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modern forms and modern inventions are rarely the product of a single

inventor's efforts. The bits and pieces of a computer (including the

software) came together over many centuries, many people each adding

a small contribution. Each of the inventions listed below were only one

small step on the road to the ultimate goal.

A calculating tool used primarily in parts of

Asia for performing arithmetic processes. The

1387

Abacus abacus was in use centuries before the

AD

adoption of the written modern numeral

system.

Napier invented logarithms, which are a

1617 Logarithms

technology that allows multiplication to be

performed via addition.

series of toothed wheels, which were turned

1642 Pascaline by hand and which could handle numbers up

to 999,999.999. it was also called the

"numerical wheel calculator" and was one of

the world's first mechanical adding machines

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716)

invented a calculating machine which was a

major advance in mechanical calculating. The

Leibniz calculator incorporated a new

Leibniz mechanical feature, the stepped drum — a

Calculating cylinder bearing nine teeth of different lengths

1671

Machine which increase in equal amounts around the

drum. Although the Leibniz calculator was not

developed for commercial production, the

stepped drum principle survived for 300 years

and was used in many later calculating

systems.

An important step in the history of computers,

was the design of a mechanical general-

purpose computer by English mathematician C

Analytical harles Babbage. In its logical design the

1822

engine machine was essentially modern, anticipating

the first completed general-purpose

computers by about 100 years. It was first

described in 1837..

The tabulating machine was an electrical

device designed to assist in summarizing

information and, later, accounting. Invented

Hollerith

1890 by Herman Hollerith, the machine was

tabulating

developed to help process data for the 1890

machine

U.S. Census. It spawned a larger class of

devices known as unit record equipment and

the data processing industry.

Invented by Konrad Zuse, a German

construction engineer builds a mechanical

calculator to handle the math involved in his

1936 Z1 Computer

profession. First freely programmable

computer.

solve linear equations common in physics. It

1942 ABC Computer

displays some early features of later

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------

NUMBER SYSTEM

A numeral system or system of numeration is a writing system for

expressing numbers, that is a mathematical notation for

representing numbers of a given set, using graphemes or symbols in a

consistent manner. It can be seen as the context that allows the numerals

"11" to be interpreted as the binary symbol for three, the decimal symbol

for eleven, or a symbol for other numbers in different bases.

Ideally, a numeral system will:

• Give every number represented a unique representation or at

least a standard representation)

• Reflect the algebraic and arithmetic structure of the numbers.

Number

Base Numerals

System

binary 2 0,1

ternary 3 0,1,2

quaternary 4 0,1,2,3

quinary 5 0,1,2,3,4

senary 6 0,1,2,3,4,5

septenary 7 0,1,2,3,4,5,6

octonary 8 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7

nonary 9 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

decimal 10 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

undenary 11 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

---------

CONVERSION

The digits that all 4 numeral systems use are shown below:

Decimal Binary Hexadecimal Octal

0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1

2 10 2 2

3 11 3 3

4 100 4 4

5 101 5 5

6 110 6 6

7 111 7 7

8 1000 8 10

9 1001 9 11

10 1010 A 12

11 1011 B 13

12 1100 C 14

13 1101 D 15

14 1110 E 16

15 1111 F 17

16 10000 10 20

Decimal

To convert from a base-10 integer numeral to its base-2 (binary)

equivalent, the number is divided by two, and the remainder is the least-

significant bit. The (integer) result is again divided by two; its remainder

is the next most significant bit. This process repeats until the result of

further division becomes zero.

Conversion from base-2 to base-10 proceeds by applying the preceding

algorithm, so to speak, in reverse. The bits of the binary number are used

one by one, starting with the most significant(leftmost) bit. Beginning

with the value 0, repeatedly double the prior value and add the next bit to

produce the next value. This can be organized in a multi-column table.

For example to convert 100101011012 to decimal:

× 2 Next Next × 2

Prior value 18 1 = 37

+ Bit value +

× 2 × 2

0 1 =1 37 0 = 74

+ +

× 2 × 2

1 0 =2 74 1 = 149

+ +

× 2 × 2

2 0 =4 149 1 = 299

+ +

× 2 × 2

4 1 =9 299 0 = 598

+ +

× 2 × 2

9 0 = 18 598 1 = 1197

+ +

The result is 119710. Note that the first Prior Value of 0 is simply an initial

decimal value. This method is an application of the Horner scheme.

Binary 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

Decim 1×2 0×2 0×2 1×2 0×2 1×2 0×2 1×2 1×2 0×2 1×20 119

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

al + + + + + + + + + + = 7

The fractional parts of a number are converted with similar methods.

They are again based on the equivalence of shifting with doubling or

halving.

In a fractional binary number such as .110101101012, the first digit is ,

the second , etc. So if there is a 1 in the first place after the

decimal, then the number is at least , and vice versa. Double that number

is at least 1. This suggests the algorithm: Repeatedly double the number

to be converted, record if the result is at least 1, and then throw away the

integer part.

Converting Result

0.

0.0

0.01

0.010

0.0101

Thus the repeating decimal fraction 0.3... is equivalent to the repeating

binary fraction 0.01... .

Or for example, 0.110, in binary, is:

surprise that terminating decimal fractions can have repeating

expansions in binary. It is for this reason that many are surprised to

discover that 0.1 + ... + 0.1, (10 additions) differs from 1 in floating point

arithmetic. In fact, the only binary fractions with terminating expansions

are of the form of an integer divided by a power of 2, which 1/10 is not.

The final conversion is from binary to decimal fractions. The only difficulty

arises with repeating fractions, but otherwise the method is to shift the

fraction to an integer, convert it as above, and then divide by the

appropriate power of two in the decimal base. For example:

.

x =1100 101110

...

=1100101 .

110 01110.

..

.

=11001 01110.

..

1100010

=

101

x =(789/62)10

Another way of converting from binary to decimal, often quicker for a

person familiar with hexadecimal, is to do so indirectly—first converting

(x in binary) into (x in hexadecimal) and then converting (x in

hexadecimal) into (x in decimal).

For very large numbers, these simple methods are inefficient because

they perform a large number of multiplications or divisions where one

operand is very large. A simple divide-and-conquer algorithm is more

effective asymptotically: given a binary number, it is divided by 10k,

where k is chosen so that the quotient roughly equals the remainder; then

each of these pieces is converted to decimal and the two are

concatenated. Given a decimal number, it can be split into two pieces of

about the same size, each of which is converted to binary, whereupon the

first converted piece is multiplied by 10k and added to the second

converted piece, where k is the number of decimal digits in the second,

least-significant piece before conversion.

Hexadecimal

Binary may be converted to and from hexadecimal somewhat more

easily. This is because the radix of the hexadecimal system (16) is a

power of the radix of the binary system (2). More specifically, 16 = 2 4, so

it takes four digits of binary to represent one digit of hexadecimal.

To convert a hexadecimal number into its binary equivalent, simply

substitute the corresponding binary digits:

3A16 = 0011 10102

E716 = 1110 01112

To convert a binary number into its hexadecimal equivalent, divide it into

groups of four bits. If the number of bits isn't a multiple of four, simply

insert extra 0 bits at the left (called padding). For example:

10100102 = 0101 0010 grouped with padding = 5216

110111012 = 1101 1101 grouped = DD16

To convert a hexadecimal number into its decimal equivalent, multiply

the decimal equivalent of each hexadecimal digit by the corresponding

power of 16 and add the resulting values:

C0E716 = (12 × 163) + (0 × 162) + (14 × 161) + (7 × 160) = (12 ×

4096) + (0 × 256) + (14 × 16) + (7 × 1) = 49,38310

Octal

Binary is also easily converted to the octal numeral system, since octal

uses a radix of 8, which is a power of two (namely, 23, so it takes exactly

three binary digits to represent an octal digit). The correspondence

between octal and binary numerals is the same as for the first eight digits

of hexadecimal in the table above. Binary 000 is equivalent to the octal

digit 0, binary 111 is equivalent to octal 7, and so forth.

Converting from octal to binary proceeds in the same fashion as it does

for hexadecimal:

658 = 110 1012

178 = 001 1112

And from binary to octal:

1011002 = 101 1002 grouped = 548

100112 = 010 0112 grouped with padding = 238

And from octal to decimal:

658 = (6 × 81) + (5 × 80) = (6 × 8) + (5 × 1) = 5310

1278 = (1 × 82) + (2 × 81) + (7 × 80) = (1 × 64) + (2 × 8) + (7 × 1)

= 8710

ARITHMETIC

Arithmetic in binary is much like arithmetic in other numeral

systems. Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be

performed on binary numerals.

Addition

The simplest arithmetic operation in binary is addition. Adding two

single-digit binary numbers is relatively simple, using a form of carrying:

0+0→0

0+1→1

1+0→1

1 + 1 → 0, carry 1 (since 1 + 1 = 0 + 1 × 10 in binary)

Adding two "1" digits produces a digit "0", while 1 will

have to be added to the next column. This is similar to

what happens in decimal when certain single-digit

numbers are added together; if the result equals or

exceeds the value of the radix (10), the digit to the left is

incremented:

5 + 5 → 0, carry 1 (since 5 + 5 = 0 + 1 × 10)

7 + 9 → 6, carry 1 (since 7 + 9 = 6 + 1 × 10)

Subtraction

Subtraction works in much the same way:

0−0→0

0 − 1 → 1, borrow 1

1−0→1

1−1→0

Subtracting a "1" digit from a "0" digit produces the digit "1", while 1 will

have to be subtracted from the next column. This is known asborrowing.

The principle is the same as for carrying. When the result of a subtraction

is less than 0, the least possible value of a digit, the procedure is to

"borrow" the deficit divided by the radix (that is, 10/10) from the left,

subtracting it from the next positional value.

Multiplication

Multiplication in binary is similar to its decimal counterpart. Two

numbers A and B can be multiplied by partial products: for each digit in B,

the product of that digit in A is calculated and written on a new line,

shifted leftward so that its rightmost digit lines up with the digit in B that

was used. The sum of all these partial products gives the final result.

Since there are only two digits in binary, there are only two possible

outcomes of each partial multiplication:

If the digit in B is 1, the partial product is equal to A

Division

Binary division is again similar to its decimal counterpart:

Here, the divisor is 1012, or 5 decimal, while the dividend is 110112, or 27

decimal. The procedure is the same as that of decimal long division; here,

the divisor 1012 goes into the first three digits 1102 of the dividend one

time, so a "1" is written on the top line. This result is multiplied by the

divisor, and subtracted from the first three digits of the dividend; the next

digit (a "1") is included to obtain a new three-digit sequence:

1

___________

101 )11011

−101

-----

011

POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

SANTA ROSA EXTENSION

INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

City of Santa Rosa, Laguna

ASSIGNMENT

IN

INFORMATION

COMMUNICATION

TECHNOLOGY

SUBMITTED BY: SHEILA ANGELA D. DUQUE

BSIE III-1

SUBMITTED ON: June 22, 2010

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