Hoover City Schools

Elementary Music Course of Study
2007
Adaptation of the Alabama State Course of Study

Hoover City Schools Elementary Music Course of Study 2007

Contributing Writers Natalie Evans, Riverchase Elementary School Beth Galloway, Trace Crossings Elementary School Erin Gray, South Shades Crest Elementary School Paula LeBlanc, Rocky Ridge Elementary School Carlee Means, Gwin Elementary School Vicki Portis, Bluff Park Elementary School Angela Roebuck, Shades Mountain Elementary School Mary Shaw, Green Valley Elementary School Lisa Vines, Deer Valley and South Shades Crest Elementary Schools Betty Wilson, Deer Valley Elementary School Sara Womack, Greystone Elementary School

Andy Craig, Superintendent Dr. Deborah Camp, Director of Elementary Curriculum

Table of Contents Philosophy of Music Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Elementary Music Course of Study Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 First Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Second Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Third Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Fourth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Fifth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 Correlation to MENC National Standards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Elements Scope and Sequence Rhythm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Melody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Texture and Harmony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Timbre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Suggested Teaching Timeline Kindergarten . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 First Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Second Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Third Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Fourth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Fifth Grade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Timeline at a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Appendix Music History Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Cultural and Style Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Suggested Inventory of Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Suggested Curriculum Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
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Hoover City Schools Philosophy of Music Education
“During the Gulf War, the few opportunities I had for relaxation I always listened to music, and it brought me great peace of mind. I have shared my love of music with people throughout this world, while listening to the drums and special instruments of the Far East, Middle East, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Far North, and all of this started with the music appreciation course that I was taught in a third-grade elementary class in Princeton, New Jersey. What a tragedy it would be if we lived in a world where music was not taught to children.” General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, United States Army The Hoover City Schools music education philosophy is grounded in the premise that all students should be engaged in a challenging and effective music education. Current legislation and research has proven the need and demand for music education. The No Child Left Behind Act consistently uses language that embraces support for the arts programs. The definitions section of the law lists arts as a core subject area, along with English, reading or language arts, mathematics, science, history, geography, civics and government, economics, and foreign languages. When pointing out how decisions are to be made on funding, the law states that the expenditures are to be made to support the core subjects and the curricula and instruction that are aligned with the state course of study and student achievement standards. A 2003 Gallup Poll found 95% of Americans believe that music is a key component in a child's well-rounded education. Three quarters of those surveyed feel that schools should mandate music education. Another study found the schools that produced the highest academic achievement in the United States are spending 20% to 30% of the day on the arts, with special emphasis on music. (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement Test, 1988). The Hoover City Schools philosophy of music education is built upon teaching the five concepts of music – rhythm, melody, harmony, form, and expressive qualities. The curriculum is spiral based and highly developmental. Conceptual learning is also a focus in that each concept will be taught while utilizing a variety of music skills – singing, playing instruments, moving, listening to and analyzing music, reading and notating

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music, and composing and improvising music.

The National Standards, Alabama

Course of Study, and Hoover City Schools Course of Study will serve as a guide. The philosophies of Carl Orff and Zoltan Kodály will be the center of most of the activities completed in the classroom. Through these philosophies, students spend the majority of instructional time creating and recreating music instead of simply discussing music. Students experience all aspects of music before learning the associated terminology. The purpose of the music program is to insure that students will value music throughout their lives. In order for a continuous appreciation of music to occur, students must have a fundamental understanding of music and realize that being an active participant in music, whether as a performer or listener, is an enjoyable experience. While comprehending the basic functions of music is central to the purpose of this music program, the foremost consideration is whether the students are excited about the music making process. If the students do not feel that the subject matter is relevant or entertaining, music will not become a necessary part of their lives in their middle school, high school, college, or post college years. Music is made relevant to students of all learning styles by utilizing music of all cultures and a variety of teaching tools. Because student excitement regarding music learning is the foremost concern, student needs drive the curriculum of the music program. The use of consistent and comprehensive assessment reveals the students’ needs and guides curriculum decisions in order to meet those needs. Parent support is also a necessary component of the program. Parent suggestions are encouraged. A high expectation of exceptional behavior from all students insures an inviting learning environment for the administration, teachers, parents, and students.

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Hoover City Schools Elementary Music Course of Study Kindergarten
Most children enter kindergarten, the beginning of their formal education, with a repertoire of songs they may have learned from family members or from childcare or preschool experiences. These songs are the basis from which music educators begin, moving the student from the familiar to new learning experiences in the area of music. The learning environment in kindergarten incorporates active participation by students. Students learn basic music skills by singing and echoing short rhythm patterns. They learn to differentiate between singing and speaking voices, begin learning basic conducting cues, demonstrate understanding of basic rhythmic concepts, learn to play various rhythm instruments, and begin to recognize changes in the dynamics and tempo of music. They also begin to discern differences in phrases and to improvise simple four-beat melodies. Kindergarten students are able to sing pitch within the range of D below the staff to second space A. Through content standards for kindergarten, students develop knowledge of various songs and musical styles and learn to express themselves through movement. They are engaged in activities that allow them to experience an enjoyment of music while developing skills in the areas of speaking, singing, moving, and playing instruments. The foundation gained in kindergarten prepares students for the study of music at the next grade level.

Produce
Students will: 1. Sing simple songs alone and with others following the contour of melody. • Memorize songs • Sing with good posture and diction maintaining a steady tempo • Demonstrate the difference between speaking and singing Examples: whispering, calling, speaking, singing • Use their age-appropriate vocal range utilizing head tone • Vocal Range - C4-A4; Tessitura - D4-A4 2. Demonstrate responses to nonverbal conducting cues. Examples: sit, stand, listen, sing, start, stop, sing or play louder or softer. 3. Imitate a steady beat while playing various rhythm instruments. • Recognize the presence or absence of a steady beat • Demonstrate steady beat on barred instruments using bilateral motions • Differentiate between steady beat and rhythm

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4. Echo short rhythm patterns consisting of quarter notes, quarter rests, and paired eighth notes. • Respond to iconic notation, i.e. play instrument, move, read aloud • Play and create rhythm patterns on body percussion and unpitched percussion instruments individually and in unison with others 5. Improvise four-beat melodies using la, so, and mi. Example: Improvising on barred instruments on a pentatonic scale 6. Create expressive movement to folk songs, folk games, lullabies, marches, and other musical genres. Examples: skipping to “Skip to My Lou,” marching to “Yankee Doodle” • Express musical ideas using creative movement and body percussion 7. Demonstrate appropriate audience and performance behavior. 8. Play pitched and unpitched instruments with appropriate techniques. • Play a steady beat using bilateral motions. 9. Acquire and develop a repertoire of non-locomotor and locomotor movements.

Respond
Students will: 10. Identify similarities and differences in familiar songs, including fast or slow, loud or soft, short and long, and high and low. Example: comparing a march to a lullaby 11. Identify like and unlike phrases presented aurally in a piece of music. 12. Identify solo or group performances by sound. 13. Identify sets of two and three beats.

Understand
Students will: 14. Recognize differences between adult and children’s voices. 15. Demonstrate singing, speaking, whispering, and calling voices. Example: singing and reciting the alphabet

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16. Recognize holiday songs and simple songs from the United States and other cultures and countries. Examples: United States – “America” holiday – “Jingle Bells” other cultures and countries – “Frère Jacques” 17. Identify various rhythm and orchestral instruments by sight and sound. Examples: drums, piano, trumpet 18. Differentiate high and low vocal sounds through vocal exploration. Example: producing aurally the sounds of a bird and a cow 19. Identify the seven letters of the musical alphabet.

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Hoover City Schools Elementary Music Course of Study First Grade
In first grade, students’ listening skills are more refined, as is their ability to be expressive through singing. Fine motor skills are becoming more developed, and through active learning experiences, their cognitive skills increase. In the music classroom, first-grade students continue to develop skills in speaking, singing, listening, playing instruments, and in creating movement. Students learn to identify dynamic markings, clap rhythm patterns, and begin to recognize the difference between a note and a rest. Basic music reading abilities, such as identifying quarter notes and rests and determining melodic direction on a staff, are also addressed during this grade. First-grade students are able to sing pitches within the range of D below the staff to third line B. The classroom environment in Grade 1 is one of active participation and exploration by students. Therefore, music educators of first-grade students should incorporate a variety of instructional strategies that allow students to learn by doing.

Produce
Students will: 1. Sing songs from various cultures and countries within an age-appropriate vocal range using clear vocal tones. • Sing short melodic passages that indicate upward and downward movement in a melody Example: singing “Hot Cross Buns” • Sing expressively using appropriate dynamics, tempo, and rhythm Examples: piano (p), forte (f) • Match pitch • Distinguish between accompanied and unaccompanied songs • Sing songs in various pentatonic and major and minor keys • Sing songs in various meters, i.e. duple and triple • Vocal Range - D4-D5; Tessitura - D4-B4 2. Improvise four-beat melodies using mi, re, and do. • Improvise on barred instruments on a pentatonic scale 3. Sing, play or imitate melodic patterns, individually and in unison with others. Examples: “Che che koolay” and “Cookie”

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4. Demonstrate rhythm patterns by reading quarter notes, quarter rests, paired eighth notes and half notes, including playing them on various rhythm instruments. • Clap repeated rhythm patterns or ostinati in familiar songs • Perform accompaniments on pitched or unpitched percussion instruments using a steady beat • Improvise a response to a simple rhythmic pattern, i.e. question-answer 5. Play pitched and unpitched instruments with appropriate techniques. • Play a simple bordun • Play a steady beat using bilateral and alternating motions • Play along with others 6. Compose, using sound and movement, backgrounds or settings for poems, stories, songs, and speech pieces. 7. Interpret icons representing beat/strong beat, long/short, and tempo and dynamic changes. 8. Read notation using quarter notes, quarter rests, and paired eighth notes.

Respond
Students will: 9. Demonstrate vocal responses to conductor cues for loud and soft. 10. Identify melodic direction on the musical staff. Examples: upward, downward, and same 11. Identify notes as being line note or space note on a musical staff. 12. Identify so, mi, and la on the staff 13. Identify by sight and sound the difference between a note and a rest. 14. Identify musical symbols and terms Examples: quarter note, eighth notes, quarter rest, staff, treble clef 15. Identify musical phrases in a song presented aurally. Example: “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star” 16. Use creative movement to express the mood, dynamics and tempo of musical selections. Examples: skipping happily, tiptoeing when scared

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17. Identify duple meter as strong-weak beat organization and triple meter as strong weak, weak. 18. Identify AB and ABA form in a musical selection. 19. Identify long and short musical sounds. Example: One sound per beat, two sounds per beat, no sound

Understand
Students will: 20. Distinguish between low and high sounds produced by voices or instruments. Examples: low pitch – kettledrum, man’s voices; high pitch – triangle, woman’s voice 21. Identify the number of lines and spaces on the treble clef staff. 22. Describe how vibrations produce musical sounds. 23. Identify ways in which music relates to other subjects. 24. Describe in simple terms how elements of music are used in music examples from various cultures of the world and historical periods. 25. Devise and implement criteria for evaluating performances using developmentally appropriate musical terms. 26. Classify rhythm instruments by method of tone production, including striking, shaking, scraping, and ringing. 27. Develop awareness of tone color categories: woods, metals, shakers, scrapers, and skins.

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Hoover City Schools Elementary Music Course of Study Second Grade
Students in second grade are beginning to exhibit more independence in their thought processes and are able to understand more complex concepts. They exhibit independence in using acquired knowledge to form opinions and personal choices. However, they continue to need teacher guidance and monitoring. In the music classroom, second-grade students are refining their musical skills by accomplishing increasing rigorous standards. Aural skills needed to identify phrases, dynamics, form, and tone color are further developed, as are basic music reading skills. Second-grade students are able to sing pitches within the range of D below the staff to third line B. They classify rhythm instruments by sound produced and use pitched instruments to perform accompaniments. They also explore components of music through listening, playing instruments, and discovering “found sounds” in their environments.

Produce
Students will: 1. Sing on pitch using good posture. • Sing simple melodic ostinati and patterns in call and response form • Engage in vocal exploration, blending chest and head voice throughout the vocal range to produce uniform tonal quality in each register • Practice production of head voice sounds in the upper register and sustaining tones • Expand vocal range upward • Develop aural perception of home tone or tonal center • Vocal Range - C4-D5; Tessitura - D4-B4 2. Improvise eight-beat melodies using la, so, mi, re, and do ending on home tone or tonal center. 3. Perform accompaniments to poems, rhymes, stories, dramatizations, and songs using pitched instruments. • Demonstrate rhythm patterns by reading quarter notes, quarter rests, paired eighth notes, and half notes • Select appropriate classroom instruments to create musical accompaniments • Sing songs representative of other cultures and countries • Perform folk dances appropriate for age level to music from various cultures Example: Chinese ribbon dance • Play simple rhythmic ostinati by rote and from notation
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4. Develop basic mallet techniques. 5. Compose introductions and codas for songs and speech pieces.

Respond
Students will: 6. Identify music terms related to tempo changes in music, including accelerando, ritardando, and fermata. 7. Identify ABA and verse-refrain form in a musical selection. Examples: using shapes to illustrate patterns, comparing musical forms to visual arts 8. Identify steps, leaps, and repeated notes in printed music. 9. Recognize and use standard notation and terms. Examples: repeat signs, accent, p, f, whole, note, half note, slurs, ties, introduction, coda, D.C.

Understand
Students will: 10. Identify American patriotic songs. Examples: “Star Spangled Banner,” “America,” “God Bless America” 11. Identify letter names of lines and spaces on the treble clef staff. 12. Identify the difference between a verse and a refrain in a familiar musical selection. 13. Identify dynamic markings of forte (f), piano (p), crescendo (cresc. and <), and decrescendo (decresc. and >). 14. Distinguish between various vocal and instrumental timbres. Example: male and female voices, simple classroom instruments. 15. Identify the four families of instruments in an orchestra. • Identifying and classifying individual instruments by sight. 16. Identify melodic sequences in a melody. Example: motif from first movement of Ludwig von Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5

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Hoover City Schools Elementary Music Course of Study Third Grade
Students in third grade are active, curious, and eager to learn. They need greater independence as they progress in cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. Students remain primarily concrete learners, acquiring knowledge through visual and auditory stimulation as well as hands-on experiences. The learning environment of the third-grade music classroom is one that reflects the energy and enthusiasm of its students. Students work together as a community of learners in an atmosphere in which their ideas and contributions are valued. This environment promotes self-confidence, and is one in which students are more receptive to suggestions for improvement. Content standards in Grade 3 emphasize the development of proper vocal technique; performance of simple melodic, rhythmic, and chordal accompaniments; and identification of instruments by sight and sound. Third-grade students are also able to sing pitches within the range of D below the staff to fourth line D. These skills, along with others, continue to serve as the foundation for the advanced content in subsequent grades.

Produce
Students will: 1. Demonstrate proper vocal technique by using pure head tone, good posture, and correct rhythm. • Use appropriate dynamics while singing expressively • Sing rounds • Sing songs of other cultures and countries • Vocal range - B3-E5; Tessitura - D4-D5 2. Sing melodic ostinati, canons, partner songs, and echo songs to create harmony. 3. Improvise eight-beat melodies using la, so, mi, re, and do and quarter note and eighth note rhythms. • Improvise contrasting B and C sections in rondo form using sound and movement • Improvise answers to given rhythmic and melodic phrases • Express musical ideas using creative movement, body percussion, classroom instruments, and vocal sounds • Improvise simple melodies based on the pentatonic scale 4. Play rhythm patterns, including whole notes, dotted half notes, dotted quarter notes, sixteenth notes, and simple syncopation using pitched or unpitched instruments or by clapping.

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5. Perform rhythmic ostinati while others are singing a melody. 6. Develop crossover mallet technique for playing borduns and ostinati. 7. Create and compose music within specified guidelines. • Create AB, ABA, ABACA, using speech, instruments, voices, and movement • Compose rhythmic and melodic patterns

Respond
Students will: 8. Demonstrate melodic contour through creative movement. Example: using gestures or drawings to indicate upward and downward direction of melody 9. Recognize conductor cues in @ and $ meter signatures meter signatures. 10. Identify ABC form in musical selections. 11. Identify meter according to strong and weak beat organization. Examples: strong, weak = @; strong, weak, weak, weak = $ 12. Recognize and use standard notational symbols and terms. Example: dotted half note, single eighth note, eighth rest, staccato, legato, musical alphabet, fermata, barline, measure, $, @, #, pitch names

Understand
Students will: 13. Identify music symbols found on the staff, including the treble clef, meter signatures, bar lines, measures, double bar line, and repeat signs. • Defining terms associated with printed music, including fermata, slur, legato, staccato, and da capo (D.C.) 14. Identify music terms related to dynamics in music, including fortissimo (ff), mezzo forte (mf), mezzo piano (mp), and pianissimo (pp). 15. Identify the musical alphabet ascending on lines and spaces from middle C to G above the staff. 16. Demonstrate perceptual skills by moving, by answering questions, and by describing aural examples of music of various styles representing diverse cultures.

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Hoover City Schools Elementary Music Course of Study Fourth Grade
Students in fourth grade are becoming more expressive. They are developing both socially and emotionally and often look to their peers for social acceptance. Fourthgrade students are intrigued with the varied sounds they make with their voices and find opportunities to use their speaking and singing voices with proper pitch, phrasing, pace, modulation, and gestures. To nurture their interest, the classroom environment promotes the active engagement of students in their own learning through independent and group projects. These experiences prepare student for new content found in the music curriculum. Content standards in Grade 4 continue to build upon prior knowledge. Additional concepts, techniques, and vocal requirements are added to those already mastered by students. At this grade level, students perform a varied repertoire of music, sing expressively, echo rhythmic and melodic pitches within the range of middle C to fourth line D. Through these musical experiences students continue to develop cognitively, physically, socially, and emotionally.

Produce
Students will: 1. Perform a varied repertoire of music using vocal technique, pure head tone, good diction, good posture, proper pitch and rhythm, and breath control. • Sing intervals within the major pentatonic scale • • • • • • • • • Respond to conducting patterns of @, #, and $ meter signatures Sing legato and staccato Sing songs of other cultures and countries Sing using a variety of dynamics Practice blending chest and head voice throughout the vocal range to produce uniform tonal quality in each register Sing with sensitivity to blend in a group or choral ensemble, responding to cues from a conductor Develop aural perception and inner hearing skills Develop correct intonation Vocal Range - A3-G5; Tessitura - C4-D5

2. Sing in rounds or canons to create harmony. • Sing partner songs 3. Improvise eight-beat melodies using so, mi, la, re, and do with half notes, quarter rests, and syncopation.
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4. Perform simple chord progression on pitched instruments. Example: I, V 5. Perform simple melodies on pitched instruments. 6. Perform rhythm patterns, including syncopation and eight and sixteenth-note combinations on various rhythm instruments. • Play melodic and rhythmic ostinati 7. Recognize and label phrases. 8. Create and compose music within specified guidelines. • Create, notate, and perform a pentatonic melody • Create and perform speech, movement, and/or rhythm canons 9. Practice patterned locomotor movements in singing games and circle, line, and folk dances.

Respond
Students will: 10. Improvise pentatonic melodies using a variety of sound sources including recorder and pitched percussion. 11. Improvise pentatonic melodies using a variety of sound sources, including electronic sources. 12. Identify ledger-line notes C and B below the treble staff. 13. Identify theme and variations in musical selections.

Understand
Students will: 14. Classify orchestral instruments by family • Identify individual instruments by sound 15. Recognize styles of twentieth-century music Example: jazz, pop, country, folk 16. Explain personal preferences for specific musical works and styles using appropriate music terminology. 17. Identify by sound and describe roles of musicians and the elements of music in various music settings and cultures.

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Hoover City Schools Elementary Music Course of Study Fifth Grade
Students in fifth grade are experiencing rapid growth in their emotional and social development. As they become more aware of their immediate surroundings, students’ interest in the expanded environment begins to emerge. Students need guidance to recognize relationships between music and other disciplines as they develop a more sophisticated sense of music, using it to reflect their feelings and emotions. The fifthgrade music classroom provides a positive learning environment that encourages students to participate in classroom activities while using good posture, intonation, correct rhythm, and breath control. Content standards in Grade 5 offer opportunities for students to become engaged in singing, notating, and composing, while musically defining techniques and process. They are able to play rhythm patterns and begin to recognize instruments in the orchestra by sight and sound. Fifth-grade students are also able to sing pitches within the range of middle C to fourth line D. These skills enable students to transition smoothly into Grade 6-8 Music or into Level I of either Vocal or Instrumental Music.

Produce
Students will: 1. Sing intervals on pitch within a major diatonic scale. • Further establish deep breathing skills and breath control • Vocal Range - A3-G5; Tessitura - C4-D5 2. Improvise eight-beat melodies using la, so, mi, re, and do with a variety of rhythms and phrases. • Improvise extended phrases in question/answer form • Improvise melodies using various scales 3. Play rhythm patterns, including triplets and dotted eighth and sixteenth-note combinations on pitched and non pitched instruments • • • Perform melodic and rhythmic patterns and songs in @, #, $, and P meter signatures Notate rhythms in @, #, and $ meter signatures Identify tempo markings such as allegro, presto, largo, and andante

4. Perform simple melodies on recorders.

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5. Improvise melodies in a major diatonic scale by singing or using a pitched instrument. 6. Compose melodies and accompaniments to songs, poems, stories, and dramatizations, using AB, ABA, and rondo forms. 7. Sing partner songs to create harmony. • Sing descants and two-part songs 8. Demonstrate appropriate use of legato and staccato in a song. 9. Compose, notate and perform compositions. 10. Perform creative movements while exploring concepts of space: level, direction, size, place, pathways, focus.

Respond
Students will: 11. Recognize conducting patterns of @, #, and $ meter signatures. 12. Identify ledger-lines notes A, B, and C above the treble staff.

Understand
Students will: 13. Identify whole and half steps of the major diatonic scale in printed music. • Identify intervals of the diatonic scale in printed music • Recognize the difference between major and minor tonality 14. Recognize vocal timbre as soprano, alto, tenor, or bass. 15. Identify eras of music. Examples: Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Contemporary • Identify composers of each era of music 16. Compare in two or more arts how the characteristic materials of each art can be used to transform similar events, scenes, emotions, or ideas into works of art. 17. Describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with those of music.

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Correlation to MENC National Standards
Standards and Skills National Standard #1- Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. Kindergarten 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade

Vocal Range

Vocal Range- C4A4; Tessitura D4A4

Vocal Range- D4D5; Tessitura- D4B4

Vocal Range- C4D5; Tessitura- D4B4

Vocal range- B3E5; Tessitura- D4D5

Vocal Range- A3G5; Tessitura- C4D5

Vocal Range- A3G5; Tessitura- C4D5

Main Point

Sing simple songs alone and with others following the contour of melody.

Sing songs from various cultures and countries within an ageappropriate vocal range using clear vocal tones.

Sing on pitch using good posture.

Demonstrate proper vocal technique by using pure head tone, good posture, and correct rhythm.

Perform a varied repertoire of music using vocal technique, pure head tone, good diction, good posture, proper pitch and rhythm, and breath control.

Sing intervals on pitch within a major diatonic scale.

Types of Songs / Melody

-Memorizing songs

-Singing short melodic passages that indicate upward and down ward movement in a melody Example: singing “Hot Cross Buns” -Singing songs in various pentatonic and major and minor keys -Singing songs in various meters, i.e. duple and triple

-Singing simple melodic ostinati

-Singing rounds

-Singing intervals within the major pentatonic scale

-Sing partner songs to create harmony.

-Demonstrating the difference between speech and singing. Examples: whispering, shouting, speaking, singing

-Singing melodic patterns in call and response form -Singing simple drones and melodic ostinati -Singing songs representative of other cultures and countries

-Singing songs of other cultures and countries -Sing melodic ostinati, canons, partner songs, and echo songs to create harmony.

-Singing songs of other cultures and countries -Sing in rounds or canons to create harmony.

-Singing descants and two-part songs

-Singing partner songs

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Expression

Singing with good posture and diction maintaining a steady tempo

-Singing expressively using appropriate dynamics, tempo and rhythm Examples: piano (p), forte (f) -Demonstrate vocal responses to conductor cues for loud and soft.

Developing aural perception of home tone or tonal center

-Using appropriate dynamics while singing expressively -Express musical ideas using vocal sounds

-Responding to conducting patterns of 2/4, !, 4/4 meter signature -Singing legato and staccato

-Singing using a variety of dynamics

Vocal Technique

Using their ageappropriate vocal range utilizing head tone

-Matching pitch

-Engaging in vocal exploration, blending chest and head voice throughout the vocal range to produce uniform tonal quality in each register -Practicing production of head voice sounds in the upper register and sustaining tones -Expanding vocal range upward

-Practice blending chest and head voice throughout the vocal range to produce uniform tonal quality in each register

Improve deep breathing skills and breath control

-Sing melodic patterns, individually and in unison with others.

-Sing with sensitivity to blend in a group or choral ensemble, responding to cues from a conductor -Develop aural perception and inner hearing skills -Develop correct intonation

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National Standard #2- Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music.

Main Point

Play pitched and unpitched instruments with appropriate techniques.

Play or imitate melodic patterns, individually and in unison with others.

Perform accompaniments to poems, rhymes, stories, dramatizations, and songs using pitched instruments.

Play rhythm patterns, including whole notes, dotted half notes, dotted quarter notes, sixteenth notes, and simple syncopation using pitched or nonpitched instruments or by clapping.

Perform simple chord progression on pitched instruments. Example: I, V, I

Play rhythm patterns, including triplets and dotted eighth and sixteenth-note combinations on pitched and non pitched instruments

Instrument Technique

Play a steady beat using bilateral motions.

-Play pitched and unpitched instruments with appropriate techniques. -Play a steady beat using bilateral and alternating motions

Develop basic mallet techniques.

Develop crossover mallet technique for playing borduns and ostinati.

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Rhythm

-Echo short rhythm patterns consisting of quarter notes, quarter rests, and paired eighth notes.

-Play a simple bordun

-Demonstrating rhythm patterns by reading quarter notes, quarter rests, paired eighth notes, and half notes

Playing rhythmic ostinati

Perform rhythmic patterns and songs in 2/4, !, 4/4, and 6/8 meter signatures

-Playing and creating rhythm patterns on body percussion and unpitched percussion instruments individually and in unison with others

-Demonstrate rhythm patterns by reading quarter notes, quarter rests, paired eighth notes and half notes, including playing them on various rhythm instruments` -Clapping repeated rhythm patterns or ostinati in familiar songs -Performing accompaniments on pitched or nonpitched percussion instruments using a steady beat

-Playing simple rhythmic ostinati by rote and from notation

21

Expression

Play in combination with each other (Example: ensemble)

-Selecting appropriate classroom instruments to create musical accompaniments -Perform rhythmic ostinati while others are singing a melody. -Express musical ideas using body percussion and classroom instruments -Perform simple melodies on pitched instruments. Examples: recorders and barred instruments -Playing melodic ostinati -Perform melodic patterns and songs in 2/4, !, 4/4, and 6/8 meter signatures -Perform simple melodies on recorders

Melody

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National Standard #3- Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments.

Melody

Improvise fourbeat melodies using “la,” “sol,” and “mi.”

Improvising on barred instruments on a pentatonic scale

Improvise eightbeat melodies using “la,” “so,” “mi,” “re,” “do,” and quarter-note and eighth note rhythms.

-Improvise eightbeat melodies using “sol,” “mi,” “la,” “re,” and “do” with half notes, quarter rests, and syncopation. -Improvise pentatonic melodies using a variety of sound sources including recorder and pitched percussion. -Improvise pentatonic melodies using a variety of sound sources, including electronic sources.

-Improvise eightbeat melodies using “la,” “sol,” “mi,” “re,” and “do” with a variety of rhythms and phrases.

Example: Improvising on barred instruments on a pentatonic scale

-Improvise answers to given rhythmic and melodic phrases

-Improvise melodies using various scales

-Improvise simple melodies based on the pentatonic scale

-Improvise melodies in a major diatonic scale by singing or using a pitched instrument.

Rhythm

Improvising a response to a simple rhythmic pattern, i.e. question-answer

Improvise answers to given rhythmic and melodic phrases

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Form

Improvise contrasting B and C sections in rondo form using sound and movement

Improvise extended phrases in question/answer form

National Standard #4- Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines.

Melody

Compose introductions and codas for songs and speech pieces.

-Create and compose music within specified guidelines.

-Create and compose music within specified guidelines.

Compose melodies and accompaniments to songs, poems, stories, and dramatizations, using AB, ABA, and rondo forms.

-Compose melodic patterns

-Create, notate, and perform a pentatonic melody Create and perform speech, movement, and rhythm canons

Rhythm

Compose melodic patterns

Form

Create AB, ABA, ABACA, using speech, instruments, voices, and movement

Compose melodies and accompaniments to songs, poems, stories, and dramatizations, using AB, ABA, and rondo forms.

24

Accompaniment

Compose, using sound and movement, backgrounds or settings for poems, stories, songs, and speech pieces.

National Standard #5- Reading and notating music.

Rhythm

Responding to iconic notation, i.e.read aloud

Read notation using quarter notes, quarter rests, and paired eighth notes.

Recognize and use standard notation and terms.

Recognize and use standard notational symbols and terms. Example: dotted half note, single eighth note, eighth rest, staccato, legato, musical alphabet, fermata, barline, measure, 2/4, !, 4/4, pitch names Notate rhythms in 2/4,3/4, and 4/4 meter signatures

Examples: repeat signs, accent, p, f, whole, note, half note, slurs, ties, introduction, coda, D.C.

Meter

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Notation

-Identify by sight and sound the difference between a note and a rest.

-Identify steps, leaps, and repeated notes in printed music.

-Identify music symbols found on the staff, including the treble clef, meter signatures, bar lines, measures, double bar line, and repeat signs. -Identify the musical alphabet ascending on lines and spaces from middle C to G above the staff.

Identify ledger-line notes C and B below the treble staff.

-Identify whole and half steps of the major diatonic scale in printed music.

-Identify notes as being line note or space note on a musical staff.

-Identify letter names of lines and spaces on the treble clef staff.

-Identify intervals of the diatonic scale in printed music

-Identify so, mi, and la on the staff -Identify melodic direction on the musical staff. Examples: upward, downward, same

Example: naming the spaces on a blank treble clef staff

Expression

-Identify musical symbols and terms

Defining terms associated with printed music, including fermata, slur, legato, staccato, and da capo (D.C.)

Recognize and label phrases.

26

National Standard #6- Listening to, analyzing, and describing music.

Expression

-Identify similarities and differences in familiar songs, including fast or slow, loud or soft, short and long, and high and low

Identify musical phrases in a song presented aurally.

-Identify music terms related to tempo changes in music, including accelerando, ritardando and fermata

Identify music terms related to dynamics in music, including fortissimo (ff), mezzoforte (mf), mezzopiano (mp), and pianissimo (pp).

-Identifying tempo markings such as allegro, presto, largo, and andante

Example: comparing a march to a lullaby

Example: Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star”

-Identify dynamic markings of forte (f), piano (p), crescendo (cresc. and <), and decrescendo (decresc. and >).

-Recognizing the difference between major and minor tonality

-Identify like and unlike phrases presented aurally in a piece of music. -Differentiate high and low vocal sounds through vocal exploration.

-Identify long and short musical sounds. -Distinguish between low and high sounds produced by voices or instruments. Examples: low pitch- kettle drum, man's voices; high pitch- triangle, woman's voice

-Demonstrate appropriate use of legato and staccato in a song.

Example: producing aurally the sounds of a bird and a cow

27

Form

Identify AB and ABA form in a musical selection.

-Identify ABA and verse/refrain form in a musical selection. Examples: creating pictures that use shapes to illustrate patterns, comparing musical forms to visual arts -Identify the difference between a verse and a refrain in a familiar musical selection. -Identify melodic sequences in a melody. Example: motif from first movement of Ludwig von Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5

Identify ABC form in musical selections.

Identify theme and variations in musical selections.

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Meter

Identify sets of two and three beats.

-Identify duple meter as strongweak beat organization and triple meter as strong weak, weak

-Recognize conductor cues in 2/4 and 4/4 meter signatures.

Recognize conducting patterns of twofour, three-four, and four-four meter signatures.

-One sound per beat, two sounds per beat, no sound

-Identify meter according to strong and weak beat organization. Examples: strong, weak 2/4; strong, weak, weak, weak 4/4

Instruments

Identify various rhythm and orchestral instruments by sight.

Classify rhythm instruments by method of tone production, including striking, shaking, scraping, and ringing.

Identify the four families of instruments in an orchestra.

Classify orchestral instruments by family

Examples: drums, piano, trumpet

Identifying and classifying individual instruments by sight.

29

Timbre

-Identify solo or group performances by sound.

Develop awareness of tone color categories: woods, metals, shakers, scrapers, and skins

Distinguish between various vocal and instrumental timbres.

Identifying individual instruments by sound (timbre)

Recognize vocal timbre as soprano, alto, tenor, or bass.

-Recognize differences between adult and children’s voices. -Demonstrate singing, speaking, whispering, and calling voices. Example: singing and reciting the alphabet -Identify various rhythm and orchestral instruments by sound. Examples: drums, piano, trumpet

Example: male and female voices, simple classroom instruments.

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Staff

Identify the seven letters of the musical alphabet.

Identify the number of lines and spaces on the treble clef staff.

National Standard #7- Evaluating music and music performances.

Devise and implement criteria for evaluating performances using developmentally appropriate musical terms.

Explain personal preferences for specific musical works and styles using appropriate music terminology.

National Standard #8- Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts.

-Describe how vibrations produce musical sounds.

-Compare in two or more arts how the characteristic materials of each art can be used to transform similar events, scenes, emotions, or ideas into works of art.

-Identify ways that music is related to other subject matter

-Describe ways in which the principles and subject matter of other disciplines taught in the school are interrelated with those of music.

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National Standard #9- Understanding music in relation to history and culture.

History

Recognize styles of twentiethcentury music

-Identify eras of music.

Example: jazz, pop, country, folk

Examples: Baroque, Classical, Romantic, contemporary

-Identifying composers of each era of music

Culture

Describe in simple terms how elements of music are used in music examples from various cultures of the world and historical periods.

Demonstrate perceptual skills by moving, by answering questions, and by describing aural examples of music of various styles representing diverse cultures.

Identify by sound and describe roles of musicians and the elements of music in various music settings and cultures.

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Songs

Recognize holiday songs and simple songs from the United States and other cultures and countries. Examples: United States "America," Holiday- "Jingle Bells," other cultures and countries- "Frere Jacques" Demonstrate appropriate audience and performance behavior. Acquire and develop a repertoire of nonlocomotor and locomotor movements. Use creative movement to express the mood, dynamics and tempo of musical selections. Examples: skipping happily, tiptoeing when scared

Identify American patriotic songs.

Examples: “Star Spangled Banner,” “America,” “God Bless America”

Performance Behavior

Movement

Performing folk dances appropriate for age level to music from various cultures

Express musical ideas using creative movement

Practice patterned locomotor movements in singing games; circle, line, and folk dances.

Perform creative movements while exploring concepts of space.

Example: Chinese ribbon dance

Demonstrate melodic contour through creative movement. Example: using gestures or drawings to indicate upward and downward direction of melody

33

Rhythm Scope and Sequence
K Steady Beat Long and short sounds Longer/shorter One and two sounds per beat Silent beat Simple rhythm patterns Sets of two and three beats (strong beat/ weak beat) Duple meter (strong, weak) / triple meter (strong, weak, weak) 2/4 and 3/4 meter signatures Beat / Rhythm 6/8 meter signature; experience meter in 5/4 Recognize conductor cues in 3/4 meter signature 1 2 3 4 5

4/4 meter signature Recognize conductor cues in 2/4 and 4/4 meter signatures

Sound/silence

Identify by sight and sound the difference between a note and a rest . Identify and label notes as quarter notes, paired eighth notes, quarter rests and half notes Ostinato Tie: Two tied quarter notes/rests=half note/rest, two half notes/rests=whole note/rest Ostinati by rote and notation Identify bar lines, measures, double bar lines, repeat signs Combinations including all previous notes and sixteenth notes, dotted half notes, half rests and simple syncoptaion Combinations including all previous notes and sixteenth note combinations and dotted half note Combinations including all previous notes and dotted eighth and sixteenth note combinations

Combinations including quarter note, paired eighth notes and quarter rests

34

Melody Scope and Sequence
K High/low Higher/Lower Identify melodic direction on the musical staff: Upward, downward, and the same Identify notes so, mi and la on the staff Low to high High to low So, mi, la Pentatonic, major and minor songs Perception of home tone or tonal center Melodic patterns using: la, so, mi,re, do ending on home tone or tonal center Do and La centered pentatonic (major/minor) Melodic patterns using: la, so, mi,re, do, High do, Low la and Low so, ending on home tone or tonal center Melodic contour Identify the seven letters of the musical alphabet Line note or space note on a musical staff Steps, skips and repeated pitches Steps, leaps and repeated pitches Simple melodic ostinati and drones Identify the musical alphabet ascending on lines and spaces from middle C to G above the staff Intervals, unison and octave Whole and half steps Ledger-line notes C and B below the treble staff Melodic patterns using: ti, la, so, fa, mi,re, do, High do, Low la and Low so, ending on home tone or tonal center 1 2 3 4 5

Upward/Downward

Same and different

Melodic patterns using: la, so, mi, do

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Texture and Harmony Scope and Sequence
K One sound/more than one sound Accompaniment/ no accompaniment Thick/thin Ostinato Bordun Major/minor Chord changes including I-V7 2-part singing Chord, intervals, root Chord changes including I-V7, I-IVV Rounds Partner songs 1 2 3 4 5

36

Timbre Scope and Sequence
K Speak, sing, shout, whisper Solo/group Child and adult voices Body percussion Scrapers, Shakers, Woods, Metals and Skins Pitched percussion All previous instruments including: trombone, violin, timpani,and clarinet Group: Large and small instrumental ensembles Nature and Environmental sounds Instrumentation from diverse cultures Synthesized sounds Group: Concert Band and Symphony Orchestra Strings, Percussion, Woodwinds and Brass Individual: Male, female, child A Capella singing Individual: Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass Group: small and large vocal ensembles Keyboards 1 2 3 4 5 Vocal production

Unpitched percussion

Flute, trumpet, snare drum, guitar, piano

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Form Scope and Sequence
K Like/unlike phrases Echo Phrase forms ab, aba, aaba, and aabb Solo/chorus Introduction and coda 1 2 3 4 5

Phrase forms ab and aba Introduction and coda Cumulative song

Introduction Same and different sections

D.C. al fine (ABA) Verse/Refrain: AB Section forms including AB and ABA Section forms including AB, ABA, AABA, ABC and ABACA (rondo) First and second ending

Theme and variations

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Expression Scope and Sequence
K 1 2 Dynamics and dynamic markings including p, f, crescendo and decrescendo Sudden changes in dynamics 3 All previous dynamic markings and: sudden changes (subito, p, f), mezzo (mp, mf), pp, ff Dynamic contrasts Dynamics as an expressive choice Tempo markings including accelerando, ritardando, and fermata Tempo markings including allegro, moderato, and adagio Tempo as an expressive choice Tempo markings including presto, andante and subito Sudden changes in tempo Appropriateness of tempo choices Articulations and articulation markings including legato, staccato, and accents Articulation as an expressive choice Articulations and articulation markings including various slurs and marcato Phrasing Tempo markings including allegretto, lento, and largo 4 5

Loud / Soft

Getting louder / Getting softer

Fast / Slow

Getting faster / Getting slower Changes in tempo

Legato

Staccato Variety of moods

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Kindergarten Suggested Timeline
New Concepts Listed in Red Rhythm First Nine Weeks sing, speak, and move with locomotor and non-locomotor movement to the steady beat with a variety of recorded music, rhymes, chants, fingerplays, and circle games experience sound versus silence Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks play unpitched instruments to respond to iconic notation with play pitched instruments to the the steady beat while speaking steady beat steady beat while speaking and singing and singing using proper mallet technique

demonstrate and identify demonstrate and identify one long/short, longer/shorter and two sounds per beat and sounds silent beat with iconic notation echo, play, and move to simple rhythm patterns including quarter notes, paired eighth notes and quarter rests identify sets of 2 and 3 beats experience and identify upward and downward melodic contour while following iconic notation sing and memorize a varied repertoire of patriotic and holiday songs using appropriate head voice in a limited range using good posture and diction sing melodies with so, mi, & la improvise four-beat melodies using so, mi, & la on barred instruments in a pentatonic identify the seven letters of the musical alphabet

Melody

experience and identify sounds as high/low, higher/lower sing and memorize songs from a varied repertoire using appropriate head voice in a limited range using good posture and diction sing melodies using so and mi

Form

echo rhythmic and melodic phrases with body percussion and unpitched percussion identify a song's introduction identify same and different phrases and sections

40

Tone Color (Timbre)

demonstrate and identify differences between singing, speaking, calling, & whispering voices identify by sound the differences between childrens' voices and adults' voices; solo and group; body percussion sounds; unpitched percussion

demonstrate and identify sounds from nature and the environment

identify by sight and sound i.e. flute, trumpet, drum, guitar, and piano

create, using sound and movement, backgrounds or settings for poems, stories, songs, and speech pieces identify differences between one sound and more than one sound; accompaniment and no accompaniment Expression demonstrate and identify differences between loud/soft, louder/softer demonstrate and identify differences between fast and slow Texture & Harmony identify thick or thin textures

demonstrate and identify changes in tempo including getting faster and getting slower identify differences between a march and a lullaby

identify various moods in music

Other

identify ways that music is related to other subject matter demonstrate appropriate audience and performance behavior describe how vibrations make musical sounds experience music from a variety of time periods and cultures

41

First Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts Listed in Red First Nine Weeks sing, speak, and move with locomotor and non-locomotor movement to the steady beat with a variety of recorded music, rhymes, chants, fingerplays, and circle games Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks

Rhythm

Melody

recognize beat / no beat respond to and notate rhythm identify by sight and sound patterns the difference between a note and a rest play steady beat and rhythm while speaking and singing echo, play, and move to clap and move to a repeated simple rhythm patterns rhythm pattern including quarter notes, paired eighth notes and quarter rests sing and read a song with words and rhythm syllables experience 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 read notation and sing a song meters written in duple meter experience and identify leaps identify steps, skips, and and upward and downward repeated pitches melodic contour play melody on pitched percussion to show melodic direction read and sing so and mi from read and sing pitch patterns iconic notation that include so, mi, and la on the staff show hand signs for so and mi identify note as line or space on a treble staff

move to show strong and weak beats

experience mi, re, and do identify the number of lines and spaces on a treble staff

42

Form

recognize the refrain section of the song perform locomotor and nonlocomotor movements to like and different phrases in a call and response song play unpitched instruments to show difference in call and response move to show ABA section form of a song identify phrase forms ab and aba move to show verse and refrain in a song move to show introduction and coda perform contrasting rhythms to show the sections of a song in AB form recognize and sing a cumulative song identify ABA section form perform contrasting rhythms to show the sections of a song in ABA form

play and move to contrasting sections, introduction and coda

Tone Color (Timbre)

demonstrate and identify differences between singing, speaking, calling, & whispering voices identify shakers, scrapers, woods, metals, and skins by sound play and identify shakers, scrapers, woods, metals, and skins by sound production identify pitched percussion instruments by sound

identify the different sounds of various percussion instruments follow instruments featured in a piece on a listening map

Texture & Harmony

play a simple bordun using proper mallet technique

experience ostinato

sing a song with a spoken or instrumental accompaniment

43

Expression

demonstrate and identify changes in tempo including getting faster and getting slower move to show louder and softer dynamics

demonstrate and identify changes in tempo including getting faster and getting slower

sing and move to a song incorporating legato and staccato Other describe how vibrations make musical sounds experience music from a variety of time periods and cultures

44

Second Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts Listed in Red First Nine Weeks read and play to quarter note, paired eighth notes, and quarter rest recognize single eighth notes echo, play, and move to simple rhythm patterns including quarter notes, paired eighth notes and quarter rests play and move to songs written in duple meter read, sing, and notate pitch patterns that include so, mi, and la in different staff location read and notate so, mi, and do Second Nine Weeks read and play to quarter note, quarter rest, and half note recognize two quarter notes/rests equal a half note/rest Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks read and play whole notes and rests practice writing rhythms and counting beats in measures

Rhythm

Melody

identify, read, sing, and move to mi, re, and do read and sing re with hand signs

notate and sight sing do, re, mi, so, and la melodies sing, play, and improvise docentered and la-centered pentatonic songs sing and play simple melodic ostinato

compose melody on pitched percussion to show melodic direction identify steps, skips, and repeated pitches identify note as line or space and the number of lines and spaces on a treble staff sing and move to show difference between call and response identify letter names of lines and spaces on the treble staff

Form

45

Form (continued)

identify, sing, and move to a song in aab phrase form

identify, sing, and move to a song in aaba phrase form identify verse-refrain as AB section form move to show A, B, and coda sections in music listen and identify D.C. al fine in ABA form experience rondo form

Tone Color (Timbre)

Texture & Harmony

identify vocal (male/female, adult/child), instrumental, and body percussion sounds play with proper technique and identify the different sounds of identify and describe bowed, identify shakers, scrapers, various percussion instruments plucked, struck, and electronic woods, metals, and skins by string instrument by sight and sound production sound experience instrumentation from diverse cultures identify thick or thin textures perform ostinato perform ostinato by rote and notation play layered accompaniment play bordun play, sing, and move to crescendo and decrescendo

identify and describe woodwind and brass instruments

perform rhythmic and melodic ostinati by rote and notation

Expression

sing, move, and play loud and soft identify p and f demonstrate and identify changes in tempo including accelerando and ritardando move to show accented beats identify American patriotic songs experience music from a variety of time periods and cultures

perform fermata, p, and f

sing and move to legato and staccato

46

Third Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts in Red

Rhythm

Melody

First Nine Weeks Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks read and play quarter read and play dotted half note read and play sixteenth notes notes/rests, paired and single (three quarter notes equal a eighth notes/rests, half dotted half note) notes/rests, and whole notes/rests perform rhythm patterns in an accompaniment read and play syncopated rhythms differentiate between beat and rhythm identify bar lines, measures, double bar lines, and repeat signs play and move to songs play and move to songs written in triple meter (strong, written in duple and triple weak, weak) meter recognize conductors cues in recognize conductors cues in 2/4 4/4 identify and perform on mallet instrument phrases that move up, down, and repeat sing songs from diverse cultures sing pentatonic songs compose eight-beat melody sing pentatonic songs with in pentatonic scale pitched syllables and hand signs identify and sing low la and low so sing song following notation sing song following notation on the treble staff using letter names B, A, and G identify and sing octave leap low do to high do

47

Form

identify and move to show AB/ verse-refrain form sing, play, and move to show difference between call and response listen and identify D.C. al fine and first and second ending create introduction and coda

identify, move, and play songs in AABA form perform a piece in rondo form improvise question and answer rhyhmic and melodic phrases

Tone Color (Timbre)

sing using proper breathing techniques, good tone quality, and diction identify string instruments by sight and sound explore alternative ways for playing pitched percussion, i.e. xylophone, piano identify brass instruments by sight and sound

Texture & Harmony

sing and play rhythmic and melodic ostinati

experience harmony, i.e. ostinato, bordun sing partner songs and canons/ rounds sing and play with appropriate dynamics review terms for tempo i.e. allegro, adagio compare and move to legato and staccato

Expression

sing and identify pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff demonstrate and identify changes in tempo

play, sing, and move to crescendo and decrescendo

experience music from a variety of time periods and cultures

48

Fourth Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts in Red

Rhythm

Melody

First Nine Weeks move to show strong and weak beats perform rhythm patterns using quarter notes, quarter rests, paired eighth notes, half notes, half rests, sixteenth notes, dotted half notes, and syncopated rhythms place pitch syllables on the staff read and use hand signs to a do, re, mi, so, la melody from notation

Second Nine Weeks

Third Nine Weeks perform and move to songs in triple meter perform from notation quarter notes, paired eighth notes, and sixteenth notes

Fourth Nine Weeks recognize conductor cues in 3/4 meter create a composition using familiar rhythm patterns

sing pentatonic song from notation with pitch syllables

read ledger line C and B below the treble staff sing and play short melodic patterns using ti show melodic contour

sing and read from notation a song including do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do (diatonic) identify melodic sequence

Form

Tone Color (Timbre)

sing, play, and move to show difference between call and response identify and perform phrases marked with slurs improvise question and answer rhyhmic and melodic phrases identify and move to show AB determine and demonstrate verse-refrain form ABA form sing using proper breathing techniques, good tone quality, and diction distinguish vocal tone colors, identify string instruments by i.e. soprano, alto, tenor, bass shape, sight, and sound

create and perform a piece in rondo form (ABACA)

experience theme and variations

identify and describe percussion tone colors

identify a variety of instrumental and vocal ensembles i.e. concert band, symphony orchesta, choir, duet

49

Texture & Harmony

play ostinato accompaniment sing in harmony i.e. counter melody listen and describe a recorded song's texture

play I, V accompaniment sing and move to canons/rounds

Expression

sing and identify dynamics and dynamic changes move to show tempo and tempo changes sing and move to legato and staccato experience music from a variety of time periods and cultures identify and perform accents where appropriate

50

Fifth Grade Suggested Timeline
New Concepts in Red First Nine Weeks perform rhythm patterns using quarter notes, quarter rests, paired eighth notes, half notes, half rests, variations of sixteenth notes, dotted half notes, and syncopated rhythms identify and practice 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4 conducting patterns play and move to songs written in 6/8 meter identify, read, and play sixteenth note patterns i.e. titika, tika-ti sing, identify, and play pentatonic song from notation with pitch syllables play recorder Second Nine Weeks Third Nine Weeks Fourth Nine Weeks

Rhythm

experience 5/4 meter read from notation and perform dotted-rhythm patterns

Melody

sing and read notation including do, re, mi, fa, so, la sing and play short melodic patterns using low ti recognize the difference between low ti and do is a half step Form recognize, sing, and move to call and response form sing song in AB verse-refrain form sing using proper breathing techniques, good tone quality, and diction distinguish vocal tone colors, i.e. soprano, alto, tenor, bass

identify whole and half steps in a major diatonic scale in printed music

sing and perform in minor keys

perform pieces in ABA form

create and perform piece in rondo form (ABACA)

Tone Color (Timbre)

differentiate sounds in flute and recorder

51

Texture & Harmony

discover how harmony is created by combining two different melodies

sing partner songs

identify and perform three part round

sing in two-part harmony

identify major versus minor tonality recognize chord changes including I, IV, and V Expression sing using crescendo and decrescendo identify and describe dynamics and articulation i.e. pp,p, mp,mf,f ff, legato, staccato, crescendo, decrescendo differentiate between slurs and ties

experience music from a variety of time periods and cultures

52

Timeline at a Glance
Kindergarten
1st Nine Weeks Rhythm Melody Form Tone Color Texture & Harmony Expression steady beat high/low echo voice types one sound/more than one sound; accompaniment/ no accompaniment loud/soft same/different 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks long/short upward/downward 4th Nine Weeks one sound, two sounds, silence

thick/thin fast/slow march/lullaby

First Grade
1st Nine Weeks Rhythm 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks

q n Q! $, @, #!
SM ab, aba shakers, scrapers, woods, metals, skins bordun legato, staccato step, skip, repeated pitches SML AB, ABA pitched percussion

Melody Form Tone Color Texture & Harmony Expression

Second Grade
1st Nine Weeks Rhythm Melody Form Tone Color Texture & Harmony Expression 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks

e E!
SMD aab

h H!
MRD aaba strings ostinato

w W!
DRMSL ABACA woodwind, brass

p, f

«¬, º»

53

Third Grade
1st Nine Weeks Rhythm Melody Form Tone Color Texture & Harmony Expression syncopation beat/rhythm octave, low L, & low S AABA partner songs, canons pp, p, mp, mf, f, ff allegro, adagio 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks

d D!

y!

Fourth Grade
1st Nine Weeks Rhythm Melody Form Tone Color Texture & Harmony Expression phrases with slurs SATB counter melody 2nd Nine Weeks 3rd Nine Weeks T 4th Nine Weeks DRMFSLTD theme and variations ensembles I, V

Fifth Grade
1st Nine Weeks Rhythm 2nd Nine Weeks dotted rhythms 3rd Nine Weeks 4th Nine Weeks

m M! P!
recorder

%!
whole and half steps

Melody Form Tone Color Texture & Harmony Expression

low T

major/minor

three-part round I, IV, V slurs/ties

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Glossary
A Cappella – Vocal music performed without instrumental accompaniment. A tempo – Return to previous tempo. AB – Form of music that incorporates two parts. Also referred to as binary or verse-refrain form. ABA – Three-part form in which the middle section is different from other sections. Also referred to as ternary form. Accelerando – Grow gradually faster. Accent ( >) – Placed above a note to indicate stress or emphasis. Accidental – A sharp, flat, or natural placed before a note, used to alter the pitch of the note within a measure. Accompaniment – A part, usually played by one or more instruments, that supports a main melody. Adagio – Indicating a slow tempo. Aesthetics – A philosophy dealing with the nature and expression of beauty, as in the fine arts. Allegro – Indicating a fast, running tempo. Alto – Low treble voice. Andante – Indicating a moderate tempo. Arrangement – An adaptation of a piece of music for a medium different from that for which it was originally composed. Arranger – A person who makes decisions about how style, instrumentation, tempo, harmony, and dynamics can be changed in a piece of music. Articulation – In performance, the characteristics of attack and release of tones and the manner and extent to which tones in sequence are connected or disconnected. Balance – An appropriate arrangement of musical elements and sections. Ballad – Song, usually slow, which tells a story. Bar line – Vertical line placed on the staff to separate sets of beats into measures. Bass – Lowest singing voice or instrumental range. Beat – Pulse of the music. Blend – Quality of sound that gives an ensemble its own distinctive sound. Body percussion – Rhythmical use of snaps, claps, pats, and stomps. Bordun – A repeated open fifth pattern used to accompany music. Brass Instruments – Instruments which are made of a brass or silver tube and have cupped mouthpieces, including trumpet, horn, trombone, tuba and their families. Call and Response – A form of choral singing. The call is sung by a leader. The response is usually sung by a group. Canon – Composition where the melody is sung or played at staggered times. Changed Voice – Adult singing voice. Chord – Combination of two or more tones simultaneously. Chord Progression – A series of chords used to harmonize a song or piece of music. Chromatic – Moving by half steps. Classroom instruments – Instruments typically used in the general music classroom. For example, percussion instruments, recorders, keyboards. Clef – Symbol placed at the beginning of the staff to indicate the pitch of the notes on the staff. The most commonly used clefs in choral music are the G, or treble clef (G) and the F, or bass clef (?). Coda – An added ending to a composition. Compose – To write music. Conductor - The leader of a musical ensemble who indicates through gestures or conducting patterns how the music should be interpreted by the musicians. Countermelody – A different melody that is played or sung at the same time as the main melody. Crescendo ( «¬) – Gradually louder. Cut Time (!!or C) – A meter signature in which there are two beats in a measure and a half note one beat. Da capo, D. C. – Return to the beginning. Da capo, al fine – Return to the beginning and continue until the end is indicated.

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Decrescendo ( º») – Grow gradually softer; synonymous with diminuendo. Descant – Countermelody, usually above the principal melody, to be sung by a few voices. Diaphragm – Muscular area that separates the chest cavity and the abdomen; an important muscle in the inhalationexhalation cycle. Diatonic – The notes in a major or minor scale. Diction – Degree of clarity and distinctness of pronunciation in singing. Diminuendo – Decrescendo Double bar – A pair of bar lines, one thick and one thin, used to mark the end of the song. Downbeat – The strong beat. Duration – The length of time per note. Dotted Note – A dot to the right of a note head adds one half the length of the note. Dynamics – Varying degrees of loud and soft. Elements of music – Basic units that on their own or when combined make up music, including Expression, Form, Harmony, Melody, Rhythm, Texture and Timbre. Expression, expressive, expressively – Appropriate articulation, phrasing, style, and interpretation and appropriate variations of dynamics and tempo. Fermata – The note of a composition as long as the conductor allows. Fine – The end of a piece of music. Flat ( ) – Symbol that lowers the pitch of a note one-half step. Folk song – A song that has been preserved by oral tradition. Form – Design or structure of a musical composition. Forte ( f ) – Loud. Fortissimo ( ff ) – Very loud. Genre – Type or category of music such as sonata, opera, art song, gospel, work song, lullaby, spiritual, jazz, or march. Half step – The interval between two adjacent pitches. Harmony – Sounding of two or more tones simultaneously; the vertical aspect of music.

b

Head tone – The upper register of a voice because the sound seems to vibrate in the head of the singer; a flute-like quality in a young child. Improvise – Art of playing or inventing music that has not already been composed. Interval – Distance between two pitches. Intonation – Degree to which pitch is accurately produced in performance, particularly among the players in an ensemble. Introduction – Music that is played before the words are sung or the actual piece begins. Key signature – Indication of sharps or flats to be played or sung. Largo – Indicating a very slow tempo. Ledger Line – An added short line to indicate pitch above or below the staff Legato – Smooth and connected. Literature – A musical composition. Major scale – An arrangement of 8 tones ascending in the following pattern of steps or intervals: whole, whole, half, whole, whole, whole, half. Mallet Technique – Control of the mallets to produce characteristic musical tones on barred instruments. Measure – Group of beats containing a primary accent and one or more secondary accents, indicated by the placement of bar lines on the staff. Melodic contour – The shape of the melody, moving higher, lower, or staying the same. Melody – In general, a succession of musical tones; represents the linear or horizontal aspect of music. Meter – Systematically arranged and measured rhythmic pulses or beats indicated by a meter signature at the beginning of a work. Meter signature – Numbers placed at the beginning of a composition to indicate the meter of the music; the upper number indicates the beats in a measure; the lower number tells which kind of note receives one beat. Mezzo – Moderately Mezzo forte ( mf ) – Medium loud. Mezzo piano ( mp ) – Medium soft.

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MIDI (Music Instrument Digital Interface) – Standard specifications that enable electronic instruments, such as the synthesizer, sampler, sequencer, and drum to communicate with one another and with computers. Minor – Designation for certain intervals and scales; a key based on a minor scale nd (La-based with half steps between 2 rd, th th and 3 and 6 and 7 ) is called a minor key. Moderato – At a moderate pace. Natural – Musical symbol that cancels a previous sharp or flat. Nonpitched – Containing no pitch; usually describes instruments such as tambourines, triangles, or claves; also referred to as unpitched. Notation – Term for a system of expressing musical sounds through the use of written characters called notes. Note Values – See duration. Octave – Eighth tone above a given pitch. Orchestra – Group of instruments that includes brass, woodwind, string, and percussion sections. Ostinato – Repeated melodic or rhythmic pattern. Ostinati – More than one ostinato pattern Partner Song – Two or more different songs that can be sung at the same time to create harmony. Pentatonic scale – A scale composed of five notes in an octave typically consisting of do, re, mi, sol, and la. Percussion Instruments – Instruments that are sounded by striking, shaking, plucking, or scraping. Periods of Music – Historical periods of musical styles including Baroque (1600-1750), Classical (1750-1820), Romantic (1820-1900), and Contemporary (1900-present). See appendix. Phrase – Relatively short portion of a melodic line that expresses a musical idea, comparable to a line or sentence in poetry. Pianissimo (pp) – Very soft. Piano (p) – Soft. Pitch – Vibrations in sound. Rallentando – Gradual slowing.

Range – The scope of notes that an instrument or a voice can produce. Also, the scope of a composition, from the lowest note to the highest. Recorder – Straight end-blown flute, as opposed to side-blown or concert flute. Notes can be played by opening or closing eight holes in the instrument with the fingers. Refrain – The song part that is sung the same way every time when a song has two or more verses. Repeat Sign ( } ) – Repetition of a section or a composition as indicated two vertical dots to the left of a double bar. Rest – Symbol used to denote silence in music. Rhythm – Term that denotes the organization of sound in time; the temporal quality of sound. Ritardando (Rit.) – Slowing down. Rondo – Form of music that incorporates a recurring theme (as in ABACA). Scale – Succession of tones. The scale generally used in Western music is the diatonic scale, consisting of whole and half steps in a specific order. Sforzando – Loud or accented, then immediately softer. Sharp (B)– Symbol that raises the pitch of a note one-half step. Skip – Intervallic movement from one pitch to another, skipping the pitches in between. Slur – A curved line indicating need to connect notes smoothly, legato. Silent Beat – A rest. Solfège – Vocal exercise sung on vowels or syllables. The practice of singing using syllables, do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, and their association with specific pitches, especially in regard to the indication of intervals. Solo – Singing or playing alone. Soprano – Highest singing voice or instrumental range. Spiritual – Type of religious folk song or hymn developed by Americans in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Staccato – Short and separated

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Staff – Horizontal lines (usually five) used to notate pitches. Step – Intervallic movement by whole step. String Instruments – Any musical instrument that produces sound by means of vibrating strings. Style – Distinctive or characteristic manner in which the elements of music are treated including country, gospel, jazz, pop, rock, and swing. See appendix. Subito – Suddenly. Syncopation – Accent on the weak beat. Technique – Ability to perform with appropriate timbre, intonation and diction; to play or sing the correct pitches and rhythms. Tempo – Rate of speed in a musical work. Texture – Term used to describe the way in which melodic lines are combined either with or without accompaniment. Types include monophonic, homophonic, polyphonic, and contrapuntal. Tenor – Singing voice or instrumental range between alto and baritone. Tie – A curved line drawn over or under the heads of two notes of the same pitch indicating that there should be no break between them but they should be played as a single note. Timbre – Characteristic quality of a voice or instrument. Tonal Center – The home tone of a song. Tonality – Term used to describe the organization of the melodic and harmonic elements; a feeling that one pitch, the tonic, is the pulling force or center.

Triple meter – Meter based on three beats, or a multiple of three, in a measure. Triplet – Group of three notes performed in the time of two of the same kind. Unison – Singing or playing the same notes by all singers or players, either at exactly the same pitch or in a different octave. Upbeat – One or more notes before the first strong beat of a phrase. Unpitched – Containing no pitch; usually describes instruments such as tambourines, triangles, or claves; also referred to as unpitched. Verse – Words and music that make up the body of a song and that may alternate with the refrain. Verse-Refrain Form – A song in which the words of the verse change following each repetition of the refrain; the verse and refrain usually have different melodies. Also referred to as AB or binary form. Vocal technique – Control of the voice and vocal sounds; method of producing and phrasing notes with the voice. Whole step – Pitch interval made by two half steps. Woodwind Instruments – Instruments that are made of wood and sounded by means of air. All utilize reeds except for the flute family. Single reed instruments include the clarinet and saxophone families. The double reed instruments include the oboe family.

Bibliography Alabama Course of Study: Arts Education. Montgomery, Alabama: Alabama Department of Education, 2006. Beethoven, J., Brumfield, S., Campbell, P. S., Connors, D. N., Duke, R. A., Jellison, J. A., et al. (2005) SilverBurdett: Making Music. Glenview, Illinois: Pearson/Scott Foresman. Bond, J., Boyer-White, R., Campbell-duGard, M., Davidson, M. C., de Frece, R., Goetze, M., el al. (1998). Share the Music. New York, New York: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2007). Virginia Tech Multimedia Music Dictionary. Retrieved June 6, 2007, from http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary.

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Music History Overview
Renaissance (Pre 1600) Melody graceful arching contours, singable Baroque (1600-1750) motivic, ornamented, elaborate Classical (1750-1825) Romantic (1825-1900) Contemporary (1900- ) large leaps, highly dissonant intervals, deemphasized, not singable weakening traditional harmonies, random harmonies in serialism, microtonal intervals

Harmony

modes

singable, symmetrical, tuneful, overly antecedent/consequent emotional, longer phrases, highly chromatic, expanded ranges major/minor tonalities major/minor tonalities, more dissonance, more are used more than strong cadences, frequent modulations, modes, basso continuo modulations are more high chromaticism, common, Alberti bass, dense harmonies, lush definite beginning, orchestrations, middle, and end weakened sense of beginning, middle, and end, harmony enhances expression very metrical, first use of bar lines and time signatures polyphonic from counterpoint more flexible, less predictable

Rhythm

simple

more frequent changes polyrhythmic, loss of in meter, fermata rhythmic structure, frequent meter changes homophonic homophonic in pop music, polyphonic in art music wider range, frequent changes

Texture

Dynamics Tempo

monophony (chants, plainsong), polyphony (motets), homophony (chanson) no markings because music was hand copied free

homophonic

terraced dynamics some markings

graduated dynamics

wider range (pppp, ffff)

rubato, invention of the more frequent changes frequent tempo metronome, first use of in tempo changes metronome markings

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Composers

DuFay, Hildegard, Palestrina

Bach, Handel

Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven

Culture

patronage of music, upper class rule, Age of Age of Enlightenment, increased interest in Great Contrasts, rise of the middle class exploration composers had to produce large quantities of music in a short period of time mass (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei) dances, sonata opera, oratoria, cantata, opera, oratorio, passion, mass passion, mass

Berlioz, Brahms, Dvorak, Tchaikovsky, Strauss, Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, Mahler, Liszt fascination with nature, the macabre, Gothic, and supernatural, mass printing

Copland, Orff, Debussy, Gershwin, Cage, Babbitt widening gap between art music and pop music

Vocal

opera (Wagner, Rossini, Verdi), lied (Schubert, Schumann), mass, song cycle large orchestra, programatic music (idée fixe), nationalism, symphony, piano works

Instrumental

harpsichord, concerto grosso, suite, fugue

piano, small orchestra (strings, woodwinds, some brass), sonata, symphony, concerto, string quartet

vocal slides, large ranges, uncommon dissonances, nontraditional vocalizations electronic instruments

Other

intellectual, structured

emotional, natural, form expression shaped shaped expression form, virtuoso performers

serial music places much demand on the musicians, impressionists, neoclassicists, serialists, aleatoric

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World Music Overview
Continent Melody Harmony
not as important as melody, important in S. African choral music, polyphonic texture

Rhythm
polyrhythmic, each drum plays one rhythm repeatedly, highly accented

Instruments

Vocal

Function

Africa

pentatonic, tritonic, heptatonic, Western intervals

djembe, mbira, middle voice, call integrated into talking drum, musical and response, songs everyday life, music bow, harp, lute, log inflected like spoken for all occasions and drum, shekere, metal word, songs teach events, bells, xylophones, traditions, ululation, communication, instruments are unison secular and sacred vehicles of speech early music meant to purify one's thoughts, opera - main male sound influenced the sings baritone, harmony of the secondary male sang universe, separation falsetto, heroines of vocal and sang with high nasal instrumental, art quality music most appreciated evolved into middle range, some improvisation on melody separation of vocal and instrumental, art music most appreciated Bali - outdoor religious ceremonies to inspire trances, Java - royal court music, music not notated

Asia/China

based on pentatonic or heptatonic scale, pure tones, each tone has a mystical significance, music rooted in melody same scales, melodic contour not as important, heterophony, microtones

drones on zithers, melody more important

duple meters

qin (most important solo instrument), flute, sheng (mouth organ), metal percussion, gongs

Asia/Japan

melody more important

duple meters

koto (most important solo instrument, shakuhachi (flute) gamelan is considered one instrument, all tuned to one scale, metallophones, gongs, 30-40 instruments

five-tone or seventone scale, not tuned to Western intervals, Asia/Indonesia melody broken between instruments, little improvisation

heterophony produced by elaborations of melody

duple or quadruple divisions, 4th beat most important

vocal music tends to be highly ornamented

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Continent

Melody
ragas - sequence of pitches related to certain time of day or night, mood, deity, event, or sex, 7 basic tones that represent a mood

Harmony

Rhythm

Instruments

Vocal

Function

Asia/India

drone of tonic, fifth, and octave

talas - rhythmic sitar (plays melody, 7 cycles of a fixed music intimately strings, 13 number of beats connected to spiritual sympathetic strings), grouped together in word, music reflects tabla (right hand singer improvises on an orderly inherent order of the drum), banya (left raga arrangement, players universe, ragas and hand drum), tambura free to improvise, talas are memorized, (4-6 strings, plays three tempos - solo, very intense training drone) moderate, fast didgeridoo (made from limbs or trees hollowed out by termites, circular breathing produces constant drone as player hums or vocalizes, beeswax mouthpiece) khoomii sung by males, also found in the singing of the women in the Xhosa tribe in South Africa balalaika (developed from the dombra of Siberia, triangular body, small sound hole, long narrow neck, 3 strings, 6 sizes from piccolo to contrabass, organized into orchestras

Australia

overblowing creates harmonics

breathing creates rhythm, tongue taps on mouthpiece

originally a sacred instrument used in tribal rituals, only played by males, gaining secular use

Asia/Russia (throat singing)

imitates the sounds of nature

one person sings 2-4 pitches by singing overtones

pastoral music connected with animism, the belief that natural objects have souls

Asia/Russia

folk melodies, religious chants

traditional dance music, played along to accompany songs and dance

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Continent

Melody

Harmony

Rhythm

Instruments
bodhran (goatskin drum), fiddle, tin whistle, accordion bagpipe (originally came from Egypt), fiddle, harp klezmer band combines wind and string instruments, clarinet, saxophone, accordion, drum, shofar

Vocal

Function
oral folk tradition, music for dancing

melody, rhythm, and harmony closely Europe/Ireland resemble music of western Europe melody, rhythm, and Europe/ harmony closely Scotland resemble music of western Europe harmonic minor scale, augmented 2nd intervallic leaps, 4th, 6th, and 7th most common, 2-6 sections Portuguese heritage, European modes text is important

jigs, reels, marches, retreats

Europe/ Eastern

chordal harmony

steady duple meter, heavily accented

religious, transmit history, melismatic, nasal ululations

performed for social occasions, religious prayer

Europe/ Switzerland, Austria South America/ Brazil (folk) Central America/ Mexico (folk) Central America/ Mexico (mariachi) Trinidad/ Tobago (folk) Trinidad/ Tobago (calypso)

major scale oriented

regular beat

rapid alternation of registers, legato guitar, cuica, guiro, cabasa, drums flutes, maracas, drums, slit drums guitars, bass guitar, 2 trumpets conga drum, calabash, rattle steel drum bands

communication in mountain areas celebrations, dance music, Carnaval, samba dance, festivals, drama, poetry

European heritage

African origin, polyrhythmic

Iberian polyphony

high pitched

European models, text in couplets call and response from Africa call and response, short phrases, European

European heritage

triple rhythms

entertainment

polyrhythms duple meter, syncopation

primarily vocal music

combining cultures and religions social criticism, satire

major scale oriented

primarily male

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Continent

Melody

Harmony

Rhythm

Instruments

Vocal

Function

Cuba/Puerto Rico (salsa)

European derived, improvisations

vocals, piano, bass, trumpet, trombone, saxophone, bongos, simple 4-bar or 8-bar West African rhythms conga drums, progressions of interlocking with timbales, claves, primary chords rhythmic ostinati cymbals, cowbell, maracas, woodblock, guiro 12-bar blues form using pattern of primary chords European heritage duple meters duple meter, syncopation rhythm section solo

based on Cuban dance styles and elements of jazz and rock

North America/ Blues North America/ USA/Ragtime

European European, 3 or 4 sections

self-expression listening entertainment entertainment at weddings, funerals, political rallies, night clubs, originated in red light district of New Orleans

piano

North America/ USA/ Dixieland

European phrases, call and response, group improvisation

European heritage

syncopation

Dixieland band (trumpet, trombone, tuba, clarinet, piano, string bass, banjo, drum set big band (4 saxophones, 4 trumpets, rhythm section - piano, drums, string bass, guitar) small combo, lead instrument (saxophone or trumpet), rhythm section

North America/ USA/Swing

melody played by one section of band, one person improvises at a time

European heritage

less syncopated

dancing and listening

North melody obscured by America/ USA/ rapid scalar Bebop improvisation

European heritage

syncopation

listening to virtuosic performances

64

Suggested Inventory of Instruments
Barred Instruments Soprano Glockenspiel Alto Glockenspiel Soprano Xylophone Alto Xylophone Bass Xylophone Soprano Metallophone Alto Metallophone Bass Metallophone Bass Bars

Auxiliary Instruments African Pods Agogo Bells Autoharp Bass Drum Bell Tree Bird Call Bongos Cabasa Castanets Claves Congas/Tubanos Cowbell Cricket Call Djembe Egg Shakers Finger Cymbals Flexatone Gankogui Goat Hoof Rattle Gong Guiro Hand Drums Jingle Bells Kalimba Keyboard Kokoriko Log Drum Maracas Mini Steel Drum Music Stand Ocean Drum Piano Piccolo Temple Blocks Pow Wow Drum Rain Stick Ratchet Rhythm Sticks Sand Blocks Shaekere Slapstick Slide Whistle Snare Drum Sound Shapes Spoons Stir Xylophone Suspended Cymbal Tambourine Temple Blocks Thunder Sheet Thunder Tube Timpani Tone Blocks Train Whistle Triangles Vibraslap Washboard Wind Chimes Wood Blocks

65

Suggested Curriculum Resources
Title 120 Singing Games and Dances 150 American Folk Songs 150 Rounds for Singing and Teaching 2nd Rhyme Around 3rd Rhymes the Charm All About Bongos All About Congas All About Jembe Amazing Jamnasium Any Jig or Reel As American As Apple Pie Assessing the Developing Child Musician Bach's Fight for Freedom Backwoods Heritage Beethoven Lives Upstairs Beginning Folk Dances Bizet's Dream Bought Me A Cat 2 Changing Directions Chimes of Dunkirk Chimes of Dunkirk: Teaching Dance Classroom Instrument Bingo Come Join In! Conga Town D.R.U.M. Discovering Orff Down in the Valley Encore! English Country Dances Exploring Orff Feel It! Game Plan Grade One Game Plan Grade One Curriculum Game Plan Grade Three Game Plan Grade Three Curriculum Game Plan Grade Two Game Plan Grade Two Curriculum Gameboard Book Book Book Book Book Book & CD Book & CD Book & CD Book/CD-ROM & CD CD Book Book DVD Book/CD/DVD DVD Videos 1-5 DVD Book/CD CDs (6) Book/CD DVD Game Book Book Book Book Book/CD Book Book/CD/DVD Book Book/2 CDs Charts & Visuals Book Charts & Visuals Book Charts & Visuals Book Components Jill Trinka Phyllis S. Weikart Davis, Amidons, Brass Davis, Amidons, Brass Harper Elizabeth Gilpatrick Jim Solomon Jim Solomon Jane Frazee Davis, Amidons, Brass Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Martha Riley Arvida Steen Abramson Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Phyllis S. Weikart Martha Riley Description Author/Artist Choksy, Brummitt Ed. by Peter Erdel Bolkovac and Johnson Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Kalani Kalani Kalani Kalani Davis, Amidons, Brass Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Tim Brophy

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GASA Strategies for Teaching Set A GASA Strategies for Teaching Set B Get America Singing…Again! Vol.1 Get America Singing…Again! Vol.1 Get America Singing…Again! Vol.1 Get America Singing…Again! Vol.2 Get America Singing…Again! Vol.2 Get America Singing…Again! Vol.2 Hand Drums on the Move Handel's Last Chance Highlighting the Holidays Homespun I Sing, You Sing I Sing, You Sing: Holiday Songs In All Kinds of Weather, Kids Make Music! In All Kinds of Weather, Kids Make Music! Instrument Bingo It's Elemental It's Elemental 2 John, the Rabbit 3 Jump Jim Joe Kids Can Listen, Kids Can Move! Kids Make Music, Babies Make Music Too! Kids Make Music, Babies Make Music Too! Las Vegas Writes I Las Vegas Writes II Las Vegas Writes III Lines & Spaces Bingo Listen to the Mockingbird Listening Resource Kit - Level 1 Listening Resource Kit - Level 2 Listening Resource Kit - Level 3 Listening Resource Kit - Level 4 Listening Resource Kit - Level 5 Liszt's Rhapsody Little Black Bull 4 Making the Most of the Holidays Marsalis on Music: Listening for Clues Marsalis on Music: Sousa to Satchmo Marsalis on Music: Tackling the Monster Marsalis on Music: Why Toes Tap

Book Book Book P/A CD 3-CD set Singers Ed.-30 Book P/A CD 3-CD set Singers Ed.-30 Book DVD Book Book Book/CD Pack Book/CD Pack Book CD Game Book Book Book/CD Book/CD Book/CD Pack Book CD Book Book Book Game Book/CD Book Book Book Book Book DVD Book/CD Book Video Video Video Video

Published by MENC Published by MENC Published by MENC Published by MENC Published by MENC Published by MENC Published by MENC Published by MENC Chris Judah-Lauder Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Shirley W. McRae Sally K. Albrecht and Jay Althouse Sally K. Albrecht and Jay Althouse Lynn Kleiner Lynn Kleiner Cheryl Lavender Don Dupont and Brian Hiller Don Dupont and Brian Hiller Jill Trinka Davis, Amidons, Brass Lynn Kleiner Lynn Kleiner Lynn Kleiner Nevada's Desert-Valley Chapter Nevada's Desert-Valley Chapter Nevada's Desert-Valley Chapter Cheryl Lavender Davis, Amidons, Brass Denise Gagne Denise Gagne Denise Gagne Denise Gagne Denise Gagne Jill Trinka Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske

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Melody Bingo Monkey Business Music and Feelings Music K-8 Music Styles Bingo Music Symbol Bingo Musical Instrument Bingo Musicplay for Kindergarten My Little Rooster 1 One, Two, Three, Echo Me One, Two, Three, Echo Me Orff Companion Orff Schulwerk Today Other Side of the Tracks Peter and the Wolf Peter Ustinov Reads The Orchestra Playtime Instrumental Pieces Reading Rainbow: Barn Dance Reading Rainbow: Follow the Drinking Gourd Reading Rainbow: Zin! Zin! Zin! A Violin Recorder Routes I Rhythm Bingo Level 1 & 2 Rhythmically Moving CD Set Round the Seasons Round We Go Sesame Street: Let's Make Music Sesame Street: Zoe's Dance Moves Simply Sung Sing Round the World Vol. 1 Sing Round the World Vol. 2 Sing with Me! Learn With Me! Singing Round the Year Solfege Bingo Sound Ideas Sound Shape Playbook Strauss: The King of Three-Quarter Time Strike It Rich! Teaching Folk Dance Teaching Folk Dance Teaching Movement and Dance The Amazing Jamnasium The Complete Recorder Resource Kit

Game Book DVD Periodical Game Game Game Book/CD Pack Book/CD Book/CD Book Book CD DVD DVD Book DVD DVD DVD Book Game CDs (9) Book Book Video Video Book Book Book Book Book Game Book Book/CD Pack DVD Book Book Videos (Vol. 1&2) Book Book/CD Book/CD

Cheryl Lavender Jim Solomon Mister Rogers Plank Road Publishing Cheryl Lavender Cheryl Lavender Cheryl Lavender Denise Gagne Jill Trinka Loretta Mitchell Dirksing Jane Frazee Davis, Amidons, Brass Prokofiev Shirley W. McRae

Carol King Cheryl Lavender Phyllis S. Weikart Elizabeth Gilpatrick Elizabeth Gilpatrick

Mary Goetze Shirley W. McRae Shirley W. McRae Elizabeth Gilpatrick Robert deFrece Cheryl Lavender Doug Goodkin Lynn Kleiner Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Phyllis S. Weikart Phyllis S. Weikart Phyllis S. Weikart Kalani Denise Gagne

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The Complete Recorder Resource Kit 2 The Kodaly Method I The Kodaly Method II The Little Black Bull 4 The Magic Circle The Nutcracker The Sound of Music The Tropical Recorder The Tropical Recorder To Drum Together in Rhythm Tops in Pops Tutoring Tooters Tyme for a Rhyme Where's Your Drum? World Instrument Bingo World Music Drumming World Music Drumming-New Ensembles

Book/CD Book Book Book Book DVD DVD Book Student Packs Book Book/DVD Book Book Book CD Game Book Book/CD Pack

Denise Gagne Choksy Choksy Jill Trinka Isabel Carley Tchaikovsky (Royal Ballet) Jim Solomon & Mary Helen Solomon Jim Solomon & Mary Helen Solomon Chris Judah-Lauder Kalani Arr. Marilyn Copeland Davidson Shirley W. McRae Randy DeLelles and Jeff Kriske Bloom Cheryl Lavender Will Schmid Will Schmid

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