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Writing reference
Contents pase
Writing checklist
Introduction 196
Writing checklist Content and style
Part l: Email or letter 197-198
o Is your answer the right length? You will lose marks
Part 2: Informal letter or email 199 if it is under 120 words, and the examiner may not
Part 2: Formal letter 200 read more than 150 (Part l) or 180 (Part2) words.
Part 2: Story 201 o Have you answered all parts of the question? You will
Part 2: Article 202 lose marks if you don't include all the required
Part 2: Essay 203 content points.
Part 2: Report 204 o Is your answer interesting to read?
Part 2: Review 205 o Have you communicated clearly?
Part 2: Essay (set book) 206 r Is your style appropriate for the question (e.g. a
Punctuation 207 formal or informal letter, a lively article)?
Spelling 208 o Is your style consistent (e.g. no informal words in a
formal letter)?
Introduction o Will your writing have the effect you want on your
This Writing reference is here to help you with your
writing in preparation for Paper 2 of the FCE exam. Organisation
¡ Have you divided your answer into paragraphs?
First, there is a checklist, which you should use every time
o Does each paragraph have ONE main idea, which is
you complete a piece of writing.
appropriate to what you are writing?
Then, for each type of writing that might come up in the o Are the paragraphs in a logical order?
exam, there is an example question (Question 1), a o Have you used linking expressions to connect ideas
'model answer'to that question, with notes to help you between paragraphs (e.g. However, On the other hand)?
see the important points, and another exam question
(Question 2). Language
o Have you included a range of grammatical structures
If you are working on your own with this Writing
(e.g. in a story: past simple, past continuous, past
reference, read Question I and the model answer
carefully. Refer back to the pages in the main units for
o Is there a good range ofvocabulary (e.g. in a story,
more information and help. Then answer Question 2,
adverbs to bring it to life: He stopped suddenly,
following the guidelines here and in the main units.
ab s olu t ely h o r r ifi e d.)?
If you are working with a teacher, he/she will tell you o Is your vocabulary specific, not general (e.g. a hot,
when and how to use the Writine reference. sunny day not q nice day, an enjoyable meal not a
good meal)?
o Have you used a range of appropriate linking
expressions (e.g. but, so, after, because within a
sentence, and Finally, Wat's more, to connect ideas
in two sentences)?
¡ Have you used time expressions appropriately (e.g.
when, after, as soon as)?
r Is your handwriting easy to read?
o Are your spelling and punctuation correct? You will
not automatically lose marks for poor spelling,
punctuation and handwriting, but it will affect the
examiner's general impression mark.
o Have you checked for grammar mistakes, in
particular the ones you know you often make?

Part l: Email or letter
) See pages 42-43 for work on emails and letters.

Question I

You want to visit the Paris Fashion Show and your pen friend Danielle, who lives in
Paris, has agreed to put you up in her flat. Read the information about the show
and the train timetable she has sent you. You need some more information. using
the notes below that you have made, write an email to Danielle.

DePart London
já,rrr",", time aPProx' 3 hrs'

Spring collection

Saturday 4 l,Aay 09:GO_1g:80

?rofer last irain Fri. - 0K/ioo \a\e)
ihow - first'tim¿ - what ¿\olh¿s to w¿ar?
tun. - park? Fiver cruitü

Write an email of between 120 and 150 words in an appropriate style.

Question 2

You would like to learn Russian and you see this advertisement in a newspaper. You
would like to know more. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made.
Write an email to the school askine for more information.


the River N"u"'/
Come and learn Russian with us on the banks of
courses throughout the year'
hrs par *rrY?-----tt*o-week
- cotl? accommodation available'
--"Famrly for evening and weekend studY'-
/Study centre
¿\ose. 1o ¡¿hoo\? - \-fim¿s?

Write an email of between 120 and 150 words in an appropriate style.

Model answer (Question l)

Dear Danielle,
Set the context
(mention something
Thanks for the information you sent me
the other person has
about the Fashion Show. lt should be a
sent you, or give a
great event.
reason for writing.)
Only include necessary
I'm trying to decide which train to get.
information - but ALL the
Personally, l'd prefer to get the last one
information necessary to
from London but it doesn't get to Paris
answer the question. Don't
until about nine o'clock. Will that be OK,
repeat whole phrases from
or is it too late for you?
the input.

l've never been to a fashion show before.

What kind of clothes do vou think I
should wear? And what's the weather like
at the moment? Will I need to bring some Keep the style

warm clothes? consistent (informal).

Start a new paragraph
for different subject By the way, what shall we do on Sunday?
matter. How about going for a walk in the park, or
going on a river cruise? Or maybe you've
got some other ideas.

Anyway, I can't wait! Looking fonvard to

hearing from you. See you soon.
Finish by referring to
what will happen next.
Make sure the ending
is in the same style.

(146 words)

Part 2: Informal letter or email
) See pages 14-15 for work on informal letters and emails.

Question I

Last week, you organised a surprise birthday party for someone in your famil¡ and
your pen friend wants to hear about it. Write a letter to your pen friend, describing
what kind of party you organised, who you invited and how it went.
Write your letter. Do not write any postal addresses. (Write your answer in
120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Model answer

Dear 6arah;

to 1ou h¿ar from 1ou again. I hopo 1ou'ra still

Do 1ou romsmbar in lour lettor 1ou asKad about the paril
I was organising for m1 mother'o birthdal? ii \^lab a
Ask a question directly.
fantasii¿ 6tJLce6b.l to\d moth¿r vlg ul¿re taKinq her out
a quiel m¿al ai a \oca\ r¿staurant, but in fa¿t l'd h¡red a
Start a new paragraph,
larga room in a hot¿l and invitsd all h¿r old fri¿nds! Use some
as the topic has
exclamation marks
changed slightly. Use An1wa1, t picKod moth¿r up and told h¿r l'd changed m1 (but not too many)
an informal linking
mind. ul¿ urere go¡ng Io havo a moa\ in a hoi¿l. You to express emotions.
should have svenher lacy whon ths walr¿d into tho room Use contractions.
and evarlono chverydl3ho juet ¿ouldn't bolisv¿ it and
Good to use a range burst into Ivars.fhon iho partl got 9oin9, and ¡t d¡dn't
Short sentences are
of appropriate f¡n¡eh unii\ four ¡n ihe morning. \rl¿ u¡¿r¿ absolute\1
vocabulary and ¿xhaue't¿d but moth¿r had had a wond¿rfu\ t¡mo
informal expressions.
Must ,l've got to go to aolleg . Hopo'to hear
When you close, make
from 1ou
an excuse to finish
lnvY, and/or refer to the
current situation with
the reader again.

(167 words)

Question 2

You have decided to go on holiday in the country where your English friend lives.
write aa email to your friend, explaining why you have not written for a while, and
asking for advice on where to visit, what to see and the best way of travelling round
the country.

write your email. (write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Part 2: Formal letter

F See pages 28-29 for work on formal letters.

Question I You want to attend a course in English and American studies

in an English-
speaking country and you see this section in a college prospectus:

Every year, two scholarships are offered to candidates
from overseas
who can show how our one-year course would help their career.
Personal sPending money'
Apply in writing, explaining why you think you deserve a scholarship'

write your letter. Do not include any postal addresses. (write your answer in
120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Model answer
Dear Sir/Mada If you know the name
Say why you are writing of the person, begin
and what you are I would like to apply for one of the scholarships I sa* ' Dear Mr Smith/Dear
responding to (e.g. an advertised in your prospectus. '
Ms Jones, etc.
advert, a prospectus).
At present I am training to be a secondary school teacher of
English and I finish my course at the end ofJune. However, In one paragraph,
I feel I still have a lot to learn about the language and briefly describe
Use a formal, neutral style. you/your situation.
culture of the English-speaking world and would benefit
(Remember: no
considerably from a course in an English-speaking country.
contractions, no colloquial
In the next paragraph,
language, no direct The reason I am applying for a scholarship is that I cannot
make it clear why you
questions, no informal afford the cost of studying abroad. I have no income except
are applying for a
punctuation such as for my student grant, so if I am fortunate enough to be
scholarship and why
exclamation marks.) given a scholarship, I lvould have to work part-time to save
you would be a suitable
some personal spending money. My parents will borrow
candidate. Make sure
Be polite and positive, some money for my airfare if I am successful.
you cover all the points
but not too muchl I would appreciate being given the opportuniry to study at in the question.
your college and would be very grateful if you would
consider my application.

Ifyou have used the

person's name, end
Yours sincerely,

(162 words)
Question 2 You see this advertisement in an international newspaper. you
are interested in
applying for the job.


this winter' lf you
We are looking for young people to work in our ski shop
are interested, write to us saying why you might be a good Person'
Free ski pass
Reasonable salary and we provide help with accommodation.
included. Flexible hours' Apply in writ¡ng'

write your letter. Do not include any postal addresses. (write your answer in
f 20-180 words in an appropriate style.)
200 t
Part 2: Story
) See pages 56-57 for work on stories.

Question I

You have decided to enter a short story competition in a student magazine. The
story must end with these words:
'I'm very glad that's over!' said Katie as we made the long drive back home.

Write your story. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Model answer

Ifyou have to invent an

The city was deserted that night, as Katie and I wandered
opening line, make sure Create atmosphere
it is dramatic enough through the narrow streets. lt had been ¡¿in¡ng earlier
when setting the scene.
to attract the readers' and the futl moon shone brightty on the wet stones' You might need to use
interest and stimulate the past continuous or
their imagination. Suddenly we heard the sound of running footsteps' Then past perfect continuous.
there was a crY and the footstePs st . Nervously, we
Use adverbs to make
the action more vivid. back. Perhaps someone had been killed, or Make sure you
kidnapped in the street. make the sequence
You can create suspense of actions clear.
and excitement by As we were turning the corner, we saw a crazy-l
writing short sentences.
man lying in the street, holding his ankle. He had

obviously slipped on the wet stones and he was

screaming at us to stay away.

To our reliel at that moment the police appeared' The

Use the words given
man was in too much pain to move and they were easily in the question,
able to force him into their car. They totd us he was an without changing
any'thing. Notice that
extremely dangerous criminal and we had had a lucky
direct speech can be
escape. 'l'm very glad that's over!'said Katie as we made used in a story for
the tong drive back home. variety and interest.

(168 words

Question 2

You have been invited to write a short story for a young person's magazine. The
story must begin with these words:

Iack was asleep in the chair, dreaming, when the phone rang.

Write your story. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Part 2: Article

Question I

You see this competition in an international magazine.

lmagine you were on a desert island. What would you miss most?
Write an article briefly describing an important object, person or
place ¡n your life and give reasons for your choice. The best article
will be published and the writer will receive l5OO.

Write your article' (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Model answer
Introduce the topic. Life away from home
Although you don't How feel about livinÉ on a desert island? |

know your readers ñ't imagine anythinS worse. I would miss a lot of
personall¡ you can things, but most of all I would miss my home
address them directly
My home is a small house on the outskirts of a city. lt
and ask them a question.
was built about fifty years ag0 and has a small garden.
In the summen our country gets very hot but our house
Note the question is always cool.
says the description
You would pr"obably think our house is nothin$ special,
should be'brief'.
but I have lived there all my life and all my fniends live
. lt is a happy place, where I feel completely safe.
Your style will not be Whenever I fo away, I look forward to comin$ back,
formal. This article lyinf on my bed, readin$ a book and listenin$ to my
has a personal style; brother and sister anguing downstairsl
others might have a I love travellin$ and meetin$ new people, but if I were
more neutral style. on a desert island I would be away from the place I love
most - my home - and I would hate that.
¡: .
'':::. ¡' .1...¡lqlry

(164 words)

Question 2

You see this advertisement in an international youth magazine.

Technology - how do you get on with it?

we are looking for short articles describing peopre's experiences
good or bad - of technorogy. write and teil us how you have useo
technology and whether you have got on well with it.
We will publish the best articles in this magazine.

write your article. (write your answer in 120-tg0 words in an appropriate style.)

Part 2: Essay
) See pages Il2-ll3 for work on essays.

Question I

You have recently had a class project on animal welfare and vegetarianism. Now
your teacher has asked you to write an essa¡ giving your opinions on the following

Some people believe that humans should not eat meat. Do you agree?

Write your essay. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Model answer
Introduce the topic in
Ft*t *th;--l I Most people think that since animals eat other animals, it
the first paragraph,
general statement. to eat meat. However' some
I [-*1 is natural for humans giving the'whole
religions disagree, and a growing number of people are picture'and an
introduction to both
choosing to become vegetarians for non-religious reasons'
sides of the argument.
First, ld like to Put the arguments in favour of eating
meat. Humans have always hunted and eaten animals'We
Use linking words to
use their fur and skin for clothes and shoes. Besides, when show the sequence of
people stop eating meat they are avoiding the main food your ideas and when
you are making an
that gives them energY.
extra point.
On the other hand, many vegetarians believe that eating
meat is not only unnecessary but it is also unhealthy'We
Have a separate
can easily grow plants that give us all we need in our diet,
paragraph for the other
and meat can cause serious diseases. Also, the way we
side of the argument.
farm animals is cruel and we are destroying rainforests to
provide land for animals. Summarise your view
in the conclusion, using
In my view, there are strong health reasons for not eating
different words from
meat. However, if we become vegetarians for moral
the introduction. You

reasons, I think we should also not wear fur or leather' might want to add
:i.r1¡rc4/:ir'¿ri54t ?i+.:s!.:i:s:€::s::r Énq:aY:wl1{,1E:i€¡€+:t+s¡!4i5i*:r**i::€É;l3e:'{;'!iv:: some further comment.
(168 words)

Question 2

You recently had a class discussion about television. Now your teacher has asked
you to write an essay.

Young children watch too much television. Do you agree?

Write your essay. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)
Part 2: Report
F See pages 140-141 for work on reports.

Question 1

Your college has been asked to accept a group of 50 students from another country
for two weeks. You have been asked by your principal to find out what the
advantages and disadvantages would be of accepting this group. Is it a good idea?

Write your report to the principal. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an
appropriate style.)

Model answer

Report on Proposed Visit by 50 Overseas Students

State the aim of the
The purpose of this report is to consider the advantages
report and where you
and disadvantages of accepting a \arge group of students
got the information.
from overseas for two weeks. I have discussed the issue
with all the senior members of college staff'


an exciting opportunity to explore a foreign culture'

both in the classroom and socially' Overall' they thought
sections, linked quiet
the visit would be stimulating for the college at a
to the question.
time of the Year.
Balance the positive
and negative points
Some members of staff are concerned that: fairly.
I there would be insufficient seating in the library at busy
Listing/Numbering times.
points can make it 2 the visitors might be more interested in enjoying
easier to read. themselves than studYing.
3 the restaurant queue would be very slow at lunchtime'

Conclusion and recommendation

Clearly, the group might cause some practíca| difficulties
but on the whole everyone thought that the visit should be
lll-'.---_asanopportunity not to be missed'

(162 words)

Question 2

You work for a travel agent in an English-speaking country. You have been asked to
write a report for your boss, recommending the best time of year to arrange leisure
tours to your country. You have been asked to comment on such things as the
weather, special attractions and festivities.

Write your report. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)

Part 2: Review
) See pages 86-87 for work on reviews..

Question I

You recently saw this notice in an English-language magazine.

Reviews needed!
We are hoping to add a travel section to our college magazine, designed by the
in the world that you have recently visited' The best review
will win a
mini-break in Londonl Describe the place you visited, and say why you liked it.

Write your review. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)
:*:rÉ1!farryr¡",;++¡¡ 4'+4-.s';r.+.:5!i.r11@4pi:!*>el:t]YB49P5i1*{Fñ!üF!!

Model answer
Seville, a wonderful citY!
What a place! | recently sPent a long weekend in Seville
in the south of Spain' lt was the best mini-break I've
ever had!
Give a few details
The best thing about Seville is that it! compact so many
of what you are
of its main tourist attractions are close to the city centre'
reviewing linked to
I headed straight to the world-famous cathedral and then
the question but
only focus on those on to one of the many art galleries. I discovered so many
that you think are famous monuments and museums as I walked around in
the glorious sunshine. Give your opinion
most important.
of what you are
I loved Seville bqcause it was very relaxing and there was reviewing linked
plenty to do for free'When I was hungry I had a choice to the question.
from hundreds of cafés or restaurants, all at good prices' Remember a
serving delicious Spanish food' On my second evening review is not just a
Summarise your vieq list of facts - it's
there, I went to a fantastic flamenco dancing show'
using different words largely your
from the introduction, So,with all its attractions I recommend that you 8o to opinion.
and include a Seville! In the end, it! the people who make a place, and
recommendation. the locals certainly made me feel welcome!
-in":!ii ri L_iri1i::¡::ia r*:.:9:+'ers?Éfi\'-e+-'':r!:ñ:t+;:e¡ir';Fi:<F:t::'--t*:j+e+¡i"":t'':'^'lt

(161 words)

Question 2
You recently saw this notice in an English-language magazine.

Reviews needed! out To

in our newspaper about dining
We are hoping to create new section you
you write a review of a restaurant
help give ,, ,ot" ideas for this' can
it to others'
and say if you would recommend
'#r.¡É.:dirtf;.*iii¡Fell-.-.r::i'a¡-asa-cr:+F' fF:eF+4'fñ+#:s$ryiFq

Write your review. (Write your answer in 120-180 words in an appropriate style.)


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Writing reference (Paper 2)

Contents Semi-formal letter/email (Part 1)
Checklist of key points for writing p.206 (For work on semi-formal letters and emails, see pages
Model answers, w¡th hints and useful phrases 28 and 140.)
Semi-formal letter/email p. 206 :rj.;

Story p. 208
p.209 Task
Letter/email to a frieno
Report p,210 You recently had a short holiday in a large city which
Article p, 211 you booked through a company called Citibreaks. You
Letter of application p.212 were very disappointed with the holiday. Read the
Essay p.213 CitiBreak advertisement for the holiday you booked
Review p.214 and the notes you have made. Then write a letter to
Set book (article) p.215 CitiBreaks, explaining what the problems were and
Useful linking words and phrases p.216 telling them what you want them to do.
Sample answers
Semi-formal letter p.217
Story p. 218
Letter to a friend p.219
Essay p.220
Report p.221
Article p.222 Enjoy a short holiday in the
Revrew p.223 capital city.
General marking guidelines p.224
1,,,t, ;', ,, '-, We offer two nights' accommodation
.ir'. liit.r'-:r,j'r,!:ril .,':r
r: , i,,t l 't ',t
'l t :'",. : in a four-star hotel in a cqntral Not central -
' .

location. long way oull

All rooms have their own bathrooms, not

and a view of the river.- river - only
aar park
The price of fl50 per person
includes all meals as well as Dinner E

a ticket for a show of your choice coot extra $

in one of the city's leadingetheatres\\

No choice I
of show
This will be a real holidav to
\ Refund-
- half aost? [|

Write a letter of between f 20 and 150 words.

You must use grammatically correct sentences
with accurate spelling and punctuation in a style
appropriate for the situation.
Writing reference (Paper 2)

Model answer

You don't need to

Dear Sir, put an address for a
letter in either Part 1

or Part 2.
DO begin by saying I am writing to complain about a short holiday I had recently
why you are wr¡ting. organised by your company. There were several problems
DON'T begin by saying
wno you are. with the holiday.

First, your advertisement promised a hotel in a central

DO make a clear
location, whereas in fact the hotel was a long way from the connection betvveen
centre. You said all rooms had a river view, but my window your letter and the task
DO list your input, DON'T repeat the
complaints clearly, overlooked a noisy car park. I had to pay extra for dinner, exact words in the task
using linking words to although you stated that it was included. To make matters input.
connect your actual
complaint with the worse, I couldn't choose which show to go to. I had hoped to
details. go to a new musical, but I had to go to one I had already seen.

When you are writing I had been looking forward to my holiday very much, but it
a letter or an email to was completely ruined. I therefore feel that you should ¡efund
someone you don't lf you expect a reply to
know use a semi- half the cost of the holiday in compensation for my
your letter, DO finish
formal style. lf you disappointment. with this sentence on a
don't know their (Fn¡raio linc
name, a letter starts
wilh Dear Sir/Madam I look forward to hearing from you soon.
and ends Yours
faithfully.lf you know
their name, a letter Yours faithfullv.
usually starts w¡th
Dear Mrs/MrlMisslMs
+ surname, and ends
Vat tr< <inraralv In a letter, sign and
print your full name.
Ursine Schmidt

(149 words)

Useful language
. I am writing to you about (several problems related to my city break in lune)'
. I have been waiting for (tvvo weeks for a reply to my lettel.
. To make matters worce, (we were informed that there was no record of our cheque being cashed).
. t would be grateful if you could (refund my deposit as soon as possible).
Requesting information
. I am writing in response to (your adveftisement ¡n The Daily Standard on luly 20th)'
. I would be grateful if you could (send me further details about the position).
. I am writing to enquire whether (you could let me have further details about the holiday).
. I would like to know more about (the arrangements for the evening meal).
Giving information/Responding to requests for information
. ln response to your query, I would like to inform you that (l passed the FCE in lune).
. With reference to your letter of ... (l enclose detaíls of my qualifications)'
. You asked me to tell you about (my travel plans and I enclose further details).
Writing reference (Paper 2)

Story Useful language

(For work on stories. see pages 40 and 'l 52.) a We had been (talk¡ng about John) just before (he phoned).
a It wasn't until (l read the letter) that (l realised how dangerous the
s¡tuat¡on wa).
While ( was waíting for my friends, I saw someone go into the house

Your teacher has asked you to write a story

a As soon as (my friends arrived, we went to have a look).
a I was just about to (open the door), when (l heard a noise downstairs).
for the school's English language magazine. a By the time (l got back to the house, there was no one to be seen).
The story must begin with the following a After wa¡ting (for a few minutes, I decided to climb in through the
woroS: window).

I wanted to do my best, but more than A few seconds laten fthe lights went out).
Eventually/After a while, (my friends arrived).
that I wanted the team to win.
At last (l knew what I had to do).
Write your story. (You should write
between I 20-180 words.)

Model answer

DO use phrases to show

when things happened in I wanted to do my best, but more than that I

your story @.9. lt was the wanted the team to win. lt was the last football
last football game of the game of the season, and if we won, we would be
season. When the second
half started ...). the champions. As we ran onto the pitch, I

couldn't help feeling nervous. The crowd w-á3 DON'T write about a
cheering, but the opposition looked strong. lt topic if you don't know
DON'T make mistakes with
narratrve tenses.
wasn't go¡ng to be easy. some specific vocabulary
related to ¡t (e.9. score
goalkeepe¡ goal, pitch).
The game started. I got the ball and raced -**- DO use interesting
vocabulary @.9. raced,
towards the goal. 'Go on!' roared the crowd, but roared¡.
I kicked it straight into the hands of the
ññ rrqo ¡liro¡i <noorh keeper. 'Never mind,' yelled my team-mate
because it makes the story Joél'Good try!'We played hard, but at half-time
more interesting to read.
the score was 0-0.

When the second half started, it was raining DO add extra detail to
add to the atmosphere
DO try to create some heavily._Our chance of winning the championship of the story
5USpense. was slipping away. We struggled to get the ball
through the defence, but time after time they
stopped us. Now there were only two minutes
left. Suddenly I had the ball. I passed it to Joe,
who headed it straight into the goal, just as the
referee blew his whistle. The crowd went crazv.
DO try to have a
dramatic end.
We were the chamoions!

(179 words)

\Vriting reference (Paper 2)

Letter/email to a friend Useful language

Beginning the letter or email
(For work on informal letters and emails, see pages . Many thanks for your letter (- it was really nice to hear from you again).
16 and 164.) . I thought I'd better write (and give you some more details about ...)
o lt's been such a long time since we wrote to each other.
. How are you and your family?
Task . How are things with you?
You have received a letter from your pen friend
. How was (your holiday)?
inviting you for a visit in July. Write a letter to your Introducing the topic
pen friend, accepting the invitation, suggesting
. I know you're longing to hear all about (my holiday).
o You remember I told you in my last letter (that I was going to ...)
something you would like to do and asking what
Ending the letter or email
you should bring with you.
. once again, (thanks very much for all your help).
Write your letter. Do not write any postal addresses
. Give my love/regards to (your family).
(You should write between 120-180 words.)
. Please write/drop me a line soon.
. I look forward to (meeting up again soon).

Model answer
DO mention a letter or
DO invent a name.
Dear Carla, email you have received
Don't write from the person you
Dear Pen friend. ThanLs fa jo,lc lefre( - it Pa: f fo k¡¿ar from are writrng to, or refer
to a shared experience.
qou. I'm sorc1 I havent Driffen for ages, bur I'v¿
been reall3 bu53 pr¿paring for m3 exams. f1!_g:tl3 DO say what you've
been doing recently.
good neurs fhat joo've ?d=,5,ed Sour dfiving te5t.

ThanL 3ó\r 5o mo¿h for 3oür invitatión fo sfa3 oifh

DO think of some
cnorifir dot¡il< in jou for a aeeL in fu! - I'd love lo cónre. I Lnor,r
include in each
paragraph - this will * -|-haf
3ou have a r¡ond¿rfut beach
near 3our hoose, and
make your letter or
email more interesting I'd ceall3 ¿n¡o3 5pending some linre Itr'(e. I expact
-fhat the üea1ler'Dilt b¿ W, so I hope D¿ can go


You said that I don t ne¿d to bring much Difh me.

UJhat sofi of do|rv-s shoutd T pacV-?. Ca.=ual or formal?
tdould gotl liL¿ me to bnng an3-fhing foc ,1ors? I r¡otlld

liLe to bring something special for jorr and 3our famit3

from m3 ooontrj.
DO mention the nexl
time you will see the 'A
person you are
T Aa -+-+e ¡ ,-P not,o and
-+a¡ get on r¡ith m3 sfod3in3. T
wr¡t¡ng to.
hop¿ 3ou're ¿n¡oSing driving tTaQ( ca(, and I rn looLing
' forr¡ard +o &eil\g
DO use an appropriate 3ou in frrlS!
phrase to end your
letter or email, e.g. ThanLs again fof -the invitafión.
Love, All the best, Best
wshes. DON'T finish
your letter or email with
Alt rh¿ b¿.st,
Yours sincerely/

(169 words)
\lriting reference (Paper 2)

Report Useful language

(For work on reports, see pages 78 and 114.) Introduction
. The aim of this report is to ...
. This report is intended to ..,
Reporting results
The school where you study English has decided . Most people seem to feel that ...
o Several people saidltold me/suggestedlthought that ...
to spend some money on either buying more
computers or improving the library. You have Presenting a list
been asked to write a report for the school . They gave/suggested the following reasons:
director describing the benefits to the school of
. ,:.r..:"0" the following points:
both these things, and saying which one you
2 ...
think should be chosen and why.
Making recommendations
Write your report. (You should write between o I would therefore recommend (that we expand the
120-f 80 words.) tibrarylinstalting a new coffee machine).
. lt would seem that (banning mobite phones) is the best idea.

Model answer
Use of money for school improvements
DON'T begin and end your
report with Dear Sir/Madam, lntroduction
like a letter. The aim of this report is to compare the advantages of
additional computers and of improving the library and
DO say how you
to suggest which of these would be best. I interviewed collected the
DO use headings because
a number of students to find out their views. information.
this makes it easier for the
reader to find the main Buying more computers
information. Some of the students thought that this was a good
rdea, saying computers were useful for: DO use a range of
o practisinQ writing specific vocabulary or
DO include two or
three points under each . using the Internet set phrases e.g. Some
thought this was a
heading. . playing games. good idea .../other
However, other students said that they preferred to use students said they
DO use numbering or nraforrar1 hr r+
bullet points to their own comouters at home. DON'T use lots of
highlight main points.
adjectrves and dramatic
lmproving the library language as you do in
a story. A report g¡ves
Most of the students preferred this suggestion, giving
factual information.
the following reasons:
1 Many students do not have a quiet place to study at
home. The library would be a good place for private DON'T include irrelevant
study, but at present there are not enough tables and details or description.

chairs there.
2 They feel that up-to-date dictionaries and reference
books are needed.
3 They want to be able to read modern books written
for young people.

Both ideas have benefits, but the ma.lority of students DO express opinions
impersonally. DON'T
felt that improving the library would be more useful. expresS recommenoatonS
I would therefore recommend this. or opinions until the
DO use formal language. concluSron.

(179 words)

\\riting reference (Paper 2)

Useful language
(For work on articles, see pages 52, 102 and 1 26.)
Involving the reader
o Are you thinking of (getting married in the near future)?
Task . l'm sure you'll agree (it was a great idea).
Developing your points
You see this advertisement in a local English . Let's staft with (why it is so ¡mportant to take ptenty of
ran9uage newspaper. exercsq.
o Another advantage (of using a computer ¡s that ...)
. Ontopofthat,...
Givíng your own opinion
o t think that/tn my opinion (traditional celebratíons are very
o lf seems to me that (people are much more aware of the
importance of a good diet nowadays).

Write your article. (You should write between

12G180 words.)

Model answer

DO think of an Olinda's carnival - someth¡ng for everyone

intpré(tinn iitlp
DON'T start and finish
your article in the
When most people think of Carnival, they think of
same way as a letter. Rio de Janeiro. But Rio isn't the only city in Brazil that
knows how to have parties. I live in Olinda, a lovely DO try to involve
your readers, e.g.
city in the north-east of Brazil. What can we sav by us¡ng a question
about the carnival at Olinda? Just that it's the best in
the worldl
Carnival has its origins in ancient Egyptian and
Roman festivals. lt was introduced to Brazil by the
Portuguese, and was influenced by African rhythms
and Indian costumes. Now it's a biq national
DO use informal
Once Carnival starts, the whole town goes crazyl language to involve the
Everyone's singing and dancing. Parades of people
wearing costumes typical of our north-eastern
folklore dance through the streets. I love the giant DON'T forget to
street dolls, both the traditional ones such as 'the express your
man of midnight' and the new ones that appear oprnron.

each vear.
The best thing about our carnival is that no one has
to pay and there are no big stars. Everyone takes
oOfinish your article by part, rich and poor, old and young, residents and
summaris¡ng your main
point and giving your tourists. lf you come, I promise you'll never forget itl
op¡nion or expressing
your feelings.

(179 words)
Writing reference (Paper 2)

Letter of application Useful language

(For work on writing applications, see page 140.)
. I have always been interested in (using English in my
. one of the main reasons I am applying for this job is
Task that (t want to work in Engtand).
. I have a lot of experience of (dealing with the public)'
You see this advertisement in a local English . I am available to start work (at any time/from the end of
language newspaper. the month).
. Thank yo,u for considering my application.
students of English .
We are looking for
I would be grateful if you would (send me further deta¡ls
week helping in the of the job).
spend two mornings
tourist office' . I can be contacted (on 0849 58 48 43) at any time.
local . I can be contacted (at the above address).
Good pay ani 'ond¡tions
for the right applicants' . I look forward to hearing from you soon.
information about
Write to us' giving vou
;;;i englisn' and explainine'Yhv
"fwould be suitable for the job'

Write your application. Do not write any postal

addresses. (You should write between 120-180 words.)

Model answer
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to apply for one of the positions helping in the DO say which job
you are applying for
local tourist office which were advertised in 'Kent Weeklyl and where and
on August 23r0. wnen you saw rt
advertised. You can
i am 19 years old and come from Switzerland. German is Invent a newspaper
and date if you
my mother tongue and I have been learning English and need to.
DO organrse your
application so that you French for five years at a comprehensive school. At the
mention each of the areas
in the advertisement.
oment I'm a student at English International, studying for

DON'T make mistakes with I have always been interested in working with people. As I -,.
t¡me expressions and tenses. DON'T forget to
have already spent three months in England, I know the menlon wny you
local tourist attractions quite well. I wouid also say that I think you are
have a good knowledge of history and old places, because
I have read a lot about the subject recently. In the near
future, I would like to continue studying English, and so the
job in your tourist off,rce would be a great opportunity for
me to improve my speaking.
DO say when and
I am available for interview at any time. I can be contacted how you can be
on 0795 51 32 41 after 6 p.m. every evening.
Thank you for considering my application. I look forward
to hearing from you.
Yours faithfuily,
DO begin and end your
letter as you would other
formal letters.
6aur-ie.\\a Danie\s
Gabriella Daniels
(183 words)
\4riting reference (Paper 2)

Useful language
(For work on essays, see pages 90 and 176.) o Some people claim that (your teenage years are the best
years of your life).

Task . It is often said that (7Y is a bad influence on young people)

. However, in my view/opinion, ...
You have been doing a class project on technology. . Firstly, it is clear that (money cannot buy happiness).
Your teacher has asked you to write an essay giving o While it is true that (computer games are stimulating, they
your opinion on the following statement: may not be good for you in the long term).

People in the modern world depend too much on . From my point of view, (job satisfadion is more ¡mpoftant
computers. than a large salary).
. Finatly, it is important to remember that .. .

Write your essay. (You should write between . On balance then, t feel that ...
120-180 words.) . To sum uplln conclusion, it seems to me that ...

Model answer
DON'T start by saying /
DO state the topic in In today's world, nearly every aspect of life is affected agree with this - your
your first sentence, but essay should present your
use your own words.
by computer technology. Computers are used for own argument.
business, public services, education and entertainment.

Some people are concerned by this development. They

fear that vital skills are being lost as computer DO include supporting
detail for the points in
technology replaces traditional ways of working in a eacn paragrapn.
wide variety of areas, from art and design to banking
and commerce. They point out the chaos that can occur'
when computer systems fail, leading to the breakdown
of essential servicós such as transport, law and order.

However, people could not continue to enjoy their

DO use linking present standard of living without computer
expressions to
introduce points technology. There are now far more people in the
world than there were a generation ago. The fact that
there is enough food for them, that they can travel
safely from one place to another, and that they can be
provided with medical care, is largely due to computer

In my opinion, therefore, we have to accept our

DON'T forget to
express your oplnlon dependence on computers, but at the same time we
in the concluslon'
should work to find ways of making this dependence
less danserous.

(178 words)

\lriting reference (Paper 2)

Review Useful language

(For work on reviews. see pages 15 and 64.) Introduction
. The (film) I would líke to review is ...
. The last film I saw / book I read was ...
Task Summarising the story
. lt's set in ...
You recently saw this announcement in an English language
. The story ¡s based on (a book) ...
magazine called Film Scene. . lt's about ...
. There are many memorable characters
including ...

on films today'
. The main theme of the film is ...
We need a young person's perspective o What the fílm is saying is . ..
you saw' Include
Write us a review of the last film Recommending the film
and any special t
information on the story, characters Iwould recomend this film to anyone.
features of the film, and say
whether you would . Although I enjoyed it, I would not
recommend the film to other
people' The best review will recommend it for . ..
next month's edition of the magazrne' . lt's one of the best (shows) I've eyer seen.
be published in
t Although I am not normally keen on
(musicals), l'n glad that I decided to go.
o The (film) lifts you out of your everyday life.
Write your rev¡ew. (You should write between 120-180

Model answer

The last film I saw was not new: in fact it was The Lord
of the Rings.

DO say what it is It is based on the well-known book, and tells the story of
about, but not ¡n too - a creature called a hobbit who takes a dangerous magic
much detail.
ring back to the place where it was made in order to
destroy it. There are many memorable characters apart
DO remember to mention
from the hobbit aird his friends, including a wizard called ¡mportant or memorable
Gandalf and a suspicious creature called Gollum. characters, but don't
spend too much time just
dacrrihinn ihom
This is a film about friendship and loyalty. However, it is
DO try to use a range of the special effects that make it truly magical. There are
rnteresting vocabulary
to bring the film to life
* vivid battle scenes with fantastic animals and birds, and
for the reader. sets that are so imaginative that you want to believe they
DO remember to link
are real. But t!_-tyq!]3q this, the actuallocation,! are
ideas clearly, and to link
beautiful, too. paragraphs together.

I would recommend this film to anyone, even those who

DO remember to give
do not usually enjoy fantasy films. What I would say to your opinion clearly, as
them is - go and try it! Like me, you might find that the this is the purpose of a
review, but not until the
film lifts you out of your everyday life into a world you end.
will not want to leave.

(180 words)