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ORIGINA L ARTI CLE
P. Sathiya . S. Aravindan . A. Noorul Haq
Effect of friction welding parameters on mechanical and metallurgical properties of ferritic stainless steel
Received: 28 August 2004 / Accepted: 19 May 2005 / Published online: 21 January 2006 # Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006
Abstract Friction welding is one of the most economical and highly productive methods in joining similar and dissimilar metals. It is widely used in the automotive and aerospace industrial applications. Ferritic stainless steel (AISI430) is normally difficult to weld by fusion methods, due to the associated problems such as grain growth and retained austenite content. Such problems can be alleviated by the friction joining process. The present study utilized a continuous drive friction welding machine to join cylindrical specimens of ferritic stainless steel of similar composition and shape (equal diameter and length). The processing parameters such as friction pressure, friction time, upsetting pressure and upsetting time were changed in order to understand the role of parameters on the strength related aspects of friction processed joints. The joints were subjected to mechanical testing methods such as the uniaxial tension test, and charpy ‘v’ notch impact tests. The micro hardness variation across the joint zone was determined. Micro structural studies were also carried out. The characteristics such as tensile strength, toughness and microstructural aspects exhibited by friction processed joints were compared to parent materials. Keywords Friction welding . Ferritic stainless steel . Tensile and impact strength . Hardness . Microstructures
Friction welding is a solid state welding process. It makes use of frictional heat generated at the rubbing surfaces to raise the temperature at the interface high enough to cause the two surfaces to be forged together under high pressure. Friction welding has been shown to have significant economic and technical advantages. The present study utilized a continuous drive friction welding machine. In continuous drive friction welding one work piece is rotated at nominal constant speed in action alignment with the second part under an applied pressure. The rotation and pressure are maintained for the specific period to ensure adequate thermal and mechanical conditioning of the interface region. Thereafter the rotation is stopped often with forced braking and at the same time pressure is increased to forge parts together. The application of an axial force maintains intimate contact between the parts and causes plastic deformation of the material near the weld interface. Deformation is largely restricted to the volume of material adjacent to the original interface. Ferritic stainless steels are essentially iron-chromium alloys with body centered cubic (BCC) crystal structure. Chromium content is usually in the range of 11–30%. They have good ductility and formability however they possess relatively poor strength at higher temperature when compared to those of the austenitic grades. Toughness may be somewhat limited at low temperature. It is used under a less severe corrosive atmosphere for chemical processing equipment, furnace parts, heat exchangers, oil burner parts, petroleum refining equipment, protection tubes, recuperates, storage vessels, electrical appliances, solar water heaters and house hold appliances. Fusion joining of ferritic stainless steel is associated with many problems. Coarsening of grain is an important problem in ferritic stainless steel weldment and such grain coarsening results in lower toughness. The behavior of commercial steels of varying composition when subjected to low heat input welding by the electron beam process and to a forge cycle by linear friction welding was examined and inferred that friction welding
P. Sathiya Department of Mechanical Engineering, J.J. College of Engineering & Technology, Tiruchirappalli, 620009 Tamil Nadu, India S. Aravindan (*) . A. Noorul Haq Department of Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, 620015 Tamil Nadu, India e-mail: email@example.com
a ‘v’ notch of 2 mm depth and an included angle of 45 degrees was cut. literature available on friction joining of similar ferritic stainless steel is scarce.45 Mn 1. A continuous drive friction welding machine with a maximum load of 150 KN was used for welding.12 Cr 16. The friction and forge pressures used were in the range of 80–110 MPa and 160–200 MPa. Impact specimens of dimension 10 mm×10 mm×55 mm were prepared with ‘v’ notch for impact testing. The mechanical characteristics of friction welds were evaluated from tensile tests and impact tests. 1 Schematic diagram of a tensile and b impact specimen Fig.028 Mo 0. Welding processes with low heat input . and addition of Ti and copper to weldment  are some of the methods used to surpass the problems of the grain coarsening effect. At the weld zone Table 2 Friction welding parameters Parameters Heating pressure (MPa) Friction time (sec) Upsetting pressure (MPa) Upsetting time (sec) 55 b Fig. The spindle rotating speed was kept constant at 1. the flash was machined from the welds before testing and the base materials and joints were machined with 80 mm gauge length and 12.22 Nb < 0. Three measurements were taken for each of the welding strengths to calculate their average data. Ginn and Gooch  recommended friction welding method to achieve better properties of ferritic stainless steel weldments.6 16 86 250 a 45º 2 10 2 Experimental details Similar ferritic stainless steel (AISI 430) specimens of 16 mm diameter and 130 mm length were joined together without any preheating. The specimens were first mechanically polished with emery papers and then etched with a suitable enchants (5 ml HCL. usage of a pulsed power source in TIG welding . The chemical composition of the parent material is presented in Table 1. Microstructural features of the friction welds were examined by optical microscopy. The friction processed joints were subjected to mechanical and metallurgical investigations.5 7 Trial V 105 4 190 8 .39 Ni 0. The impact properties (at room temperature) were measured by charpy ‘v’ notch impact test. The specimens for hardness measurements were polished with emery papers and then etched with ferric chloride/picric acid etchant.42 S Nil P 0. A good amount of literature is available on friction joining of similar and dissimilar welding of materials [4–10]. 2 Macrograph of friction welded AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel of prepared impact specimens. however.6 mm diameter in all parallel parts. R8 12.125 rpm and the welding was performed under the specified friction upset distance. The schematic diagrams of tensile and impact test specimens are presented in Fig. In this study similar ferritic stainless steel joints were processed by friction welding. The friction welding parameters used in this study are listed in Table 2.1077 Table 1 Base material chemical composition Element % C 0. Three measurements were taken for each of the welding strengths. 1 gm picric acids and 10 ml ethanol) solution. For the tensile test.59 Si 0.10 Fe Balance can be advantageous for more ferritic alloy. MicroTrial I 85 8 165 4 Trial II 90 7 170 5 Trial III 95 6 176 6 Trial IV 100 5 180. Using a universal testing machine of 40 ton capacity tensile testing was carried out. 1.
4 SEM photograph of the fracture surface for tensile test specimen (1.7 20. The tensile test results are presented in Table 3.35 – Fig. Three measurements were taken for each of the hardness values and average data was calculated. it can be observed that the process parameters associated with trial V exhibited better mechanical properties when compared with other trials. and low upsetting pressure will result in a weakly bonded joint where voids are commonly found. This result confirms that. From Table 3. The parameters such as short friction time. The tensile tests were carried out in an universal testing machine. 2.000 X) .2 21. low friction pressure.47 396 410 Ultimate tensile strength (Mpa) % of Burn-off elongation rate (mm) I II III IV V Base material 530 531. 3 Tensile test specimen macrograph of the fractured surface Fig. 3.23 381. The samples were etched after polishing and the morphology was observed using a 300 kv Philips CM30 optical microscope.000 grams – Loading time: 30 sec – Loading speed: 100 micron/sec The micro hardness values were taken from the base metal-weld metal-base metal with a distance of 1 mm on either side. while the friction and upsetting pressures should be as high as possible.47 551. parent material strengths were never achieved.1078 Table 3 Tensile test results Trial Yield strength (MPa) 359 369. If the friction time is held long. 3. The tensile test specimen macrograph of the fractured surface is presented in Fig. a broad diffusion zone with intermetallic phases can be generated.34 17. Figure 4 shows the SEM observation results on the fractured surface of the tensile test specimen.12 555 20.23 533.47 18.68 20. under the following conditions: – Indentation load: 1. The fractured surface of the joints processed in trial V is further subjected to metallographic testing.09 14.9 21.7 20. although high strengths were obtained in all samples. The bond strengths were comparable to that of the parent material. 5 Impact test specimen macrograph of the fracture 3 Results and discussion Vickers hardness tester was used to measure variation in hardness across the welding zone. The flash of the joint was removed carefully in order to prepare the specimen for tensile test.1 Tensile test A typical macrograph of friction welded joint is presented in Fig. it can be observed that friction welded joints of Fig. Friction welded metallographic specimens were prepared by polishing using different grades of emery papers and 1 μm Alumina (Al2O3) particulate suspension polishing liquid.38 386.38 541. From SEM micrographs of the fractured surfaces.6 22 13. The choice of the welding parameters influences the microstructure. Failure occurred at or very near the bond line in all samples. In order to understand the behavior of fracture the fractured surfaces were analyzed by SEM. the friction time should be held as short as possible. To achieve higher strength.
Rao and Hazlett  studied the non steady state of progressive frictional interaction during the convectional friction welding of Al alloy 7075-T6. The extent of grain growth depends upon the highest sustained temperature of exposure and the time at temperature. Also. friction welded specimens exhibited higher toughness. However. which can also be an indicating factor for quality of the joints. The weld zone becomes narrower and finer as pressure is increased while the hardness difference between the weld and the parent metal becomes less . partly deformed zone (PDZ) and plasticized zone (PZ) ferritic stainless steel exhibited a predominantly ductile mode of fracture. axial pressure and at different progressive stages. friction processed ferritic stainless steel exhibited comparatively better toughness due to the refined grain structure at the weldment. The results of impact tests performed at room temperature on processed joints are presented in Table 4. Normally. In this study. the heating effect could become irregular and unbonded regions could result. When the friction time is too short. Fig. friction welded joints of ferritic stainless steel exhibited lower toughness.000X) . charpy ‘v’ notch tests were performed. The fractured surface macrograph of the impact test specimen is presented in Fig. 7 Cross-section of friction weld. we can observe the shear flow of material and a small amount of dimple formation. friction time.1079 Table 4 Impact test results Sl Trial Impact values (Joules) 10 12 15 16 17 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 I II III IV V Base material UZ PDZ PZ PDZ UZ Fig. 4 Impact tests Ferritic stainless steels (AISI 430) that are higher in chromium (16–39%) and carbon (0–12%) tend to form chromium carbides at grain boundaries in the weld heataffected zone. From Table 3. From the figure. upsetting pressure and upsetting time dictate the quality of the joint. A cleavage type fracture occurring in bend testing was attributed to the formation of a poor bond with coarse structure in the HAZ. 6 SEM photograph of the fracture surface for impact test specimen (1. 5. The fractured surface confirms that induced fracture is of mixed mode. In order to assess the toughness of the friction welded joints. Attention was focused on some of the important phenomenon that occur during this frictional sliding pressure under different conditions of rotational speed. it is observed that increased burn-off resulted in better mechanical properties of joints. due to the welding heat. Compared to toughness of ferritic stainless steel weldments processed by other fusions methods [1–3]. For this reason. Lucas  found that in the case of mild steel. Figure 6 shows the SEM observation results on the fractured surface of the impact test specimen. The refinement of grains at the weldment and increase of weld toughness are the major requirements in ferritic stainless steel weldments. Burn-off must play an important role in the metallographic properties. ferritic stainless steel exhibited coarsened grain structure at the weldment which could be the reason for a reduction in toughness of the joints. the friction time in excess of the optimum not only reduces productivity and increases material consumption but also leads to grain coarsening and consequent reduction in strength of weldment. The shear flow of the material also can be observed at the fracture surfaces. Table 4 shows that the toughness of the friction welded ferritic stainless steel is less than the toughness of the base material. a combination of high friction time and low heating pressure produced low ductility. All parameters such as friction pressure. The mechanical properties of the weld are more closely related to the burnoff rate. trial V exhibited better joints qualities as observed in Table 3. showing the undeformed zone (UZ). Toughness can be regained only by refining the grain size through cold working and annealing.
188.8.131.52.127 140.145. 8 Distribution of hardness in AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel friction welded joints UZ 200 180 160 140 120 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 PDZ PZ PDZ UZ 200 180 160 140 120 100 1 2 UZ PDZ PZ PDZ UZ 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Distance From the Bond Line (mm).125.110. 110. The hardness variation across the joint zone can be divided into three zones.135.127. there is not remarkable variation in micro hardness distribution.130. Micro hardness distribution of all the friction processed joints are shown is Fig.107.145. From Table 5.d the change in micro structures at the Table 5 Micro hardness test results Trial I II III IV V UZ base metal 110.101.135 137.103 105.162 180. Typical optical micrographs observed at the weld metal.147 147.163.127 120.180.107 103.110. For all the trials.112 112. The first is referred to as the undeformed zone (UZ).127 UZ base metal 105. 8 and the values obtained are presented in Table 5.165 PDZ HAZ 135. 6 Microstructure Though the generation of heat in friction welding is different from the conventionally available fusion process. 9a.Trial 1 Distance From the Bond Line (mm).185 160. This would result in a fine grained interface flanked by relatively coarser grain.103. Hardness is higher in the plasticized zone (PZ) than in the PDZ and UZ zones.103. The frictional heat at the interface when dissipated through the parent material would result in a temperature gradient causing zones of material with different microstructure. The hardness was greatest where the failure occurred.105 184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11 145.147 147.185.140 145.b is compared to Fig.101 109.135.163. The increase in hardness at the plasticized zone is attributed to the finer grain size of that zone. the PZ value is higher than PDZ and UZ.142.Trial 5 5 Hardness tests To determine the hardness across the weld zone.Trial 4 Micro Hardness Value (Hv) 200 180 160 140 120 100 1 UZ PDZ PZ PDZ UZ 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 Distance From the Bond Line (mm).110 107.127.103.Trial 3 Distance From the Bond Line (mm).107 PDZ HAZ 140.165.107.Trial 2 UZ 200 Micro Hardness Value (Hv) PDZ PZ PDZ UZ Micro Hardness Value (Hv) UZ 200 180 160 140 120 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 PDZ PZ PDZ UZ 180 160 140 120 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 0 Distance From the Bond Line (mm).185.145.185. 9c.165 185.110 105. whose hardness is almost equivalent to the base material’s work piece hardness.162 165. some kind of similarity exists in the temperature distribution from weldment to parent material.129. When Fig.18.104.22.168 .135 PZ weld metal 185. 9a–f. 130.105.110. it can be inferred that in spite of the variation in friction process parameters.135.103. The second zone is called the plasticized zone (PZ) and the third zone is called the partly deforming zone (PDZ).162.142.107. samples were prepared by milling a flat surface through the middle of the weld.1080 Micro Hardness Value (Hv) Micro Hardness Value (Hv) Fig.22.214.171.124.102. The cross sections of the friction welding joints possess different zones as shown in Fig. HAZ and base metal are presented in Fig.132. 7.
d Microsturctures of HAZ (300X). Although the ferritic stainless steel contains high levels of chromium that do not normally Fig. a Cr carbide. right side of weld metal. The grains at HAZ are relatively coarser. chromium carbides can form at the ferritic grain boundaries of those containing appreciable carbon content as observed in Fig.34mm) PDZ(0. e Microstructures of HAZ and base metal (300X).c. left side of weld metal. 9 Microstructure of the friction welded sample. b Microstructures of weld metal (300X). c Cr carbide. f Microstructures of base metal (300X) 300µm 300µm a Cr carbide b Microstructures of weld metal (300X) 300µm 300µm Cr carbide c Microstructures of HAZ (300X) Left side of weld metal 300µm d Microstructures of HAZ (300 X) Right side of weld metal 300µm HAZ Base metal e Microstructures of HAZ & Base metal (300 X) f Microstructures of Base metal (300X) weldment and HAZ can be easily understood. microsturctures of HAZ (300X). 9a.59mm) UZ . 10 Cross section microstructure morphology (300X) transform to austenite on heating.6mm) PZ(1. 300µm UZ PDZ(0.1081 Fig.
Bendzsak GJ (2000) Spiral defect formation in friction welded aluminium. Aritoshi M. Zhai Y. Mohammad N (1999) A comparative evaluation of gas tungsten and shielded metal arc welds of a ferritic stainless steel. 10. The parent material microstructure is presented in the undeformed zone (UZ). The partly deformed zone (PDZ) is at approximately 0. Anbazhagan V. Bendzsak GJ. Uenish K. ii) The joints exhibited 90–95% of the parent material’s tensile strength. i) . Weld J.3 mm distance from the bond line. The undeformed zone (UZ) is approximately greater than 1. Within the PZ. Nealam JR (1998) Friction welding of incompatible materials. Metall Mater Trans A 28:2371–2381 5. as at the nearby zone called the partly deformed zone (PDZ). Zhai Y (1997) Particle fracture. Lucas W (1973) Process parameters and friction welds. Adolphson DR (1984) An evaluation of copper — stainless steel inertia friction weld.41 0. Tiruchirappalli -14. Weld J 67(11):264–270 7.5 0. A finer grain structure can be observed in the plasticized zone (PZ) where. April. Rao M. Li Z.42 0. Ginn BJ. the long axis of the elongated grains gradually rotates through 90° from parallel to extrusion direction as observed in the figure. Takeshi S. Ryouichi Y (1994) Effect of friction welding parameters on mechanical properties of cast iron joints. A typical micrograph showing different morphology of microstructure at different zones of the friction processed joint is presented in Fig.42 0. Fukumoto S. Lippold JC. Mater Charact 49:421–429 10. Weld J 63 (11):325–332 8.16 1. iii) The tensile specimen failures were associated primarily with the weld interface region.49 0. Met Constr-Brit Weld 5(8):293–297 12. References 1.94 1. From the above tables it can be clearly observed that the width of the PZ zone is increased when increasing the friction time.5 mm from the bond line. Acknowledgements The authors are kindly acknowledging the help rendered by Welding Research Institute (WRI). The width of the PDZ is the same for all welds. Weld J 77(8):341–349 2.4 0.The processed joints exhibited better mechanical and metallurgical characteristics.5-1 mm distance from the bond line. Figure 10 shows the microstructure in the fine recrystallized zone at approximately 1. pp 183–197 7 Conclusions Friction welding can be used successfully to join ferritic stainless steel (AISI 430). Katsuei H. Mohandas T. Yilmaz M. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL). retention and fluid flow in metal matrix composite friction welds.59 iv) Burn-off rate also plays an important role in the metallographic structure and mechanical properties. Gooch TG (1998) Toughness of 12% Cr ferriticmartensitic steel welds produced by non arc welding process. Ellis CRG (1972) Continuous drive friction welding of mild steel.1082 Table 6 Width of the weld metal and HAZ Trial Width of the HAZ Width of the weld Width of the HAZ (left) (mm) metal (mm) (right) (mm) I II III IV V 0. North TH. Okita K.78 0. The fracture is predominantly associated with material (shear-like) flow. Sassani F. The friction processed joints were sectioned perpendicular to the bond line and observed using optical microscope. Tsubakino H. and the width of PZ is presented in Table 6. Bell RA.5 0.6 0.34 0. Col M.62 0. Scripta Mater 42:807–812 9. v) The toughness of the friction welded ferritic stainless steel was comparatively higher than fusion processed joints due to the refinement of grain size at the weld zone. we can observe coarser grain size. Tomita T (1999) Amorphization by friction welding between 5052 aluminium alloy and 304 stainless steel. Q J Japan Weld Soc 12(3):328–334 11. Hazlett TH (1970) A study of the mechanisms involved in the friction welding of aluminium alloys.52 0. Weld J 181–188 13. WRI J 23(3):25–37 3. Nagalakshmi R (2002) Metallurgical studies in ferritic stainless steel. Weld J 79(7):184–193 6. J Mater Process Technol 94:133–140 4. Madhusudhan RG. North TH. Acet M (2003) Interface properties of aluminium / steel friction welded components. The grains are observed to be elongated parallel to the bond line. Tamil Nadu for their kind help in conducting friction-welding trials.
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