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Hoover City Schools

Elementary Music Course of Study


2007
Adaptation of the Alabama State Course of Study
Hoover City Schools
Elementary Music Course of Study
2007

Contributing Writers

Natalie Evans, Riverchase Elementary School


Beth Galloway, Trace Crossings Elementary School
Erin Gray, South Shades Crest Elementary School
Paula LeBlanc, Rocky Ridge Elementary School
Carlee Means, Gwin Elementary School
Vicki Portis, Bluff Park Elementary School
Angela Roebuck, Shades Mountain Elementary School
Mary Shaw, Green Valley Elementary School
Lisa Vines, Deer Valley and South Shades Crest Elementary Schools
Betty Wilson, Deer Valley Elementary School
Sara Womack, Greystone Elementary School

Andy Craig, Superintendent


Dr. Deborah Camp, Director of Elementary Curriculum
Table of Contents

Philosophy of Music Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Elementary Music Course of Study


Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
First Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Second Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Third Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Fourth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Fifth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

Correlation to MENC National Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Elements Scope and Sequence


Rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Melody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Texture and Harmony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Timbre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Suggested Teaching Timeline


Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
First Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Second Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Third Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Fourth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Fifth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Timeline at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Appendix
Music History Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Cultural and Style Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Suggested Inventory of Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Suggested Curriculum Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

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Hoover City Schools
Philosophy of Music Education
“During the Gulf War, the few opportunities I had for relaxation I always listened to
music, and it brought me great peace of mind. I have shared my love of music with
people throughout this world, while listening to the drums and special instruments of the
Far East, Middle East, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Far North, and all of this started
with the music appreciation course that I was taught in a third-grade elementary class in
Princeton, New Jersey. What a tragedy it would be if we lived in a world where music
was not taught to children.”
General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, United States Army

The Hoover City Schools music education philosophy is grounded in the premise
that all students should be engaged in a challenging and effective music education.
Current legislation and research has proven the need and demand for music education.
The No Child Left Behind Act consistently uses language that embraces support for the
arts programs. The definitions section of the law lists arts as a core subject area, along
with English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, history, geography, civics
and government, economics, and foreign languages. When pointing out how decisions
are to be made on funding, the law states that the expenditures are to be made to
support the core subjects and the curricula and instruction that are aligned with the state
course of study and student achievement standards. A 2003 Gallup Poll found 95% of
Americans believe that music is a key component in a child's well-rounded education.
Three quarters of those surveyed feel that schools should mandate music education.
Another study found the schools that produced the highest academic achievement in
the United States are spending 20% to 30% of the day on the arts, with special
emphasis on music. (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational
Achievement Test, 1988).
The Hoover City Schools philosophy of music education is built upon teaching
the five concepts of music – rhythm, melody, harmony, form, and expressive qualities.
The curriculum is spiral based and highly developmental. Conceptual learning is also a
focus in that each concept will be taught while utilizing a variety of music skills – singing,
playing instruments, moving, listening to and analyzing music, reading and notating

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music, and composing and improvising music. The National Standards, Alabama
Course of Study, and Hoover City Schools Course of Study will serve as a guide. The
philosophies of Carl Orff and Zoltan Kodály will be the center of most of the activities
completed in the classroom. Through these philosophies, students spend the majority
of instructional time creating and recreating music instead of simply discussing music.
Students experience all aspects of music before learning the associated terminology.
The purpose of the music program is to insure that students will value music
throughout their lives. In order for a continuous appreciation of music to occur, students
must have a fundamental understanding of music and realize that being an active
participant in music, whether as a performer or listener, is an enjoyable experience.
While comprehending the basic functions of music is central to the purpose of this
music program, the foremost consideration is whether the students are excited about
the music making process. If the students do not feel that the subject matter is relevant
or entertaining, music will not become a necessary part of their lives in their middle
school, high school, college, or post college years. Music is made relevant to students
of all learning styles by utilizing music of all cultures and a variety of teaching tools.
Because student excitement regarding music learning is the foremost concern,
student needs drive the curriculum of the music program. The use of consistent and
comprehensive assessment reveals the students’ needs and guides curriculum
decisions in order to meet those needs. Parent support is also a necessary component
of the program. Parent suggestions are encouraged. A high expectation of exceptional
behavior from all students insures an inviting learning environment for the
administration, teachers, parents, and students.

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Hoover City Schools
Elementary Music Course of Study

Kindergarten

Most children enter kindergarten, the beginning of their formal education, with a
repertoire of songs they may have learned from family members or from childcare or
preschool experiences. These songs are the basis from which music educators begin,
moving the student from the familiar to new learning experiences in the area of music.

The learning environment in kindergarten incorporates active participation by students.


Students learn basic music skills by singing and echoing short rhythm patterns. They
learn to differentiate between singing and speaking voices, begin learning basic
conducting cues, demonstrate understanding of basic rhythmic concepts, learn to play
various rhythm instruments, and begin to recognize changes in the dynamics and tempo
of music. They also begin to discern differences in phrases and to improvise simple
four-beat melodies. Kindergarten students are able to sing pitch within the range of D
below the staff to second space A.

Through content standards for kindergarten, students develop knowledge of various


songs and musical styles and learn to express themselves through movement. They
are engaged in activities that allow them to experience an enjoyment of music while
developing skills in the areas of speaking, singing, moving, and playing instruments.
The foundation gained in kindergarten prepares students for the study of music at the
next grade level.

Produce

Students will:

1. Sing simple songs alone and with others following the contour of melody.
• Memorize songs
• Sing with good posture and diction maintaining a steady tempo
• Demonstrate the difference between speaking and singing
Examples: whispering, calling, speaking, singing
• Use their age-appropriate vocal range utilizing head tone
• Vocal Range - C4-A4; Tessitura - D4-A4

2. Demonstrate responses to nonverbal conducting cues.


Examples: sit, stand, listen, sing, start, stop, sing or play louder or softer.

3. Imitate a steady beat while playing various rhythm instruments.


• Recognize the presence or absence of a steady beat
• Demonstrate steady beat on barred instruments using bilateral motions
• Differentiate between steady beat and rhythm

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4. Echo short rhythm patterns consisting of quarter notes, quarter rests, and paired
eighth notes.
• Respond to iconic notation, i.e. play instrument, move, read aloud
• Play and create rhythm patterns on body percussion and unpitched
percussion instruments individually and in unison with others

5. Improvise four-beat melodies using la, so, and mi.


Example: Improvising on barred instruments on a pentatonic scale

6. Create expressive movement to folk songs, folk games, lullabies, marches, and
other musical genres.
Examples: skipping to “Skip to My Lou,” marching to “Yankee Doodle”
• Express musical ideas using creative movement and body percussion

7. Demonstrate appropriate audience and performance behavior.

8. Play pitched and unpitched instruments with appropriate techniques.


• Play a steady beat using bilateral motions.

9. Acquire and develop a repertoire of non-locomotor and locomotor movements.

Respond

Students will:

10. Identify similarities and differences in familiar songs, including fast or slow, loud
or soft, short and long, and high and low.
Example: comparing a march to a lullaby

11. Identify like and unlike phrases presented aurally in a piece of music.

12. Identify solo or group performances by sound.

13. Identify sets of two and three beats.

Understand

Students will:

14. Recognize differences between adult and children’s voices.

15. Demonstrate singing, speaking, whispering, and calling voices.


Example: singing and reciting the alphabet

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16. Recognize holiday songs and simple songs from the United States and other
cultures and countries.
Examples: United States – “America”
holiday – “Jingle Bells”
other cultures and countries – “Frère Jacques”

17. Identify various rhythm and orchestral instruments by sight and sound.
Examples: drums, piano, trumpet

18. Differentiate high and low vocal sounds through vocal exploration.
Example: producing aurally the sounds of a bird and a cow

19. Identify the seven letters of the musical alphabet.

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Hoover City Schools
Elementary Music Course of Study

First Grade

In first grade, students’ listening skills are more refined, as is their ability to be
expressive through singing. Fine motor skills are becoming more developed, and
through active learning experiences, their cognitive skills increase.

In the music classroom, first-grade students continue to develop skills in speaking,


singing, listening, playing instruments, and in creating movement. Students learn to
identify dynamic markings, clap rhythm patterns, and begin to recognize the difference
between a note and a rest. Basic music reading abilities, such as identifying quarter
notes and rests and determining melodic direction on a staff, are also addressed during
this grade. First-grade students are able to sing pitches within the range of D below the
staff to third line B.

The classroom environment in Grade 1 is one of active participation and exploration by


students. Therefore, music educators of first-grade students should incorporate a
variety of instructional strategies that allow students to learn by doing.

Produce

Students will:

1. Sing songs from various cultures and countries within an age-appropriate vocal
range using clear vocal tones.
• Sing short melodic passages that indicate upward and downward
movement in a melody
Example: singing “Hot Cross Buns”
• Sing expressively using appropriate dynamics, tempo, and rhythm
Examples: piano (p), forte (f)
• Match pitch
• Distinguish between accompanied and unaccompanied songs
• Sing songs in various pentatonic and major and minor keys
• Sing songs in various meters, i.e. duple and triple
• Vocal Range - D4-D5; Tessitura - D4-B4

2. Improvise four-beat melodies using mi, re, and do.


• Improvise on barred instruments on a pentatonic scale

3. Sing, play or imitate melodic patterns, individually and in unison with others.
Examples: “Che che koolay” and “Cookie”

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4. Demonstrate rhythm patterns by reading quarter notes, quarter rests, paired
eighth notes and half notes, including playing them on various rhythm
instruments.
• Clap repeated rhythm patterns or ostinati in familiar songs
• Perform accompaniments on pitched or unpitched percussion instruments
using a steady beat
• Improvise a response to a simple rhythmic pattern, i.e. question-answer

5. Play pitched and unpitched instruments with appropriate techniques.


• Play a simple bordun
• Play a steady beat using bilateral and alternating motions
• Play along with others

6. Compose, using sound and movement, backgrounds or settings for poems,


stories, songs, and speech pieces.

7. Interpret icons representing beat/strong beat, long/short, and tempo and dynamic
changes.

8. Read notation using quarter notes, quarter rests, and paired eighth notes.

Respond

Students will:

9. Demonstrate vocal responses to conductor cues for loud and soft.

10. Identify melodic direction on the musical staff.


Examples: upward, downward, and same

11. Identify notes as being line note or space note on a musical staff.

12. Identify so, mi, and la on the staff

13. Identify by sight and sound the difference between a note and a rest.

14. Identify musical symbols and terms


Examples: quarter note, eighth notes, quarter rest, staff, treble clef

15. Identify musical phrases in a song presented aurally.


Example: “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”

16. Use creative movement to express the mood, dynamics and tempo of musical
selections.
Examples: skipping happily, tiptoeing when scared

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17. Identify duple meter as strong-weak beat organization and triple meter as strong
weak, weak.

18. Identify AB and ABA form in a musical selection.

19. Identify long and short musical sounds.


Example: One sound per beat, two sounds per beat, no sound

Understand

Students will:

20. Distinguish between low and high sounds produced by voices or instruments.
Examples: low pitch – kettledrum, man’s voices; high pitch – triangle,
woman’s voice

21. Identify the number of lines and spaces on the treble clef staff.

22. Describe how vibrations produce musical sounds.

23. Identify ways in which music relates to other subjects.

24. Describe in simple terms how elements of music are used in music examples
from various cultures of the world and historical periods.

25. Devise and implement criteria for evaluating performances using


developmentally appropriate musical terms.

26. Classify rhythm instruments by method of tone production, including striking,


shaking, scraping, and ringing.

27. Develop awareness of tone color categories: woods, metals, shakers, scrapers,
and skins.

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Hoover City Schools
Elementary Music Course of Study
Second Grade
Students in second grade are beginning to exhibit more independence in their thought
processes and are able to understand more complex concepts. They exhibit
independence in using acquired knowledge to form opinions and personal choices.
However, they continue to need teacher guidance and monitoring.

In the music classroom, second-grade students are refining their musical skills by
accomplishing increasing rigorous standards. Aural skills needed to identify phrases,
dynamics, form, and tone color are further developed, as are basic music reading skills.

Second-grade students are able to sing pitches within the range of D below the staff to
third line B. They classify rhythm instruments by sound produced and use pitched
instruments to perform accompaniments. They also explore components of music
through listening, playing instruments, and discovering “found sounds” in their
environments.

Produce
Students will:

1. Sing on pitch using good posture.


• Sing simple melodic ostinati and patterns in call and response form
• Engage in vocal exploration, blending chest and head voice throughout
the vocal range to produce uniform tonal quality in each register
• Practice production of head voice sounds in the upper register and
sustaining tones
• Expand vocal range upward
• Develop aural perception of home tone or tonal center
• Vocal Range - C4-D5; Tessitura - D4-B4
2. Improvise eight-beat melodies using la, so, mi, re, and do ending on home tone
or tonal center.

3. Perform accompaniments to poems, rhymes, stories, dramatizations, and songs


using pitched instruments.
• Demonstrate rhythm patterns by reading quarter notes, quarter rests,
paired eighth notes, and half notes
• Select appropriate classroom instruments to create musical
accompaniments
• Sing songs representative of other cultures and countries
• Perform folk dances appropriate for age level to music from various
cultures
Example: Chinese ribbon dance
• Play simple rhythmic ostinati by rote and from notation

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4. Develop basic mallet techniques.

5. Compose introductions and codas for songs and speech pieces.

Respond

Students will:

6. Identify music terms related to tempo changes in music, including accelerando,


ritardando, and fermata.

7. Identify ABA and verse-refrain form in a musical selection.


Examples: using shapes to illustrate patterns, comparing musical forms to
visual arts

8. Identify steps, leaps, and repeated notes in printed music.

9. Recognize and use standard notation and terms.


Examples: repeat signs, accent, p, f, whole, note, half note, slurs, ties,
introduction, coda, D.C.

Understand

Students will:

10. Identify American patriotic songs.


Examples: “Star Spangled Banner,” “America,” “God Bless America”

11. Identify letter names of lines and spaces on the treble clef staff.

12. Identify the difference between a verse and a refrain in a familiar musical
selection.

13. Identify dynamic markings of forte (f), piano (p), crescendo (cresc. and <), and
decrescendo (decresc. and >).

14. Distinguish between various vocal and instrumental timbres.


Example: male and female voices, simple classroom instruments.

15. Identify the four families of instruments in an orchestra.


• Identifying and classifying individual instruments by sight.

16. Identify melodic sequences in a melody.


Example: motif from first movement of Ludwig von Beethoven’s Symphony
No. 5

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Hoover City Schools
Elementary Music Course of Study
Third Grade
Students in third grade are active, curious, and eager to learn. They need greater
independence as they progress in cognitive, social, emotional, and physical
development. Students remain primarily concrete learners, acquiring knowledge
through visual and auditory stimulation as well as hands-on experiences.

The learning environment of the third-grade music classroom is one that reflects the
energy and enthusiasm of its students. Students work together as a community of
learners in an atmosphere in which their ideas and contributions are valued. This
environment promotes self-confidence, and is one in which students are more receptive
to suggestions for improvement.

Content standards in Grade 3 emphasize the development of proper vocal technique;


performance of simple melodic, rhythmic, and chordal accompaniments; and
identification of instruments by sight and sound. Third-grade students are also able to
sing pitches within the range of D below the staff to fourth line D. These skills, along
with others, continue to serve as the foundation for the advanced content in subsequent
grades.

Produce
Students will:

1. Demonstrate proper vocal technique by using pure head tone, good posture, and
correct rhythm.
• Use appropriate dynamics while singing expressively
• Sing rounds
• Sing songs of other cultures and countries
• Vocal range - B3-E5; Tessitura - D4-D5
2. Sing melodic ostinati, canons, partner songs, and echo songs to create harmony.

3. Improvise eight-beat melodies using la, so, mi, re, and do and quarter note and
eighth note rhythms.
• Improvise contrasting B and C sections in rondo form using sound and
movement
• Improvise answers to given rhythmic and melodic phrases
• Express musical ideas using creative movement, body percussion,
classroom instruments, and vocal sounds
• Improvise simple melodies based on the pentatonic scale

4. Play rhythm patterns, including whole notes, dotted half notes, dotted quarter
notes, sixteenth notes, and simple syncopation using pitched or unpitched
instruments or by clapping.

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5. Perform rhythmic ostinati while others are singing a melody.

6. Develop crossover mallet technique for playing borduns and ostinati.

7. Create and compose music within specified guidelines.


• Create AB, ABA, ABACA, using speech, instruments, voices, and
movement
• Compose rhythmic and melodic patterns

Respond
Students will:

8. Demonstrate melodic contour through creative movement.


Example: using gestures or drawings to indicate upward and downward
direction of melody

9. Recognize conductor cues in @ and $ meter signatures meter signatures.

10. Identify ABC form in musical selections.

11. Identify meter according to strong and weak beat organization.


Examples: strong, weak = @; strong, weak, weak, weak = $

12. Recognize and use standard notational symbols and terms.


Example: dotted half note, single eighth note, eighth rest, staccato, legato,
musical alphabet, fermata, barline, measure, $, @, #, pitch names

Understand
Students will:

13. Identify music symbols found on the staff, including the treble clef, meter
signatures, bar lines, measures, double bar line, and repeat signs.
• Defining terms associated with printed music, including fermata, slur,
legato, staccato, and da capo (D.C.)

14. Identify music terms related to dynamics in music, including fortissimo (ff), mezzo
forte (mf), mezzo piano (mp), and pianissimo (pp).

15. Identify the musical alphabet ascending on lines and spaces from middle C to G
above the staff.

16. Demonstrate perceptual skills by moving, by answering questions, and by


describing aural examples of music of various styles representing diverse
cultures.

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Hoover City Schools
Elementary Music Course of Study

Fourth Grade

Students in fourth grade are becoming more expressive. They are developing both
socially and emotionally and often look to their peers for social acceptance. Fourth-
grade students are intrigued with the varied sounds they make with their voices and find
opportunities to use their speaking and singing voices with proper pitch, phrasing,
pace, modulation, and gestures. To nurture their interest, the classroom environment
promotes the active engagement of students in their own learning through independent
and group projects. These experiences prepare student for new content found in the
music curriculum.

Content standards in Grade 4 continue to build upon prior knowledge. Additional


concepts, techniques, and vocal requirements are added to those already mastered by
students. At this grade level, students perform a varied repertoire of music, sing
expressively, echo rhythmic and melodic pitches within the range of middle C to fourth
line D. Through these musical experiences students continue to develop cognitively,
physically, socially, and emotionally.

Produce

Students will:

1. Perform a varied repertoire of music using vocal technique, pure head tone, good
diction, good posture, proper pitch and rhythm, and breath control.
• Sing intervals within the major pentatonic scale
• Respond to conducting patterns of @, #, and $ meter signatures
• Sing legato and staccato
• Sing songs of other cultures and countries
• Sing using a variety of dynamics
• Practice blending chest and head voice throughout the vocal range to
produce uniform tonal quality in each register
• Sing with sensitivity to blend in a group or choral ensemble, responding to
cues from a conductor
• Develop aural perception and inner hearing skills
• Develop correct intonation
• Vocal Range - A3-G5; Tessitura - C4-D5

2. Sing in rounds or canons to create harmony.


• Sing partner songs

3. Improvise eight-beat melodies using so, mi, la, re, and do with half notes, quarter
rests, and syncopation.

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4. Perform simple chord progression on pitched instruments.
Example: I, V

5. Perform simple melodies on pitched instruments.

6. Perform rhythm patterns, including syncopation and eight and sixteenth-note


combinations on various rhythm instruments.
• Play melodic and rhythmic ostinati

7. Recognize and label phrases.

8. Create and compose music within specified guidelines.


• Create, notate, and perform a pentatonic melody
• Create and perform speech, movement, and/or rhythm canons

9. Practice patterned locomotor movements in singing games and circle, line, and
folk dances.

Respond
Students will:

10. Improvise pentatonic melodies using a variety of sound sources including


recorder and pitched percussion.

11. Improvise pentatonic melodies using a variety of sound sources, including


electronic sources.

12. Identify ledger-line notes C and B below the treble staff.

13. Identify theme and variations in musical selections.

Understand
Students will:

14. Classify orchestral instruments by family


• Identify individual instruments by sound

15. Recognize styles of twentieth-century music


Example: jazz, pop, country, folk

16. Explain personal preferences for specific musical works and styles using
appropriate music terminology.

17. Identify by sound and describe roles of musicians and the elements of music in
various music settings and cultures.

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Hoover City Schools
Elementary Music Course of Study

Fifth Grade

Students in fifth grade are experiencing rapid growth in their emotional and social
development. As they become more aware of their immediate surroundings, students’
interest in the expanded environment begins to emerge. Students need guidance to
recognize relationships between music and other disciplines as they develop a more
sophisticated sense of music, using it to reflect their feelings and emotions. The fifth-
grade music classroom provides a positive learning environment that encourages
students to participate in classroom activities while using good posture, intonation,
correct rhythm, and breath control.

Content standards in Grade 5 offer opportunities for students to become engaged in


singing, notating, and composing, while musically defining techniques and process.
They are able to play rhythm patterns and begin to recognize instruments in the
orchestra by sight and sound. Fifth-grade students are also able to sing pitches within
the range of middle C to fourth line D. These skills enable students to transition
smoothly into Grade 6-8 Music or into Level I of either Vocal or Instrumental Music.

Produce

Students will:

1. Sing intervals on pitch within a major diatonic scale.


• Further establish deep breathing skills and breath control
• Vocal Range - A3-G5; Tessitura - C4-D5

2. Improvise eight-beat melodies using la, so, mi, re, and do with a variety of
rhythms and phrases.
• Improvise extended phrases in question/answer form
• Improvise melodies using various scales

3. Play rhythm patterns, including triplets and dotted eighth and sixteenth-note
combinations on pitched and non pitched instruments
• Perform melodic and rhythmic patterns and songs in @, #, $, and P meter
signatures
• Notate rhythms in @, #, and $ meter signatures
• Identify tempo markings such as allegro, presto, largo, and andante

4. Perform simple melodies on recorders.

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5. Improvise melodies in a major diatonic scale by singing or using a pitched
instrument.

6. Compose melodies and accompaniments to songs, poems, stories, and


dramatizations, using AB, ABA, and rondo forms.

7. Sing partner songs to create harmony.


• Sing descants and two-part songs

8. Demonstrate appropriate use of legato and staccato in a song.

9. Compose, notate and perform compositions.

10. Perform creative movements while exploring concepts of space: level, direction,
size, place, pathways, focus.

Respond

Students will:

11. Recognize conducting patterns of @, #, and $ meter signatures.

12. Identify ledger-lines notes A, B, and C above the treble staff.

Understand

Students will:

13. Identify whole and half steps of the major diatonic scale in printed music.
• Identify intervals of the diatonic scale in printed music
• Recognize the difference between major and minor tonality

14. Recognize vocal timbre as soprano, alto, tenor, or bass.

15. Identify eras of music.


Examples: Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Contemporary
• Identify composers of each era of music

16. Compare in two or more arts how the characteristic materials of each art can be
used to transform similar events, scenes, emotions, or ideas into works of art.

17. Describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines
taught in the school are interrelated with those of music.

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Correlation to MENC National Standards

Standards and
Kindergarten 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade
Skills

National Standard
#1- Singing, alone Vocal Range- C4- Vocal Range- D4- Vocal Range- C4- Vocal range- B3- Vocal Range- A3- Vocal Range- A3-
and with others, a Vocal Range A4; Tessitura D4- D5; Tessitura- D4- D5; Tessitura- D4- E5; Tessitura- D4- G5; Tessitura- C4- G5; Tessitura- C4-
varied repertoire of A4 B4 B4 D5 D5 D5
music.

Perform a varied
Sing songs from repertoire of music
Demonstrate
Sing simple songs various cultures using vocal
proper vocal
alone and with and countries technique, pure Sing intervals on
Sing on pitch using technique by using
Main Point others following within an age- head tone, good pitch within a major
good posture. pure head tone,
the contour of appropriate vocal diction, good diatonic scale.
good posture, and
melody. range using clear posture, proper
correct rhythm.
vocal tones. pitch and rhythm,
and breath control.

-Singing short
melodic passages
-Singing intervals -Sing partner
Types of Songs that indicate -Singing simple
-Memorizing songs -Singing rounds within the major songs to create
/ Melody upward and down melodic ostinati
pentatonic scale harmony.
ward movement in
a melody
-Demonstrating the
-Singing melodic -Singing songs of -Singing songs of
difference between Example: singing -Singing descants
patterns in call and other cultures and other cultures and
speech and “Hot Cross Buns” and two-part songs
response form countries countries
singing.
-Sing melodic
Examples: -Singing songs in
-Singing simple ostinati, canons, -Sing in rounds or
whispering, various pentatonic
drones and partner songs, and canons to create
shouting, and major and
melodic ostinati echo songs to harmony.
speaking, singing minor keys
create harmony.
-Singing songs
-Singing songs in
representative of -Singing partner
various meters, i.e.
other cultures and songs
duple and triple
countries

18
-Singing -Responding to
Singing with good Developing aural -Using appropriate
expressively using conducting
posture and diction perception of dynamics while
Expression appropriate patterns of 2/4, !,
maintaining a home tone or tonal singing
dynamics, tempo 4/4 meter
steady tempo center expressively
and rhythm signature
-Express musical
Examples: piano -Singing legato
ideas using vocal
(p), forte (f) and staccato
sounds

-Demonstrate
vocal responses to -Singing using a
conductor cues for variety of dynamics
loud and soft.

-Engaging in vocal
exploration, -Practice blending
blending chest and chest and head
Using their age-
head voice voice throughout Improve deep
Vocal appropriate vocal
-Matching pitch throughout the the vocal range to breathing skills
Technique range utilizing
vocal range to produce uniform and breath control
head tone
produce uniform tonal quality in
tonal quality in each register
each register

-Practicing -Sing with


-Sing melodic production of head sensitivity to blend
patterns, voice sounds in in a group or
individually and in the upper register choral ensemble,
unison with others. and sustaining responding to cues
tones from a conductor

-Develop aural
-Expanding vocal
perception and
range upward
inner hearing skills

-Develop correct
intonation

19
Play rhythm
patterns, including
Play rhythm
Perform whole notes,
patterns, including
National Standard accompaniments dotted half notes,
Play pitched and Perform simple triplets and dotted
#2- Performing on Play or imitate to poems, rhymes, dotted quarter
unpitched chord progression eighth and
instruments, alone melodic patterns, stories, notes, sixteenth
Main Point instruments with on pitched sixteenth-note
and with others, a individually and in dramatizations, notes, and simple
appropriate instruments. combinations on
varied repertoire of unison with others. and songs using syncopation using
techniques. Example: I, V, I pitched and non
music. pitched pitched or
pitched
instruments. nonpitched
instruments
instruments or by
clapping.

-Play pitched and


Develop crossover
Play a steady beat unpitched
Instrument Develop basic mallet technique
using bilateral instruments with
Technique mallet techniques. for playing borduns
motions. appropriate
and ostinati.
techniques.

-Play a steady
beat using bilateral
and alternating
motions

20
-Demonstrating
-Echo short rhythm
rhythm patterns by Perform rhythmic
patterns consisting
reading quarter patterns and songs
of quarter notes, -Play a simple Playing rhythmic
Rhythm notes, quarter in 2/4, !, 4/4, and
quarter rests, and bordun ostinati
rests, paired eighth 6/8 meter
paired eighth
notes, and half signatures
notes.
notes

-Demonstrate
-Playing and
rhythm patterns by
creating rhythm
reading quarter
patterns on body
notes, quarter -Playing simple
percussion and
rests, paired eighth rhythmic ostinati by
unpitched
notes and half rote and from
percussion
notes, including notation
instruments
playing them on
individually and in
various rhythm
unison with others
instruments`

-Clapping repeated
rhythm patterns or
ostinati in familiar
songs

-Performing
accompaniments
on pitched or
nonpitched
percussion
instruments using
a steady beat

21
-Selecting
Play in
appropriate
combination with
classroom
Expression each other
instruments to
(Example:
create musical
ensemble)
accompaniments

-Perform rhythmic
ostinati while
others are singing
a melody.

-Express musical
ideas using body
percussion and
classroom
instruments

-Perform melodic
-Perform simple
patterns and songs
melodies on
Melody in 2/4, !, 4/4, and
pitched
6/8 meter
instruments.
signatures

Examples: -Perform simple


recorders and melodies on
barred instruments recorders

-Playing melodic
ostinati

22
Improvise eight- -Improvise eight- -Improvise eight-
National Standard beat melodies beat melodies beat melodies
Improvise four- Improvising on
#3- Improvising using “la,” “so,” using “sol,” “mi,” using “la,” “sol,”
beat melodies barred instruments
melodies, Melody “mi,” “re,” “do,” and “la,” “re,” and “do” “mi,” “re,” and “do”
using “la,” “sol,” on a pentatonic
variations, and quarter-note and with half notes, with a variety of
and “mi.” scale
accompaniments. eighth note quarter rests, and rhythms and
rhythms. syncopation. phrases.

-Improvise
pentatonic
Example:
-Improvise melodies using a
Improvising on -Improvise
answers to given variety of sound
barred instruments melodies using
rhythmic and sources including
on a pentatonic various scales
melodic phrases recorder and
scale
pitched
percussion.

-Improvise -Improvise
-Improvise simple pentatonic melodies in a
melodies based on melodies using a major diatonic
the pentatonic variety of sound scale by singing or
scale sources, including using a pitched
electronic sources. instrument.

Improvising a
Improvise answers
response to a
to given rhythmic
Rhythm simple rhythmic
and melodic
pattern, i.e.
phrases
question-answer

23
Improvise
contrasting B and Improvise
C sections in extended phrases
Form
rondo form using in question/answer
sound and form
movement

Compose melodies
and
National Standard Compose
-Create and -Create and accompaniments
#4- Composing and introductions and
compose music compose music to songs, poems,
arranging music Melody codas for songs
within specified within specified stories, and
within specified and speech
guidelines. guidelines. dramatizations,
guidelines. pieces.
using AB, ABA,
and rondo forms.

-Create, notate,
-Compose melodic
and perform a
patterns
pentatonic melody

Create and
Compose melodic perform speech,
Rhythm
patterns movement, and
rhythm canons

Compose melodies
Create AB, ABA, and
ABACA, using accompaniments
speech, to songs, poems,
Form
instruments, stories, and
voices, and dramatizations,
movement using AB, ABA,
and rondo forms.

24
Compose, using
sound and
movement,
Accompaniment backgrounds or
settings for poems,
stories, songs, and
speech pieces.

Read notation
Recognize and Recognize and
National Standard Responding to using quarter
use standard use standard
#5- Reading and Rhythm iconic notation, notes, quarter
notation and notational symbols
notating music. i.e.read aloud rests, and paired
terms. and terms.
eighth notes.

Example: dotted
half note, single
Examples: repeat
eighth note, eighth
signs, accent, p, f,
rest, staccato,
whole, note, half
legato, musical
note, slurs, ties,
alphabet, fermata,
introduction, coda,
barline, measure,
D.C.
2/4, !, 4/4, pitch
names

Notate rhythms in
Meter 2/4,3/4, and 4/4
meter signatures

25
-Identify music
symbols found on
the staff, including -Identify whole and
-Identify by sight -Identify steps, Identify ledger-line
the treble clef, half steps of the
and sound the leaps, and notes C and B
Notation meter signatures, major diatonic
difference between repeated notes in below the treble
bar lines, scale in printed
a note and a rest. printed music. staff.
measures, double music.
bar line, and
repeat signs.

-Identify the
-Identify notes as -Identify letter musical alphabet -Identify intervals
being line note or names of lines and ascending on lines of the diatonic
space note on a spaces on the and spaces from scale in printed
musical staff. treble clef staff. middle C to G music
above the staff.

Example: naming
-Identify so, mi, the spaces on a
and la on the staff blank treble clef
staff
-Identify melodic
direction on the
musical staff.

Examples: upward,
downward, same

Defining terms
associated with
printed music,
-Identify musical Recognize and
Expression including fermata,
symbols and terms label phrases.
slur, legato,
staccato, and da
capo (D.C.)

26
Identify music
-Identify similarities -Identify music
terms related to
and differences in terms related to
National Standard dynamics in music, -Identifying tempo
familiar songs, Identify musical tempo changes in
#6- Listening to, including fortissimo markings such as
Expression including fast or phrases in a song music, including
analyzing, and (ff), mezzoforte allegro, presto,
slow, loud or soft, presented aurally. accelerando,
describing music. (mf), mezzopiano largo, and andante
short and long, ritardando and
(mp), and
and high and low fermata
pianissimo (pp).

-Identify dynamic
markings of forte
-Recognizing the
Example: (f), piano (p),
Example: Twinkle, difference between
comparing a march crescendo (cresc.
Twinkle, Little Star” major and minor
to a lullaby and <), and
tonality
decrescendo
(decresc. and >).

-Identify like and


-Demonstrate
unlike phrases -Identify long and
appropriate use of
presented aurally short musical
legato and
in a piece of sounds.
staccato in a song.
music.

-Distinguish
-Differentiate high between low and
and low vocal high sounds
sounds through produced by
vocal exploration. voices or
instruments.

Examples: low
Example:
pitch- kettle drum,
producing aurally
man's voices; high
the sounds of a
pitch- triangle,
bird and a cow
woman's voice

27
-Identify ABA and
Identify AB and Identify ABC form Identify theme and
verse/refrain form
Form ABA form in a in musical variations in
in a musical
musical selection. selections. musical selections.
selection.

Examples: creating
pictures that use
shapes to illustrate
patterns,
comparing musical
forms to visual arts

-Identify the
difference between
a verse and a
refrain in a familiar
musical selection.

-Identify melodic
sequences in a
melody.

Example: motif
from first
movement of
Ludwig von
Beethoven’s
Symphony No. 5

28
-Identify duple Recognize
meter as strong- -Recognize conducting
Identify sets of two weak beat conductor cues in patterns of two-
Meter
and three beats. organization and 2/4 and 4/4 meter four, three-four,
triple meter as signatures. and four-four meter
strong weak, weak signatures.

-Identify meter
-One sound per
according to strong
beat, two sounds
and weak beat
per beat, no sound
organization.

Examples: strong,
weak 2/4; strong,
weak, weak, weak
4/4

Classify rhythm
Identify various instruments by
Identify the four
rhythm and method of tone Classify orchestral
families of
Instruments orchestral production, instruments by
instruments in an
instruments by including striking, family
orchestra.
sight. shaking, scraping,
and ringing.

Identifying and
classifying
Examples: drums,
individual
piano, trumpet
instruments by
sight.

29
Develop
Distinguish
-Identify solo or awareness of tone Identifying Recognize vocal
between various
group color categories: individual timbre as soprano,
Timbre vocal and
performances by woods, metals, instruments by alto, tenor, or
instrumental
sound. shakers, scrapers, sound (timbre) bass.
timbres.
and skins

-Recognize Example: male


differences and female voices,
between adult and simple classroom
children’s voices. instruments.

-Demonstrate
singing, speaking,
whispering, and
calling voices.

Example: singing
and reciting the
alphabet

-Identify various
rhythm and
orchestral
instruments by
sound.

Examples: drums,
piano, trumpet

30
Identify the
Identify the seven
number of lines
Staff letters of the
and spaces on the
musical alphabet.
treble clef staff.

Devise and
implement criteria Explain personal
National Standard for evaluating preferences for
#7- Evaluating performances specific musical
music and music using works and styles
performances. developmentally using appropriate
appropriate music terminology.
musical terms.

-Compare in two or
National Standard more arts how the
#8- Understanding characteristic
relationships -Describe how materials of each
between music, the vibrations produce art can be used to
other arts, and musical sounds. transform similar
disciplines outside events, scenes,
the arts. emotions, or ideas
into works of art.

-Describe ways in
which the
principles and
-Identify ways that
subject matter of
music is related to
other disciplines
other subject
taught in the
matter
school are
interrelated with
those of music.

31
National Standard
Recognize styles
#9- Understanding -Identify eras of
History of twentieth-
music in relation to music.
century music
history and culture.

Examples:
Baroque,
Example: jazz,
Classical,
pop, country, folk
Romantic,
contemporary

-Identifying
composers of each
era of music

Demonstrate
Describe in simple perceptual skills by
Identify by sound
terms how moving, by
and describe roles
elements of music answering
of musicians and
are used in music questions, and by
Culture the elements of
examples from describing aural
music in various
various cultures of examples of music
music settings and
the world and of various styles
cultures.
historical periods. representing
diverse cultures.

32
Recognize holiday
songs and simple
songs from the Identify American
Songs
United States and patriotic songs.
other cultures and
countries.

Examples: United
States "America,"
Examples: “Star
Holiday- "Jingle
Spangled Banner,”
Bells," other
“America,” “God
cultures and
Bless America”
countries- "Frere
Jacques"

Demonstrate
appropriate
Performance
audience and
Behavior
performance
behavior.

Acquire and Use creative Practice patterned


Performing folk
develop a movement to locomotor Perform creative
dances Express musical
repertoire of non- express the mood, movements in movements while
Movement appropriate for age ideas using
locomotor and dynamics and singing games; exploring concepts
level to music from creative movement
locomotor tempo of musical circle, line, and folk of space.
various cultures
movements. selections. dances.

Examples: Demonstrate
skipping happily, Example: Chinese melodic contour
tiptoeing when ribbon dance through creative
scared movement.

Example: using
gestures or
drawings to
indicate upward
and downward
direction of melody

33
Rhythm Scope and Sequence

K 1 2 3 4 5
Steady Beat
Long and short
sounds
Longer/shorter
One and two
sounds per beat
Silent beat
Simple rhythm
Beat / Rhythm
patterns
Duple meter
Sets of two and 6/8 meter signature;
(strong, weak) / 2/4 and 3/4 meter
three beats (strong 4/4 meter signature experience meter in
triple meter (strong, signatures
beat/ weak beat) 5/4
weak, weak)
Recognize
Recognize
conductor cues in
conductor cues in
2/4 and 4/4 meter
3/4 meter signature
signatures
Identify by sight and
sound the
Sound/silence
difference between
a note and a rest .
Combinations
Tie: Two tied Combinations Combinations
Combinations Identify and label including all
quarter including all including all
including quarter notes as quarter previous notes and
notes/rests=half previous notes and previous notes and
note, paired eighth notes, paired eighth sixteenth notes,
note/rest, two half sixteenth note dotted eighth and
notes and quarter notes, quarter rests dotted half notes,
notes/rests=whole combinations and sixteenth note
rests and half notes half rests and
note/rest dotted half note combinations
simple syncoptaion
Ostinati by rote and
Ostinato
notation
Identify bar lines,
measures, double
bar lines, repeat
signs

34
Melody Scope and Sequence

K 1 2 3 4 5
High/low

Higher/Lower
Identify melodic
direction on the
Upward/Downward musical staff:
Upward, downward,
and the same
Identify notes so, mi
and la on the staff

Low to high

High to low

Do and La centered
Pentatonic, major Perception of home
So, mi, la pentatonic
and minor songs tone or tonal center
(major/minor)
Melodic patterns Melodic patterns
Melodic patterns using: la, so, mi,re, using: ti, la, so, fa,
Melodic patterns using: la, so, mi,re, do, High do, Low la mi,re, do, High do,
Same and different
using: la, so, mi, do do ending on home and Low so, ending Low la and Low so,
tone or tonal center on home tone or ending on home
tonal center tone or tonal center
Melodic contour
Identify the musical
Identify the seven Line note or space alphabet ascending Ledger-line notes C
letters of the note on a musical on lines and spaces and B below the
musical alphabet staff from middle C to G treble staff
above the staff
Steps, skips and Steps, leaps and Intervals, unison
repeated pitches repeated pitches and octave
Simple melodic Whole and half
ostinati and drones steps

35
Texture and Harmony Scope and Sequence

K 1 2 3 4 5

One sound/more
than one sound

Accompaniment/ no
accompaniment

Thick/thin Rounds

Ostinato Partner songs

Bordun

Major/minor

Chord changes
Chord changes
including I-V7, I-IV-
including I-V7
V

2-part singing

Chord, intervals,
root

36
Timbre Scope and Sequence
K 1 2 3 4 5
Speak, sing, shout,
Vocal production
whisper

Solo/group A Capella singing

Child and adult Individual: Male, Individual: Soprano,


voices female, child Alto, Tenor, Bass

Group: small and


Body percussion large vocal
ensembles

Scrapers, Shakers, Strings, Percussion,


Unpitched
Woods, Metals and Woodwinds and Keyboards
percussion
Skins Brass

Pitched percussion

All previous
Flute, trumpet, instruments
snare drum, guitar, including: trombone,
piano violin, timpani,and
clarinet

Group: Concert
Group: Large and
Band and
small instrumental
Symphony
ensembles
Orchestra
Nature and Instrumentation
Environmental from diverse
sounds cultures
Synthesized sounds

37
Form Scope and Sequence

K 1 2 3 4 5

Like/unlike
phrases

Echo

Phrase forms
Phrase forms ab
ab, aba, aaba,
and aba
and aabb

Introduction and Introduction and


Introduction Solo/chorus
coda coda

Same and
different Cumulative song
sections
D.C. al fine
(ABA)

Verse/Refrain: First and second


AB ending

Section forms
Section forms including AB,
Theme and
including AB and ABA, AABA,
variations
ABA ABC and
ABACA (rondo)

38
Expression Scope and Sequence
K 1 2 3 4 5

All previous
Dynamics and
dynamic markings
dynamic markings
and: sudden
Loud / Soft including p, f,
changes (subito, p,
crescendo and
f), mezzo (mp, mf),
decrescendo
pp, ff
Getting louder / Sudden changes in
Dynamic contrasts
Getting softer dynamics
Dynamics as an
expressive choice
Tempo markings
Tempo markings
including Tempo markings Tempo markings
including allegro,
Fast / Slow accelerando, including presto, including allegretto,
moderato, and
ritardando, and andante and subito lento, and largo
adagio
fermata

Getting faster / Tempo as an Sudden changes in


Getting slower expressive choice tempo

Appropriateness of
Changes in tempo
tempo choices

Articulations and Articulations and


articulation articulation
Legato markings including markings including
legato, staccato, various slurs and
and accents marcato

Articulation as an
Staccato Phrasing
expressive choice

Variety of moods

39
Kindergarten Suggested Timeline
New Concepts Listed in Red
First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks
Rhythm sing, speak, and move with play unpitched instruments to respond to iconic notation with play pitched instruments to the
locomotor and non-locomotor the steady beat while speaking steady beat steady beat while speaking
movement to the steady beat and singing and singing using proper
with a variety of recorded mallet technique
music, rhymes, chants,
fingerplays, and circle games
experience sound versus demonstrate and identify demonstrate and identify one
silence long/short, longer/shorter and two sounds per beat and
sounds silent beat with iconic notation
echo, play, and move to simple
rhythm patterns including
quarter notes, paired eighth
notes and quarter rests
identify sets of 2 and 3 beats
Melody experience and identify sounds experience and identify upward
as high/low, higher/lower and downward melodic contour
while following iconic notation
sing and memorize songs from sing and memorize a varied
a varied repertoire using repertoire of patriotic and
appropriate head voice in a holiday songs using
limited range using good appropriate head voice in a
posture and diction limited range using good
posture and diction
sing melodies using so and mi sing melodies with so, mi, & la improvise four-beat melodies
using so, mi, & la on barred
instruments in a pentatonic
identify the seven letters of the
musical alphabet
Form echo rhythmic and melodic
phrases with body percussion
and unpitched percussion
identify a song's introduction
identify same and different
phrases and sections

40
Tone Color demonstrate and identify
(Timbre) differences between singing,
speaking, calling, & whispering
voices
identify by sound the demonstrate and identify identify by sight and sound i.e.
differences between childrens' sounds from nature and the flute, trumpet, drum, guitar,
voices and adults' voices; solo environment and piano
and group; body percussion
sounds; unpitched percussion
create, using sound and
movement, backgrounds or
settings for poems, stories,
songs, and speech pieces
Texture & identify differences between identify thick or thin textures
Harmony one sound and more than one
sound; accompaniment and no
accompaniment
Expression demonstrate and identify
differences between loud/soft,
louder/softer
demonstrate and identify demonstrate and identify
differences between fast and changes in tempo including
slow getting faster and getting
slower
identify differences between a identify various moods in
march and a lullaby music
Other identify ways that music is
related to other subject matter
demonstrate appropriate
audience and performance
behavior
describe how vibrations make
musical sounds
experience music from a
variety of time periods and
cultures

41
First Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts Listed in Red

First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks
Rhythm sing, speak, and move with
locomotor and non-locomotor
movement to the steady beat
with a variety of recorded
music, rhymes, chants,
fingerplays, and circle games
recognize beat / no beat
respond to and notate rhythm identify by sight and sound
patterns the difference between a note
and a rest
play steady beat and rhythm
while speaking and singing
echo, play, and move to clap and move to a repeated
simple rhythm patterns rhythm pattern
including quarter notes,
paired eighth notes and
quarter rests
sing and read a song with
words and rhythm syllables
experience 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 read notation and sing a song move to show strong and
meters written in duple meter weak beats
Melody experience and identify leaps identify steps, skips, and
and upward and downward repeated pitches
melodic contour
play melody on pitched
percussion to show melodic
direction
read and sing so and mi from read and sing pitch patterns
iconic notation that include so, mi, and la on
the staff
show hand signs for so and experience mi, re, and do
mi
identify note as line or space identify the number of lines
on a treble staff and spaces on a treble staff

42
Form recognize the refrain section
of the song
perform locomotor and non-
locomotor movements to like
and different phrases in a call
and response song
play unpitched instruments to
show difference in call and
response
move to show ABA section identify ABA section form perform contrasting rhythms
form of a song to show the sections of a
song in ABA form
identify phrase forms ab and
aba
move to show verse and
refrain in a song
move to show introduction play and move to contrasting
and coda sections, introduction and
coda
perform contrasting rhythms
to show the sections of a
song in AB form
recognize and sing a
cumulative song
Tone Color demonstrate and identify
(Timbre) differences between singing,
speaking, calling, &
whispering voices
identify shakers, scrapers, play and identify shakers,
woods, metals, and skins by scrapers, woods, metals, and
sound skins by sound production
identify pitched percussion identify the different sounds
instruments by sound of various percussion
instruments
follow instruments featured in
a piece on a listening map
Texture & play a simple bordun using experience ostinato sing a song with a spoken or
Harmony proper mallet technique instrumental accompaniment

43
Expression demonstrate and identify demonstrate and identify
changes in tempo including changes in tempo including
getting faster and getting getting faster and getting
slower slower
move to show louder and
softer dynamics
sing and move to a song
incorporating legato and
staccato
Other describe how vibrations make
musical sounds
experience music from a
variety of time periods and
cultures

44
Second Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts Listed in Red

First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks
Rhythm read and play to quarter note, read and play to quarter note, read and play whole notes and
paired eighth notes, and quarter rest, and half note rests
quarter rest
recognize single eighth notes recognize two quarter practice writing rhythms and
notes/rests equal a half counting beats in measures
note/rest
echo, play, and move to simple
rhythm patterns including
quarter notes, paired eighth
notes and quarter rests
play and move to songs written
in duple meter
Melody read, sing, and notate pitch
patterns that include so, mi,
and la in different staff location
read and notate so, mi, and do identify, read, sing, and move
to mi, re, and do
read and sing re with hand notate and sight sing do, re,
signs mi, so, and la melodies
sing, play, and improvise do-
centered and la-centered
pentatonic songs
sing and play simple melodic
ostinato
compose melody on pitched
percussion to show melodic
direction
identify steps, skips, and
repeated pitches
identify note as line or space identify letter names of lines
and the number of lines and and spaces on the treble staff
spaces on a treble staff
Form sing and move to show
difference between call and
response

45
Form identify, sing, and move to a identify, sing, and move to a
(continued) song in aab phrase form song in aaba phrase form
identify verse-refrain as AB
section form
move to show A, B, and coda
sections in music
listen and identify D.C. al fine
in ABA form
experience rondo form
Tone Color identify vocal (male/female,
(Timbre) adult/child), instrumental, and
body percussion sounds
play with proper technique and identify the different sounds of identify and describe bowed, identify and describe
identify shakers, scrapers, various percussion instruments plucked, struck, and electronic woodwind and brass
woods, metals, and skins by string instrument by sight and instruments
sound production sound
experience instrumentation
from diverse cultures
Texture & identify thick or thin textures
Harmony
perform ostinato perform ostinato by rote and perform rhythmic and melodic
notation ostinati by rote and notation
play layered accompaniment
play bordun
Expression sing, move, and play loud and play, sing, and move to
soft crescendo and decrescendo
identify p and f perform fermata, p, and f
demonstrate and identify
changes in tempo including
accelerando and ritardando
move to show accented beats sing and move to legato and
staccato
identify American patriotic
songs
experience music from a
variety of time periods and
cultures

46
Third Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts in Red

First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks
Rhythm read and play quarter read and play dotted half note read and play sixteenth notes
notes/rests, paired and single (three quarter notes equal a
eighth notes/rests, half dotted half note)
notes/rests, and whole
notes/rests
perform rhythm patterns in an
accompaniment
read and play syncopated
rhythms
differentiate between beat
and rhythm
identify bar lines, measures,
double bar lines, and repeat
signs
play and move to songs play and move to songs
written in triple meter (strong, written in duple and triple
weak, weak) meter
recognize conductors cues in recognize conductors cues in
2/4 4/4
Melody identify and perform on mallet
instrument phrases that move
up, down, and repeat
sing songs from diverse
cultures
sing pentatonic songs compose eight-beat melody sing pentatonic songs with
in pentatonic scale pitched syllables and hand
signs
identify and sing low la and
low so
sing song following notation sing song following notation
on the treble staff using letter names B, A, and
G
identify and sing octave leap
low do to high do

47
Form identify and move to show identify, move, and play
AB/ verse-refrain form songs in AABA form
perform a piece in rondo form
sing, play, and move to show improvise question and
difference between call and answer rhyhmic and melodic
response phrases
listen and identify D.C. al fine create introduction and coda
and first and second ending
Tone Color sing using proper breathing
(Timbre) techniques, good tone
quality, and diction
identify string instruments by identify brass instruments by
sight and sound sight and sound
explore alternative ways for
playing pitched percussion,
i.e. xylophone, piano
Texture & sing and play rhythmic and experience harmony, i.e.
Harmony melodic ostinati ostinato, bordun
sing partner songs and
canons/ rounds
Expression sing and identify pp, p, mp, sing and play with play, sing, and move to
mf, f, ff appropriate dynamics crescendo and decrescendo
demonstrate and identify review terms for tempo i.e.
changes in tempo allegro, adagio
compare and move to legato
and staccato
experience music from a
variety of time periods and
cultures

48
Fourth Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts in Red

First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks
Rhythm move to show strong and perform and move to songs in recognize conductor cues in
weak beats triple meter 3/4 meter
perform rhythm patterns perform from notation quarter create a composition using
using quarter notes, quarter notes, paired eighth notes, familiar rhythm patterns
rests, paired eighth notes, and sixteenth notes
half notes, half rests,
sixteenth notes, dotted half
notes, and syncopated
rhythms
Melody place pitch syllables on the sing pentatonic song from read ledger line C and B
staff notation with pitch syllables below the treble staff
read and use hand signs to a sing and play short melodic sing and read from notation a
do, re, mi, so, la melody from patterns using ti song including do, re, mi, fa,
notation so, la, ti, do (diatonic)
show melodic contour identify melodic sequence
Form sing, play, and move to show
difference between call and
response
identify and perform phrases
marked with slurs
improvise question and
answer rhyhmic and melodic
phrases
identify and move to show AB determine and demonstrate create and perform a piece in experience theme and
verse-refrain form ABA form rondo form (ABACA) variations
Tone Color sing using proper breathing
(Timbre) techniques, good tone
quality, and diction
distinguish vocal tone colors, identify string instruments by identify and describe identify a variety of
i.e. soprano, alto, tenor, bass shape, sight, and sound percussion tone colors instrumental and vocal
ensembles i.e. concert band,
symphony orchesta, choir,
duet

49
Texture & play ostinato accompaniment play I, V accompaniment
Harmony
sing in harmony i.e. counter sing and move to
melody canons/rounds
listen and describe a
recorded song's texture
Expression sing and identify dynamics
and dynamic changes
move to show tempo and
tempo changes
sing and move to legato and identify and perform accents
staccato where appropriate
experience music from a
variety of time periods and
cultures

50
Fifth Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts in Red

First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks
Rhythm perform rhythm patterns
using quarter notes, quarter
rests, paired eighth notes,
half notes, half rests,
variations of sixteenth notes,
dotted half notes, and
syncopated rhythms
identify and practice 2/4, 3/4,
and 4/4 conducting patterns
play and move to songs experience 5/4 meter
written in 6/8 meter
identify, read, and play read from notation and
sixteenth note patterns i.e. ti- perform dotted-rhythm
tika, tika-ti patterns
Melody sing, identify, and play
pentatonic song from notation
with pitch syllables
play recorder
sing and read notation
including do, re, mi, fa, so, la
sing and play short melodic
patterns using low ti
recognize the difference identify whole and half steps sing and perform in minor
between low ti and do is a in a major diatonic scale in keys
half step printed music
Form recognize, sing, and move to
call and response form
sing song in AB verse-refrain perform pieces in ABA form create and perform piece in
form rondo form (ABACA)
Tone Color sing using proper breathing
(Timbre) techniques, good tone
quality, and diction
distinguish vocal tone colors, differentiate sounds in flute
i.e. soprano, alto, tenor, bass and recorder

51
Texture & discover how harmony is sing partner songs identify and perform three sing in two-part harmony
Harmony created by combining two part round
different melodies
identify major versus minor
tonality
recognize chord changes
including I, IV, and V
Expression sing using crescendo and identify and describe differentiate between slurs
decrescendo dynamics and articulation i.e. and ties
pp,p, mp,mf,f ff, legato,
staccato, crescendo,
decrescendo
experience music from a
variety of time periods and
cultures

52
Timeline at a Glance

Kindergarten
1st Nine Weeks 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks
one sound, two sounds,
Rhythm steady beat long/short
silence
Melody high/low upward/downward
Form echo same/different
Tone Color voice types
one sound/more than
Texture & one sound;
thick/thin
Harmony accompaniment/ no
accompaniment
Expression loud/soft fast/slow march/lullaby

First Grade
1st Nine Weeks 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks
Rhythm
q n Q!
$, @, #!
step, skip, repeated
Melody SM
pitches
SML
Form ab, aba AB, ABA
shakers, scrapers,
Tone Color pitched percussion
woods, metals, skins
Texture &
bordun
Harmony
Expression legato, staccato

Second Grade
1st Nine Weeks 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks
Rhythm
e E! h H! w W!
Melody SMD MRD DRMSL
Form aab aaba ABACA
Tone Color strings woodwind, brass
Texture &
ostinato
Harmony
Expression p, f «¬, º»

53
Third Grade
1st Nine Weeks 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks
Rhythm syncopation
d D! y!
beat/rhythm
Melody octave, low L, & low S
Form AABA
Tone Color
Texture &
partner songs, canons
Harmony
Expression pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff allegro, adagio

Fourth Grade
1st Nine Weeks 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks
Rhythm
Melody T DRMFSLTD
Form phrases with slurs theme and variations
Tone Color SATB ensembles
Texture &
counter melody I, V
Harmony
Expression

Fifth Grade
1st Nine Weeks 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks
Rhythm
m M! dotted rhythms
%!
P!
Melody recorder low T whole and half steps
Form
Tone Color
Texture &
major/minor three-part round
Harmony
I, IV, V
Expression slurs/ties

54
Glossary

A Cappella – Vocal music performed without Body percussion – Rhythmical use of snaps,
instrumental accompaniment. claps, pats, and stomps.
A tempo – Return to previous tempo. Bordun – A repeated open fifth pattern used
AB – Form of music that incorporates two to accompany music.
parts. Also referred to as binary or Brass Instruments – Instruments which are
verse-refrain form. made of a brass or silver tube and have
ABA – Three-part form in which the middle cupped mouthpieces, including
section is different from other sections. trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba and their
Also referred to as ternary form. families.
Accelerando – Grow gradually faster. Call and Response – A form of choral singing.
Accent ( >) – Placed above a note to indicate The call is sung by a leader. The
stress or emphasis. response is usually sung by a group.
Accidental – A sharp, flat, or natural placed Canon – Composition where the melody is
before a note, used to alter the pitch of sung or played at staggered times.
the note within a measure. Changed Voice – Adult singing voice.
Accompaniment – A part, usually played by Chord – Combination of two or more tones
one or more instruments, that supports simultaneously.
a main melody. Chord Progression – A series of chords used
Adagio – Indicating a slow tempo. to harmonize a song or piece of music.
Aesthetics – A philosophy dealing with the Chromatic – Moving by half steps.
nature and expression of beauty, as in Classroom instruments – Instruments typically
the fine arts. used in the general music classroom.
Allegro – Indicating a fast, running tempo. For example, percussion instruments,
Alto – Low treble voice. recorders, keyboards.
Andante – Indicating a moderate tempo. Clef – Symbol placed at the beginning of the
staff to indicate the pitch of the notes
Arrangement – An adaptation of a piece of
on the staff. The most commonly used
music for a medium different from that
clefs in choral music are the G, or
for which it was originally composed.
Arranger – A person who makes decisions treble clef (G) and the F, or bass clef
about how style, instrumentation, (?).
tempo, harmony, and dynamics can be
changed in a piece of music. Coda – An added ending to a composition.
Articulation – In performance, the Compose – To write music.
characteristics of attack and release of Conductor - The leader of a musical ensemble
tones and the manner and extent to who indicates through gestures or
which tones in sequence are connected conducting patterns how the music
or disconnected. should be interpreted by the musicians.
Balance – An appropriate arrangement of Countermelody – A different melody that is
musical elements and sections. played or sung at the same time as the
Ballad – Song, usually slow, which tells a main melody.
story. Crescendo ( «¬) – Gradually louder.
Bar line – Vertical line placed on the staff to
separate sets of beats into measures. Cut Time (!!or C) – A meter signature in which
Bass – Lowest singing voice or instrumental there are two beats in a measure and a
range. half note one beat.
Beat – Pulse of the music. Da capo, D. C. – Return to the beginning.
Blend – Quality of sound that gives an Da capo, al fine – Return to the beginning and
ensemble its own distinctive sound. continue until the end is indicated.

55
Decrescendo ( º») – Grow gradually softer; Head tone – The upper register of a voice
because the sound seems to vibrate in
synonymous with diminuendo. the head of the singer; a flute-like
Descant – Countermelody, usually above the quality in a young child.
principal melody, to be sung by a few Improvise – Art of playing or inventing music
voices. that has not already been composed.
Diaphragm – Muscular area that separates Interval – Distance between two pitches.
the chest cavity and the abdomen; an
Intonation – Degree to which pitch is
important muscle in the inhalation-
accurately produced in performance,
exhalation cycle.
particularly among the players in an
Diatonic – The notes in a major or minor ensemble.
scale.
Introduction – Music that is played before the
Diction – Degree of clarity and distinctness of words are sung or the actual piece
pronunciation in singing. begins.
Diminuendo – Decrescendo Key signature – Indication of sharps or flats to
Double bar – A pair of bar lines, one thick be played or sung.
and one thin, used to mark the end of Largo – Indicating a very slow tempo.
the song.
Ledger Line – An added short line to indicate
Downbeat – The strong beat. pitch above or below the staff
Duration – The length of time per note. Legato – Smooth and connected.
Dotted Note – A dot to the right of a note head Literature – A musical composition.
adds one half the length of the note.
Major scale – An arrangement of 8 tones
Dynamics – Varying degrees of loud and soft. ascending in the following pattern of
Elements of music – Basic units that on their steps or intervals: whole, whole, half,
own or when combined make up music, whole, whole, whole, half.
including Expression, Form, Harmony, Mallet Technique – Control of the mallets to
Melody, Rhythm, Texture and Timbre. produce characteristic musical tones on
Expression, expressive, expressively – barred instruments.
Appropriate articulation, phrasing, style, Measure – Group of beats containing a
and interpretation and appropriate primary accent and one or more
variations of dynamics and tempo. secondary accents, indicated by the
Fermata – The note of a composition as long placement of bar lines on the staff.
as the conductor allows. Melodic contour – The shape of the melody,
Fine – The end of a piece of music. moving higher, lower, or staying the
same.
b
Flat ( ) – Symbol that lowers the pitch of a Melody – In general, a succession of musical
note one-half step. tones; represents the linear or
Folk song – A song that has been preserved horizontal aspect of music.
by oral tradition. Meter – Systematically arranged and
Form – Design or structure of a musical measured rhythmic pulses or beats
composition. indicated by a meter signature at the
Forte ( f ) – Loud. beginning of a work.
Fortissimo ( ff ) – Very loud. Meter signature – Numbers placed at the
Genre – Type or category of music such as beginning of a composition to indicate
sonata, opera, art song, gospel, work the meter of the music; the upper
song, lullaby, spiritual, jazz, or march. number indicates the beats in a
measure; the lower number tells which
Half step – The interval between two adjacent kind of note receives one beat.
pitches.
Mezzo – Moderately
Harmony – Sounding of two or more tones
simultaneously; the vertical aspect of Mezzo forte ( mf ) – Medium loud.
music. Mezzo piano ( mp ) – Medium soft.

56
MIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) – Range – The scope of notes that an
Standard specifications that enable instrument or a voice can produce.
electronic instruments, such as the Also, the scope of a composition, from
synthesizer, sampler, sequencer, and the lowest note to the highest.
drum to communicate with one another Recorder – Straight end-blown flute, as
and with computers. opposed to side-blown or concert flute.
Minor – Designation for certain intervals and Notes can be played by opening or
scales; a key based on a minor scale closing eight holes in the instrument
nd
(La-based with half steps between 2 with the fingers.
rd, th th
and 3 and 6 and 7 ) is called a Refrain – The song part that is sung the same
minor key. way every time when a song has two or
Moderato – At a moderate pace. more verses.
Natural – Musical symbol that cancels a Repeat Sign ( } ) – Repetition of a section or
previous sharp or flat.
a composition as indicated two vertical
Nonpitched – Containing no pitch; usually
dots to the left of a double bar.
describes instruments such as
tambourines, triangles, or claves; also Rest – Symbol used to denote silence in
referred to as unpitched. music.
Notation – Term for a system of expressing Rhythm – Term that denotes the organization
musical sounds through the use of of sound in time; the temporal quality of
written characters called notes. sound.
Note Values – See duration. Ritardando (Rit.) – Slowing down.
Octave – Eighth tone above a given pitch. Rondo – Form of music that incorporates a
Orchestra – Group of instruments that recurring theme (as in ABACA).
includes brass, woodwind, string, and Scale – Succession of tones. The scale
percussion sections. generally used in Western music is the
Ostinato – Repeated melodic or rhythmic diatonic scale, consisting of whole and
pattern. half steps in a specific order.
Ostinati – More than one ostinato pattern Sforzando – Loud or accented, then
immediately softer.
Partner Song – Two or more different songs
that can be sung at the same time to Sharp (B)– Symbol that raises the pitch of a
create harmony. note one-half step.
Pentatonic scale – A scale composed of five Skip – Intervallic movement from one pitch to
notes in an octave typically consisting another, skipping the pitches in
of do, re, mi, sol, and la. between.
Percussion Instruments – Instruments that are Slur – A curved line indicating need to
sounded by striking, shaking, plucking, connect notes smoothly, legato.
or scraping.
Silent Beat – A rest.
Periods of Music – Historical periods of
Solfège – Vocal exercise sung on vowels or
musical styles including Baroque
syllables. The practice of singing using
(1600-1750), Classical (1750-1820),
syllables, do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, and
Romantic (1820-1900), and
their association with specific pitches,
Contemporary (1900-present). See
especially in regard to the indication of
appendix.
intervals.
Phrase – Relatively short portion of a melodic
Solo – Singing or playing alone.
line that expresses a musical idea,
comparable to a line or sentence in Soprano – Highest singing voice or
poetry. instrumental range.
Pianissimo (pp) – Very soft. Spiritual – Type of religious folk song or hymn
developed by Americans in the
Piano (p) – Soft.
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Pitch – Vibrations in sound.
Staccato – Short and separated
Rallentando – Gradual slowing.

57
Staff – Horizontal lines (usually five) used to Triple meter – Meter based on three beats, or
notate pitches. a multiple of three, in a measure.
Step – Intervallic movement by whole step. Triplet – Group of three notes performed in
String Instruments – Any musical instrument the time of two of the same kind.
that produces sound by means of Unison – Singing or playing the same notes
vibrating strings. by all singers or players, either at
Style – Distinctive or characteristic manner in exactly the same pitch or in a different
which the elements of music are octave.
treated including country, gospel, jazz, Upbeat – One or more notes before the first
pop, rock, and swing. See appendix. strong beat of a phrase.
Subito – Suddenly. Unpitched – Containing no pitch; usually
Syncopation – Accent on the weak beat. describes instruments such as
Technique – Ability to perform with tambourines, triangles, or claves; also
appropriate timbre, intonation and referred to as unpitched.
diction; to play or sing the correct Verse – Words and music that make up the
pitches and rhythms. body of a song and that may alternate
Tempo – Rate of speed in a musical work. with the refrain.
Texture – Term used to describe the way in Verse-Refrain Form – A song in which the
which melodic lines are combined words of the verse change following
either with or without accompaniment. each repetition of the refrain; the verse
Types include monophonic, and refrain usually have different
homophonic, polyphonic, and melodies. Also referred to as AB or
contrapuntal. binary form.
Tenor – Singing voice or instrumental range Vocal technique – Control of the voice and
between alto and baritone. vocal sounds; method of producing and
Tie – A curved line drawn over or under the phrasing notes with the voice.
heads of two notes of the same pitch Whole step – Pitch interval made by two half
indicating that there should be no break steps.
between them but they should be Woodwind Instruments – Instruments that are
played as a single note. made of wood and sounded by means
Timbre – Characteristic quality of a voice or of air. All utilize reeds except for the
instrument. flute family. Single reed instruments
Tonal Center – The home tone of a song. include the clarinet and saxophone
families. The double reed instruments
Tonality – Term used to describe the
include the oboe family.
organization of the melodic and
harmonic elements; a feeling that one
pitch, the tonic, is the pulling force or
center.

Bibliography

Alabama Course of Study: Arts Education. Montgomery, Alabama: Alabama Department of Education, 2006.

Beethoven, J., Brumfield, S., Campbell, P. S., Connors, D. N., Duke, R. A., Jellison, J. A., et al. (2005) Silver-
Burdett: Making Music. Glenview, Illinois: Pearson/Scott Foresman.

Bond, J., Boyer-White, R., Campbell-duGard, M., Davidson, M. C., de Frece, R., Goetze, M., el al. (1998).
Share the Music. New York, New York: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill.

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2007). Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary.
Retrieved June 6, 2007, from http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary.

58
Music History Overview

Renaissance Baroque Classical Romantic Contemporary


(Pre 1600) (1600-1750) (1750-1825) (1825-1900) (1900- )

Melody graceful arching motivic, ornamented, singable, symmetrical, tuneful, overly large leaps, highly
contours, singable elaborate antecedent/consequent emotional, longer dissonant intervals, de-
phrases, highly emphasized, not
chromatic, expanded singable
ranges
Harmony modes major/minor tonalities major/minor tonalities, more dissonance, more weakening traditional
are used more than strong cadences, frequent modulations, harmonies, random
modes, basso continuo modulations are more high chromaticism, harmonies in serialism,
common, Alberti bass, dense harmonies, lush microtonal intervals
definite beginning, orchestrations,
middle, and end weakened sense of
beginning, middle, and
end, harmony
enhances expression

Rhythm simple very metrical, first use more flexible, less more frequent changes polyrhythmic, loss of
of bar lines and time predictable in meter, fermata rhythmic structure,
signatures frequent meter changes

Texture monophony (chants, polyphonic from homophonic homophonic homophonic in pop


plainsong), counterpoint music, polyphonic in art
polyphony (motets), music
homophony
(chanson)
Dynamics no markings terraced dynamics graduated dynamics wider range (pppp, ffff) wider range, frequent
because music was changes
hand copied
Tempo free some markings rubato, invention of the more frequent changes frequent tempo
metronome, first use of in tempo changes
metronome markings

59
Composers DuFay, Hildegard, Bach, Handel Haydn, Mozart, Berlioz, Brahms, Copland, Orff,
Palestrina Beethoven Dvorak, Tchaikovsky, Debussy, Gershwin,
Strauss, Schubert, Cage, Babbitt
Schumann, Chopin,
Mahler, Liszt
Culture patronage of music, upper class rule, Age of Age of Enlightenment, fascination with nature, widening gap between
increased interest in Great Contrasts, rise of the middle class the macabre, Gothic, art music and pop
exploration composers had to and supernatural, mass music
produce large printing
quantities of music in a
short period of time

Vocal mass (Kyrie, Gloria, opera, oratoria, cantata, opera, oratorio, opera (Wagner, vocal slides, large
Credo, Sanctus, passion, mass passion, mass Rossini, Verdi), lied ranges, uncommon
Agnus Dei) (Schubert, Schumann), dissonances,
mass, song cycle nontraditional
vocalizations
Instrumental dances, sonata harpsichord, concerto piano, small orchestra large orchestra, electronic instruments
grosso, suite, fugue (strings, woodwinds, programatic music
some brass), sonata, (idée fixe), nationalism,
symphony, concerto, symphony, piano works
string quartet

Other intellectual, structured emotional, natural, form expression shaped serial music places
shaped expression form, virtuoso much demand on the
performers musicians,
impressionists,
neoclassicists,
serialists, aleatoric

60
World Music Overview

Continent Melody Harmony Rhythm Instruments Vocal Function


djembe, mbira,
middle voice, call integrated into
not as important as talking drum, musical
polyrhythmic, each and response, songs everyday life, music
pentatonic, tritonic, melody, important in bow, harp, lute, log
drum plays one inflected like spoken for all occasions and
Africa heptatonic, Western S. African choral drum, shekere, metal
rhythm repeatedly, word, songs teach events,
intervals music, polyphonic bells, xylophones,
highly accented traditions, ululation, communication,
texture instruments are
unison secular and sacred
vehicles of speech

early music meant to


purify one's thoughts,
based on pentatonic opera - main male
qin (most important sound influenced the
or heptatonic scale, sings baritone,
drones on zithers, solo instrument), harmony of the
pure tones, each secondary male sang
Asia/China melody more duple meters flute, sheng (mouth universe, separation
tone has a mystical falsetto, heroines
important organ), metal of vocal and
significance, music sang with high nasal
percussion, gongs instrumental, art
rooted in melody quality
music most
appreciated
same scales,
evolved into middle separation of vocal
melodic contour not koto (most important
melody more range, some and instrumental, art
Asia/Japan as important, duple meters solo instrument,
important improvisation on music most
heterophony, shakuhachi (flute)
melody appreciated
microtones

gamelan is
five-tone or seven- Bali - outdoor
considered one
tone scale, not tuned heterophony religious ceremonies
duple or quadruple instrument, all tuned vocal music tends to
to Western intervals, produced by to inspire trances,
Asia/Indonesia divisions, 4th beat to one scale, be highly
melody broken elaborations of Java - royal court
most important metallophones, ornamented
between instruments, melody music, music not
gongs, 30-40
little improvisation notated
instruments

61
Continent Melody Harmony Rhythm Instruments Vocal Function
talas - rhythmic
sitar (plays melody, 7
ragas - sequence of cycles of a fixed music intimately
strings, 13
pitches related to number of beats connected to spiritual
sympathetic strings),
certain time of day or grouped together in word, music reflects
drone of tonic, fifth, tabla (right hand singer improvises on
Asia/India night, mood, deity, an orderly inherent order of the
and octave drum), banya (left raga
event, or sex, 7 basic arrangement, players universe, ragas and
hand drum), tambura
tones that represent free to improvise, talas are memorized,
(4-6 strings, plays
a mood three tempos - solo, very intense training
drone)
moderate, fast

didgeridoo (made
from limbs or trees
hollowed out by originally a sacred
breathing creates termites, circular instrument used in
overblowing creates
Australia rhythm, tongue taps breathing produces tribal rituals, only
harmonics
on mouthpiece constant drone as played by males,
player hums or gaining secular use
vocalizes, beeswax
mouthpiece)

khoomii sung by pastoral music


Asia/Russia one person sings 2-4 males, also found in connected with
imitates the sounds
(throat pitches by singing the singing of the animism, the belief
of nature
singing) overtones women in the Xhosa that natural objects
tribe in South Africa have souls
balalaika (developed
from the dombra of
Siberia, triangular
body, small sound traditional dance
folk melodies, hole, long narrow music, played along
Asia/Russia
religious chants neck, 3 strings, 6 to accompany songs
sizes from piccolo to and dance
contrabass,
organized into
orchestras

62
Continent Melody Harmony Rhythm Instruments Vocal Function
melody, rhythm, and
bodhran (goatskin
harmony closely oral folk tradition,
Europe/Ireland drum), fiddle, tin
resemble music of music for dancing
whistle, accordion
western Europe
melody, rhythm, and
bagpipe (originally
Europe/ harmony closely jigs, reels, marches,
came from Egypt),
Scotland resemble music of retreats
fiddle, harp
western Europe
klezmer band
combines wind and
harmonic minor religious, transmit performed for social
Europe/ steady duple meter, string instruments,
scale, augmented chordal harmony history, melismatic, occasions, religious
Eastern heavily accented clarinet, saxophone,
2nd nasal ululations prayer
accordion, drum,
shofar
intervallic leaps, 4th,
Europe/
6th, and 7th most rapid alternation of communication in
Switzerland, major scale oriented regular beat
common, 2-6 registers, legato mountain areas
Austria
sections
South celebrations, dance
Portuguese heritage, African origin, guitar, cuica, guiro,
America/ European heritage Iberian polyphony music, Carnaval,
European modes polyrhythmic cabasa, drums
Brazil (folk) samba
Central
flutes, maracas, dance, festivals,
America/ text is important high pitched
drums, slit drums drama, poetry
Mexico (folk)
Central
America/ European models, guitars, bass guitar,
European heritage triple rhythms entertainment
Mexico text in couplets 2 trumpets
(mariachi)

Trinidad/ call and response conga drum, combining cultures


polyrhythms primarily vocal music
Tobago (folk) from Africa calabash, rattle and religions
Trinidad/ call and response,
duple meter,
Tobago short phrases, major scale oriented steel drum bands primarily male social criticism, satire
syncopation
(calypso) European

63
Continent Melody Harmony Rhythm Instruments Vocal Function
vocals, piano, bass,
trumpet, trombone,
saxophone, bongos, based on Cuban
simple 4-bar or 8-bar West African rhythms
Cuba/Puerto European derived, conga drums, dance styles and
progressions of interlocking with
Rico (salsa) improvisations timbales, claves, elements of jazz and
primary chords rhythmic ostinati
cymbals, cowbell, rock
maracas, woodblock,
guiro

North 12-bar blues form


America/ European using pattern of duple meters rhythm section solo self-expression
Blues primary chords
North
European, 3 or 4 duple meter, listening
America/ European heritage piano
sections syncopation entertainment
USA/Ragtime

entertainment at
Dixieland band
weddings, funerals,
North European phrases, (trumpet, trombone,
political rallies, night
America/ USA/ call and response, European heritage syncopation tuba, clarinet, piano,
clubs, originated in
Dixieland group improvisation string bass, banjo,
red light district of
drum set
New Orleans

big band (4
melody played by saxophones, 4
North
one section of band, trumpets, rhythm
America/ European heritage less syncopated dancing and listening
one person section - piano,
USA/Swing
improvises at a time drums, string bass,
guitar)
small combo, lead
North melody obscured by instrument
listening to virtuosic
America/ USA/ rapid scalar European heritage syncopation (saxophone or
performances
Bebop improvisation trumpet), rhythm
section

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Suggested Inventory of Instruments

Barred Instruments

Soprano Glockenspiel Soprano Metallophone


Alto Glockenspiel Alto Metallophone
Soprano Xylophone Bass Metallophone
Alto Xylophone Bass Bars
Bass Xylophone

Auxiliary Instruments

African Pods Music Stand


Agogo Bells Ocean Drum
Autoharp Piano
Bass Drum Piccolo Temple Blocks
Bell Tree Pow Wow Drum
Bird Call Rain Stick
Bongos Ratchet
Cabasa Rhythm Sticks
Castanets Sand Blocks
Claves Shaekere
Congas/Tubanos Slapstick
Cowbell Slide Whistle
Cricket Call Snare Drum
Djembe Sound Shapes
Egg Shakers Spoons
Finger Cymbals Stir Xylophone
Flexatone Suspended Cymbal
Gankogui Tambourine
Goat Hoof Rattle Temple Blocks
Gong Thunder Sheet
Guiro Thunder Tube
Hand Drums Timpani
Jingle Bells Tone Blocks
Kalimba Train Whistle
Keyboard Triangles
Kokoriko Vibraslap
Log Drum Washboard
Maracas Wind Chimes
Mini Steel Drum Wood Blocks

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Suggested Curriculum Resources

Title Description Author/Artist


120 Singing Games and Dances Book Choksy, Brummitt
150 American Folk Songs Book Ed. by Peter Erdel
150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching Book Bolkovac and Johnson
2nd Rhyme Around Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
3rd Rhymes the Charm Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
All About Bongos Book & CD Kalani
All About Congas Book & CD Kalani
All About Jembe Book & CD Kalani
Amazing Jamnasium Book/CD-ROM & CD Kalani
Any Jig or Reel CD Davis, Amidons, Brass
As American As Apple Pie Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Assessing the Developing Child Musician Book Tim Brophy
Bach's Fight for Freedom DVD
Backwoods Heritage Book/CD/DVD Martha Riley
Beethoven Lives Upstairs DVD
Beginning Folk Dances Videos 1-5 Phyllis S. Weikart
Bizet's Dream DVD
Bought Me A Cat 2 Book/CD Jill Trinka
Changing Directions CDs (6) Phyllis S. Weikart
Chimes of Dunkirk Book/CD Davis, Amidons, Brass
Chimes of Dunkirk: Teaching Dance DVD Davis, Amidons, Brass
Classroom Instrument Bingo Game Harper
Come Join In! Book Elizabeth Gilpatrick
Conga Town Book Jim Solomon
D.R.U.M. Book Jim Solomon
Discovering Orff Book Jane Frazee
Down in the Valley Book/CD Davis, Amidons, Brass
Encore! Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
English Country Dances Book/CD/DVD Martha Riley
Exploring Orff Book Arvida Steen
Feel It! Book/2 CDs Abramson
Game Plan Grade One Charts & Visuals Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Game Plan Grade One Curriculum Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Game Plan Grade Three Charts & Visuals Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Game Plan Grade Three Curriculum Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Game Plan Grade Two Charts & Visuals Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Game Plan Grade Two Curriculum Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Gameboard Components Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske

66
GASA Strategies for Teaching Set A Book Published by MENC
GASA Strategies for Teaching Set B Book Published by MENC
Get America Singing…Again! Vol.1 Book Published by MENC
Get America Singing…Again! Vol.1 P/A CD 3-CD set Published by MENC
Get America Singing…Again! Vol.1 Singers Ed.-30 Published by MENC
Get America Singing…Again! Vol.2 Book Published by MENC
Get America Singing…Again! Vol.2 P/A CD 3-CD set Published by MENC
Get America Singing…Again! Vol.2 Singers Ed.-30 Published by MENC
Hand Drums on the Move Book Chris Judah-Lauder
Handel's Last Chance DVD
Highlighting the Holidays Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Homespun Book Shirley W. McRae
I Sing, You Sing Book/CD Pack Sally K. Albrecht and Jay Althouse
I Sing, You Sing: Holiday Songs Book/CD Pack Sally K. Albrecht and Jay Althouse
In All Kinds of Weather, Kids Make Music! Book Lynn Kleiner
In All Kinds of Weather, Kids Make Music! CD Lynn Kleiner
Instrument Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
It's Elemental Book Don Dupont and Brian Hiller
It's Elemental 2 Book Don Dupont and Brian Hiller
John, the Rabbit 3 Book/CD Jill Trinka
Jump Jim Joe Book/CD Davis, Amidons, Brass
Kids Can Listen, Kids Can Move! Book/CD Pack Lynn Kleiner
Kids Make Music, Babies Make Music Too! Book Lynn Kleiner
Kids Make Music, Babies Make Music Too! CD Lynn Kleiner
Las Vegas Writes I Book Nevada's Desert-Valley Chapter
Las Vegas Writes II Book Nevada's Desert-Valley Chapter
Las Vegas Writes III Book Nevada's Desert-Valley Chapter
Lines & Spaces Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
Listen to the Mockingbird Book/CD Davis, Amidons, Brass
Listening Resource Kit - Level 1 Book Denise Gagne
Listening Resource Kit - Level 2 Book Denise Gagne
Listening Resource Kit - Level 3 Book Denise Gagne
Listening Resource Kit - Level 4 Book Denise Gagne
Listening Resource Kit - Level 5 Book Denise Gagne
Liszt's Rhapsody DVD
Little Black Bull 4 Book/CD Jill Trinka
Making the Most of the Holidays Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Marsalis on Music: Listening for Clues Video
Marsalis on Music: Sousa to Satchmo Video
Marsalis on Music: Tackling the Monster Video
Marsalis on Music: Why Toes Tap Video

67
Melody Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
Monkey Business Book Jim Solomon
Music and Feelings DVD Mister Rogers
Music K-8 Periodical Plank Road Publishing
Music Styles Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
Music Symbol Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
Musical Instrument Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
Musicplay for Kindergarten Book/CD Pack Denise Gagne
My Little Rooster 1 Book/CD Jill Trinka
One, Two, Three, Echo Me Book/CD Loretta Mitchell
One, Two, Three, Echo Me Orff Companion Book Dirksing
Orff Schulwerk Today Book Jane Frazee
Other Side of the Tracks CD Davis, Amidons, Brass
Peter and the Wolf DVD Prokofiev
Peter Ustinov Reads The Orchestra DVD
Playtime Instrumental Pieces Book Shirley W. McRae
Reading Rainbow: Barn Dance DVD
Reading Rainbow: Follow the Drinking Gourd DVD
Reading Rainbow: Zin! Zin! Zin! A Violin DVD
Recorder Routes I Book Carol King
Rhythm Bingo Level 1 & 2 Game Cheryl Lavender
Rhythmically Moving CD Set CDs (9) Phyllis S. Weikart
Round the Seasons Book Elizabeth Gilpatrick
Round We Go Book Elizabeth Gilpatrick
Sesame Street: Let's Make Music Video
Sesame Street: Zoe's Dance Moves Video
Simply Sung Book Mary Goetze
Sing Round the World Vol. 1 Book Shirley W. McRae
Sing Round the World Vol. 2 Book Shirley W. McRae
Sing with Me! Learn With Me! Book Elizabeth Gilpatrick
Singing Round the Year Book Robert deFrece
Solfege Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
Sound Ideas Book Doug Goodkin
Sound Shape Playbook Book/CD Pack Lynn Kleiner
Strauss: The King of Three-Quarter Time DVD
Strike It Rich! Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Teaching Folk Dance Book Phyllis S. Weikart
Teaching Folk Dance Videos (Vol. 1&2) Phyllis S. Weikart
Teaching Movement and Dance Book Phyllis S. Weikart
The Amazing Jamnasium Book/CD Kalani
The Complete Recorder Resource Kit Book/CD Denise Gagne

68
The Complete Recorder Resource Kit 2 Book/CD Denise Gagne
The Kodaly Method I Book Choksy
The Kodaly Method II Book Choksy
The Little Black Bull 4 Book Jill Trinka
The Magic Circle Book Isabel Carley
The Nutcracker DVD Tchaikovsky (Royal Ballet)
The Sound of Music DVD
The Tropical Recorder Book Jim Solomon & Mary Helen Solomon
The Tropical Recorder Student Packs Jim Solomon & Mary Helen Solomon
To Drum Book Chris Judah-Lauder
Together in Rhythm Book/DVD Kalani
Tops in Pops Book Arr. Marilyn Copeland Davidson
Tutoring Tooters Book Shirley W. McRae
Tyme for a Rhyme Book Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske
Where's Your Drum? CD Bloom
World Instrument Bingo Game Cheryl Lavender
World Music Drumming Book Will Schmid
World Music Drumming-New Ensembles Book/CD Pack Will Schmid

69