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6, NOVEMBER 2005

1937

**A Fuzzy Logic Control for Antilock Braking System Integrated in the IMMa Tire Test Bench
**

Juan A. Cabrera, Antonio Ortiz, Juan J. Castillo, and Antonio Sim´ n o

Abstract—The use of fuzzy control strategies has recently gained enormous acknowledgement for the control of nonlinear and timevariant systems. This article describes the development of a fuzzy control method for a tire antilock system in vehicles while braking, integrated in a tire test bench, thereby allowing us to imitate the functioning and to understand the behavior of these systems in a reliable way. One of the inconveniences found in the development of these systems has been the difﬁculty of adjustment to the real conditions of a functioning vehicle. The main advantage obtained when using the tire test bench is the possibility of being able to reproduce the conditions established as fundamental to the operation of the antilock brake system (ABS) in a reliable and repetitive way, and to adjust these systems until optimal performance is obtained. The fuzzy control system has been developed and tested in the tire test bench to be able to reﬁne its fundamental parameters, obtaining adequate results in all the studied conditions. The ease of the bench for the development and veriﬁcation of new control systems for ABS has been demonstrated. Index Terms—Antilock braking system (ABS), fuzzy control, tire test bench.

I. INTRODUCTION

T

HE antilock braking system (ABS) is widely used in automobiles. In an emergency braking situation the wheels of a vehicle tend to lock quickly, increasing the longitudinal slip ratio of the vehicle. The slip ratio, while braking, is deﬁned as the difference between the speed of the vehicle and the circumferential speed of the tire, divided by the speed of the vehicle: vveh − wwhl · re . (1) s= vveh When the lock of the wheel is total (s = 1), vehicle steering control and stability diminishes, and the braking distance normally increases. Therefore, the goal of the braking control system is to maintain the slip ratio within the values which obtain the maximum adherence coefﬁcient (see Fig. 1) [1]. Achieving this goal is difﬁcult, because the maximum adherence zone varies with many parameters, for example adherence conditions between the road and the wheel, vertical load, inﬂation pressure, slip angle, and so on. Therefore, the ABS control systems need to know the exact point within the adhesion curves [µ-s] [2];

Manuscript received March 16, 2004; revised January 17, 2005, March 31, 2005. This work was supported in part by the Government of Spain. Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia, Comision Interministerial de Ciencia y Tecnologia ´ ´ ´ (CICYT): Modelo Din´ mico de Robots Moviles. Modelizacion de Neum´ ticos, a ´ ´ a TAP95-0383. The review of this paper was coordinated by Dr. M. Abul Masrur. The authors are with the Mechanical Engineering Departament, University of M´ laga, Plaza El Ejido s/n 29013 M´ laga, Spain (e-mail: jcabrera@uma.es; a a aortizf@uma.es; juancas@uma.es; mata@uma.es). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TVT.2005.853479

that is, we need to know the longitudinal slip ratio, friction coefﬁcient, and the conditions of real adherences. Achieving this target with accuracy is a difﬁcult task in ABS systems. To obtain the real longitudinal slip ratio that each wheel of the vehicle is undergoing, it is necessary to know the linear speed of the vehicle and the angular speed of the wheel; however, in commercial braking control systems, there is only one parameter at our disposal—the angular speed of each of the wheels. There is no other sensor that measures the speed of the vehicle. Most studies carried out so far try to estimate the speed of the vehicle or the friction coefﬁcient, but each one includes some kind of sensor which allows them to know another parameter that plays a role in the dynamics of the vehicle. For example, in [3], the linear speed of the vehicle is estimated by using a fuzzy control, but it introduces the linear acceleration of the center of gravity in the longitudinal direction and the angular acceleration of the turn in relation to the vertical direction (yaw) as a known parameter. In [4], the slip reference is also obtained through a nonderivative optimizer, needing the linear acceleration of the center of gravity in the longitudinal direction. This slip reference is used in a fuzzy control to obtain the brake torque. In [5] an RLS estimator is used to obtain the adhesion characteristics, which needs to know the brake pressure and the angular speed of the wheel as parameters. In [6], by using an extended Kalman ﬁlter, the state of forces in each wheel is estimated, and by using a Bayesian method, the slip coefﬁcient is determined, requiring knowledge of, apart from the angular speeds of each wheel, the longitudinal and lateral and angular accelerations. In [7], an observer on a dynamic friction model between the road and the wheel is deﬁned to estimate the speed of the vehicle and a parameter that deﬁnes the different types of roads, requiring the brake torque and the angular speed of the wheel as input to the system. Finally, in [8], by using an extended Kalman ﬁlter, the slope in the origin of the adhesion characteristic curve, [µ-s], is obtained, and with this parameter and the longitudinal slip ratio, s, the type of road on which the vehicle runs is identiﬁed, requiring knowledge of the longitudinal slip ratio for every instant. As we can see, the summarized investigations in the previous paragraph are focused on determining the exact point within the adhesion curves [µ-s] and also the kind of surface in the roadwheel contact in a precise way. One of the problems found in the works carried out in ABS systems is the disposition of test benches to be able to evaluate and compare the behavior of the proposed algorithms in a real way. An example can be found in [9], wherein a test bench consisting of an electrical traction engine connected to an induction machine is developed, and which is used to simulate the road behavior. The bench developed in [9]

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The fuzzy braking control is described in Section III. we use a ﬁrst fuzzy block that obtains the existing kind of road in the wheel-road contact with these two parameters.1938 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. where an inductive sensor at an appropriate distance is placed. The braking control is carried out through a proportional valve. which feeds a conventional brake piston which applies its force by means of the brake pads to a brake disc. 2) [10]. This article has two aims: the ﬁrst one is to describe the development of a test bench [10] to be able to evaluate and verify braking control algorithms. obtaining the results that are shown in Section IV. In this control system. variations in the camber angle. and it does not take into consideration the real response of a hydraulic brake system. II. has the limitation that it does not allow simulation of the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. we calculate the longitudinal slip ratio. NO. With these two parameters and by means of an RLS estimation technique. and according to (1). activated by an ampliﬁer card that allows establishing the law of control that we consider to be convenient. The brake system consists of a hydraulic circuit. 1. variations in the inﬂation pressure. To achieve it. The fundamental advantages of using a test bench that simulates the dynamic behavior of the wheel in contact with the road are 1) the possibility to carry out tests repetitively and with all the possible variables (see Table I) varying according to the indicated function during the testing time and 2) our ability to obtain the values of longitudinal and lateral forces. The second part of the work is the implementation of a new ABS control system. and knowing the control signal. IMMa tire test bench. University of Malaga (IMMa) (see Fig. This information is used to know the optimal slip reference. longitudinal slip ratio. The disc has some notches at equal distances made along its circumference. 6. for the reading of the angular velocity of the wheel. the measurement that we need to know is the angular velocity of the wheel. This valve is activated by means of the main application that controls the tire test bench using a known voltage-pressure relationship. the brake system is totally integrated in the test bench and is consequently controlled by means of the main application which carries out the control of the whole test bench (see Fig. 2. a dynamic response closer to reality is obtained. 3). 1). The test bench which is presented reproduces the dynamic behavior of a vehicle circulating along a road taking into consideration longitudinal behavior. and other parameters as shown in Table II. DESCRIPTION OF THE BRAKE SYSTEM The developed brake system has been incorporated in the tire bench at the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Once the linear speed is known. which is obtained from the system. Conclusions are given in Section V. Section II of this paper describes the brake system developed in the test bench. Therefore. such as a test where a sudden braking situation in curve is established. This braking control system is tested using the test bench. 4). with forgetting factor. VOL. As we mentioned before. In the hydraulic circuit there is also a sensor to measure braking pressure PB (see Fig. variation in the adhesion of brake pads. which serves to deﬁne the inputs in the second fuzzy control block that obtains the necessary braking pressure in the system. Due to the use of a conventional brake system. NOVEMBER 2005 Fig. This application allows us to establish the kind of test that we are going to perform. 54. with the friction coefﬁcient and the longitudinal slip ratio we can identify a point within the adhesion characteristic curve [µ-s] (see Fig. which in our case is the linear speed of the ﬂat belt. we can obtain the brake pressure. the friction coefﬁcient and the linear speed of the vehicle is obtained. TABLE I INPUT VARIABLES Fig. Now we only have to identify the kind of road. Adhesion characteristic curves. obtaining .

measurements in the bench show that slippage between the steel belt and the drums is very small. the error between the reference and the actual slip ratio. by means of the established rules. the adhesion characteristics are estimated by means of an RLS technique. Every process runs simultaneously and has an assigned objective. 4. Fig. Hence. the belt speed . This process handles the proportional valve of the hydraulic circuit in Fig. 4. as can be observed in the control scheme described in Fig. Brake system scheme. we have developed the whole system necessary to be able to determine and check the most optimal braking process in our test bench. the application has a set of processes which allow carrying out the necessary movements in a predetermined test. It is also possible to change the vertical or the lateral load. The program carries out the four processes which can be seen in the diagram: 1) Braking control process: this process is in charge of performing the braking control. In the ﬁrst part. 5. 3) Erroneous parameters control process: it veriﬁes that the parameters that are established in the test are within the ranges of the ﬂat belt and tire movement. There are numerous works related to braking fuzzy control [3]. FUZZY LOGIC ABS CONTROL information from all the sensors that we have established within the test (see Table II). Once the type of road is known. which acts directly on the brake calliper installed on the wheel hub. an ABS control system has been developed and implemented in the test bench. [11]–[18]. 2) Movement actuators running process: this process is in charge of carrying out the movements that have been established in the test. Computer software diagram. As described in Fig. Another fuzzy logic block is used to determine the brake pressure using two inputs. a control action in the brake system. These can be movements in the tire (camber angle. the braking of the wheel will be developed following a straight line.CABRERA et al. and performing. The use of fuzzy logic has gained great acknowledgement recently as a methodology to design robust controllers of nonlinear and time-variant systems. and its variation in time. 3. This system. 4) Data reading process: this process is in charge of the data acquisition of the different sensors selected for the test. Therefore. Our control diagram has three clearly differentiated parts (see Fig. slip angle. we proceed to the performance of it. As can be seen. we need to create a model of dynamic behavior of the test bench. vertical position) or lateral movement of the ﬂat belt. When the information of a test to be carried out has been recorded in the application. [4]. This data will be stored in the memory of the computer and afterwards recorded on the main hard disc. In this work. 4.: FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM INTEGRATED IN THE IMMa TIRE TEST BENCH 1939 TABLE II OUTPUT VARIABLES Fig. and the speed of the belt is calculated. the main application carries out a series of independent processes in real time. reading the data that are programmed in it (see Table II). Therefore. so its inﬂuence is not considered. Besides. In this work. the lateral dynamic of the wheel is not considered. III. 5). To do this. we establish the reference slip ratio adapted to such conditions. establishing for this purpose an optimal control law. obtains information about the type of road by means of a fuzzy logic block as an innovation of the previously mentioned works.

[20] use more complex expressions for the brake torque. the friction coefﬁcient is obtained. so there is no deformation in the steel belt. Vertical load is kept constant in this work. wr (t) − wr (t − 1) PB (t) · KB + tm Ir Fz · re . RT (2) To obtain the measurement vector Yt . is calculated: v(t) = v(t − 1) + RT · IB t t−1 (TM (t) − (µx (t) · FZ ) · RT ) · dt. 6. (6) The following parameters of this expression are known: RT (radius of the driver drum). VOL. is established. 5.9 and initial condition θ(0) = 0. Once the friction coefﬁcient is known. and friction between the steel belt and the bearing can be neglected. and by means of an RLS regression technique with forgetting factor λ. [6].01 s. Test bench scheme. a sample time. The brake torque is expressed as a linear function with regard to the braking pressure. Φt is the regression vector. because these terms are small and ignored in most ABS development works [2]. From Fig. Ir θ = [µx (t)]. To update the covariance [21] and the Kalman constant in the RLS algorithm. [16]–[18]. although other works [19]. F X = µX · F Z . tm = 0. Using the expression of the longitudinal force. rolling resistance force is not included in the previous equations. which in our case is: Yt = Fig.1940 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. equations are obtained: ˙ Iw · ω = µX · FZ · re − PB · KB IB · v ˙ = TM − µX · FZ · RT . RT (3) Focusing on the ﬁrst equation of (3). the following equations that create a model of the dynamic behavior of the tire and the ﬂat belt are obtained: ˙ Iw · ω = FX · re − TB IB · ν ˙ = T M − FX · R T . 54. [11]. the hydrodynamic bearing exerts a force. 6. NOVEMBER 2005 Fig. [9]. this is a simple model that is widely used in ABS simulations. respectively. 6. NO. [5]. [13]. Also. and P (0) = 10. Pressure control scheme. the following equations are used: K(t) = P (t) = P (t − 1) · Φt λ + Φt · P (t − 1) · Φt P (t − 1) · (1 − K(t) · Φt ) λ + 1000 · (Y (t) − Φt · θ(t))2 (5) As can be seen in Fig. although the bench allows us to simulate vertical load . integrating (3). the belt speed (v). and FZ (vertical load). equal in magnitude to FZ . IB (inertia moment of the system). [8]. where wT and RT are the angular velocity and radius of the driver drum. the following where λ = 0. εt is the error. (4) Φt = can be expressed as: v = wT · RT . NH . 6. This sample time is also used in the control time of the braking control system. where Yt is the measurement vector. The regression model would be Φt · θ + εt = Y t . and θ is the parameter vector to be estimated.

In this case. 0. the rules have been established.67. the implication is carried out and the consequent is obtained from each of the rules. Once the point [µ-s] in the characteristic curve is determined. 0. The rules have been obtained according to the slip behavior in the adhesion characteristic curves. and then we go on to the defuzziﬁcation phase. the variation of the slope becomes zero and ﬁnally. zero. we divide it in three zones (positive. In Fig. obtaining the rules that are shown in the ﬁgure.5) {µ(slip = mid) = 0. OR and NOT in the antecedent. For this reason. a point of the adhesion characteristic curve is determined. only the rules for the road type fuzzy identiﬁcation block have to be deﬁned. µ(slip = mid) = 0. In the B zone. the following: the inputs deﬁned as ‘adhesion coefﬁcient’ and ‘slip’ are real values (crisp) and obtained in the ﬁrst part of the control system.67 and µ(slip = high) = 0. In our case. that is. 8(a) the fuzzy control rules are shown in the case where the variable input is the slip. and dividing it by the difference between the slip in that instant and the slip in the previous instant. two studied cases are shown which produce a similar performance in the brake system. the same as in classical logic. and we can consider the engine torque TM (t) = 0.’ which are shown in Fig. and negative). only the slip in the braking control system has been considered as input (see Fig. Once we have obtained the value of the speed. (C) ROAD TYPE VALUES changes. the clutch is usually disengaged [23]. when the slip is in the A zone of the curve. The performance of this fuzzy identiﬁcation block would be. As we can observe in Fig. which is the kind of wheel-road contact at that moment. Membership functions in road type fuzzy control. which are truncated diffuse sets. 7(b)). 7. we have to know to which curve it belongs. A model for vertical load that only needs to know the value of the friction coefﬁcient to simulate vertical load changes is proposed in [22]. (a) Adhesion coefﬁcient input. TABLE III MEMBER FUNCTIONS VALUES.’ and one output membership function called ‘road type. middle. It can be observed that the rules are the same in both cases. we go on from a diffuse set to an exact real value (crisp). the logical operators are deﬁned as follows: {µ(slip = mid) = 0. which is the maximum slip zone and where the brake control must work.67 OR µ(slip = high) = 0. (b) Slip input. 5).67} = (1 − 0. These rules are the if-them type. Therefore. the variation of the slope is always positive and we are within the linear part of the curve. 7. .: FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM INTEGRATED IN THE IMMa TIRE TEST BENCH 1941 into diffuse sets. that is. Once we have the diffuse set values. in the C zone. 8(b). the input values are turned Once the antecedent is solved with the logical operators of the rule. As during braking. 8. we have used a centroid method. Once the slope is obtained. we apply the existing rules in the knowledge base.67. In Fig. With this knowledge of the adhesion curves. v(t). by simply applying (1). for example. the slope of the characteristic curve is used as the input in the fuzzy control. we will be able to obtain the value of the longitudinal slip ratio directly. 7) and their values are determined in Table III. In this phase. These are added up. The friction coefﬁcient µX (t)is known in every instant because we have estimated it previously. for a slip input of 0. (B) SLIP VALUES. More than one of the rules in the knowledge base can be activated at the same time and have logical operators like AND. The second part of the control diagram is a fuzzy identiﬁcation block to obtain the type of road.CABRERA et al. (A) ADHESION COEFFICIENT VALUES. Fig. In our inference system. This slope is obtained by subtracting the friction coefﬁcient in the studied instant and the friction coefﬁcient in the previous instant. These curves clearly have three performance zones shown in Fig. Knowing both the s(t) and µX (t) values. 8(b). Finally in Fig.4 (see Fig.67 AND µ(slip = high) = 0. in a summarized way. The control rules and the membership functions have been adjusted in the test bench. Only the input membership functions change (slip or slope). by the value of the antecedent. the variation is negative and that is when the maximum slip takes place in the wheel. in the A zone of the curve. the fuzziﬁer turns this value into the following membership grades: µ(slip = zero) = 0.5} = max(0. These values are fuzziﬁed in a ﬁrst phase. As reﬂected in the rules. making them coincide with the three differentiated zones in the adhesion characteristic curve. The membership functions are triangular and trapezoidal (see Fig. This control block has two input membership functions called ‘adhesion coefﬁcient’ and ‘slip. the slip has been divided in three zones (zero. we will know the value of the linear speed of the ﬂat belt. At this moment.5} = min(0. and high).67).5) {NOT µ(slip = mid) = 0. 8.5. (c) Road type output.

inputs are established as: e(t) = sref (t) − s(t) de(t) = e(t) − e(t − tm ). obtained from the kind of road. 6. 54. 5. and the slip estimated in that instant. meaning 0 . 8. so in this part the braking control can raise the braking pressure. the more adherence there is to the road. (b) Fuzzy rules for slope membership function. The fuzzy logic block that determines the kind of road gives a value between 0 and 1. Once the slip enters the B or C zone. the more adhesion there is. These surfaces have been calculated using MATLAB’s Fuzzy Logic Toolbox with the Mamdani’s fuzzy inference system (see Fig. Once the rules have been established. the kind of road depends on the adhesion values. VOL. that is.1942 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. the surface that generates the inference system with the different values of the output variables and the input variable for the two studied cases are obtained. (a) Determination of fuzzy rules with slip membership function. NO. 9). (7) The ﬁrst equation determines the existing error between the slip reference. NOVEMBER 2005 Fig. The third and last part of the control diagram is a fuzzy control block which is in charge of obtaining the braking pressure. According to Fig. the curve is of a major adherence.

(a) Fuzzy logic controller’s 3-D input-output map. 11(c) the error is negative and the error difference is positive. 10. So we have established a relationship between the kind of road and the slip where the adhesion coefﬁcient is maximum. In the second case [Fig. In the ﬁrst case in Fig. This means that we come from a situation of low pressure and we are diminishing the slip. case I. 10. a low adherence road and 1 a high adherence road. The membership functions for the established parameters are. we can also . and the values for each of the variables are reﬂected in Table IV. (B) DIFERROR VALUES. which means that we can increase the braking pressure a little. TABLE IV MEMBERSHIP FUNCTION VALUES. 11(a). in this case.1–0. The second equation determines the difference between the error in that instant of time and the error in the previous instant of time. That is. and we multiply this value by 0. a study of the behavior required for the control is carried out to be able to deﬁne the rules that govern it. and they are rules to establish the behavior when we are near the reference slip. case II. Once the input and output variables have been established to the control. and the pressure will be high because we are in the part of the curve where we have not reached the maximum slip coefﬁcient. the error difference is zero. 11(b)]. Therefore. (a) Error input. The inference system used in this fuzzy control block is the same as the one used in the previous case. As we can observe in Fig. the negative values of the error will be higher than the positive ones. we have slightly exceeded the limit of the reference slip.3 (slip to obtain the maximum adhesion coefﬁcient in a high adherence road) to obtain the slip reference.: FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM INTEGRATED IN THE IMMa TIRE TEST BENCH 1943 Fig. (A) ERROR VALUES. that is. First we establish the rules when the error is negative. This is due to the fact that according to (7). we must observe Fig. the error is positive or large positive. because the slip reference does not reach a value of more than 0. To establish the rules. (C) PRESSURE VALUES Fig. For the following rules we have to take the difference of the committed error into consideration. 11). In Fig. that is. the existing difference between the slip reference sref (t) and the slip in that instant s(t) is not in the same order. 9. the error was bigger in the previous instant than the existing error in this instant of time. the membership functions are also triangular and trapezoidal. 11(c) and (d). (b) Error difference input. (b) Fuzzy logic controller’s 3-D input-output map. In case the slip in the previous instant is the same as in this instant. These are the two simplest cases for which to establish the rules.3. when the error is zero or when we slightly exceed the limit of the reference slip.CABRERA et al. Membership functions in the second fuzzy control. In this case. the error is large negative which means that the wheel is locked so we have to make the pressure zero. six differentiated cases of behavior of the input variables are established (see Fig. To establish the control rules. (c) Pressure output. It should be noted that the membership functions for the error input variable are not symmetrical with regard to the Y-axis.

1944 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. (d) Negative error and negative error difference. Error and error difference behavior. VOL. 11. NOVEMBER 2005 Fig. (a) Positive error. (c) Negative error and positive error difference. (e) Zero error and positive error difference. (b) Large negative error. 54. 6. . NO. (f) Zero error and negative error difference.

Later. Finally. we have to reduce the pressure. Fig. 11(f)]. simulated. so the braking pressure has to be reduced. We see that the . the programmed brake control starts to work in the main application as described in Fig. 11(e)]. In this case. has been programmed with C++ language. IV. In this case. In case the slip in the previous instant is also the slip limit. In other words. The ﬁrst test carried out is a brake test with the developed control and with a Michelin MTX R14 65 tire. The real speed is obtained in the test bench by means of a sensor. In this case. increase the pressure a little. the rules for the developed fuzzy control and the surface that the inference system generates are shown in Fig. so we are applying a high pressure. As in the previous case. the behavior of the three previously mentioned speeds in the test carried out can be observed. but in this case with a very low value. in this case we were in a situation in which the pressure was increased and we achieved an increase in the slip. In Fig. 12. when the error is zero and the slip in the previous instant is superior to the slip limit [Fig. and others read directly from the sensors of the bench. but with a value which is a little higher than in the negative error case.CABRERA et al. Fuzzy logic pressure controller’s 3-D input-output map and rules. Finally. some of which have been obtained in the test bench from tests. we were in a situation in which the pressure was low and we have managed to reduce the slip. in the case in which the error is zero and the slip in the previous instant is inferior to the slip limit [Fig. in the previous instant we are in the zone where we have not exceeded the slip limit or we have exceeded it but less than in the studied instant. 13(a). although the simulation of the test bench and the proposed control have been carried out with MATLAB’s Simulink Toolbox. that is. which reads it directly when the test is carried out. The computer application developed to carry out the control of the test bench and to obtain the results TABLE V MODEL PARAMETERS of the tests. which means that if we have exceeded the slip limit more in the following time increase. we establish the rules for the case in which the committed error is zero. The parameters are reﬂected in Table V.: FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM INTEGRATED IN THE IMMa TIRE TEST BENCH 1945 Fig. 11(c)–(f). that is. when the slip in that instant of time is equal to the slip limit. the surface has been obtained using MATLAB’s Fuzzy Logic Toolbox and Mamdani’s fuzzy inference system. RESULTS In this section. This is shown in Fig. 4. and estimated. 11(d) shows the case in which the error continues being low negative and the error difference is negative too. The result of this ﬁrst test is shown in Fig. The estimated speed is the one obtained by means of (6). the test is carried out with a ﬂat belt whose adhesion characteristics were found by performing tests of longitudinal force in the test bench. then we increase the braking pressure. we have three different named speeds: real. 12. as they were described in Fig. For both cases. so we increase the braking pressure. Therefore. previously estimating the slip coefﬁcient and ﬁnally the simulated speed which is obtained simulating the test bench and the developed control with Simulink. Once the conditions of each rule have been established. 4. a series of parameters that need the proposed control have been used. a series of results obtained with the proposed brake control and the test performed in the previously described test bench are shown. 13. the encountered curve is introduced in the test bench model and the brake control for its simulation. In the ﬁrst case. then the same thing happens as in the previous cases. the error difference is positive. but less than in the previous cases.

and all start at a belt speed of 27. 13(c). the slip varies between 0. the behavior of the brake control. (b) Brake pressures graphic.15–0. The estimated brake pressure is obtained by means of the brake system model. 6. in which the adherence conditions are wet and snowy asphalt. . Finally. Fig. values of the three are similar. VOL. According to this test. NO. which validates the simulation studied in the test. 15(d).13 for dry road conditions. 54. and it is similar to the real brake pressure which is measured in the test bench.15–0. These slip levels depend on the adjustment of the membership functions of the control which establish the road type and the value of the maximum optimum slip (sopt ). 14(b). the control behavior to obtain the road type is drawn in Fig. 14(d) ranging between 0.18 in the case of snow. Both parameters have been adapted to obtain the optimum performance of the brake control and to maintain the slip in all the tested conditions within the appropriate values. (c) Kind of road. is shown.1946 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY.18 for wet road conditions and 0. Fig. We also observe how the control adjusts the slip level seen in Fig. Fig. 15. (a) Belt velocities graphic. 15(c) shows how the control estimates the existing road type and how the brake pressure decreases considerably when the control detects snow in the wheel-road contact. The following test was carried out changing the adhesion characteristics and the execution time to test the dynamic behavior of the control system in a wide range of road conditions. 14 shows the control behavior in dry and wet road conditions. the behavior of the brake system model is accurate.16 in the case of wet asphalt and between 0. This test was performed with the same tire as previously. Finally. 16 shows the behavior in the case of wet and icy asphalt. 14(c) shows how the control detects the change in adherence conditions and so the control adjust the pressure level of the brake as it is shown in Fig. NOVEMBER 2005 Fig. 13. 13(b)]. Fig. In Fig. In Fig.14–0. Control behavior for MICHELIN MTX R14. the behavior of the brake pressure in the test bench and the estimated brake pressure can also be observed [see Fig.2 m/s. On the other side.

: FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM INTEGRATED IN THE IMMa TIRE TEST BENCH 1947 Fig. 15. Control behavior in dry and wet conditions. Control behavior in wet and snow conditions. Fig. 14. .CABRERA et al.

Technol. Control Application. Apr. Claeys. no. Daiss and U. Mellor. V. VOL.. “Designing a genetic neural fuzzy antilock-brakesystem controller. 1087–1099. H. pp. no. pp. 81–97. 5. “Emergency braking control with an observer-based dynamic tire/road friction model and wheel angular velocity measurement. “Realtime estimation of adhesion characteristic between tires ´ and road. and R. [3] A. 1819–1833. 8. Comput. NO. the fuzzy brake control system keeps the slip and the friction coefﬁcient in the optimum zone of the adhesion curve and is able to detect different kind of roads and adherence changes during simulation. vol.” Automatica. Buckhardt. [6] L. pp. [4] Y. Alvarez. Vogel Fachbuch. Schoﬁeld.” Control Eng. [8] F. As the simulations show. Daiss. the results suggest that the use of fuzzy logic for ABS brake control improves the longitudinal behavior in braking processes in vehicles. NOVEMBER 2005 Fig. R. pp. vol. 33. Sep. vol. Kiencke. [7] Y. X. C. vol.” Automatica.” IEEE Trans. pp. no. CONCLUSION The key goals of this work have been the construction of a test bench capable of testing algorithms of ABS brake controls which adjust adequately to the real conditions of performance demanded for vehicles. 2. vol. 33. “Slip-based tire-road friction estimation. 281–284. Horowitz. 1145–1150. 1993. 1997. and the development of a fuzzy brake control system. “Estimation of vehicle speed fuzzy-estimation in comparison with kalman-ﬁltering. 198–211. no. Australia. Kiencke and A.1948 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Sydney. Evol. H. Zak. 52. . M.” Vehicle System Dynamics. “Nonlinear tire force estimation and road friction identiﬁcation: simulation and experiments. “Observation of lateral vehicle dynamics. Kiencke. 2002. u Radschlupf-Regelsysteme.” IEEE Trans. “Fahrwerktechnick: W¨ rzburg. “Application of fuzzy control algorithms for electric vehicle antilock braking/traction control systems.” in Proc. 2. Gustafsson.” [2] U. 1995. Veh.. pp. pp. 6. 1997. 4th IEEE Conf. Control behavior in wet and ice conditions. 1997. Additionally. REFERENCES [1] M. 16. no. [9] P. and P. 1993. pp. Khatun. L. The robustness of the fuzzy control and its capacity to adapt to different dynamic adherence changes have been conﬁrmed. 54. N. 2003. 2003. vol. Ray. Lee and S. 15– 18. Jingang. 10. Bingham. 5. 6. 6. IFAC Congreso. Practice.” in Proc. 1356–1364. [5] U. 39. no.

vol. no. Yurkovich. “Monitoring of the friction u coefﬁcient between tire and road surface. no. 2000. F. H. Davis. CA. He is currently a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Malaga. Singh. no.S.” Int.” in Proc. and S. Spain. Vehicle Design. He is currently an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Malaga. 122–129. Singh. 1999. 1993. Syst. vol. pp. Kokes and T. Fuzzy Syst. A. “Intelligent control for brake systems.D. 271–284. HI. [13] J. Passino. 188–202. Cabrera. Germann. “Brake system modeling for IVHS longitudinal control. candidate at the University of Malaga. B. M. 1.D. P. and multiobjective evolutionary strategies. IEEE Conf.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from the Polytechnic University of Madrid. and M. and A. Technol. K. “Adaptive fuzzy logic control of an anti-lock braking system. Garcia. Y. no. and tire models and biomechanics. Passino. pp. “Antilock brake system modeling and fuzzy control. A. 7. genetic algorithms applied to mechanisms and tire models. Control Application. Juan J. and multiobjective evolutionary strategies. Antonio Simon received the B. 4. Simon. advanced vehicle systems. Spain. J. He is an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Malaga.” IEEE Trans. [12] G.S. “A fuzzy logic controller for an ABS braking system. Layne. pp.. 883–888. Chen and T. Nov. Maciuca. A. . 24. R. K. His research interests include tire models and genetic algorithms applied to tire models. 646–651. and M. and is currently pursuing the Ph. NJ: Prentice-Hall.” in Proc. “Fuzzy learning control for antiskid braking systems.” in Proc. Castillo received the B. C. F. pp. and tire parameters estimation. 3rd IEEE Conf. [17] C. Antonio Ortiz received the B. M. [23] J. vol.” in Proc. “Modeling and control design for a computer-controlled brake system. 2. Z. 3. Raza. P. Control Application. Xu. no. 1992.: FUZZY LOGIC CONTROL FOR ANTILOCK BRAKING SYSTEM INTEGRATED IN THE IMMa TIRE TEST BENCH 1949 [10] J. M. “A ´ ´ versatile ﬂat track tire testing machine. 5. and D. Contr. J. Zak. Lachmann. and L. Cabrera received the B. 2. de la Blanca. P. 1993. His research interests include modeling and control of vehicle systems. 1. 1993. 24. 2003. degree there. pp.” Int. B. Feldkamp.S. K. 2nd IEEE Int. Mar. advanced vehicle systems.S. [21] R. vol.. Jun. ´ degrees in aeronautical engineering from the Polytechnic University of Madrid. vol. and A.. Spain. Mauer. K. IEEE Conf. [22] S. Conf. A. vol.. Wong. no. Lennon and K. New Orleans. Technol. [14] W. Will and S. A.S. “Nonlinear linearization controller and genetic algorithm-based fuzzy logic controller for ABS systems and their comparison. Adaptive Control Systems. Contr. Control Applications. [18] A. pp.CABRERA et al. Contr. Hedrick.S. 1996. Isermann.” IEEE Trans. D. I. and Ph. Matko. New York: Wiley. 3.” Vehicle System Dynamics. [19] J. 1978. Juan A.” in Proc. Madau. Syst.S. Sobottka and T. and he is the Department Head of Mechanical Engineering at Malaga University... Kohala Coast. 1993. Yang. Gerdes. 1999. “Fuzzy logic anti-lock brake system for a limited range coefﬁcient of friction surface. Englewood Cliffs. degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of Malaga. pp.” IEEE Trans. Daiss. vol. 1. W¨ rtenberger. vol. Derlin. 279–296. LA.. San Francisco. 381–388. B. and J. F. Vehicle Design. 4. 4. He is currently an Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Malaga. Technol. Fuzzy Systems. DSC-53 [20] H. [11] F. MI.” IEEE Trans. Advances in Robust and Nonlinear Systems: ASME Winter Annual Meeting. degrees in mechanical engineering from the University of Malaga. Liao. pp. His research interests include control and modeling of brake and suspensions systems. Spain. L. 2000. Spain. Ioannou. “Optimal fuzzy logic control for an anti-lock braking system. Syst. M. Ortiz. genetic algorithms applied to mechanisms. Theory of Ground Vehicles.D. pp. 49–54. His research interests include modeling and control of vehicle systems. no. 613–618.. and P. [16] G. 40. and Ph. vol. M. May 1997. L. W. Yuan. He is a Ph. Dearborn. 1994.S. 2. [15] D.

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