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Q1 What is the purpose of organizations, How do they achieve it what is a System, explain the types of system by giving example. What type of systems are used In the management and why.. Ans. 1. To help Management The organization helps a management to have a control over various business functions. The works is divided properly and control center are established which leads to coordinated administration. 2. To Increase Productions : The efficient system of organization encourages every employee to make his best ! contribution in raising the output. With this the profitability of the concerns will also go up. 3. Cooperation of Employees Organizations make their full efforts to have cooperation among employee because they know they well succeed only if they work together for organization goal. Way to Achieve Organization purpose 1. By division of work All business activities are divided and sub divided into various categories. The purpose of the division is to specialize individuals into different roles.This also helps in increasing the efficiency of employees. 2. Classification of Activities The activities are classified under various categories. Different departments will able to coordinate their activities at different levels for management. Al similar activities are grouped together under one. 3. Appointing Suitable persons After dividing activates organization appoint suitable persons for various jobs. Persons are employed for all types of roles. The idea here is to appoint specialists for different job roles. 4. Delegation of Authority To achieve goal or purpose of organization it is also necessary to delegate I
3. Expert Systems (All Systems). 7. since they often work m groups. The concept of a system A system is a group of inters related components working toward the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputs and producing puts in an organization transformation process. Management information Systems A management information systems deal at making the information need of Manager’s. Knowledge Management Systems (KMS) 4. A person can be made responsible for a work only when he is given required authority to. 6. Executive Support Systems (ESS) G Executive support systems are meant to be used directly by senior managers to f provide supports to non programmed decisions the strategic management category. DSS provide adhoc (need basis) basis information to the managers 3. It helps top executives. Executive Information Systems (ESS). The information needed will be largely External. It provides various alternatives and possible solution the form of information 4. The top management should delegate authority to lower Levels of management. MIS (Limited) Reasons for their use 1. 5.adequate. Authority required for the job. brain storming etc are often needed ESS therefore provide the highest level of Challenges for information system Design. Decision Support Systems (DSS). 6. unstructured and even uncertain. Knowledge management systems provides new business knowledge which helps . which is easy to operate and understand. MIS provide graphical presentation to executive. Experts systems are knowledge based information systems that act as expert consultants to users and help him in decision making. Because of complex task of manages there is a need of such systems 5. several major types of information's systems are used to support a Varity of managerial decision and responsibilities. 2. particularly with regard to the current and post-operations of the enterprise and sometimes provide online links To individual transaction as well that is why these are called operational support systems. Conceptually. 2. Types of Systems used in Management Providing information and support for management decision making to all types and at all levels Of managers is a complex task. 5. 6. 1. It supports a variety of managerial and user responsibilities. Group communications.
manipulated and organized its content is analyzed and evaluated and it is placed in apron context for a human user leading to information. Tactical Management Increasingly self directed teams as well as business unit managers develop short and medium range plans. Information is the increase in knowledge Obtained by the recipient by matching proper data elements to the variables of a problem. 02. which carry message and when perceived by the recipient will increase their state of knowledge. They also monitor the strategic performance of the organizational and its overall direction in the political.. Information is placed jn a meaningful and useful context for an end user. Why different information is required by there distinct levels (Strategic Tactical and operational) of management? Ans. Thus data are usually subjected to a value added process where its form is aggregated. These interfaces relate to the measurement and identification of People event or objects. economic and competition business environment. Information is substantially Different from data as data has raw unevaluated messages. It is the key ingredient in decision making process. process teams. for strategic (Top level) Tactical (Middle level) and operational (lower level) and Operational (Lower Level) management. They also allocate resources and monitor the performance of their organizational subunits inducing department directions. Explain the different between Data and information. Moreover. schedules and budgets and specify the policies. The basis purpose of capturing and processing data is to produce information. Different information distinct levels of management There is different information for every level of management i. p of strategic process. Information is the aggregation or processing of data to provide knowledge or intelligence. Data are raw facts in isolation when placed in meaningful context by a data processing operation allows interfaces to be drawn.executives develop overall organizational goals. it also mention the information characteristics.e. Straight Management Typically a board or directors and an executive committee of the CEO and top . It is occurrence. strategies and objectives as. procedures and business objectives for their subunits of the organization. Following pyramid show the tree levels and their information needs.in expansion of business 8. projects teams and other core groups: Operational Management The members of self directed teams or operating mangers develop short range plans such as weekly production schedules thy direct the user of . all the above discussed systems provide flexible and quick information to management for various management activities.
which she/he has to take as part of this responsibility Ans. which may be either qualitative or quantitative for achieving the concerned objective 2. 03. Identify and. For example. different level of management. Controlling . Decision Making 2. and this is the main reason because of which three distinct levels of management require different information. Setting of Objectives b. all the three management levels and also the managerial pyramid. Planning 3. decision makers at the strategic management level require more summarized. Controlling 1. Planning Is rational selection of courses of action to reach the predetermined goals? Various steps in planning cab be a. Decision Making Is basic to all management activities and u a process of selection the best alternative from amongst several alternatives. list any three responsibilities of the CEO of manufacturing organization. In other words CEO has to do a strategic planning 3. The three main responsibilities of the CEO are . Choice of alternatives CEO has to determine the short and long range objectives of the company. Determination of alternatives d. Also list three decisions. As we discussed above. unscheduled reports forecasting and external intelligent to support their more unstructured planning and policy making responsibilities where as decision makers at operational management level.resources and the performance of task according to procedures and with budgets and schedule they establish for the teams and other works group of the organization Conclusion. monitory and personnel resources to realize these objectives and policies and strategies that best utilize the resource. adhoc. 1. Collecting of facts c. the physical. may require more pie specified internal reports emphasizing detailed current and historical data comparisons that support their more structural responsibilities in day to day operations.
3. relocation 2. Do you agree that understanding information needs in the first step towards developing a workable MIS ? What are the various types of information needs . Q 4 .Is a process coexisting of two basic steps: I. Example: CEO of RS components and control decided to install ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) using the most advanced IBM hardware and software to maintain an optimum level of inventory and make user of all the company resources efficiently to achieve company objectives. Long term decisions with long time horizon often of several years. Another decision could be to plan diversification or relocation of production plant Example: CEO of M/s Alpha technicades engaged in manufacturing of dyes for other individual decide to relocate the plant from one state to another in order to sever their customers better and in order to use the industry friendly policies (tax n all) of the other state This was also done to save transportation costs. The three important decisions could be formed or taken at strategic levels are as follows: 1. A take over bid. Decision about what the enterprise does. The first point relates to very long term decision making and setting the objective of a manufacturing organization. Plant expansion. Example: 1. Finding gaps II Taking corrective actions of unfavorable gaps and collecting gaps. we agree that understanding information needs is the first step towards developing a workable MIS. responding to broad threats and opportunities. explain with examples of each . the CEO of M/s xyz controls and switchgear decided to take over a small competitor viz abc switchgear in order to reduce the competition and expand the production unit via purchase of an existing running unit: Another decision could be to implant tan information system and go for tech. technology transfer. Example. It is essential to understand the information needs at different levels of . There are different types of needs. Ans. Yes. which are required at I different levels of management. In order to be able to design a formal MIS Which provides relevant information in order to help the management in making the I decision. determining policy. selection of market and diversification. advancement by using modem techniques.
Economic Conditions ii. Delegation d. Interpretation of the Gaps . FOR PLANNING a. Motivation f. Financial Plan ii. Delegation d. Present Activity : 3. For Controlling a. Political or Social Trends iv. 3. Industry Demand ii. Performance 2. Competition 1. Materials iii. Factors of Production b. Progress of Plans b. the information needs for planning may be different from that of controlling or organizing and directing such as. Resources 1. Capital 4. Competitive Information i. 1. Standard of Performance 2. Units of Measurement c. Training e. Manpower 2. Future Plans c. Structure of Work b.management. Past. FOR Organization and Directing. Technological Development iii. Types of information required can be different for different decision making i. Internal Information i. Allocation of Staff c.e. Communicating 3. a. Plant. Training e. Environmental Information i.
or liabilities and assets of the organization.g.Examples Environmental Information a.g. Standards of Performance Basically laying down the basic norms to achieve a predetermined quality of work or production d. d. Factors of Production. debtors. Communication CONTROLLING a. Delegation iii. the n 0 of companies available with each department. right price. in 1985 Maruti assessed that there is a high demands for low value family cars and hence Maruti 800 made a big success It is important to know the competition. Structure of Work e. ORGANIZING AND DIERECTING a. the evaluation of gap aka gap . Jeweler's manufacturers. Technological development e. Economic condition: The management would like to know at any given stage the resource. Motivation v. Creditors. e. Political and Social Trends e. for thc. Competitive Information It is important to asses the demand of industry so a sot reach the end user and give I him the right time.g. Interpretation of the gaps to find the gap. the type of quality of existing software and hardware available and the outputs available and the outputs available from there. b. the various steps involved in achieving the producing or maintaining or replenishing the stocks to i Allocation of staff ii. Measurement of actual performance: Can be achieved by making a sample testing or by making appraisal. their activities and the market to take appropriate decisions. e.g. Units of measurement: Lets say no of units manufactured In a given time c. c. TRaining iv. Progress of plans: Progress reports or working reports an review reports b. they have a better market during the marriage seasons and hence it might be important to have good variety of jewels available.
The current general plan contains outdated growth policies that need to be addressed in order to accurately project growth and encourage growth areas. Process: process is composed of three phases The first phase is the plan research and revision phase The second phase is the plan review and revision phase The third phase is the plan adoption phase Systems analysts have to be aware about the results of a recent survey and they should also solicit opinion of related personnel on issues affecting the perceived as aspirations and these are incorporated while designing the system. complete and through A Vision is positive and Inspiring System analysis should be aware of purpose of the new master palm purpose of the new master palm Project to update. Vision process renders helping hand to the system analysts in developing M1 S and its relation with the organizational objectives. I Q 5. A Vision is developed by leader such as the committee A Vision is shared and supported by the community at large A Vision is comprehensive. It can be related with organizational objectives. First of all system analysts should be aware the fact than. the current general plan to create a vision for two decades or more than that. Process is defined in terms of objectives of the . VISION PROCESS NAMED AFTER DAVENPORT Vision processes named because of Summit convened in downtown Davenport in United States regarding long term vision for the city of lass Vegas. What constitutes a vision? Vision has the following components 1. The key to the long term impact of vision recommendations to the strategic process. 2. 3. the purpose of the committee was to formulate ideas and a vision for the new master plan from the outset of the process and not at the end. It was also to participate in the formulation of ideas and vision.analysis and then take corrective an action towards the same. how does it help the system analysts In developing MIS. which can be. The main Objective of this exercise as to link the long range planning with capital improvement program expenditures. 4. more. What is Vision process named after Davenport. There were 12 vision teams that came up with for their respective areas these were put into a draft report sally crino led the vision2020 teams were formed. In this process. than 300 people from on campus and the community came. related to the organization objectives? Ans.
e. A time of great potential requires that all should work to lay aside past differences and find ways to pursue those goals that products the greatest good for all. Plans should incorporate the ideas from every concerned i. 3. 1. Priorities are hosted that range from one area to other such as personnel marketing 3. They do it in the following way. They list the wants and needs of the organization. 2. unregulated and unplanned growth of critical factors should be identified and worked upon. In other words. 5. 5. It can be incorporated in the following manner. Survey can be conducted for preliminary information. Input is drawn from information regarding the variation 4.organization arid the phases should be incorporated in the sane way. It is more of an wakening process 5 that people in organization can control the destiny of the future if they start to pay attention to it and start working on it is said that attitudes change once people become involved. goals and objectives for next decade There should be realization among the members to reach its full potential over the. . The vision should be stated in dear terms. next 20 to 30 year. 4. 2. that was part of the groundwork for the vision process 6. Critical areas should be taken upon which need more focus. it can be said that it is the systems analysts who take care of these factors while designing a MIS and they have to meet the organization. Opinion of the staff/person involved should be solicited on the committee members There can be open discussions among staff and the committee members Committees formed can be broken into groups that can be charged with formulation a "group shared mission" Different groups can present respective vision-statement and there should be some discussion on these proposal Formal result a represented in an extensive document that outlines hopes and dreams. 1.e. 1. objective. 7. Major weaknesses i. Focus group should be there. 2. 6. should be open to anyone and will pull ideas from everyone .
The chain is also having better sales to government departments. The chain is using an old software and hardware. E..CASE-STUDY Case of Mohini Department Store. The sales have increased by 120% whereas the number of computers added seems to be insufficient to cater to the stores need. There are number of problem that the chain is facing a. Three as no information system for the stores manager to provide him the. General condition of the chain now it that the chain is increasing its stores every year i. there has been regular complaints from the stores manager for non availability of stores information."RS Components" is n the business of mail order of electronic items having a chain if trade counters worldwide. 120%. factories.e. and canteen. 1. but has not. plans to open an additional store every year for next five years. 3 . c. This MIS of all the stores shall be linked through the communication system with the head once for better control and planning at strategic level. from 3 to 8 stores in 6 years. I suggest that the latest hardware to be installed at all the stores and information system be developed which is linked and interlinked as well with inventory.g. The inventory control is done through SAP at every trade counter and a centralized computer available at head office in UK does the replenishment. which is sold on credits the chain. Of such information it is difficult to do any kind of planning for maintenance of inventory . Information on availability of stocks. The chain plans to add one store every year. planned to develop any interlinked information system. which can only provide the sales information system. b. In preview of lack. sales finance and other related modules. 2. It also has increased its sales in last three years by nearly.
buying is more. This demands an efficient. On their past experience and sales records found that the requirements/ demand for other overload relays is high during April. There are various ups and downs in market demand. . CSC engaged in manufacturing of control gears/switch gears/overload relays. Manpower information system module helps in analyzing and distribution of work and activity.in a manufacturing industry Management. May and June. It is useful in linking individual transactions. They need to start procuring high no of switchgears from December itself and suddenly shift their main concentration to overload relays in middle of march every year. The manufacturer aspect a very high efficiency for all the skilled and unskilled labor.Using MIS report can be generated on demand! requirement of a particular type or product at a particular time. Information System is primarily useful for meeting information needs of managers particularly with regard to present and past operation of the : enterprise. This analysis helps the organization and deciding actually what should be produced at what time. one product to another needs a very high planning for materials Management as the raw material should be available just in time for the product and the at the same time must have a reduced carrying cost.g. Inventory management and control as well that is inventory information system that will provide a reduced carrying cost which just in time availability of raw material.Part B: APPLICATION OF MIS. e. Where as demand for switch gears increase during jan feb and march when the govt. General Application of MIS In order to understand the application of MIS in a manufacturing industry let us first understand how a typical manufacturing industry operates. Market requirement>R&D-> Material Procurement> Production> Quality Control-> Stores-> Sales and marketing-> Customers-> Feedback Marketing requirement relates to the items to be manufactured or a product that is needed by the market is defined by this market research or customer feedback etc which when analyzed will give the market requirements . This suddenly switching over from.
d. By division of work: All business activities are divided and subdivided into various categories. workers responsibility increase and he. Co-operation of employees. Land c. Three responsibility of Production Manager a. Production planning and requirement b. To increase production: The efficient organization system encourages every employee to make his best contribution in raising output. Quality Control f . j b. 3. following are important and sufficient. c. Delegation of Authority: Organization lay down criteria for delegating of Authority with proper authority in hand. defining and delegating responsibilities and authority and establishing relationship to the purpose of enabling people to work most Efficiently together in Accomplishing objectives. Primary i) Labor ii) Capital b. Organization: Organization is the process of Identifying and grouping work to be performed. 2. The purpose of division is to be specializing individuals j into different roles. By Co-operation and Co-ordination 3. a. 2. Purpose of Organization 1.Part C 1. 4. To help Management: The organization help Management to have a control over various business functions. c. Classification of Activities: The activities are classified under various categories. 4. Way to achieve organization purpose a. will be able to co-ordinate their activities at different level of management. For the production of goods and services. Sound business policy e. Material handling and requirement . This also helps increasing the efficiencies of employees. Goods are services produced. Different departments. shows better results which leads to increase in his output and overall increase in organization production. Entrepreneur The collection of all this in a synchronous node with a idea and plan results in the production of services or a good.
resources that are processed into finished information and information is a data ! that have been converted into a meaningful and useful context foe specific users. 9. Information: It is data or information related to manufacturing or production for the user and production manager. Summarized ll. However it is better to view data as raw material. unscheduled reports. typically about physical phenomenon or business transaction. Two characteristics of information needs are as mentioned.5. Strategic Management Information is I. Three decisions for production manager a. PRP Decision: It helps in to plan the types of material needed in the production process. Manufacturing: It is concerned with production. 1. 7. it is for production function. 6. c. System: It is organized collection of people. External . Different levels of management require different information systems because of their different needs and responsibilities. production goods. forecasts and external intelligence to support their more unstructured planning and policy making responsibilities whereas decision makers at operational Management level may require more I specific pre-specified external reports emphasizing detailed current and historical data. The word data is the plural of datum. 8. Three elements of MIS a. c. People use the terms data and information interchangeably. machine and methods required accomplishing a set of specific function and in this case. Total Quality management Decision: It is regarding quality of production implementing such manufacturing concepts enables a company to quickly respond to and fulfill customer requirement with high quality products. it is a collaborative process b. Whereas information is data placed in a meaningful context for an end user. 10. Management Information System (MIS) for production planning and control decision Name MIS PPCD. MIS Decision: This systems supports the production operation function that includes all activities concerned with the planning and control of the. Ail three levels have to take different decisions at their levels for example strategic Management level require more summarized ad hoc. This helps them in day-to-day operations. though data commonly represents both singular and plural from data are raw facts or observations. b.
DSS (Decision Support System) . any additional information made. And unless the information overload is reduced.g. Transaction Processing Systems (invoicing. which helps manager. . invoicing. m decision making. TQM) D. For various alter alternatives and possible solutions in the form of information.System A system is a group of interrelated components working towards the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputs and producing output m an organized transformation process Types of system A. Information overload is a situation where the managers receive much more. II. 12. Due to complex managerial decisions. shares) C. Types of systems used in management . billing) B. Order entry. Executive Support System 13. Because-they provide flexible and quick information to management Provide expert knowledge and consultancy to Management. Office Automation System (e. dispatch.2. III. Decision Support Systems (just in time. IV. Available can't be used effectively. Knowledge Information Systems Transaction Process System Reasons for their use . Delivery. Internal 11. Executive information system .. MIS (Management Information System) . Information that they can possibly absorb even all they speed all their time trying to do and thus they suffer from information over-load. Payroll. Operational Management: Information is I. Expert systems . Detailed ll. I.
In all there are single transaction like raising an invoicing. Transaction Processing Systems Transaction processing refers to the traditional commercial application of computers such as invoicing. The . these tools not only shift information from heap of data but also deliver information in meaningful way: a) Data mining b) Data mapping c) Data visualization 15. shipping an item requiring updating of multiple datasets iii. These were put into a draft report. The purpose of the committee was to formulate ideas and a vision foe the new master plan from the outset of the process and not at the end. billing order entry. Executive support System These systems are meant to be used directly by senior managers to provide support to non-programmed decisions on the strategic Management category. Structured Decision 17 . Vision process is named because of summit it convened in downtown Davenport in United States regarding long-term vision for the city of Las Vegas. accepting an order. generally involving decisions belonging to the non-programmed category. Summary information ll. In this process. Four important characteristics of any MIS. Intelligent agents use a variety of information analysis tools. Focus on internal information IV. There were 12 vision teams that came up with recommendations foe their respective areas. iv.F our types of information systems. Office Automation Systems These are characterized by repetitive short. Sally Crino led the visioning the Vision 2020 teams were formed. Decision Support Systems DSS are intended to help individual manager in their decision making capability.14. more than 300 people from on campus and the community came.term output oriented systems used directly by a large number of end users like clerks. dispatch. It was also to participate in the formation of ideas and vision. Operational control 1lI. I. The key to the long-term impact of vision 2020 was to link the recommendations to the strategic process. stocks accounting and soon. typists and accountants ii. 16. I.
. memos and so on. Systems 21. The goal of computer based EIS is to provide to Management with immediate and easy access to selective information about key factors that are critical to accomplishing a strategic 1. periodicals. 5. Three essential components of a MIS are 1. EIS -EIS are Management information system tailored to the strategic I information needs of top Management Sourced of EIS are Letters. It helps in day-to-day decision-making needs of mangers It helps in centralizing all the data and makes it easily possible to have it available at different locations. DSS use 1. Management 3. Analysts models 2. reports. Semi Structure decision support 20. Offer tremendous flexibilities in use. It provides a variety of reports and display to management.I Information needs will be largely external. 2. and reports produced manually as well as by computer system. DSS DSS are computer based information system that provide. social activities. Decision maker's own insights and judgment and 4. Specialized models 3. memos. An interaction of semi-structured and unstructured decision by individual managers. Three reasons to use computer for MIS 1. Other sources of EIS are meetings. 22. Database 2. 18. 19. In word processing a generic term for text material such as letters. Document Document as a medium on which data have been 'recorded for human use such as a report of invoice. interactive information support to managers during the decision making process. telephones calls. unstructured and even uncertain. 3. 2. Act as electronic briefing systems.
The parameters can be observed and then decision could be taken on a pre-determined path. Consequently some decision can be hold back as those cases an early decision might prove harmful. A decision on one component of a.23. process. the decision-making can be automated. Problem definition need . Advantage of Conceptual system over Real System 25. Optimum time to decide the optimum time for any decision differs from decision to decision. . Since in these categories each decision is an outcome of the values of a no of parameter. 27. MIS is both a strategic tool as well as tactical tool because it provides information for strategic Management and also provides knowledge to tactical Management far decision-making.Specific time for specific demands. the workflow will come to a grinding halt if there is any delay in one part of the system. Long term plan is essential for MIS design because in order to have a successful implementation of any MIS. . The best way to calculate the time is to first find out. in case something happens where this system is unable to decide then an exception can be raised. It is a too that uses a few sample symbols . 28. Management by Exception . 26. Automating decision making process Only programmed and structured decision can be automated.to illustrate the flow of data among external entities.Attend to the situation where the mangers attention is necessary. what all actions are dependent on this decision. The automation system can be fed with all the cases and. then the new case can also be fed into the automate system. It provides information to tactical management for allocation resources and monitoring the performance of their organizational subunits on one hand and provide information to CEO and top executes at strategic Level for overall development organization and far planning and objective of organization on other hand. processing activities and date storage elements. system can be an input on the other part of the component of the system. 24. In this way.Exception decided on the impact on situation would make on the performance.Data Flow Diagrams It is a graphic diagrammatic representation of the flow of data. In those cases. Later when the exception is resolved. I Concepts of organization need ii. standards set in the management control system. one has to understand and study various steps. 29.
In simple sense when to any information input-ed un-a system. Information protection and storage . Three important components of IT The three major components of IT are 1. Information capering through latest tools (computers) 2. One needs to be careful while dealing with a real system as There can be other systems or parties who are working on it. Operating of MIS etc. Can be modified using tools. Also called on line processing. A real system is a system in action. Information management (through different s/w) 3. 35. System integration vi. This is usually done in railway reservation or other such systems where there is a lot of Dependency. a deterministic system is one whose state at one time completely determines its state fro all future times. 34. Detailed Design iv Detailed outling v. 30.It is a category of data processing which data is accumulates into batches and processed periodically. 32. Real Time processing.iii. Distinguish between conceptual systems and real systems A conceptual systems is a design on paper where m all the aspects of the working of the system. Prepare plan ii Train personal 31. ii. Two important Steps in MIS implementation are i. and this is a mathematical truth. By definition. Batch Processing. Between different components and data needs to be processed immediately. Conceptual systems on the other hand are easy to investigate and experiments can be done on them. It is the use of part of the output of a system as input to the system. Data processing in which data are processed immediately rather than periodically. This is usually done if off peak hours to avoid network hogging. 33. it gets result after concerning the components d operations of a system the from of feedback. Two examples of Transaction Processing i. Feedbacks system It is a system with results data and information concerning the components and operations of a system. Deterministic system We normally think that a deterministic system is completely predictable.
A system is a group of inter-related components working towards the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organization transformation process.and h/w combination to keep ahead of competition (SAP) 38. machines and methods required to accomplish a set of specified Functions.5 "diskette has a raw capacity of 144 MB and you can store hundreds of A4 docs In one floppy.36.a easy to understand manner 2. IT provides freedom from three important constraints IT provides freedom 1. taxes transportation and other things. 39. in terms of A4 pages or a 3.Describe an organization as a system. for manufacture it is the summation of cost. Ideally speaking a 3.Rules of managing information that have changed due to IT The new rules are 1. 2. It makes available data from multiple sources m. 40.Price for customers is at which he purchases it. Treat data as data and information as information since there is so much data around.5" diskette? It depends on how much compression as done while writing the data and which format data is written. it's Foolish to get hold of all the data. 3. Centralize your information and make it available across network and at remote location. This is usually the MRP. . What is the capacity. Communication 37. 3. Data can be accessed from multiple places at the same time and at can be accessed from Remote location. Use the best of and the latest s/w . In other words a system can also be defined as "System is a groups of inter-related or interacting elements forming a unified whole it is an organized collection of people.
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