David Carson Berry, “Stravinsky, Igor,”

in Europe 1789 to 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire,
editors-in-chief John Merriman and Jay Winter
(Detroit: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2006), vol. 4: 2261–2263.

STRAVINSKY,IOOR
PETER KEMP
--, Strauss Family.' Portrait of a Musical Dynasty.
Tunbndge Wells, U.K., 1985. Revised as The Strauss
Family. London, 1989.
Mailer, Franz. Josef Strauss: Genius against His Will.
Translated by Philip G. Povey. Oxford, U.K, 1985.
Translation of Joseph Strauss.' Genie wider Willen.
Vienna and Munich, 1977.
--, Johann Strauss (Sohn): Leben und Werk in Briefen
und Dokumenten. 10 vols. Tutzing, 1983-2005.
Otto. Johann Strauss und die Stadt an der
schiinen blauen Donau. Berlin, 1972.
Traubner, Richard. "Vienna Gold." In Operetta.' A
Theatrical History, pp. 103-131. New York, 1983.
Reprint, 2003.
Wechsberg, Joseph. The Waltz Emperors. London, 1973.
(1882-1971), IGOR STRAVINSKY,
Russian composer.
The highly influential composer Igor Fyodor-
ovich Stravinsky (1882-1971) was born in
Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov) Russia, near
St. Petersburg. He was raised in the latter city (then
the capital of Russia), where his father, Fyodor, was
a prominent operatic bass- baritone. Thus Igor
grew up in an environment steeped in music and
the' theater. In 1902, while studying law, he
approached composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov
(1844-1908) and at some point afterward studied
privately with him. In the ensuing decades,
Stravinsky-who adopted citizenship in France
and the United States (1945)-was asso-
ciated with many of the important tendencies in
twentieth-century music, from forms of nationalism
and primitivism, to neoclassicism, to serialism. The
pastiche element of his neoclassic music has even
been interpreted as a harbinger of postmodernism.
Stravinsky's creative output is often divided into
three periods, which the composer later described as
having been demarcated by two "crises." His first or
"Russian" phase was an outgrowth of his formative
influences. In relatively early works such as Scherzo
fantastique and Fireworks (both completed 1908),
he emulated the techniques of Rimsky-Korsakov
and other composers admired in his milieu. Even
The Firebird (1910)-the fIrst of his ballets written
for impresario Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929) and
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Kemp, Peter. J. Strauss Jr.: Complete Orchestral Works;
Works for Male Chorus and Orchestra. Marco Polo
8.223201-8.223279 (1988-1996). Historical socio-
political program texts accompanying a fifty-two CD
series.
and their author's exorbitant financial demands,
prompted the city's theater directors to approach
Strauss to mount a home-grown riposte. He was
eventually persuaded to experiment with compos-
ing operetta by his first wife, the theatrically
experienced mezzo-soprano Jetty Treffz (1818-
1878). The first of his stage works to reach
production was Indigo und die vierzig Rauber
(1871; Indigo and the Forty Thieves, 1871), a
composition the Fremden-Blatt considered "prom-
ises the most splendid expectations for the future."
A further fourteen operettas, a grand opera Ritter
Pasman (1892; I(night Pasman) and an incomplete
full-length ballet score, Aschenbrodel (1901; Cinder-
ella), followed in its wake, with Strauss scoring his
greatest box-office successes with Die Fledermaus
(1874; The Bat), Eine Nacht in Venedig (1883; A
Night in Venice) and Der Zigeunerbaron (1885; The
Gypsy Baron). Although history has adjudged
Strauss the leading exponent of "Silver Age" Vien-
nese operetta, he was generally a poor judge of
librettos and felt encumbered and restricted by the
process of composing to prescribed texts.
Together with his brother Josef, Strauss devel-
oped the classical Viennese waltz to the point where
it became as much a feature ofthe concert hall as the
dance floor. In an 1894 speech Strauss freely
acknowledged the debt he owed to his father and
to the latter's friend and rival, Joseph Lanner
(1801-1843), for formalizing, developing, and
expanding the structure of the Viennese waltz from
its origins in the unsophisticated rural dances of
Austria and Germany. His characteristic modesty
nevertheless concealed the fact that, as early as
1854, he had himself been hailed as a reformer of
the stereotypical waltz form, shaping it into charac-
teristic tone-pictures. Johann Strauss the Younger's
musical legacy continues to captivate the world,
charming new audiences and ensuring that he
remains the most celebrated and enduringly success-
ful of nineteenth-century light-music composers.
See also Music; Offenbach, Jacques; Romanticism;
Vienna.
E U R 0 PEl 7 8 9 T 0 1 9.1 4 2261
STRAVINSKY, IGOR
the Ballets Russes-owed a debt to established fash-
ions (including French impressionism). Changes
are more evident with the next ballet, Petrushka
(1911), which is infused with nascent modernism
as evidenced by its formal, textural, and thematic
juxtapositions. The following ballet, The Rite of
Spring (1913), took these characteristics to new
levels. Indeed, its Paris premiere was the scene of a
famous audience riot that guaranteed the growing
reputation of the composer.
Especially after The Rite, some listeners began
to discuss Stravinsky's music in terms of primiti-
vism, which composer Marc Blitzstein (1905-
1964) described as "violent, rhythmic, blunt,"
and characterized by "short successive electric
moments" (p. 334). Many contemporaries were
particularly intrigued by Stravinsky's rhythmic
innovations. In tIle Russian-era works and after-
ward, one finds sections of metric irregularity-that
is, with a shifting sense of where the "downbeats"
fall-as well as sections of superimposed patterns,
each internally consistent but combined to form
cycles of polyrhythniic activity.
The first of the composer's period-delimiting
"crises" was precipitated by the outbreak of World
War I in 1914 and exacerbated by' the Russian
Revolution of 1917. The result was what he
described as his "loss of Russia and its language
ofwords as well as of music" (Stravinsky and Craft,
p. 23). During the years that followed, as he lived
first in Switzerland (1914-1920) and then in
France (1920-1939), his so-called second musical
style developed: the neoclassic. Generally speaking,
neoclassic music imitates that of the past-espe-
cially that of the baroque and high classical periods
ofthe eighteenth century-but more by translating
the older idioms into those of the present day than
by exactly replicating the older styles. If the music
was steeped in counterpoint and textures reminis-
cent of the baroque, the motto "Back to Bach" was
often attached. Stravinsky's foray into neoclassicism
has been associated with the composition of var-
ious works, including the ballet Pulcinella (1920),
which Stravinsky himself later suggested as a turn-
ing point. The new style was confirmed with the
Octet for Wind Instruments (1923); its zenith
came in 1951, with the completion of The Rake)s
Progress, an opera that harkened back to Wolfgang
Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791).
2262
By the mid-1920s Stravinsky \vas publicly con-
demning musical modernism, and so emerged one
of the great polemics of the era, which pitted him
against Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg
(1874-1951). Arthur Lourie (1892-1966) pro-
moted the polarization when he described
Schoenberg and Stravinsky as thesis and antithesis
in his article "Neogothic and Neoclassic." The
former's style was characterized as one of extreme
expressiveness, emotionalism, and egocentric indi-
vidualism. The latter's neoclassic style, in contrast,
was described as objective and "purely musical,"
born of intellectualism and a triumph over the
"personal utterance." Although Lourie's alle-
giances were with Stravinsky and his style, similar
characterizations were later inverted in meaning
by Theodor Adorno (1903-1969), a philosopher
and writer on musical modernism. In Philosophie
der neuen Musik (1949; Philosophy of modern
music), he too argued that Schoenberg and
Stravinsky were at the polarized extremes of con-
temporary music. For Adorno, however, Stravinsky's
suppression of expression and subjectivity was to be
condemned.
Given the dichotomy described above, it came
as a surprise to many that in Stravinsky's third com-
positional phase he adopted a method closely
associated with Schoenberg: serialism. It must be
stressed that serialism is neither a "style" nor a
monolithic system. It is a pliable method whereby
a composer establishes an ordering of musical ele-
ments-most commonly notes, or more precisely
the intervals between the notes-that will become
referential for a work. Those who appropriated the
method adapted it to their idiomatic inclinations, as
did Stravinsky, who fashioned many distinctive pro-
cedures. As for the "crisis" that brought about this
new orientation, Stravinsky remarked later that it
was a product of the intense period of over three
years in which he was immersed in The Rake)s Prog-
ress. That is, having exhausted himself in the
consummation of three decades of work in neoclas-
sicism, he needed a creative change. Other factors
also played a role. After World War II serialism had
been adopted by many of the composers deemed
most "progressive," especially in parts of Europe. In
1951, when Stravinsky visited Europe for the first
time in a dozen years, he became aware that he was
no longer relevant to many younger composers.
EUROPE 1789 TO 191
4
Thus, some have argued that his new phase was
largely a matter of wanting to remain au courant.
Another important influence came in the form
ofRobert Craft (b. 1923), aconductor and advocate
of Stravinsky's music as well as that of Schoenberg
and his pupil Anton Webern (1883-1945). Craft
had joined the Stravinsky household in 1949, where
he first served as an assistant to the composer and
eventually became something of a surrogate son.
Craft later affirmed that he had been a catalyst for
the work the composer undertook in this period. As
for the serial music itself, although some ofit sounds
quite different from music of Stravinsky's earlier
periods, there are similarities. For example, the Sep-
tet (1953) once more harkens "back to Bach," with
its passacaglia and gigue movements. On the other
hand, Requiem Canticles (1966)-his last major
work-has affinities with the Russian-era works.
At the time of his death in 1971, two months
before his eighty-ninth birthday, Stravinsky was
routinely described as the (Western) world's
greatest-or at least most celebrated-twentieth-
century composer. Decades later, his reputation
and influence still loom large, as attested to by
the growing number of books and articles devoted
to him. It should be noted that Stravinsky's own
writings are not always reliable guides to his life and
views, partly due to the extent to which ghostwri-
ters or credited collaborators shaped the results,
and partly because the composer occasionally
seemed to change biographical details,to suit the
times. However, the accuracy of recent research
has been greatly abetted by the ability to consult
materials from his estate, many of which are now
housed at the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel,
Switzerland.
See also Avant-Garde; Diaghilev, Sergei; Modernism;
Music; Primitivism; Rimsky-Korsakov, Nikolai;
Schoenberg, Arnold.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Primary Source
Stravinsky, Igor, and Robert Craft. Themes and Episodes.
New York, 1966.
Secondary Sources
Adorno, Theodor. Philosophie der neuen Musik. Tiibingen,
Germany, 1949.
EUROPE 1789 TO 1914
STRIKES
Blitzstein, Marc. "The Phenomenon of Stravinsky." Musi-
cal Quarterly vol. 21, no. 3 (1935): 330-347.
Craft, Robert. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life. New York,
1992.
Cross, Jonathan. The Stravinsky Legacy. Cambridge, U.K.,
and New York, 1998.
Cross, Jonathan, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Stra-
vinsky. Cambridge, U.K., and New York, 2003.
Griffiths, Paul. Stravinsky. London, 1992.
Joseph, Charles M. Stravinsky Inside Out. New Haven,
Conn., 2001.
Lourie, Arthur. "Neogothic and Neoclassic." Modern Music
vol. 5, no. 3 (1928): 3-8.
Taruskin, Richard. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions:
A Biography of the Works through Mavra. Berkeley,
Calif., 1996.
Walsh, Stephen. Stravinsky: A Creative Spring: Russia and
France, 1882-1934. New York, 1999.
DAVID CARSON BERRY
STRIKES.. The strike, the collective withholding
of labor in pursuit of specific economic or political
goals, became the most pervasive form of labor
protest in nineteenth-century Europe. It derived its
centrality from capitalist transformations in the
nature of work and labor relations and the emer-
gence of new political and legal frameworks for
workplace bargaining and negotiation. The strike
evolved after the early nineteenth century in com-
plex relations with other forms of worker protest
and organizations, especially trade unions and
workers' political parties. From the 1860s to 1914,
Europe witnessed unprecedented rates of industrial
militancy in which the strike proved to be the
principal means of interest articulation for wage
earners in urban manufacturing and rural produc-
tion: it became the most effective means of securing
higher wages, defending workplace autonomies and
skills, redressing perceived indignities suffered at the
hands of factory foremen or company owners, and
securing basic civil and political rights.
LABOR PROTEST IN THE EARLY
NINETEENTH CENTURY
If understood strictly in terms of temporary work
stoppages designed to force concessions from
employers, strikes were not new to the nineteenth
2263

he had himself been hailed as a reformer of the stereotypical waltz form." His first or "Russian" phase was an outgrowth of his formative influences. developing. 1989. with Strauss scoring his greatest box-office successes with Die Fledermaus (1874. Historical sociopolitical program texts accompanying a fifty-two CD series. BIBLIOGRAPHY .. and expanding the structure of the Viennese waltz from its origins in the unsophisticated rural dances of Austria and Germany. 1871). Translation of Joseph Strauss. Povey. The Bat).1 4 2261 . Eine Nacht in Venedig (1883. pp. Romanticism. which the composer later described as having been demarcated by two "crises. Fyodor. 10 vols. Stravinsky's creative output is often divided into three periods. for formalizing. Vienna and Munich. Translated by Philip G. In 1902. was a prominent operatic bass. prompted the city's theater directors to approach Strauss to mount a home-grown riposte. Stravinsky-who adopted citizenship in France (193~) and the United States (1945)-was associated with many of the important tendencies in twentieth-century music. Mailer..' Genie wider Willen. In an 1894 speech Strauss freely acknowledged the debt he owed to his father and to the latter's friend and rival. Even The Firebird (1910 )-the fIrst of his ballets written for impresario Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929) and Kemp.223201-8.. The first of his stage works to reach production was Indigo und die vierzig Rauber (1871. "Vienna Gold. Revised as The Strauss Family. London. to serialism. Tunbndge Wells.K. 2003.baritone. Berlin. He was raised in the latter city (then the capital of Russia).' Portrait of a Musical Dynasty. Russian composer. Strauss developed the classical Viennese waltz to the point where it became as much a feature ofthe concert hall as the dance floor.: Complete Orchestral Works. See also Music. He was eventually persuaded to experiment with composing operetta by his first wife. The pastiche element of his neoclassic music has even been interpreted as a harbinger of postmodernism. followed in its wake. J. Jacques. Works for Male Chorus and Orchestra.K. Otto." A further fourteen operettas. Joseph. The Waltz Emperors. Marco Polo 8. Wechsberg. as early as 1854. E U R 0 PEl 7 8 9 T 0 1 9.' A Theatrical History. a grand opera Ritter Pasman (1892. Vienna. near St. Peter.. Oxford." In Operetta. Richard. Joseph Lanner (1801-1843). Together with his brother Josef. a composition the Fremden-Blatt considered "promises the most splendid expectations for the future. U. he was generally a poor judge of librettos and felt encumbered and restricted by the process of composing to prescribed texts. 1973. 1985. 1977. IGOR (1882-1971). 1972. Schn~idereit. Although history has adjudged Strauss the leading exponent of "Silver Age" Viennese operetta. The Gypsy Baron). Cinderella).STRAVINSKY. where his father. the theatrically experienced mezzo-soprano Jetty Treffz (18181878). U. Petersburg. Aschenbrodel ( 1901. while studying law. London. Traubner. he approached composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) and at some point afterward studied privately with him. Josef Strauss: Genius against His Will. Indigo and the Forty Thieves. 1983. Franz. Thus Igor grew up in an environment steeped in music and the' theater. from forms of nationalism and primitivism. A Night in Venice) and Der Zigeunerbaron (1885. Johann Strauss und die Stadt an der schiinen blauen Donau. he emulated the techniques of Rimsky-Korsakov and other composers admired in his milieu. In the ensuing decades. Tutzing. to neoclassicism. PETER KEMP STRAVINSKY. 103-131. charming new audiences and ensuring that he remains the most celebrated and enduringly successful of nineteenth-century light-music composers. . Th~ Strauss Family.223279 (1988-1996). 1985. Johann Strauss (Sohn): Leben und Werk in Briefen und Dokumenten. In relatively early works such as Scherzo fantastique and Fireworks (both completed 1908). I(night Pasman) and an incomplete full-length ballet score.. His characteristic modesty nevertheless concealed the fact that. The highly influential composer Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (1882-1971) was born in Oranienbaum (now Lomonosov) Russia. New York. shaping it into characteristic tone-pictures. Reprint. 1983-2005. Johann Strauss the Younger's musical legacy continues to captivate the world.IOOR and their author's exorbitant financial demands . Offenbach. Strauss Jr.

which is infused with nascent modernism as evidenced by its formal. one finds sections of metric irregularity-that is. rhythmic. with the completion of The Rake)s Progress. If the music was steeped in counterpoint and textures reminiscent of the baroque. As for the "crisis" that brought about this new orientation. Indeed. as he lived first in Switzerland (1914-1920) and then in France (1920-1939). an opera that harkened back to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791). Generally speaking. having exhausted himself in the consummation of three decades of work in neoclassicism. Those who appropriated the method adapted it to their idiomatic inclinations. textural. It must be stressed that serialism is neither a "style" nor a monolithic system. In Philosophie der neuen Musik (1949. as did Stravinsky. when Stravinsky visited Europe for the first time in a dozen years. it came as a surprise to many that in Stravinsky's third compositional phase he adopted a method closely associated with Schoenberg: serialism. By the mid-1920s Stravinsky \vas publicly condemning musical modernism. Many contemporaries were particularly intrigued by Stravinsky's rhythmic innovations. The first of the composer's period-delimiting "crises" was precipitated by the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and exacerbated by' the Russian Revolution of 1917. During the years that followed. The new style was confirmed with the Octet for Wind Instruments (1923). each internally consistent but combined to form cycles of polyrhythniic activity. neoclassic music imitates that of the past-especially that of the baroque and high classical periods of the eighteenth century-but more by translating the older idioms into those of the present day than by exactly replicating the older styles. That is. which composer Marc Blitzstein (19051964) described as "violent. and egocentric individualism. 334). The result was what he described as his "loss of Russia and its language ofwords as well as of music" (Stravinsky and Craft. Stravinsky's suppression of expression and subjectivity was to be condemned." Although Lourie's allegiances were with Stravinsky and his style." born of intellectualism and a triumph over the "personal utterance. or more precisely the intervals between the notes-that will become referential for a work. he too argued that Schoenberg and Stravinsky were at the polarized extremes of contemporary music. IGOR the Ballets Russes-owed a debt to established fashions (including French impressionism). In 1951. however. Other factors also played a role. It is a pliable method whereby a composer establishes an ordering of musical elements-most commonly notes. 191 4 2262 EUROPE 1789 TO . some listeners began to discuss Stravinsky's music in terms of primitivism. For Adorno." The former's style was characterized as one of extreme expressiveness." and characterized by "short successive electric moments" (p. similar characterizations were later inverted in meaning by Theodor Adorno (1903-1969). Petrushka (1911). was described as objective and "purely musical. the motto "Back to Bach" was often attached. in contrast. which pitted him against Austrian composer Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951). blunt. a philosopher and writer on musical modernism. he became aware that he was no longer relevant to many younger composers. Philosophy of modern music). Stravinsky's foray into neoclassicism has been associated with the composition of various works. he needed a creative change. its Paris premiere was the scene of a famous audience riot that guaranteed the growing reputation of the composer. In tIle Russian-era works and afterward. with a shifting sense of where the "downbeats" fall-as well as sections of superimposed patterns. p. its zenith came in 1951." especially in parts of Europe. Given the dichotomy described above. his so-called second musical style developed: the neoclassic. The following ballet.STRAVINSKY. The latter's neoclassic style. 23). The Rite of Spring (1913). and thematic juxtapositions. Arthur Lourie (1892-1966) promoted the polarization when he described Schoenberg and Stravinsky as thesis and antithesis in his article "Neogothic and Neoclassic. emotionalism. and so emerged one of the great polemics of the era. took these characteristics to new levels. which Stravinsky himself later suggested as a turning point. After World War II serialism had been adopted by many of the composers deemed most "progressive. who fashioned many distinctive procedures. including the ballet Pulcinella (1920). Stravinsky remarked later that it was a product of the intense period of over three years in which he was immersed in The Rake)s Progress. Especially after The Rite. Changes are more evident with the next ballet.

Craft later affirmed that he had been a catalyst for the work the composer undertook in this period. some have argued that his new phase was largely a matter of wanting to remain au courant. and New York. there are similarities. 1998. Robert. and securing basic civil and political rights. 2003. and Robert Craft. Stravinsky Inside Out. The strike evolved after the early nineteenth century in complex relations with other forms of worker protest and organizations. 1949. Nikolai. many of which are now housed at the Paul Sacher Foundation in Basel. Berkeley. 1999. From the 1860s to 1914. Switzerland. Cross. Stravinsky: A Creative Spring: Russia and France. 1882-1934. Decades later. 21. New York. Cambridge. Tiibingen. See also Avant-Garde. DAVID CARSON BERRY STRIKES. 1992. New York. New York. Conn. Themes and Episodes. On the other hand. Secondary Sources Adorno. "The Phenomenon of Stravinsky. Rimsky-Korsakov. Calif. Stravinsky was routinely described as the (Western) world's greatest-or at least most celebrated-twentiethcentury composer. U. Germany. For example. 1992. became the most pervasive form of labor protest in nineteenth-century Europe. Charles M. redressing perceived indignities suffered at the hands of factory foremen or company owners. and New York..STRIKES Thus. Arnold. Sergei. London. Jonathan. Craft had joined the Stravinsky household in 1949. 1923).to suit the times. his reputation and influence still loom large. Jonathan. Cambridge." with its passacaglia and gigue movements. partly due to the extent to which ghostwriters or credited collaborators shaped the results. Lourie. Richard. Schoenberg. 1966. the collective withholding of labor in pursuit of specific economic or political goals. It should be noted that Stravinsky's own writings are not always reliable guides to his life and views. no. especially trade unions and workers' political parties. It derived its centrality from capitalist transformations in the nature of work and labor relations and the emergence of new political and legal frameworks for workplace bargaining and negotiation. New Haven. Europe witnessed unprecedented rates of industrial militancy in which the strike proved to be the principal means of interest articulation for wage earners in urban manufacturing and rural production: it became the most effective means of securing higher wages. defending workplace autonomies and skills. the Septet (1953) once more harkens "back to Bach. 3 (1928): 3-8. Cross. Philosophie der neuen Musik." Modern Music vol. Diaghilev. Requiem Canticles (1966 )-his last major work-has affinities with the Russian-era works. Another important influence came in the form ofRobert Craft (b. Griffiths.. strikes were not new to the nineteenth EUROPE 1789 TO 1914 2263 . 1996. the accuracy of recent research has been greatly abetted by the ability to consult materials from his estate. At the time of his death in 1971.." Musical Quarterly vol.. although some ofit sounds quite different from music of Stravinsky's earlier periods. 2001. no. and partly because the composer occasionally seemed to change biographical details.K. Paul. Walsh. Marc.. The Stravinsky Legacy. a conductor and advocate of Stravinsky's music as well as that of Schoenberg and his pupil Anton Webern (1883-1945). Joseph. As for the serial music itself. LABOR PROTEST IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary Source Stravinsky. Arthur. 5. The strike. U. The Cambridge Companion to Stravinsky. Stephen. Modernism. Craft. Primitivism. two months before his eighty-ninth birthday. as attested to by the growing number of books and articles devoted to him. Music.K. Igor. If understood strictly in terms of temporary work stoppages designed to force concessions from employers. Blitzstein. Theodor. where he first served as an assistant to the composer and eventually became something of a surrogate son. Stravinsky and the Russian Traditions: A Biography of the Works through Mavra. 3 (1935): 330-347. However. Stravinsky: Glimpses of a Life. "Neogothic and Neoclassic. Taruskin. ed. Stravinsky.

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