductor titanium dioxide. Rajagiri School of Engineering and Technology 2 .They pursued this discovery to develop an elementary circuit model that was based on the exact mathematical equations as those calculated by Chua for the memristor. The HP team was able to create the first hybrid memristor-transistor chip. In practical terms. ”Hybrid memristortransistor chips really have the promise for delivering a lot more performance.
Williams feels that it would take at least three more years for the memristor circuit to be applied in commercial circuits. both having very diverse applications. You can also check out our article about Graphene Semiconductors which could replace conventional semiconductor materials such as silicon in applications ranging from high-speed computer chips to biochemical sensors. The team at HP Labs hope that future memristors will be faster. it would lower the costs notably and help the introduction of memristors into the market. With so few institutions able to manufacture. bulky board. The memristor could also be applied to existing flash storage or dynamic random access memory (DRAM). In digital mode. which could allow for increased speeds in future non-volatile magnetic memories. Rajagiri School of Engineering and Technology 3 . A memristive device can function in both digital and analog forms. It is a favourite among engineers because the board can be designed and reprogrammed according to the specifications of engineer. If the application of the memristors into FPGAs is successful.Seminar Report Memristors The function of FGPAs is mainly in chip prototype testing. TFOT also covered the World’s Tiniest Nanophotonic Switch capable of sending information inside a computer chip by using light pulses. it would create digital cameras with no delay between photos or computers that save power by turning off when not needed and then turning back on instantly when needed. The only downside of FPGAs is the high price and large. TFOT has previously covered the New Speed Record for Magnetic Memories about a spin-torque switching called ballistic switching. let alone design memristors. it could substitute conventional solid-state memories (Flash) with high-speed and less steeply priced nonvolatile random access memory (NVRAM). Eventually. smaller and more energy-efficient.
The basic circuit equation that explains the behavior of the memristor is the relation between the flux and the charge. The memristors can vary their resistance based on a history of voltages applied across it Rajagiri School of Engineering and Technology 4 . The relation between the flux and the charge is stated as follows dφ=Mdq. In the case of the linear elements M is similar to resistor and is of n practical importance. memristor is also a two terminal device.Seminar Report Memristors WHAT ARE MEMRISTORS In the paper in which Leon Chua introduced the memristors he introduced it as the fourth circuit element. Like the other three circuit elements the resistor. the capacitor and the inductor.