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NEW YORK UNIVERSITY


WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLlGE

LIBRARY
F R OMT.
HEADS OF AAHMES .. AND AMENHOTEP ,.

ABYD0 , TE^ENOS OF OS, R ,S.

AAHMES.

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AAHMES.
AMENHOTEP.
ABYD S
PART I. 1902

BY

W. M. FLINDERS PET HI E
Hon. D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D., Ph.D.,
F.R.S., Uon. F.S.A. (Scot.)

MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL [NBTITDTI ;

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OP THE SOCIETY OP ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN


MEMBER OF THE ROMAN SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY ;

MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES;


EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, LONDON.

With Chapter In/

A. E. WEIGALL

TWENTY-SECOND MEMOIR OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND

PUBLISHED BY OB DEB OF THE COMMITTEE

LONDON
SOLD AT
Great Russell Street, W.C.
The OFFICES OF THE EGYPT EXPLOEATION FUND, 37,

and 59, Temple Steeet, Boston, Mass., U.S.A.


CO., Paternoster House, Chaiung Cross Road,
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and by KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER &
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1902
:

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M
YORKUNiVERSIT'

IARY

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HET >
fr( - Bl

•Mfc&UJ!
EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.
president.

SIP JOHN EVANS, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.

Uicc=prc3tCicnt0.

Sir E. Maunde-Thompson, K.C.B., D.C.L., The Eon. Chas. L. Hutchinson (U.S.A.).


LL.D. Prof. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (Krai
Lt.-Geneeal Sir Francis Grenfell, G.C.M.G., Prof. Ad. Eeman, Ph.D. (Germany).
G.C.B. JOSIAII MULLENS, Esq. (Australia).
The Rev. Peof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D. fit. Charles Hentsoh (.Switzerland).

ibon. (Treasurers.

H. A. Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. F. C. Foster, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.).

Ibon. Secvctars.

J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A.

Members of Committee.

T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A.

Miss M. Brodrick, Ph.D. (for Boston). The Marquess of Northampton.

Mrs. Buckman (for Pittsburg). Francis Wm. Percival, Esq., M.A., F.S.A.
F. G. Hilton Price, Esq., Dir.S.A.
Major E. B. Cassatt, B.A.
Somers Clarke, Esq., F.S.A. Mbs. Sara G. Stevenson (for Philadelphia).

W. E. Crum, Esq., M.A. Herbert Thompson, Esq.


Louis Dyer, Esq., M.A. (for Chicago). Mrs. Tirard.
Arthur John Evans, Esq., M.A., F.K.S The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A.

F. Ll. Griffith, Esq., M.A., F.S.A. Emanuel M. Underdown, Esq., K.C.


T. Farmer Hall, Esq. E. Towry Whyte, Esq., F.S.A.

F. G. Kenton, Esq., M.A., Litt.D. Major-General Sir Charles W. Wilson,


Mrs. McCldre. K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S.

The Rev. W. MacGhegor, M.A.

IP T5 2S
.

CONTENTS.

INTRODUCTION. CHAPTER III.

SECT.
The Osibis Temple.
SECT. PAGE
1. Scope of the t'Xr;i\;itioilS .

2. The work and workers 23. Position and history . . . .27


24. Before the Xllth Dynasty. Pis. liv-

lvii 2V
CHAPTER I.
25. Xllth and XHIth Dynasty. I'ls.lviii-
Objects feom the Royal Tombs.
lx 28
3. King Ka. Pis. i-iii .
26. The XVlIIth Dynasty. Pis. Lxi-lxiv 29
4. King Ro. PI. iii 27. The XlXth Dynasty. Pis. lxv-lxvii 31
5. Small inscriptions. Pis. iv-v 28. The XXVIth Dynasty, and later.
The pottery. Pis. vi-vii
6. . Pis. lxviii-lxx . . . .31
7. The Aegean pottery. PL viii
8. The stone vases. Pis. ix, x CHAPTER IV.
9. The labels, &c. Pis. xi, xii The Cemetery G.
10. The steles, &c. PI. xiii
29. Range of the cemetery 34
1 1 The flints. Pis. xiv, xv
, .

30. Early tombs 35


31 . Tomb G. 57. Pis. lxxii, lxxiv 35
CHAPTER II. 32. Construction of the later tombs 36
33. Tomb of Zedher.
The Osiris Temenos.

.... 34. Other tombs ....


Pis. lxxv, lxxix 37
39
1

1
2 Character of the site
.

3 The early town


.

14. The flints. Pis. xvi-xxvi


..... .
9

9
10
CHAPTER V.

15. The stone vases. PL xxvii 12 The Inscriptions.


By A.
16. The pottery.
17. The M. tombs
18. The plans of M
.....
Pis. xxviii-xxxv

tombs. Pis. xlviii,


12
14
E. Weigall.

35. Monuments of Vlth-XIth Dynasty


36. The Xllth and XHIth Dynasty
41
42
xlix 15 37. The XVIIIth and XlXth Dynasty . 43

xlvii ......
19. The pottery and stone. Pis. xxxvi-
18
38. Monuments of Un-nefer
39. The XXVIth and XXVIIIth Dynasty
40. Sarcophagi, XXXth Dynasty
46
48
20. The date of the town and tombs
2 The slates and tools. PL 1
1 .

22. The amulets, &c. Pis. li-liii .


19
23
23
41 The hypocephali
.

42. Inscriptions nut figured


.... 48
49
51
LIST OF PLATES.
PLATE
;

ABYDOS I.

INTEODUCTION.
1. The present volume completes the account The cemetery G was only worked as proved
of the objects found in the Royal Tumi is of desirable in intervals of other work, and to < r ive
the earliest dynasties, the discoveries in Avhich employment to workmen between other enter-
during the previous two years have appeared prises, hying close behind our huts, and with
in the last two volumes. The account of the scarcely any small objects of value casually
results of the present year's excavations covers found in it, such a place was an ideal resort
nearly all that has been yet found in the whenever men could not be kept on elsewhere.
Temenos of Osiris and the well-known ceme- I should hardly have worked it for its own sake
tery ; but another large part of our work is kept alone; but as a stop-gap it proved very con-
back for publication when completed next year. venient, and fairly desirable.

It is always difficult to decide between partial The other large work, which is not described
publication in sections, issued rapidly for the at all in this volume, occupied half of our men,
immediate benefit of scholars, and systematic or more, all the season. About a mile south of
publication delayed until every detail has been Abydos, at the foot of the desert cliffs, I had
iinally sifted and settled. But the worst of the noticed some great tombs when first visiting
bulletin system is that the student is afterwards the ground. The temple which Mr. Maclver
dependent on indexes to find connected subjects excavated two years ago (see the volume on
while the worst of the great book long delayed El Am mli just issued) proved to belong to a
is that often the material loses value while king Kha-kau-ra, presumably Userteseu III.,

waiting, and the delays may run on so that but possibly of a king of the XHIth Dynasty.
much is forgotten in the interval. The temple lies on the edge of the desert, and a
The Temenos of Osiris I had wished to ex- long causeway leads up to one of the great
cavate since I first saw it in 1887. It was tombs which we have found. As probably
undoubtedly one of the oldest centres of most of next season's work will be occupied
worship, and had a long history to be un- with these tombs, before they are finally

ravelled. If it has proved so far rather cleared, it is best to leave aside the plans which
different to what was expected, it the more have been prepared, and give a connected
corrects our ideas. But the real temple site account of the whole site next year.
has not yet been touched below the level of the 2. Our excavators were the same gang of

XVIIIth Dynasty ; and a vast deal still remains men and boys from Koptos who have worked
to be done there. for me during many years. Indeed that gang

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY


WASHINGTON SQUARE C0LEGE

• LIBRARY

/
ABYDOS I.

has served as a nucleus for all other recent close of the temenos work, and drew some of the
excavators, as Dr. Reisner, at Girgch, has inscriptions, the whole of which he comments
drawn almost entirely on that centre, and the on in this volume. Mr. Laurence Christie, who
German work at Ahusir has used our trained came for artistic copying, has done more than
Quftis for headmen, to say nothing of the four plates in this volume ; but most of his time
Research Account work at El Kab, which has was given to copying selected sculptures in the

depended on the same source. I have no doubt Scty temple for the Research Account. Ex-
other places would furnish equally desirable cavations at the Sety temple, on the same basis,
workers, but when once a large party have been were carried on by Mr. A. St. G. Caulfeild, who
trained, they are naturally sought for elsewhere. also took many photographs, some of which
It is needful, however, to carry on a continual appear in this frontispiece. My wife was closely

weeding of old hands, as the Egyptian always occupied with drawing nearly all the season ;

becomes spoiled with prosperity ; and some of especially on the tedious figuring of nearly four

the boys, as they have grown up, have come hundred flints, and the exact facsimile copies
to the front line in their intelligence and of inscriptions. My own work lay in the

conduct. We also employed over a hundred Temenos of Osiris, directing the diggers,

boys, from villages near the work, to do the levelling and recording, and general manage-
carrying. ment and account keeping for the season's ;

Our camp was entirely fresh, as those who work involves some 40,000 entries of small
were with us before had all passed on to other sums. I have also drawn thirty-seven of the

work. Mr. Arthur Weigall came out for the plates here, and taken the photographs. The
first time, and proved a most successful worker. immediate production of a fully-illustrated

I greatly regret, for the sake of our Avork, that bulletin of the results of a season, before the

I have to congratulate him on passing on at objects reach England, involves organizing all

once to a better position. He entirely super- the copying on the spot ; but the advantages of
intended the men at the great southern tombs, quick publication make it well worth while to

which I only visited to give general direction to carry out this system, as we have now done for

the region of work. He also looked after the three years.


;

CHAPTER I.

OBJECTS FROM THE ROYAL TOMBS.

3. The earliest royal tomb that can vet be of the three strokes below the Horus name is

placed in the series is that of king Ka, which not clear, and probably we shall bave to wail
was described volume (Royal Tombs,
in the last for some better drawn inscription to explain
ii, p. 7). Within the chamber were hundreds them, as writing was so familiar to the scribe
of fragments of cylindrical jars (type, pi. vi, 1), that mere indications were then enough to rive
some of them with cross-lined pattern copied the idea. There is no parallel to this group
from cordage. Such jars are well known in following any of the other early Horus names
the later prehistoric pottery, and belong to the and, as maa kheru and neb taui both belong to
sequence date 78 in that scale. On many of far later times, we may perhaps suppose these
these jars are inscriptions, roughly written in lines to represent some steps on which the
ink with a brush ; and on comparing all of the funereal stele was erected, as on the alabaster of
fragments, I have succeeded in putting together Azab, pi. v, or the pottery marks, probably all

those which are copied in plates i., ii., and iii. from Azab, in Royal Tombs, i, pi. xlvi, 111 —
They prove to be all of two formulae, one for 155. The signs themselves show more than is
the king, and one for his queen. And as being yet known about them. Observe especially the
the oldest hieroglyphic inscriptions known, suten plant, which is sometimes of the later
probably half-way back in the dynasty before normal form, as in Nos. 4, 7, and 9 ; more
Mena, they deserve our closest attention ; they generally it has the leaf or flower at the top
show the oldest shapes of the signs, and prove like the qema or res sign of the south ; and
that at that age writing was so familiar that a generally the root is shown as a wavy line

rapid form of it was freely used to write on hanging from it, see especially Nos. 1, 2, 17, 19.

dozens of common pottery jar's. This plant was then separate from the nen or
On plates i. and ii. it is seen that the whole neJcheb plant, but no distinction between the
formula was Suten Ap, the Horus Kit, followed suten and qeuin plant was yet made. Probably
by three strokes ; and on plate iii. the second the use of this plant for qema or south was
formula was //>' hemt en Horus Ka. Thus, as then in the stage of naming the kingdom, par
clearly as possible, these jars are inscribed for excellence, before any other region to the north

the king Ap, whose Horus name is Ka, and for had been formally included in it : much as we
Ha, the wife of the Horus Ka. The name Ap should at present mean the British Isles by
name in the Old Kingdom,
occurs as a masculine speaking of " the kingdom," in contrast to the
and also very commonly the form Apa while : far larger parts of the present kingdom in other

Hay and Hayt are known as feminine names. regions.

No objection has been made to this reading, The inversion of the form of the Horus- or
even by those who are most surprised by such fc-name is strange. That the strokes above
grammatical writing at that age. The meaning the arms represent a panelling, like that placed
ABYDOS I.

below the name in all later examples, seems of incised writing of this same king are given,
proved by their great variety, having any similar to those already published (R. T. ii,

number of lines from two (fig. 5) to five (figs. pi. xiii). On pi. iii, M 36 shows the tail of the

4, 20, 23), or even thirteen strokes scratched hawk, part of the lea arms, and the top of the
on pottery (B. T. ii, xiii) ; such could hardly suten ; 37 shows the lea arms and a sign near
be a hieroglyph. From later instances this by which is probably a star and crescent mark
panelling certainly is copied from the front of a like No. 605, &c. (R. T. i, pi. Ii) ; 38 shows that
building, tomb, or palace : so here we must take in one case, at least, the panel strokes were put
it as such, and see the space below it, which below and the arms hang down, as the suten
contains the sign, as equivalent to the doorway sign unquestionably shows which way up this is.
of the building. The instances scratched on We may here briefly note the remaining
pottery (R. T. ii, pi. xiii) should probably all figures in pi. iii. Nos. 39 — 43 are all numerical
be turned, with the Tea arms upwards, and the signs neatly painted in ink on alabaster jars, 39
panel strokes above them. It is evident that from the tomb of king Den, 40 — 43 from the
the position of the panelling strokes was changed tomb of king Mersekha, but perhaps thrown
between the time of Ka and that of Narmer. over from Den or elsewhere. 44, 46, and 47
The reed a has here the separate flowex s of -
are ink writings on stone vases. 45 is ink
the feathery head, as in all early examples ; but writing on a jar from the tomb of Den it ;

they vary from three to five in number. The reads sesh, and should be compared with other
mat- work p has the ends all left loose, as in the writing on vases R. T. i, pi. xxxii, 34 — 37;
seals Nos. 16, 57-60, 72, 118, 160 (R, T. i, and pi. xiii, 57—64; R, T. ii, pi. xxv, 13 — 27.
ii.). The plant ha is like that on the Aha The figure of the god Min (48), ink-drawn on a
ebony tablet in having no base line (B. '/'.
ii, piece of slate bowl from the tomb of Khase-
x, 2) ; but the base line came in at that time, as khemui, is the oldest drawn figure of that god.
on the tablet B. T. ii, pi. iii, 4, and perhaps the The signs on 49 are from a slate bowl of
same on the tablet No. 3 in the same plate. Perabsen.
The signs hem and n might belong to almost 4, When last year the names of the earliest
any later age. kings were grouped together in Royal To ml is,
Thus on the whole there are but two points vol. ii., I did not observe the presence of another
in which a change took place between the signs name until the publication of the volume. On
of king Ka and the general usage of two or B. T. ii, pi. xiii, is a sealing No. 96, of which
three centuries later; the suten sign passed several fragments were found ; this shows the
into two distinct forms, those for "kin"-" and hawk on the mouth hieroglyph. Again, on
-nth," a political change hardly due to hiero- li. T. i, pi. xliv, there are several examples
glyphic development, and the hi name passed (Nos. 2 to 8) of what seems to be the same
from the doorway of the panelling to the space group. Considering that this group is thus
over the panels. Neither of these changes are formally cut on a seal, and often drawn on
due to immaturity in the writing; and when we pottery, I think we are justified in seeing in it

rlm> reach back a couple of centuries before the royal hawk and the hieroglyph r or ro,

Menu without finding any marked difference, expressing the hi name of a king, Ro. All of
and meet with a cursive writing, it is plai" that the jDottery examples come from the tomb 13 1,

we are very far from touching the period of its which, with 13 2, was worked by Mr. Maclver in

formation. the first year ;


and this accords with their giving
Beside the ink writing three more examples the name of a king, incised like the other early

OBJECTS FROM THE ROYAL TOMBS.

kings' names, Ka (pi. iii, 38, &c.) and Nar volcanic stone bowl from the tomb of Khase-
(/?. T. i, pi. xliv, 1), and belonging to the tomb khemui. Fig. 5 is a piece of an upright cup of
of the king. These tombs B 1 and 2 are shown pink Limestone, with part of a Btrange hiero-
on the plan (R. T. ii, pi. lviii) immediately glyph upon it which we have not met with
above the name Bener-ab. elsewhere ; it might possibly be the base of a
The age of this king Ro cannot be far from lr<i name, but the crosses below are unexplained.
that of king Ka. The position of the tomb does Fig. 6 is a piece of alabaster vase, with a faint
not indicate whether it was before or after that inscription of Ncithotcp. Fig. 7 is the plait of
of Ka. But Ave must observe the presence of a hair and piece of false fringe found in the tomb
great jar (R. T, i, pi. xxxix, 2), which is usual of king Zer, probably belonging to his queen,
later, but does not occur in the tomb of Ka; on whose arm the bracelets were found : the
the style of the sealing, which is more like those fringe of locks is exquisitely made, entirely on a
of Narmer or Mena than like the very simple band of hair, showing a long acquaintance with
one known of Ka (No. 89) ; and the clay, which hair-work at that age. It is now in the Pitt-
is yellow marl (hei/b Arab.) like later sealings, Rivers Museum at Oxford. Fig. 8 is an inscrip-
and not black mud like the Ka sealing. All of tionon a fragment of pottery vase from the tomb
these details point to the order of the kings of king Zer. Fig. 9 is a piece of black pottery
being with incised patterns, belonging to the large
KA class of such pottery known in the pre-historic
RO age, the Illrd and IVth Dynasties and the
ZESER Xllth and XHIth Dynasties Naqada, xxx
(see ;

NARMER Dendereh, xxi, 1; Kahun, xxvii, 199 202; —


SMA Diospolis Parva, xl, 43). The place of manu-
before the 1st Dynasty opens with Aha — Mena. facture of this pottery is yet unknown, but it is
Thus we can now tolerably restore half of even wide-spread in the Mediterranean, as we have
the ten kings who reigned at xYbydos before noticed before. Fig. 10 is the edge of a bowl
the united kingdom was established. The of quartzose metamorphosed slate ; on it is

list on p. viii of F. T. ii, should be thus carved in relief the triple twist pattern. It

amended. is accidentally inverted here, and therefore


5. Some small inscribed objects were not reversed in lighting. Fig. 1 1 is a spirited
photographed till they reached England, so drawing of a dwarf, outlined on a bowl of
could not be included in the previous volume. metamorphic rock. Fig. 12 is a piece of ivory,
They are here given on pi. iv. Figs. 1 and 2 shown also in drawing on xi, 2 ; fig. 13 a
are pieces of crystal and syenite cups bearing piece of ivory, with a row of heads in squares,

the name of king Sma ; by careful wiping with from the tomb of Zet; fig. 14 a piece of
colour the hieroglyphs nebui Sma are here alabaster vase from the W tombs, probably of
brought out visible. Fig. 3 is a piece of ivory the reign of Zet.
bracelet, which was found in the tomb B 2 by Plate v. The fragments of an alabaster in-
Mr. Maclver; I then supposed that it might scription of Azab were published separately
bear the name of Aha, and in the next season before for it was not till they came to England
;

the objects of Benerab clearly showed that this that I observed that the pieces fitted together,
3
was one of her bracelets, with her name and as they were fou. . scattered in three different

that of Aha, which had strayed over from the tombs. The inscription of Qa was found acci-

neighbouring tomb. Fig. 4 is a fragment of a dentally after publishing the others from that

/
ABYDOS I.

tomb. The gold foil of Qa seems to have been 114,must be looked on as the real close of the

part of a model mat of a hotep offering, like wavy-handled type.


that found at Hierakonpolis (Hierakonpolis, i, The survival of black-topped pottery, A. 9,

pi. xx, 9). The great stele of king Qa was 10, under Zer is unexpected, as few forms last

found on the east side of his tomb as described beyond 60, and scarcely any after 70, sequence

(B. T. i, p. 15) ; the lower part of it had been date. These, however, are very different in

removed by the Mission Amelineau, and was appearance to the earlier black-topped, and are
kept at the Cairo Museum ; thence it has now of forms unknown in the prehistoric ; only the
been exchanged, and will rejoin the upper part accidental blacking beneath the ashes resembles
in the Philadelphia Museum. the early ware. The oval dishes, A. 19, 20, are
6. The pottery from the Royal Tombs is the last descendants of the oval forms so usual
given on pis. vi, vii, in addition to that already in the early prehistoric ; and no later examples
published in B. T, i, pis. xxxix — xliii. It is than these have been found.
here classed according to the period ; and the On reaching Perabsen we find the links to
following references are given to the volumes the regular forms of the Old Kingdom. The
Royal Tombs, i (7?.), and the present Abydos (A.), form A. 28, probably derived from that of
with the number of the pottery drawing in each. Mena's age, B. 110, is the parent of the type
The large jars begin under king Ro with two of the Vlth Dynasty (Dendereh, xvi. 5, 7, 22).
bands and a bottom ring of rope pattern (7?. 2) ;
The hand-made pot with diagonal linger marks,
then pass on to plain bands, under Zer (A. 13) ; A. 27, is the parent of the usual pot of the
next the bands come closer together, under Illrd— IVth Dynasty(Medum, xxxi, 15);
Mersekha (7?. G) ; further on they pass up to which in another variety {Medum, xxxi, 19)
above the shoulder (7?. 7), or dwindle to a single lasted on to the Vlth Dynasty (Dendereh,
band, under Qa (7/. 5) ; and lastly we see the xvi, 8).
jar far smaller with a single band, under The large limestone bowl, A. 33, found in the
Perabsen (J. 31). tomb of Mena, is like that of which a piece bears
Some curious late variants of the wavy- the name of Zet (B. T. ii, pi. vii, 2). The
handled jars come from the tomb of Mena, huge pilgrim-bottle, A. 34, is probably of the
B. 19. They are very thick, and so differ from XXIInd Dynasty.
the earlier types, though the form A. 3 is like 7.The Aegean pottery here figm-ed, pi. viii.
that found far earlier ; the arched pattern 1— 14, was found together in a single deposit in
around it is, however, certainly late. The the tomb of Zer, as described in detail in Royal
other forms, A. 5, 6, are more than half solid, Tombs, ii, pp. 9, 46 ; the account already given
and the arch pattern has sunk to two curves, should be referred to, and we need only here
or merely three finger pits. Later on under say that the date and the foreign origin of this
Zer, .1. 15, 16, these become even more for- group are beyond epiestion. Some regular
malized ; but it is curious that two different Egyptian forms, such as 9, 10, 13, 14, and the
forms, this one and the cylinder jar, A. 1, 11, alabaster 11, were deposited with the foreign
12, were both derived from one prototype. It (onus, and show by the contrast the wide
is explained, however, by the cylinder jar being difference The painted pieces
between them.
a form influenced l.y approximating to the below are from the tombs of Den (T) and
alabaster cylinder jars, wnici ore already long Mersekha (U); the zigzag Line between parallels
in use (Diospolis Parva, p. 15, pi. iii) ;
and is a well-known later design, but not hitherto
the forms here, A. 3, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16 ; 7/. Ill — met with in this aye.
OBJECTS FROM T1IK ROYAL TOMBS.

8. ( ha plate ix are some outlines of stone comparison with duplicate labels already
vases, supplementary to those given in lim/nl published.
Tombs, ii, pis. xlvi — liii. Fig. 1 is a portion of
PI. xi.
a syenite enj> of king Sma, the inscri])tiun of
which is here shown in photograph on pi. iv. 2.

The very curious rush tray carved in alabaster,

fig. 4, is here restored from fragments which


were found scattered far apart. It is most like
some of the remarkable slate carvings which
have yet to be published, when the portions
now hidden in Paris are available for science.
The dolomite marble vases, figs. 5, 6, 7, LO,

are those with gold caps, already published in


photographs (li. T. ii, pi. ix, 2— 10). Figs. 8,

9, were found with the copper bowls (R. T. ii,

pi. ix, 13, 15). The diorite bowl, fig. 13, is


photographed in 11. T. ii, pi. ix, 11 ; for the
position see R. T. ii, p. 13, chamber 44. The
bowls, figs. 14, 15, are mentioned in position
in R. T. ii, p. 12, chamber 1G.

On plate x. is shown a small group found


in the chamber Z 1 1
, south of the tomb of king
Zet. The zig-zag pattern, fig. 16, is incised
on a bird's leg-bone, which probably served to
hold copper needles; the copper borer, 19, is

quadrangular ; the two flint scrapers should be


compared with those from Z on pi. xiv. Fig.
20 is a portion of a carved wooden tray, much
weathered, but apparently of a close-grained
conifer, probably cedar ; the base is shown in
the sketch, and part of the curved side. Fig. 21
is from a broken cup of thin horn, found in the

tomb of Mena. The rude vases of alabaster are


show the variety of forms among the
selected to
great number found in the tomb of Ehase-
khemui the depth of the hollow is shown by
;

a dotted line these were drawn by Mr. ;

Weigall.
9. As it was impossible to draw all the
engraved labels for the last volume, several
are given here which were issued only in
photographs last year. It will be clearest for
reference to state the number on plate xi.,

the reference to the photograph, and the


ABYDOS I.

known of this age. On 148 it seems as if the with Mena, and disappear under Merneit ; the

double du was used as a variant for the


hill flakes under Den are rougher, and such con-
triangle gift da, and it should read Hotep-du- tinue to Perabsen. On the other hand, the

Neit, " Neit give peace." The painted inscrip- square-ended flakes begin under Den, but
tion in red, 156, is uncommon. On 159 seems develop strongly and distinctively during the

to be a hyaena. 168 is a fragment of a large Ilnd Dynasty. The round-ended flakes are

royal stele, found in what is probably the finely worked with wide flat sides ;
beginning

tomb of Narmer ; it is carved with relief in under Zer, they are poorer under Den, and

three different levels, indicated by different merge into the square-ended flakes by the end
shading ; the object appears to be part of a of the 1st Dynasty.

decorated facade (like that in Deshasheh, xxvi), The flat scrapers are not of well-marked

and if so, the royal name was probably in the types at first ; a tailed scraper is seen under

doorway below it, as on the inscription of king Merneit, and a rounded triangular one under
Ka, Unhappily no more was found but, of ;
Azab. The triangle is sharper under Mersekha,

coivrse, there may be other fragments in Paris and by the time of Khasekhemui the tri-

quite unknown. The gold bar of Aha, 171, is angular scraper, long or equilateral, is the

here outlined in side view, and the markings on commonest form of flint.

the ends also shown ;


the photograph of the The knives begin with the deep back curve,
ends has been already published in R. T. ii, as in that found in the Mena-tomb at Naqada

pi. iiiA 7, and described on p. 21. (De Morgan, Bech. ii, fig. 769). The handle
11. On plates xiv., xv., the worked flints by the first large knife does not belong to that

found in the royal tombs are arranged in their specimen, but is only placed to carry on the
historical order. In the upper half of the'series figure. The curve becomes less gradually,

the flakes and scrapers are placed, and below until it is almost straight backed under
these are the knives and fragments. The names Khasekhemui. The surface working, which
of the kings are placed at the top of each is far below that of the prehistoric flints even
column, and the letters of the tombs and some at first, becomes rougher on the later knives,
details are written on the photographs. In no and the body is left much thicker and coarser.

other country or age has such an admirable One instance of a recurved tip occurs under Zet.
series been found for the study of variations in The small knives, with two nicks for tying
the types and the rate of variation. And this them on to the girdle, are only found under
only adds one more to the bitter regrets that Zer, see foot of plate. The sharp toe to the
this collection consists of only the scraps left handle is most marked in the first half of the
behind after the shameless plundering of these dynasty, and fades away after that until it is
tombs by speculators, with the full assent of almost lost under Khasekhemui. The most
the Egyptian authorities. typical series of these varieties for comparison

At the top the small pointed flakes begin is in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.
CIIAITKU II.

THE TEMENOS OF OSIRIS.

12, As the excavations in the great temple with octagonal columns of limestone.
Temenos of Osiris still need one or two years In the Xllth Dynasty many monuments wen-
more of work to complete them, it is not added by Usertcsen I. In the Xlllth Dynasty
desirable to prepare a tentative plan; but Sebekhotep III. built a black granite gateway.
anyone wishing to follow closely what is In the XVHItli Dynasty Tahutmes III.

described can use the plan made by Mr. lniilt a massive inner enclosing wall to the
Garstang, and published in El Arabah. With- temple, over twenty feet thick, with a great
out a plan it is useless to trouble a reader with red granite pylon on the back or desert Bide,
topographical descriptions, and hence the opening into the larger walled area. Much of
account here is restricted to explaining the the larger wall had been destroyed, and a town
relations of the various things found and spread over the space, as before in the Old
figured in these plates. Kingdom ; but later, probably in the troubles of

So far as our excavations have yet gone, the XXth Dynasty, the old line of outer wall was
the history of the site may be briefly summed built again, over the later town. In the XXVIth
up thus. A temple of Osiris stood here upon Dynasty the temple was rebuilt, and additions
the sandy edge of the desert, certainly in the made in the XXXth Dynasty. Where the
Vlth Dynasty, and presumably before the original shrine of Osiris stood is not yet known ;

1st Dynasty. Outside of the temple enclosure but presumably it was the nucleus of the
a town sprang up behind it on the desert original temple, and therefore beneath the later

before the 1st Dynasty, and mingled with that temples. We have not yet cleared the temple
town are a few large tombs and some smaller site below the foundations of the XVIIIth
burials of the 1st Dynasty. These seem to Dynasty, and work there will be very difficult

have been placed amid the deserted houses owing to the rise of the Nile level placing the

when that part of the town was unoccupied. lower parts under Avater.

This town spread for some hundreds of feet 13. The excavation of the temenos area was

around the temple, and lasted on to the a difficult matter to arrange. On every side it

IVth — Vlth Djmasties. Some time after the was bounded so that no clear space could be
Old Kingdom a great enclosure wall was built, begun upon ; and I was obliged to start by
far outside of the temple ground, resting upon throwing back along a line of existing ruins.

the town rubbish. A corner of this was boxed In the higher part of the ground, nearer to the
off with cross walls, and filled up with inter- desert, the clean sand surface of the old deserl

ments of the Xlth — XVIIth Dynasties, known was found beneath all the towns piled one over
later as the Kom es Sultan, which was com- the other. But this clean sand was inaccessible
pletely emptied out by Mariette's workmen. beneath the water in every part of the temple
In the Xlth Dynasty Antef V. rebuilt the ground bounded by the great wall of Tahutmes
10 ABYDOS I.

III. That most important region we have often looked for them carefully. The walls of
only yet searched as far back as the XVIIIth the houses were sometimes visible for a couple
Dynasty ; but having now finished a large space of feet or so in height when a clean section was
outside of it, we can proceed next year to cut ; but the bricks were quite indistinguishable,
unload the temple ground on to the space and the wall could only be detected as the
already searched, and thus work down over it, interruption of lines of charcoal and potsherds
leaving only the lowest levels to be cleared at by a vertical face of uniform earth. It was,
the dry end of the season. In the whole space therefore, not practicable to trace out the
outside of the temple ground not a trace of any separate houses, or to make any plan of the
building of the early time was found except buildings and in no case did we find any length
;

mud brick houses. We have, then, to deal with of uniform wall more than the side of a room
what was a series of towns, piled up in strata or two, or any thicker mass than the usual
which are usually (i inches to 1 foot thick. chamber walls. There does not seem to have
To denote the positions of small objects found, been any large enclosure or uniform mass of
I marked each with a trench number and a building, but only small houses. The whole
level. The trench numbers I have not pub- compacted mass of wall-stumps, mud and sherds
lished here, as it appears that there was a is so unified by pressure and wet — being
generally level spread of the town in all parts saturated at high Nile — that only clean cut
that we dug, for peculiar tyj)es of flints or sections would show anything ; and there was
pottery are found at closely the same level in no discriminating cohesion in one part more
different trenches. The levels were at first than another.
denoted in inches absolutely above a fixed 14. Throughout the early town, flints more
datum point but as work went on it proved
; or less wrought were abundant. Thousands of
more convenient and satisfactory to denote flakes were found (of which a portion were
them in inches over the basal slope of clean levelled, and are figured on pis. xxiv, xxv) :

sand. This sand gently sloped down from the and some hundreds of worked-up flints, knives,
desert to the cultivation, and hence absolute scrapers, saws, all levelled when
&c, which were
levels are not comparable, but heights over found in undisturbed earth. The sebakhin had,
sand show the true depth of ruin. Every level however, dug over the whole site, and parts of
stated on the drawings of flints, pottery, and it down even to the sand ;
and therefore many
other objects here is in inches over sand, or flints Avere found in their siftings which cannot
absolute depth of ruin at the point. Roughly now be levelled. Though some of these were
speaking, the town began about the beginning fine examples, they are not figured here, as no
of Dynasty 0, and the stratified material that exact historic value can be given to them. The
was left untouched by the sebakhin rarely drawings here were all made by outlining the
extended beyond the Ilnd Dynasty. The on the paper, copying the edge flakes, and
flints

discussion of the relations of the pre-historic then drawing in the general flaking by freehand,
sequence dates, the kings' reigns, and the town observing the form of each flake carefully.

levels will best be taken after describing the Every flint has its level in inches over the basal
various material that we have found. In many sand, or the depth of ruin when it was dropped,
places I dug through the basal sand for a foot marked below it.

or two, but always found it clean and undis- Pis. xvi, xvii. Flint Knives without
turbed, and in no case did I observe any graves HANDLES. — On comparing these it did not seem
or hollows dug in it and filled up, though I that there was any restriction of types to special
;

THE TKMKNOS OF OSIRIS. 11

Levels ; lience these are arranged rather l>v the tin' long blade 4 the same king, and fig. 5 1 is

amount of curvature in the back, as this enables mosi like the knives of Azab and Mersekha.
a comparison with any other specimen to be The l.isi example, fig. 84, is of the Xlth — Xllth
most readily made. The whole of the flaking Dynasty, as it is closely like those in Dendereh,
isrough compared with the prehistoric work, xxii, Kahun, \\i, and lllahun, vii, \iii.

and it resembles that of the knives of the 1st PI. xx. 'I'm: Flint Hoes. — These form a
Dynasty tombs and the Hierakonpolis deposit. well-marked group, mine being found below 38,
Many of the specimens are greatly changed in and most being within 2<> inches, from 75 to 95.
outline by wear ; for instance, the snubbing of The form underwent very slight changes down
the edge of 27 shows plainly in the drawing. to the Xllth Dynasty (Illahun, vii.). Most of
This snubbing is always on the side next the these hoes show the high polish due to wear in

person when the flint is held in the right hand : use; and the mode of setting is seen in hiero-
and was doubtless the result of scraping away glyphs of the Vth Dynasty, where three hoes in
from the person. Sometimes a flint will lie a line are bound on to the end of a long handle,
snubbed half the length on one face and half on at right angles to it.

the other face, having been held sometimes by Pis. xxi — xxiii. The Scrapers. — These are
one end, sometimes by the other. This wear roughly classed as tailed, irregular, and round;
may be noticed in the drawings of 5, 7, 14, 19, in each class they are arranged in the order of
27, 35, and 3G, outer end. The wide finely their levels.
re-curved knives 30, 35, 36, 37, 40, 41 and 42 The tailed scrapers are mostly poor and slighl

belong to levels 22 to 65 (as the M tombs were up to about 10 level; but from 30 to 51 there
cut into the ground, see below) ; and this corre- is a class of thick, carefully- flaked, pieces, with
sponds to the first half of the 1st Dynasty, the edge often notched. After 51 only two
agreeing to the fine one of this type, in the slight ones are known. The history of this

Naqada tomb of Plena's queen. No butt ends form is therefore very definite.
of this type of knife were found in the royal The irregular scrapers are mainly before 40
tombs, excepting perhaps one of Zet and one of 22 being in the first 40 inches, and only 8 in
Mersekha ; but owing to only the broken pieces the next such space.
being known from those tombs, it is difficult to The round scrapers are similarly distributed,
make comparisons. The tip 40 is much like three-quarters in the lowest part of the town.
one of Zer ; and the recurved tip 39 is like one As in the royal tombs it is only when the finer-
of Zet. worked flints were given up that the rougher
Pis. xviii, xix. Flint Knives with Handles. scrapers were buried, it is useless to compare
—These seem to cover the same range of levels the few scrapers found there with those from
as those without handles. They are arranged the town. At the base of the plate are two
here in order from the most concave backs to flint borers ; a broken disc of flint, probably in
the most convex. The work is generally rougher course of working for a bracelet ; and a flint

than is seen on those from the royal tombs ; a core.

natural difference between working articles and PL xxiv. Long Scrapers. —These have all

royal specimens. None of the very pointed been used for scraping a wide surface ; some
toes are found on the handles, and the blades may probably be misused knives (189, 193),

are far thicker than the royal knives. We but others are evidently maJe for scraping, as
may well compare fig. 53 with the knives of 194, 195, 198.
Khasekhemui, the long narrow blade GO with Flakes are classified into plain flakes (199—

12 ABYDOS I.

236), tipped flakes (237— 2G6), worked flakes


Stone.
(267— 28 1). rounded flakes (282—285), and
square flakes (286 — 291). The simpler forms
are pretty equally distributed ;
the rounded
ends are wide before 60, and narrow after,

much as in the tombs they are wide to Merneit,


and narrow from Den onward. The regular
square form does not here begin till 40, and we
know that it continued in use till the end of the
Illrd Dynasty (Medum, xxix, 26).
PL xxvi. Three pieces of animal figures
chipped in flint were found ; and such are
already known from elsewhere (see Man, 1902,
art. 14). The figure 294 is certainly a crocodile,
and the others may be intended for the same
beast.
The smaller saw flints are probably all from
sickles ; they belong to the lower levels in the

town.
The crescent flints are nearly all of the higher
levels, over 50 inches. The use of them is

suggested by finding a great quantity in a


stratum of white sand and stone dust ; this

indicates that they were used like the vase


grinders (pi. liii. 23 — 34), but probably for the
rough stages of drilling out alabaster vases.
earlier

The comb flints 315 327 are hitherto un- —


known ; but it seems likely that they are a
development of the round scraper, perhaps for

scraping the scales from fish.

15. The stone vases, pi. xxvii, which were


found in the temenos strata are mostly frag-
mentary. They show, hoAvevcr, the periods of
several well-known types, which may all be
placed here Avithin the 1st Dynasty or a little

before it. Referring to the stone vases which


are dated by the Royal Tombs (It. T. ii, pis.

xlvi — liii), we may compare here :

Stone. King. Number.

jMena 297
Alab. 30
(Zer 298
Bas.'i It 45 Zer 54
;; ;;

THE TBMBNOS OF OSIBIS, is

small saucers, 10— 14, are so easily invented at store grain. \ recess around the mouth (see
any time that they are not important. section was made
in 81 | I" retain a lid. The
The everted bowls L5—27 are both of rough levels stated here are taken a little below the
brown pottery (see X. 24, 26, 28) or of I J
top, at the probable ground level. The same
polished red ware of poor and late quality form of mouth to a spheroidal jar was found
(see .V. P 15, 17, 18). along with a cylinder of Ka-Ra, probably
The brim bowls, 28—31. are of late origin, Khaires who reigned either just before or after
but of various ware; some red polished .V. ( Khasekhemui in the [Ind Dynasty {El Kab, ii, 2).
P 14), some rough brown, but more usually This would be probably rather later than the
of hard late ware (A. L 7, 8, 9, 10). examples here, which are at 68 to 88 levels.
The inturned bowls are the commonest of The largest jar (Fig. S3) is much later, being
all, and descend from early ages; they are found at 55 inches under the pavement of
divided into four columns here, the straight Aanenhotep I the height over sand is yet
;

sided, the curved sided, the rounded sided, and unknot n.


the wide based. The cylinder jars, 84 - 86, are of the usual
It should be noted that the different classes late type, such as is found in the latest pre-
of bowls were not in use similarly at all levels. historic graves, probably contemporary with
The rough small saucers are all of or 3 level such jars in the Mena and Zer tombs. The
the everted bowls at to 25, and one later series of further degradation of this form is

the wide bases usually 25 to 50 ; the brim bowls given in T. 119—129.


/,'. i,

19 to 85; the rounded bowls 18 to 115. This The minute forms, 88 91, seem to be models —
shows that fluctuations in fashion went on from of the large jars 102, &c. They are all early.
one generation to another, within the wider The rough brown jars, 92 97, are of the —
range of the mere existences of such forms which form of the late ash jars of the prehistoric
cover much longer periods. graves (
A'.
L 30). In two or three houses long
The rough-bottomed bowls, 57 62, were — lines of these were found stacked against a wall
made by dropping a lump of mud into a hole in in one case 21 jars, along a chamber 145 by 86
the ground, and then shaping it up by hand. inches, standing mouth down on the sand
They are all very thick, and of soft, poorly- (fig. 92) ; elsewhere more than a dozen, mouth
baked mud sitms marked with the finder
; up (fig. 97) ; elsewhere a long line, mouth
often occur on the inside of the bowls, and such down (tig. 95); and in nearly all of these cases
are copied here. The earlier forms are flatter, the bottoms were broken off.

the later ones more upright. The smooth, hard, light brown jars, J8
(
— 101,
The great pans, 66 — 69, were probably used are not so common in the town as they are in

for storage, as also the ovate jars 70 — 77. graves.


These forms are not known in the graves, The class of great jars, 102 — 105, is quite
except very rarely a jar. But the great pans distinct from all others. The earliest is that
were used to invert over a contracted body, so from the tomb of King Ro (Ii. '/'.
i, 2), which
as to constitute a grave ;
and they are commonly has the raised bands marked to imitate rope
known to explorers by their modern name of this is a copy of a jar slung in cords, like the
magv/r. The pans are found in all levels, but example carved in stone found by Amelineau
the jars only range from 18 to 62. (De Morgan, 823). For a small
Eech. ii, tig.

The great jars with narrow mouths (78 — S3) pottery model of the same see 11. T. ii, pi.
were probably sunk in the ground and used to xxxviii, 1. Such jars were found by me with
; —

14 ABYDOS I.

the remains of actual cordage upon them in the The model vases 182 — 187 are of hard fawn
offerings to Merneit : and the impression of the ware like their larger prototypes.
ring of cord round the neck is usually found on The ring stand 192 is one of the rudest forms.
the lower edge of the great sealing*. The In 193 there is a combined cup and stand in

successive stages of degradation of these jars one piece. 194 is a dish with lip. In 195
have been already noted in section 6. The 197 we see combined bowls and stands made in
elaborate pattern on 105 must be due to an one. Such are found in late prehistoric time,
archaistic imitation, or possibly the piece was 72 — 76 S.D., but seem to be quite unknown in
dug out from the lowest level in early times the Illrd Dynasty and onwards. The stand
certainly it is not in place in the series at 63 pierced with triangular holes (198) is almost
level. The plain jars without bands (104) arc exactly like one in Dendereh, xvi, 38. The
of the same age as those with bands, see B. T. i, large globular jar on a small stand (211) is an
1 — 12; but they are generally of a fuller form extreme instance of the combined form. The
than the banded jars. decoration of red lines on the fawn pottery in
The hand-made pottery, with diagonal finger 205 —211 belongs to the late prehistoric age.
marks, 106 — 116, is well known in the Old The triangular tube 203 is unknown elsewhere.
Kingdom (Medwn, xxxi, 15 ; El Eab, xii, 23) ;
Several solid cylinders of pottery (204) were
but it does not occur in prehistoric graves. It found, with wiped lines around the ends, and
appears from the levels to belong to the Ilnd diagonal finger marks ; they were probably
Dynasty and onward ; and may be a degrada- used to support a wooden floor above the
tion of the well-made jars of the 1st Dynasty, earth, like the jars at Kop>tos.
such as in R. T. i, 16 — 31, or the forms 122, 17. Outside of the smaller enclosure, close
129 — 131, 136 here, which are earlier than the around the town had sprung
Osiris temple, the
majority of these rough jars. up before the 1st Dynasty and when four or ;

The jars with a deep collar, 118 — 121, are five feet of rubbish and ruins had accumulated,

pi'obably the latest stage of the ash-jar of the at about the earlier half of the 1st Dynasty,
prehistoric graves (N. L 33, 34 ; D. L 34c). several large tombs (some as much as thirteen
The whole class of rotund jars, 123 — 140, feet by six) were sunk within the town, just out-
are usually of hard fawn-coloured pottery, side the temple gateway. Probably that part
which is common in late prehistoric times. of the town site was unoccupied then, and after
They run on into the Illrd Dynasty, compare standing a couple of generations the houses
129 and Medum, xxx, 11; and the Vth Dynasty, had crumbled down, and the place seemed bare
see 135 and Deshasheh, xxxiii, 20. enough for a cemetery, although it was after-
The little round-bottomed jars, 141 — 150, arc wards again covered by the town. These
rare in tombs, but common in the town : they tombs were then subjected to such pressure
do not occur in the lowest levels, before the and wet in the soil that their contents and
1st Dynasty, but are known in the prehistoric walls are hardly to be distinguished from the
(/V. R 63) from 50 S.D. to the end. The earlier town rubbish outside of them. It is only when
ones are well shaped with a good brim, and a group of pottery or stone vases is found (bat
they become ruder in later instances. we can be certain of the presence of a tomb,
The small globular pots, 151 — 174, are and it needs careful examination to settle the

common in the earlier levels, but are all more height of the walls. As will be seen in dis-

rounded at the bottom than the late prehistoric cussing the dates in section 20 the walls are
forms, N. R 64—69. traceable up to, or within a few inches, of the
Till: TEMBNOS OP OSIRIS !..

level which corresponds to the age of the t b ;


sketched into ;.
|
Ian as it appeared, with often
and hence the tombs were cut down through some measurements i*< secure the position, and
about four or five feet of town rubbishj then a number was marked <>n to identify it it

generally to the clean sand (see top of pi. again. AfhT making the drawings of the forms,
lxxx), and lined with a wall which rose to the the plans were fair-drawn fr the dimensions
ground surface of that age. The roofing was <m the plates "I forms, lining them all in to the
doubtless of branches, twigs, and earth—like dimensions measured as they stood in the tomb.
the prehistoric tombs — which gave way, and The bodies were far too much rotted, with the
let the rubbish from the surface fall over, and wet and pressure, t,, be preserved; the skulls
till up the hollow. Most of these tombs seem were kept, in some cases, on a Lump <>l earth, but
never to have been disturbed ; the bodies were all too much crushed t" he of any value for
unbroken, the jars complete, and the fine stone measurement: the positions were, however,
work was found,
vases in place: but as no gold noted carefully in all but one case, where it

and the only valuables were some beads, and was broken up.
in one case copper tools, it may be that covetablc The direction of the tombs was parallel to
objects bad, perhaps, been taken away. One the temenos wall in most cases, ami they are
of these tombs was found by accident two years drawn here with the reputed north upwards,
ago, and its contents are published in B. T. ii, really N.N.W.
pi. xxxiii, numbered M 1. This year eleven The tombs are arranged here in the order of
more tombs or interments of that age were their character, placing next to one another
found, and the plans are shown in pis. xlviii, those most comparable. This is not in the
xlix, the pottery in pis. xxxvi xli, the stone — order of numbers nor the order of the age.
vases in pis. xlii — xlvii ; the copper tools in They should he studied with the sections, given
pi. 1, the beads in pi. lii, and the flint knives at the top of pi. lxxx, which show their rela-

in pi. xvii. tion to the native sand, and the relative breadth
18. In the plaus pis. xlviii, xlix, every and height.
jar is shown in outline to scale. The pottery M 24, M 25, M 2(1 are three burials in clay
is in plain outline, the stone vases are cross- coffins ; they stood to each other in the
shaded one way, the blocks of stone single- respective positions here shown. The coffins
shaded one way, and the brick walls single- 2d and 26 were of black clay or mud, 25 of
shaded the other way. The numbers on the white clay. For the figures of the vases see

vases are those which were marked on them pis. xli, xlvii. From the stone vases it has been
during the clearing of the tomb, and agree to observed already that they are most like those
the numbers on pis. xxxvi xlvii. The — of the age of Den, Mersekha, and Mcrneit, so
necessities of the excavation made it impossible far as we can tell by one or two examples. By
to keep a regular order of the numbers, either being close together they probably belong to
in position or nature of the objects. Some- the same age, apparently that of Den ; the: town
times only a part of a tomb could be done at level of which time was about 70. Thus the
first ; sometimes it was needful to remove all levels of the coffins at 40 and 50 inches

the valuable stone vases overnight, for fear of (pi. lxxx) would mean that the bole for burial
robbery, and do the pottery next clay ; some- was dug 20 to 30 inches deep. The position
times a space had to be cleared to stand or of these and all the other burials was contracted

kneel in, so as to reach the delicate parts of in the usual prehistoric manner and in almost ;

the clearance carefully. Almost every vase was all cases the bead was south and face west, the
;

16 ABYDOS I.

attitude of the prehistoric bodies. This is con- M 15. From the bareness of this tomb, and
trary to the attitude of head north, face either the poorness of its contents (see pis. xxxix,
way, in which were found most of the servants xliv) it seems probable that it had been robbed
of king Qa and face ; cast, as the IITrd Dynasty anciently. The west wall was not traced.
people of Med urn. M 18. This was another bare tomb with
M 17 is the only instance of a bricked grave only the commonest pottery and broken stone
containing a clay coffin. The coffin was at 50 vases. It lay next to M 15, and had probably
inches over the sand (pi. lxxx) ; and as by the been robbed. At the S.W. corner was the
stone vases the burial can hardly be later than skeleton of a gazelle.
Merneit, when the surface level was 60, the M 19. This was the richest tomb of all,

black clay coffin can scarcely have been covered having twenty-two stone vases. We see here,
by the grave, but was hidden by heaping over as also in the next two tombs, large blocks of
the top. The body in the coffin was that of a natural rough rolled stones laid on the floor of
woman ;
that in the grave was a child, and at the grave. These are placed at the head and
a rather lower level. By its hands was a small the feet ; and in each grave they mark out the
square packet of beads. The mass below vase 10 line of the cylinder jars placed by the head.
was a lump of soft white earth, like rough It seems likely that these stones were the
plaster, which was not found in any other bases of wooden pillars or props which sup-
grave. The vases are figured on pis. xxxix, ported the roofing, and which delimited an
xliv. inner space around the body. There may even
M 14 is the only instance of a burial with have been a central boarded chamber with some
head to north. The length of the femur objects placed in it and others grouped outside
17'8 ins. (452 mm.) is usual for a man, but of it. This would be like the central wooden
extreme for a woman. For the vases see chamber of the royal tombs of Zer, Zet, and
pis. xxxix, The base of the tomb was
xliv. Den, with the offerings in spaces outside of it.

1 1 inches over the sand, and therefore dug In M 19 the stone vases by the head, and the
about four feet deep from the surface of that pottery cylinders 9 — 12, would all be piled up
time. This burial was unusually rich in within the chamber ; and the group of stone
having seven flint bracelets on the left arm, vases at the north end would lie outside. In
besides one flint bracelet on the right arm ;
M 12 the cylinder jars 14, 15, bowls 4 and
also a flint knife (xvii. 28) under the head. slate, would be stood up inside the chamber, and
Tn the earth over the body were black lines all the other offerings in lines outside. In M Hi
in one plane, with streaks of bright haematite the large slate 48 and alahaster 8 would be
this stuff was probably a rush mat painted with leaning against the chamber side, and the
ruddle. Between the bowl 52 and the wall vases 6, 22, 37 — 40, 50, 51 stacked inside;
was the skull of an animal (gazelle?) By the also the vases 10— 12, IS, 32, 43, 45, 47, and
head were about 8 inches of carnelian heads. the howls 42, 44 leaning against the side. On
about (i inches of steatite tuhe heads, the same the decay of the woodwork the vases would
of green glaze ball heads, and some long glazed naturally fall over into the positions in which
tube beads. In front of the body beneath the we find Thus the arrangement of the
them.
hand was a huge rough stone. The thickness contents points to some inner framing of wood,
of the walls was measured (12 inches), but the which rested on the Large stones as a footing.
height could not he traced. The south wall In the section (pi. lxxx) it is seen that neither
was not found. the walls nor the interment reach down to the
THE TEMENOS OP OSIJ 17

clean sand ;
within the walls is a layer of broken town strata, the wall is preserved up to the
bricks and lumps of rubbish, and then curved original surface. The body bad a Blate bracelet

strata of town rubbish, charcoal and pot- nil tin' right Fore-arm, and three shell bracelets
sherds,—filling up the hollow, where the roof mi tin' left. Two heads, of goat or gazelle, lay
had collapsed. There is 7 to 12 inches of house before it : seme leg hones to die north "I' the
rubbish beneath the walls; and in the middle beads ; and behind the body many gazelle bones,
mud wash up to 15 inches, and then broken and another head. The large pan. 20, behind
brick to 25 inches over the sand. the 1m .(I \ was base upwards. For the forms "1

A very curious point in this burial is thai Vases see pis. xl. \lv.

at 13 upon the knees was part of the knee bone M. 13. This was the largesi "t the tombs,
of an ox, and at 14 upon the humerus was pari and contained the greatest amount of pottery,
of the shoulder blade of an ox. These bones and also copper tools; but three other tombs
must have been intended to act by sympathetic contained more stone vases. So it is true <4
magic, in order to impart the strength of the these tombs, as of others, that the pottery seems
ox to the limbs of the deceased. For the to replace the stone vases. The south part of

references to the vases see pis. xli, xlvii. The the tomb was first uncovered, and cleared as far
large vase 16 had the lesser one 26 placed in as beyond the feet of the skeleton, by under-
it, and 36 also in it beneath 26. Bowl 170 mining the side of the cutting. A marker was
was placed in 70, and 178 in 78. The north then put down beyond the feet, and the nortli

wall of the tomb was not traced, nor was the part cleared while the south was refilled ; the

thickness of the walls ascertained. marker served thus to connect the measure-
M. 12. This grave was opened up late one ments, but the whole space was not seen at one
afternoon, and I planned and removed the stone time, owing to the great depth of the earth.
vases before dark, but had to leave the rest for Over most of the floor a cobble paving of rough
daylight ; unfortunately one of the boys thought desert stones, about four to six inches across,
that I had finished the ground in the middle, was laid down. This paving did not extend up
and cleared it out next morning, so the attitude to the Avails in most parts, but on the east side
of the skeleton was not observed beyond the it ran out under the line of the wall, though I
place of the head.Of course that was the last could not verily if there was really walling over
tomb that boy ever touched. The vase figures it In the second clearance, of the north
there.

are given on pis. xxxvi, xlii, xliii the P ; end, I did not observe any paving but it was ;

placed to some bowls denotes polished red not easy to see, as it was covered with thick
pottery. On the N.E. stone was a slate palette mud, and could only be felt for by slicing the
4d ; on that the basalt bowl 4c, in that the soft mud with a knife. The section of the tomb
blue volcanic stone bowl 4b, and in that the is shown in pi. lxxx. The wall extends from
basalt bowl 4a. The alabaster saucer 8 was 15 below the sand to 52 over it; mud wash

placed in two pottery saucers containing mala- rises to 12 over the sand, and above that are

chite chips ; and the alabaster 9 was in a pile of curved strata of town rubbish, and broken brick
six pottery saucers. The pan 38 contained at the sides.

wood ashes. The pot and saucer 44 were The body was peculiar in having the spine,
43,
severed at the fifth vertebra, with five inches
high up on the west side.

M. 16. This tomb had walls preserved higher separation between the parts, and yet the arm

than any of the others, being 52 inches over lying on the severed vertebra with its bones
in joint and quite undisturbed. It seems
sand ; as the level of its age is 55 inches in the
c
18 ABYDOS I.

impossible to suppose that the spine has merely now to reconstruct in our museums these

fallen apart during decay. The right femur sumptuous burials of the earliest age of the
was 19-0 ins. (480111.111.), the left femur 19*2 ins. Egyptian monarchy.
(489 m.m.) long, which is a very full size for a 19. It is hardly needful to say much in

male. There were four carnclian beads at detail about the pottery of the M. tombs, pis.

intervals around the head. Behind the body xxxvi— xli, as the classes have been noticed
were two heads of calves and the bones of a in describing the pottery of the early town,
bird. section 16. In some plates it has not been
The vases are figured on pis. xxxvii, xxxviii, thought needful to repeat the varieties of the
xliii. The large pottery cylinder jars made large jars, but cross references are given from

in imitation of alabaster were filled with clean one to another. (Correct the lowest reference
sand. A bowl, 63, was inverted over 13. A on pi. xxxvi. 45, from 57 to 67.) In some
second bowl was placed under bowl 12. In the cases of large numbers of bowls no separate
deep bowl 2 was painted stuff (linen or leather), number was attached to each, but the stars put
a bone netter, a rough pan, a rough brown jar, to some forms show how many examples were

bird bones, and bits of limestone painted red. found. The large jars M. 13 13, 14 are made ;

The saucer 4 contained white paint. The large of light drab pottery in imitation of alabaster.

jar 41 was in the earth outside of the tomb The bottle M. 13, 65 is of hard pale pottery, like

limits, and it hardly seems likely to belong to all the late pre-historic bottles (Naq. L. 60 — 66).
the tomb, but rather to be one of the jars left In the tomb M. 18 there were practically only
in the town ruin at an earlier date. Beyond two forms of pottery, the bowl 3 and the vase 4,

the feet, near the north end, the copper tools and the slight varieties are not noted separately
were found lying together ; the position is not in place.

certain, as they were moved in the course of The stone vases, pis. xlii — xlvii, were found
clearing, and I had to rely on the workman's in all of the M. tombs ; sometimes there were
observation. With the copper tools described only a couple, but in M. 19 as many as twenty-

on p. 23 (pi. 1) were also two polished black two. They were almost always buried in

quartzose stones, doubtless used for hammering perfect condition, for though the more tender
and burnishing metal. This tomb is kept at the ones have often been broken, the exact position
Cairo Museum to be arranged as an example of the fragments shows that they were buried
of the burial of the 1st Dynasty. entire. In one case, M. 18, the pieces lay as if

It is unfortunate that this series of fine graves the bowl and vase had been broken before
was placed in so low a situation, where, by the burial ; and as this tomb contained only very
rise of water level, they are now below high common pottery, some disused broken stone
Nile level, and the soil is so wet that it can, vases may have been put in, for economy.

with a little shaking, be poured out from the Certainly there is no sign of " killing " the
vases as a stream of mud. This wet has vases of either stone or pottery at the burial.
decayed all the bones, so that it was impossible The alabaster cylinder jars are mostly rather
to keep one whole, and it has also made it coarse and carelessly made, as if for funeral
difficult to trace the walls or the structural purposes, and are not nearly as well finished
details, or to find small objects in the soft mud. as those of the royal tombs. The splendid tomb
But having been buried over with some twenty M. 19 is again exceptional in having much finer
feet of earth above them, these tombs have been vases than the others.
preserved from later robbers, and we are able It will be seen in 11. T. ii, stone vases IV,
THE TBMBNOS OF OSIRIS
I"

None
20 ABYDOS *I.

town between 45 and 60 inches over the sand ;


M. 12; 45 Zer

the value finally adopted for each being placed 11, 47 before Mersekha ' Zer

after the bracket. 15 before Qa


The meaning of this in relation to the con- M. 13; 25—27 Zer
Zer
struction of the tomb must be noticed. The 51—23 before Qa
heights of the walls of the tombs (pi. lxxx) over
M. 14; 4,6, 13, 17 all Merneit
the sand are thus :— Merneit
3 Mersekha ?
Tomb Level of age Top of wall

M. 12 50 45 M. 16; 21 Zer
M. 13 45 40 27, 28 as M. 1, Zer
Merneit
M. 16 55 52 3 Zet, Merneit
M. 19 60 45 14— IS Qa
so that the walls where traceable extend to
M. 18; 4 Zer —Merneit Zet
3 to 15 inches below what was probably the
M. 19; 50, 75 Zer
crround level at the time : a conclusion which
57, 58 as M. 1, Zer
shows that our results by the types of the
65 Zet
pottery are probably true to a few inches of
10 Zet, Merneit Zet
level.
11 Merneit
B. The dating of the M. tombs in relation to
60 before Mersekha
the royal tombs depends on both the pottery
69, 94 Mersekha
and the stone. Taking the pottery first Ave

see Turning to the stone vases Ave see that they

M. 1 ; 3 similar to Zer may be compared Avith those in B. T. ii as


/

51 about Zet Zei folloAvs ; M. 1 being omitted as Ave have not the
16—19 before Mersekha sections for comparison.

M. 12
THE TBMEN08 OF OSIEIS.

M. is
;

22 A BY DOS I.

75 inches = Azab
80 Mersekha
90 Qa
110 Perabsen

D. Lastly we have the relation of the levels

and reigns to the series of prehistoric sequence

dates. Of course the end of the series is the


weakest point, as there is no comparison with
data that come after it, as in other parts. I

shall here omit all comparisons with types that


have a long range of sequence dates, or a range
that extends up to 80, as they are of no use
also those ranges before 70, as it is certain that
they cannot be in question here. The useful

material then is : —
Type
; . ;

TIIK TBMEN08 OP OSIRIS. •23

The close of the series of sequence dates, at Man litiil art L23. A small square-bodied
80, is best fixed by the cylinder jars which I chisel was found at 25 level.

have trusted, as they are generally in accord \t (he base of the plate are some marks on
with the vaguer indications of the other pottery. pottery, others of which are on pi. xxix. They
21. Plate 1. The Slates, Tools, &c— At are of much the same nature a- those already
the top of the plate is the expanded design published, except the strongly alphabetic forms
which is painted on a howl of rough red pottery, marked broadly with the fineer O K and P.
the outline of which is shown below. The '

22. The amulets and small personal objects


painting is done with red ochre, coarsely put on found in the town were not frequent ; but they
with a brush. It was found at level 23, and is are of special value as being better dated than
therefore about the time of king Ka. The any found before. PL li. 1 is a cylinder of
animal to the left seems by the horns to be in- translucent Iceland spar, pierced to hang on
tended for the kudu, now known in Abyssinia ;
a necklace, similar to the drop-shaped pendant
the design of birds on a tree is not known on of alabaster in tomb M. 1
4, see pi. xliv.

any other Egyptian pottery. Beyond the two 2 is a slate pendant which seems to be a
animals in the middle are probably two forms of model of a stone axe of a form not known in

snaring nets, and a goat and kid seem to have Egypt ; found loose in top rubbish, so uncertain
been on the part now lost. Above the drawing m age.
are some fragments of painted pottery of the 3 is a rather similar pendant of green glaze,
late prehistoric style, with the levels where also undated.

found. 4, 5, are bull's head pendants of green


A few slate palettes were found loose in the serpentine, of a type well known in prehistoric

town ruins. They are all of late type, already time (see Man 1902, art. 14; Diospolis p. 20)
known to belong to sequence dates almost as and these prove that the form continued to the
late as here found. Beside these see pi. xxxvi, early kings though the origin of it was certainly
M. 12, 4d ;
pi. xl M. 16, 47, 48 ;
pi. liii, 12. A forgotten when 5 was made, probably under
curious piece of yellow limestone from level 11 Mena.
with four holes at the corners is shown at the 6 is a pendant of earthy green serpentine,
beginning of the copper tools ; one side is perhaps derived from the form of a shell, such
rounded and one flat. The use of it is un- as continued in use to the Xllth Dynasty.
known. Beginning of Dyn. 0.

The copper tools were mostly found in grave 7 is a pendant of clear green serpentine,

M. 13; a square axe, a round-headed adze, a shaped like the brilliant green beetles which
cutting-out tool (broken) and the ends of two are now brought to Egypt from the Sudan.

knives ; all these lay together at the N. end of Beginning of Dyn. 0.

the grave (see pi. xlix). Another square axe 8, 9, are two forehead pendants of thin slate

was found at level 53. These tools are of and shell, of the kind usual in late prehistoric

exactly the pattern of those found at Abadiyeh time.

(see Diospolis vii) which were dated to s.d. 78. 10 is a piece of a model cylinder seal, made
Here M. 13 is about s.d. 79, and the other axe of clay, with the hieroglyphs I; m
about s.d. 80. The long double-edged cutting- 11 is a cylinder of light green glaze, with
wider than the three crocodiles incised. (Cairo Museum.)
out tool found at level 20 is

form from the tomb of Zer (B. T. ii pi. vi, 24) 12 a cylinder of dark violet glaze, with
is

incised hieroglyphs these seem to read "'give


for the series of such tools, and their use, see ;
•21 AUYDOS I.

the house of bread to thee " the house of bread limestone has the models of the various funereal
;

being an early equivalent of the per-hheru of implements let into it. And thus Ave reach the
later funeral inscriptions. This type of inscrip- pesh-ken amulet, of Avhich a fine example Avas
tion is just that found on most of the early found of the Xllth Dynasty (Diosjiolis xxv,
black cylinders, which mention offerings and Y 61, middle group), carved in carnclian, Avith
provisions, and usually have a figure seated a gold head in a wig as the handle of it.

before a table of offerings ; such cylinders seem It seems also further that this amulet may
to have been the earlier form of the prayer, be continued in Avhat is usually classed as a
which was later expressed on the innumerable double feather, on the mummies of the XXVIth
funeral steles. Reign of Zer. Dynasty. Two forms of feather amulet certainly
13 a fragment of slate palette from level 52 ;
exist, the straight feathers, and the two plumes
about reign of Zet. Avith rounded tops ; a third form Avith pointed
14 a piece of carved ivory inlay, such as is ends turned outAvard, is found on the same
found in the royal tombs of Merneit, Den, and mummies Avith the other tAvo, so it cannot be
Azab (/?. T. ii, xxxix, 37; xl, 45—8; xlii, a variant of either of those ; and as no such
71-2). The level of it, 40 inches, points to the feathers are shoAvn elseAvhere this is probably
© of the reign
beginning;
© © of Zer. the pesh-lcen amulet modified by confusion with
15 an ivory draughtsman, rather different the double plumes. (See Man, 1902, art. 64.)

from those of Mena and Zer, but more like that 23 is one of the discs of pottery Avith ground
of Den (7i\ 7'. ii, xli, 74) ; this seems to be of edges, and a ground hole, several of which were
the level of Zer. found ; this bears a sign cut upon it. Age of
Ki, the tip of an ivory 'arrow, of the form Zet.
used by Zer (R. T. ii, xxxiv, 47), and the level The four sealings Avere found just outside
shows the same reign. of the temenos, in some Old Kingdom town
17 a fragment of the incised black pottery rubbish beneath the portal of Ramessu II.

Avith white inlay ; from the level this may be They seem from their style to be of about the
about the Illrd or IVth Dynasty. middle of the Ilnd Dynasty.
18, 19 ivory pin with spiral end, and ivory The fishdiook is about the age of Merneit.
crossdined cylinder. The bone netter or bodkin, and blue glazed
20 a shell notched as a scraper, probably for button, arc undated.
cleaning fish (see Kahun, viii, 10). Age of PI. The beads are all levelled and so
Hi.

Mena. approximately dated. The top string and


21a model knife of flint ; age of Mena. circle of shells is of the beginning;
O © of the Ilnd
22 a model forked lance of flint ; age of Den. Dynasty. The second string of Zer or Zet.
This is a good link in the series of such objects ;
The third string M. 14 is of Merneit; and the
at first Ave find forked lances of flint in the pre- small beads, 91 level, must be at the end of the
historic age, from the earliest times (Diospolis 1st or early Ilnd Dynasty. They are of forms
iv). Next there is a forked lance set in a gold Avell knoAvn in the later prehistoric age.
handle as a funereal implement, of the later The limestone spindle whorls Avere abundant
prehistoric age (Annatesdu Service ii, 131). in the toAvn. Many were undated, being found
Next there is the implement reduced to a, in the shifted rubbish. Those here of one date
model in the 1st Dynasty. After that there is are put into the same column ; and they range;
this form in the sets of funeral offerings in the from the beginning of Dynasty to about the
VTth Dynasty (Dendereh xxi) where a slab of time of Den. There is some change of form,
: —

THE TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. 25

the early ones being more regular and flatter 9 — 12. Green glazed apes, and beads, tube
than the later; about ."><> a coarse cylinder form and hall forms; slate palette with crossed
appears, and soon after larger and bigher conical corners. All these I removed from the earth at
forms. 28 level, and therefore before the 1st Dynasty.
At the bottom of the plate arc some later There are a huge number of beads, and the
objects. The piece of a slate cubit has the whole seems to have belonged to a woman.
digits 12, 1."., and 14, marked on the top; on The resemblance of these baboons to those of
the edge are as many divisions as the number the main deposit at Ilierakonpolis of the age of
of the digit, a favourite way of giving a scale of Narmer should be noted. (See Eieralconpolis i,

all on the base are some


fractions of the digit; xxii, I 1. 12.)
fragments of hieroglyphs. The arrowhead is of 13 -18. Many pieces of pottery were found,
bronze; it was found within the thickness of a which I guessed to he parts of fire places, and
brick wing of the Kamesside portal, according at last a whole fire ring was found entire
to the workman, and its appearance agreed with a deep bed of white wood-ashes within it.

with this statement; so this gives a date for the The forms 15 and 16 seem to come from an
large quantity of such arrowheads picked up at encircling serpent of pottery round the place,
Abydos. The piece of a large blue glazed nnH with its head turned inward to the fire; thus
is of Ramessu II it was probably a piece of
; combining the agatln daemon — which was the
temple furniture like the anhh of Tahutmes III domestic fetish of the prehistoric age —with the
(Dendereh xxiii, 7). The weight marked with hearth place. The levels of the pieces arc';
four strokes is of black quartzose stone, 1590 grs. tig. I 7 at 17 level, a plain zigzag like fig. l(i at

or 4x397. The lazuli bead was found in the IS level; fig. 1G at 20 level; fig. 13 at 20 level ;

temple with the XXVIth Dynasty sculptures; a piece of a corner with notched ledges like 17,
it beat's the name " Psamthek mer Asar." at 28 level; and a piece like 14 at ">">
level.

PI. liii. 1. A fragment of crocodile bone Thus most of these are at 17 — 28 level or a few
appears to have been carefully shaped like a reijms before Mena ; and one is of the age of
bull's head, probably as an amulet. Found Zet.
loose, undated. 19 —22. Many pieces of ribbed tiles covered
2. A flint flake has at one end an attachment with green or violet glaze were found, like

which seems to be calcareous clay or cement those found at Hierakonpolis. The piece 1!) is

the material might be a natural concretion; but the earliest, found at 1!) level, or some reigns
the symmetry of the form of it seems to show before Mena; the others were from 12, 36 and
that it has been intentionally modelled like two 38 levels, or about the reign of Mena. The
horns. Unlevelled. style of ribbed inlay ornament, and the coloured
3. Disc of gold and strip with turned edge, glaze on other objects, are both familiar in the

found doubled up together ; they fit so well royal tombs of the 1st Dynasty.
that it seems likely they were stripped from a 23 — 34. In many parts of the town stone
gold-headed stick. Level 91 ; beginning of "Tinders were found, which from their forms

Ilnd Dynasty. were evidently used in manufacturing the in-

4. 5. Pieces of glazed quartz, with holes for numerable stone bowls of the early dynasties.
affixing. Found loose. The examples here are arranged to show the
6. Limestone figure of a bird, found loose. different views of the grinders; 2 1, 30, .".I, 33,

7, 8. Green glazed figures of baboons, found 34, are all in side view, showing the curvature
at about 70 level, age of Den. which they would produce, 24 being for a deep

26 ABYDOS I.

cup and 34 for a wide shallow dish ; the other hippopotamus head, and a kneeling leg, wei*e

grinders are placed in base view, showing the found loose in the rubbish, and therefore un-
hollow or notch on each side by which they dated ; they are of the same class as the early
were held in a stick so as to be turned round. pottery figures from Koptos.
They were usually found in a layer of white 37. A very rough scniatting figure in lime-
sand and stone dust, evidently the refuse of the stone, found at the base of the town.
grinding powder which was used with them. 38. A strange piece of a large object of red
The levels of these showed that they belong to pottery, marked all over with deeply cut
all parts of the 1st Dynasty. With these we triangles ;
possibly part of an animal figure.
must connect the crescent flints (xxvi, 305 39. A torso of a human figure in rough
314), which were mostly found in a stratum of pottery.
sand and stone dust, sloping between 80 and 40. Pottery figures of kine, of which the
50 level ; from such association it is clear that upper one is fairly modelled : they were found
they were used for the vase business, and as at 55 level, about the age of Zet, in the S.E.

preliminary drills they would be effective on cornier of a space filled with sand, which may
most of the stones that were worked. Their have been the foundation of a building. In
age runs throughout the 1st Dynasty. Similar that case the space was probably dug down
crescent flints have been found in the Illrd as a hollow, and hence the town level would
Dynasty at Beit Khallaf. be higher then, about the end of the 1st

35, 36. These rough red pottery figures of a Dynasty.


27

CHAPTE 1 1 Ml

THE OSIRIS TEMPLE.

23. As we have already stated, the Osiris The inscriptions, as such, are dealt with by
temple occupied but a small part of the greal Mr. Weigall in chap, v; so here we are con-
temenos which was later built around the site. cerned more with the position and historical
The temple of the XVIIIth Dynasty, which is meaning of the various sculptures.
the lowest level yet cleared on this site, had 24.The remains before the XIIili Dynasty
close around it a massive brick wall, some are not numerous (see pis. liv-lvii), as the
thirty feet thick ; in the west side of which was work has not yet reached the true level of that
a great pylon of red granite, opening into the age in the temple ground, and all the stones
rest of the larger temenos. As the plans are that have been obtained are re-used. The
necessarily still so incomplete, they are not blocks of Merenra, Mehtiemsaf (pi. liv), were
published this year ; but a general surface view found in the foundation of the hall next to that
of the sitegiven
© is
O El Arabah.
in Mr. Grarstane's of Amenhotep I they are of slight and rough
:

The temple buildings principally consist of work, but show that some building was done
two parts : the first, or easternmost, is a square in the Vlth Dynasty, so more may be found in

©? of which nothing
building, © but foundations and future. No buildings of this king were yet
loose blocks remain ; the second part has still known, except his pyramid ; so any further
the lower few feet of the walls of two pillared results will be of value.

halls and some chambers. The three pieces of large private steles, pi. liv,

In the square building were blocks of the were found near together in the square temple
XVIIIth — XXXth Dynasties, and foundation site. From the work it seems likely that they
deposits of the XVIIIth— XX Vlth Dynasties. belong to the Vlth Dynasty. The left hand
The halls behind were built by Amenhotep I, upper piece is from the left of a stele ; the
and perhaps added to until the XXVIth lower is the bottom of the right side of a stele ;

Dynasty. Outside of the whole temple block, the right hand piece is from the upper right
in the south of the great temenos are other hand of a stele. These belong to two if not
buildings of the XlXth and the XXXth three steles ; and unfortunately only one name
Dynasty. Until the excavations are com- is left, that of a mother, a royal favourite Adu.
pleted it is premature to discuss the exact The clay sealing of Shepses-kaf (pi. lv, 1), is

history of the site. At least it may be said the only such known in the IVth Dynasty;
that as the town of the earliest dynasties lies and other remains of him are extremely rare.

just behind this temple site, it is probable that The royal name is seen in the third column,
the earliest temple stood there also ; for a later and the first column gives his lea name, which
temple would not be built on town ruins, nor was hitherto unknown. It reads Shepses, " the
" and gives a further proof that the
would it be likely to abandon the primitive noble ; it

sacred ground. hawk name was that of the king's lea, for as
28 ABYDOS I.

this ha name is Shepses, so the king's throne we left the block on the site. The pieces of
name is Shepses-kaf, " his ka is noble." This columns do not fit together, excepting that
is the only instance of a personal name derived lv, 4 and 5, may reasonably fit at an original
from the lea name. joint in the stone. On pi. lvi the total height
The Yth Dynasty is represented by the lower of the columns is indicated at the top by the
part of a limestone seated figure of Assa first column, and continued below by the
(pi. lv, 2). No figures of this king are hitherto parallel inscription on the second. The dimen-
known. The stone is a soft fawn-coloured sions of the capital are 18" 1 inches wide at top,
limestone ; and the upper part was originally 17-1 below, 8'8 high; the shaft 17"4 wide at
joined on by tenons, the dowel holes of which 24 down, but dressed narrow just below the
are seen on the upper surface. The work is capital to give it some projection. It is

fine and detailed, making us regret the loss remarkable that, even in this temple of Osiris,

of the head and body. The inscription is the king is named as beloved of Anher of Theni.
merely the ha name and throne name. The The piece of column on the left in pi. lvi is of
Vlth Dynasty inscriptions have already been rather a different style, and might be of a
described. another reign, perhaps of Usertesen I. Most
The Xlth Dynasty opens with an important of these pieces of columns are taken for the
stele of Nekht, a son of King Antef (pis. lv, 8, Cairo Museum.
lvii). Unhappily only two quarters of it 25. Of the Xllth and XHIth Dynasty there
remain, which were found in the square temple are many striking remains ; the colossal red
ruins. The stone is a coarse, soft, limestone, granite statues of Usertesen I found by Mariette,
which was cut very thick in order to give it showing that the temple was greatly adorned
sufficient strength. The signs are roughly cut, at this time. To the later part of the Xllth,
and were coloured red. The figures are those or to the Xlllth Dynasty, must be attributed
of a king Antef and his son Nekht, before the head of a colossal statue of red granite
whom probably stood a figure of Anher or of (lv, 6, 7), which was found with other fragments
Osiris. The temple of Antef is named, which beneath a mass of loose dust a little to the
we might call the Antefeum in Abydos. And south of the Kom es Sultan in the great
Nekht is the follower of the royal son of the temenos.
Seq Antef; so he must have been attached to The slab of Usertesen I, shown in pi. lv, 9, 10,
an elder brother's retinue. The mention of the and pi. lviii, is of a form as yet unknown. Tn
Eeq points to this king being the first of the the photograph (9) it is seen to be a thick slab,
Antefs, as the later kings use the usual royal finished on the front and sides, but rough below
titles. with a projection downward along the back. It

Antef V built largely at Abydos, probably is about 9 inches thick, ?> ft. deep back, and 4 ft.

renewing the temple of Osiris, as he did that wide. Now not far from it, also to the south
of Min at Koptos. We found many pieces of of the Kom es Sultan, lay another block (10),
columns of fine white limestone (pis. lv, 3 — 5 ;
of the same width, and of a depth backward
lvi) ;
and one architrave with cartouches read- which would just end clear of the projection in

ing in each direction from a central anlch, as on the upper block. What clenches their relation
the slab of Usertesen (pi. lviii) ; but the ci\^(^ is that the two strange grooves in the front of

had been trimmed off, so as to form a rough the upper Mock (9) exactly lit over the two
octagonal pillar in later times, and only a holes in the lower block (10). The lower block
narrow middle strip of the face remains, so that is quite rough and unfinished around the edges,
THE OSIRIS TEMPLE. 29

and was certainly to be sunk in an unseen salt. Behind tl king was his /-.> emblem, a
foundation. Bence the upper block musf have head on a pole, with the ka name behind it, and
been only a step, 9 inches high, on the floor. the description mten ha •mil. -living lea of the
The holes seem to have been for poles to be se1 king"' above it.

upright, in the line of the froni of the step. The fragment of a cartouche at the hase of
On the Hat upper face are three lines of pi. lix is there ( ipleted as Ba'seJehem'nefer'
inscription (pi. hiii), which from their style hotep; an unknown name. Inn of tin- same type
seem to be of the Xlllth Dynasty. Thus the as Ba'seJchem'nefer'khau, Op-uat-em-saf. It
surface of the >ir[> was always clear ami hare. might however he a combined cartouche of
The middle line is rather more worn than the Ba'kha'seshes'Nefei"hotej3 } with a badly formed
side lines; hut the space between the poles, seshes, like selchem.
13 inches, is not enough for passing, and the The altar of offerings, outlined in small size
wear must be due to placing objects upon it. at the left foot of the plate, was found in the
The whole arrangement is unlike anything thai cemetery G, lying still in place before a. part of
we know in temples elsewhere. the front of a niastaba of about the Vllth
The ends of the large front inscription run Dynasty. The inscription is shown more fully

round the sides of the block, hearing anhh zet above. The block with deeply cut inscription,
ta ; this proves that the step was not built into next to it, was found near it, in the same
a line, but stood clear and apart, except at the cemetery. The two-column inscription of a
back edge. The names of the king in the later uartu of the prince's table, and the seven
inscriptions have all been carefully hammered columns of another such official, Sebekhotep and
out but we
; can recover Ra-sekhem, and in the his wife Nefert-uhen, were found last year in
personal name three groups of different heights : the Xllth Dynasty cemetery. D.
the Horus name in three groups with v, is In pi. lx, No. 1 is a piece of a limestone stele
almost useless to us owing to so few examples from cemetery D, tomb 7b, found last year.
being known of this period. Of the possible No. 2 is inscribed on the front of a kneeling
kings there are the Nos. 2, 15, 20, 74 and 88 statue of soft limestone found in the tcmenos
of the Xlllth Dynasty in the Turin papyrus. behind the temple enclosure, near the statue of
No. 2 is barred by the Horus name se-arikh-taui. Ptah-em-ua. No. 3 is a part of a stele of lime-
No. 88, Sebek-em-saf, will not fit the sizes of the stone from cemetery G, which bears the in-

three groups in the personal name. Nos. 15 congruous names of Aincny and Sit-pepy.
and 20, Sebekhotep I and II, would fit Avell if No. 4 is a piece of limestone stele from the
written out s.b.k. I crocodile on shrine 1 hotep temenos, of the Xlllth Dynasty. No. 5 is a
t.p. ; but No. 74 whose name is unknown might fragment of a sandstone figure of a scribe Ab.
fit equally well. The gods here honoured are Beside these a large stele of limestone was
Up-uat of the south, Up-uat of the north, and found behind the temple, giving long family
Osiris Khentamenti. This block and its base lists connected with the queen Auhet-abu ;
but
are taken for the Cairo Museum. as the copying of it occupied so long a time, it

In the halls at the back of the square temple must be left over to appear next year.
were several blocks of black syenite, from a 26. Of the XVIIIth Dynasty the first

large gateway of Ramessu II. On one of them important work was a large hall, about 30 feet

is an inscription of Sebekhotep III, see pi. lix. wide and 40 feet long, the uof of which was

It is shallow in the cutting, and almost effaced borne by six pillars; three chambers adjoined
in parts by the crumbling of the stone, due to this hall; and another and larger hall to the
;

30 ABYDOS I.

north of it may be rather later in date. These A great quantity of finely-sculptured blocks of
halls lie behind the square mass of temple ruins. Tahutmes III were found in the square mass of
The walls yet remain about 30 inches high, temple ruins. The largest was a long architrave
bearing the ends of some lines of inscription with richly-coloured hieroglyphs, which may be
around the doors ; and in the hall and chambers removed to the Cairo Museum. This, and most
were several loose blocks of sculpture. of the rest, had been taken down by Aahmes
From the sculptures (Frontispiece, and pis. II in the XXVIth Dynasty, and buried for the
lxii — lxiv) we see that these buildings were foundations of his temple. Many blocks that
erected by Amenhotep I. His personal name we have removed only bore usual figures, of

has been erased from the cartouches, but his Osiris, &c, and are not here published. One
throne name is intact, which points to the large lintel of Tahutmes III, which was still in
erasure being done by Akhenaten. Beside bright condition of colouring, was sent direct
Amenhotep there is a figure of Aahmes I (top to the Boston Museum ; it measured 65 inches
pi. lxii) ; but only as deceased, since he wears wide and 35 inches high. Another lintel, which
the menat like Osiris, while Amenhotep I, then was of the same width, was found broken up in

living, is without that ornament. Besides the several pieces, as shown on pis. lxi, 2 ; lxiv
above head of Aahmes, we may identify another it is of value historically, as it proves that
at the top right hand of pi. lxiii ; the features Tahutmes II and Tahutmes III were reigning
are like those of Aahmes, and it wears the jointly together at one time, regardless of
menat. It has been back to back with a figure Hatshepsut, and each bearing the same titles.

of Osiris, as on the upper scene of pi. lxii. All At the base of pi. lxiv are two slabs from the
possible fits of these blocks were tried, and square temple ; that with the arm of a goddess
several were thus connected together. It ap- may be later, but the sphinx is certainly of
pears that there was a list of offerings along the Tahutmes III by thework and portrait the ;

base of the wall, 28 inches high ; then groups title over it is not known elsewhere. The
of the king offering to deities above that, about greater part of a broken seated figure of
42 high : and a second line of groups yet Tahutmes III was also found, to the south of
higher up, of the king and his ka about 36 the Kom es Sultan. The slab on pi. lxi has
high ; or altogether about 9 feet height of part of the titles of Tahutmes III, delicately
sculpture, besides the plain footing to the wall. carved. Another slab bears the ha name of
In the list of offerings possibly the left hand top Amenhotep II, and names his sed festival, as on
piece might agree better with the base piece the pillar published by Frisse.

if transferred one column farther out, as the Within the square mass of ruins were found
offering henelc nu seems to end in t nebt at Deir two foundation deposits of Tahutmes III in
el Bahri (D. B. pi. cxiii, lowest line) ; but if so pits full of sand, showing that the site was not
a short piece must have been fitted in between all dug out when the later temple was built.
the blocks in the upper part here. The deposit contained the usual pottery of that
These blocks were mostly fresh with colour time (see Kojitos pi. xiv), and copper models of
when found ; but, unhappily, an extraordinary knives, adzes, and axes (see pi. lxi, 5), with an
torrent of rain which fell, washed away nearly alabaster vase inscribed, and a model shell of
all the surfaces, and destroyed the stones so alabaster with traces of paint inscription. Some
much that several are now not worth transport. of the copper tools bear the name of the king,
They had been all drawn, and the photographs and probably all will be found to be inscribed
taken, before this damage. when cleaned. The plan and position of the
; ;

THE OSIRIS TEMPLE. 31

deposit will lie given in the survey nexl figures (lxv, 9, LO), of Dn-nefer and his wife
year. Thiy, suniained Nefertaii The splendid pair of
Another deposit pit was found, which only seated figures in red granite, of tJn-nefer and
contained a green glazed plaque, broken up. Ins Father, with a Long genealogy, found two
with the name of Ajnenhotep 1 1 r , and a solid years ago, is published in Messrs. Maclver and
stand of limestone of same king, pi. lxi, 3, 4. Mace's volume El .
Imrah.
The slab <>f inscription pi. lxi, 6, is injured Amid the varied ruins over the early town
by incrustations of lime, and ha- not vel heeii was found a stone building, of which the plan
studied. The jasper head. 6g. 7, is from s e is given in pi. lxxx, "In Temenos." The
inlayed work it is highly finished, and seems
; native talc is that it was a great tomh, un-
as if it might be of the XVIIIth Dynasty. covered forty years ago by the sebakhin, who
The steatite head, fig. 8, may he later : hut found three pounds weight of gold ornaments
the blue glass fish, fig. 9, is of finely-cut glass in which were taken by the Mudir. Our
it,

and, by the colour, not far from the time of interest in it was that it had been built up from
Amenhotep III. all kinds of odd stones that were lying about

27. The XlXth Dynasty has left several and contained in its walls, and scattered from
sculptures, but not any large cpuantity of build- it, many inscribed blocks. Among these was
ing like the previous age. The principal piece the great stele of the family of queen Auhet-ab,
is a limestone statue of an official Ptah-em-ua, mentioned before, and the pieces of a great
pis. lxv, 2 — 4 ; lxvii. He is represented nearly stele of the high official Khay, with his wife

life size, standing, and holding a statue of Osiris Ymamu, pis. lxv, 1 1 ; and lxvi.

before him. His offices were keeper of the Among the minor pieces on pi. lxvi the trial

cattle in the temple of Ramessu II, and royal piece with birds should be noticed ; and the
scribe of the divine offerings of all the gods fragment of the hi name of Ramessu I, which
and his full name was Amen-em-per-Ptak-em- is rare. The last piece in the top line is a
ua, "Amen in the temple, Ptah in the barque." rough flake of limestone, with the cartouche of
The statue was found over a deep square hole, Ramessu II scrawled in with a brush of ink.
not yet cleared out, at the back of the inner On pi. lxvii the inscription of Bay is on a piece
enclosure wall of the temple. With it was of wooden furniture, probably not from a coffin,
another figure in soft limestone of the great as he is not called maahheru. Two pieces of
Un-nefer, or rather of his son Hora, kneel- black granite squatting figures of Unnefer are
ing and holding a standing statue of Osiris, copied here ; one giving the title priest of
pi. lxv, 8. Sokari, which he had inherited, see Lieb. Diet.
In the later hall behind the square temple 905. The two inscriptions of Mentu-em-hat, the

was a squatting granite figure of the ubiquitous great vizier of Taharqa, are roughly hammered
Un-nefer, see pi. lxv, 5 — 7. It was greatly upon natural blocks of limestone, which are
crumbled by salt, and I was able to lift off the lying loose in the floor of the valley leading to

face in one block, the rest of the figure being the royal tombs ; one appears to record his
too much broken up to be removed. On the visit, and the other, with maahheru, was pro-
back is the naming his mother
inscription bably placed in his memory.
Maatinuy, or Maa-anuy, and his wife Thiy (see The square mass of the temple of the
28.
Lieblein, Diet. 895). While near the great XVIIIth Dynasty, was rebuilt by Aahmes II.
temenos wall, apparently turned out from the He took down what remained of the previous
Nectanebo temple, was a granite group of two work, and laid it in his foundations. He
32 ABYDOS I.

enlarged the plan, but without caring to relay Osiris. Fig. 1 is an unusual figure of Horus,
proper foundations ; so his stone walls rest on with the double feather of Amen. Fig. 2 is

the top of the brick retaining-walls of the Sekhet ; fig. 3 is the mummified Osiris.

foundation of Tahutmes III. On one founda- Near these bronzes was found a portrait head
tion block arc his cartouches roughly cut, in quartzite sandstone (figs. 4-5), larger than

at 528 inches from the inside of the S.W. life-size. The style could hardly be referred to
corner. any foreign influence, except that of the Roman
The principal monument of his time was a portrait school of the late Republic ; and as
great monolith shrine of red granite, in the that is entirely out of the question here, since

usual style of such works, which are familiar to nothing even of l'tolemaic times is found in
us at Esneh, Thmuis, Nebesheh, and other late the we must attribute this
temple, solely to

temples. The flat sides of this shrine have long Egyptian sources. The modelling of the skull

since been broken off and carried away, leaving and facial bones is very good, and is of the

only parts of the unmanageable top. The main same class as the fine heads in basalt which are
piece has nearly half of two sides of the pyra- already known as belonging to the XXVIth
midion, bearing a large cartouche of Haa-ab-ra Dynasty.
in the middle of each side, flanked by the The foundation deposits, figs. 6 — 9, were
vulture of Nekheb and the uraeus of Uazit. found in various positions. A square plaque
The smaller piece of the opposite two sides of Haa-ab-ra, (fig. 6), had been placed on the
shows evidently a similar design. The two top of the pit containing an undisturbed founda-
pieces placed upright at each side of the plate tion deposit of Tahutmes III. A cartouche

belong to some other granite work ; or possibly plaque (fig. S), and a square one, were placed
to the sides of the shrine, which may have been on the top of another such deposit. But the
made during the joint reign of Haa-ab-ra and group of small objects, fig. 9, the alabaster,

Aahmes. The form of the name, Aahmes son fig. 7, and a large number of plaques (figs. G

of Osiris, instead of Neit, is very unusual, and and 8) were found scattered loose in the sand,
was evidently used in honour of this temple. near together, having apparently been the main
The upper table of offerings, pi. lxix, is a deposit of the XXVIth Dynasty building,

thin slab of limestone, roughly carved, with disturbed by the subsequent removal of the

prayer to Osiris and Khentamenti for the seal stones.

bearer Heru, a son of Sit-Hathor. The lower These deposits show the continuance of the
table of offerings is a thick limestone block, style of the XlXth Dynasty, which was hitherto

with a deep tank in the lower half. It was unknown at so late a date. The bulls' heads,

dedicated by Aahmes II, with his usual titles; haunches, grains of corn, and flowers, are all

and was placed later in the temple of Nectanebo, similar to the deposits of the Ramesseum, which
south of the Osiris temple, whence it was cast we should not have expected after the different
out on the west side, in the destruction of the style known in the deposits of Ta-usert, Siptah,

place. Psamtek I, and Aahmes. The materials are


On plate lxx are other objects of the XXVIth green glaze for the plaques, (!, 8 ;
jasper,

Dynasty. The bronze figures, 1


— 3, are part of carnelian, green felspsar, and glass for the

a large quantity which were found scattered on small figures ; and the same stones, with iron,
the floor of the great hall, to the north of the cupper, and silver, for the rectangular blocks.

hall of Amenhotep. Nearly all of these were No gold was found. The meaning of the semi-

the very common, small, roughly-cast figures of circular slab of alabaster (fig. 7) is unknown ;
'NIK OSIKIS TEMPI. E. 33

but it occurs also in the deposits of Siptah, influences of Greek art. In the Bquare muss of
Psamtek I, &c. temple ruin were Found portions of four figures
To the south wesi of the temple of < '.-iris, in hard white limestone, two seated, ami two
but within the greal temenos, -t 1 another standing joined together. These were all more
temple, built apparently by Nectanebo II, as or less destroyed; but, among the large ma
a fragment of a cartouche ending in Jea, of very of chips, we recovered the greater pari of the
late stvle, was funnel here. The retaininer-wall seated figure L2, and the upper half of one of
of the foundation is over thirteen feel deep. In the standing figures, 13, The seated
I I. figure
tin 1
wesi end of tin' south side there were two has the delicate curves, the line proportions, and
circular-headed recesses, one over the other, the restrained modelling, which we know besl
-2 in. wide and deep: the lower recess ai in such sculpture as the torsos of Nefert-ythi,
58 to 102 in. above the Hour, and the upper at and other work of the XVIIIth Dynasty. The
109 to 162 in. There were no deposits found standing figure attracts us by the masterly
in these recesses; the upper one had been rendering of the face ;
for while preserving the
plundered, the lower one was tilled with laid classical Egyptian treatment, it has a full vitality

bricks; but in the corner in front of the lower and realism in the expression which might well
recess lay the limestone mortar, cake of resin, have been copied from the best type of the
and little plaques of lazuli and carnelian, modern Egyptian peasant girl. The preseni
shown in iiir. 11. In the south-east corner, illustrations are only to give a preliminary idea
just under a stone of the pavement, 4" in. of the workmanship; hut the whole of the
below the top of the wall, were found similar pieces are now in the Cairo Museum, and, when
objects, along with a square of copper, and a the figures are restored, a fidl publication of
hemi-disc of alabaster. them on a lar<:e scale, will lie essential. The
The most unexpected result of the year's date of this class of work is given by a
work has been the discovery of a high style dedication on the front of the pedestal of
of limestone sculpture under the reign of one of the seated figures, which bears the
Nectanebo I, which preserves the traditions of cartouches of Nekht-hor-heb, cut with the
the XVIIIth Dynasty almost unchanged, and same refinement and delicacy as is shown in

shows no trace whatever of the surrounding the sculpture.

J)
3-4 ABYDOS I.

CHAPTER IV.

THE CEMETERY G.

29. On the south side of the great valley we removed her granite sarcophagus lid, now in
which leads up to the Royal Tombs, a spur of Cairo. But the principal use of this region
the desert runs forward between the temenos was from the XXVIth Dynasty to the Ptolemaic

of Osiris and the great temples of the XlXth age. One of the earliest of this group, contain-

Dynasty. The whole surface of this hill, for ing five stone sarcophagi, was found beneath a
about half a mile back, is honeycombed with large square pillared court of a few centuries

tombs. Those near the desert edge are so close later, G. 57 (see base of pi. lxxx). The next
together, and have been so completely wrecked type of tomb was that with two arched chambers
by Mariette's plunderers, we have not
that side by side, beneath a low mastaba of brick-
attempted to do anything among them. But work (see G. 50 pi. lxxx) ; these also contain

opposite the old fort (the Shunet-ez-Zebib), and stone sarcophagi, sometimes square, sometimes
further back, only a few of the tombs had been shaped like the body. Other less usual types
opened in modern times. (See B. T. i, pi. iii.) of this age are seen in G. 68 and 58. Later
During our first winter here, several of them than these forms are wide square courts of
were explored, and in the past season, we have brickwork, which were filled up with two stone
opened up a good deal of the ground. The built chambers ; these were evidently derived
burials here belong to many different periods. from the form of G. 50, but were later than
Small interments of the prehistoric times are that as the sarcophagi are debased. This form
frequently found near the surface ; and the was modified to a court with pillars of brick,

pottery, and other objects, also occur mixed the whole faced with hewn stone, as the upper
with the earth thrown up in constructing later tomb G. 57 ; and, in another case, remains of a
tombs. A part of a mastaba of the Vllth Greek pediment front of breccia, showed an
Dynasty has been already mentioned, see the ornamental doorway to have been an archi-
altar at base of pi. lix. Several tomb-pits tectural feature. These great brick courts filled

of the Xlth Dynasty have been opened; they with stone work, have in all cases been quarried

are usually placed in pairs, one leading to the to pieces ; and they are now usually full of

chamber, the other, about half of the depth, broken mummies, dogs, and various organic
probably for offerings ; deeper tombs of the rubbish thrown in when the cemetery was
Xllth Dynasty have also furnished us with the was cleaned up in later limes. Tn the Ptolemaic

alabaster vases and beads of that age. In the times the tombs were crowded with bitumenized
XVIIIth Dynast v older tombs were re-used, bodies; and soon the system of deep and large
for a burial of a child with vases, and a rich tombs gave way to that of small chambers, only

burial with a silver pilgrim bottle, gold ring, just below the surface, containing only one or
&c. In the XlXth Dynasty a great tomb was two sarcophagi in each. These sarcophagi are
made here for a priestess Klinumy, from which very neatly and boldly cut in soft limestone,
'Ill: CKMKTKKY Q. 35

with a plain wedge-shaped outside; and the drawings are >ne side of a long strip; the
inside hollowed out in curves, for the head third and fourth are from a similar strip, on the
ami shoulders. After these, no later burials of inner side of which is the fifth drawing; at the
the Roman or Aral) age arc found on this base of the plate are figured the two sides of a
lull. corner-posl of the coffin. The style of these
30. 'Phe prehistoric tombs always contained fragments is remarkably clear and delicate; the
the bodies contracted, in the usual position, brown wood has had uo prepared ground, hut
head south, face wesi ;
most of them were quite is left with the fine grain showing ; the colours
shallow circular pits, though there was one used are black for the inscriptions, green for

large tomb with over thirty pottery jars, mostlj the Nile gods, red and yellow for the other
wavy-handled. All of these tombs belonged to figure^.
the later part of the prehistoric age. The 31. The large tomb containing five sarco-
contents of the tombs of the Xlth — XVIHth phagi, found below the square court, marked
Dynasties, not having vet been drawn, will be (jr. 57 on pi. lxxx. is the earliest of the great
described when they are published next year. tombs of the later age. The coffins, it will he
Fragments of a coffin, which seems to belong to seen, are lettered A—F ; but I'] had never
the XVIIIth or XTXth Dynasty, were found contained a burial, and we shall refer to the
in the chamber of a later tomb. The name coffins here, by the letters A. B, C, D. The
Tahutmes (see pi. Ixxi) is apparently unknown account will be clearer if 1 first state tin-

after the time of Ramessu II though certainly ; genealogy; the letters prefixed to the names
the style of the writing here, might well show being those of the sarcophagi in which they are
a rather later date. The first and second mentioned.

(a) Uah-ab-ra = (a) Nes-her (c, d) Zed-her = (c, d) Ta-khredet-en-Min

(a, b) Mertiu-heru = (b, c) Ta-se-nekht (d) Mert-tefnut

(b) Heru-maa-kheru

The variants of these names in different versions doubtless read Ta-se-nekht, as on B and C.
should be observed, as they throw a good deal On pi. lxxiv, No. 3 should read Heru-maakheru,
of light on the true reading of such forms. For and Nos. 4 — 7 should read Mert-tefnut.
instance, in A and B, the eye of Horus varying We now proceed to describe the details of
with Mertiu-her; also the duplication of the each of the burials, in order. Sarcophagus A
letters r u and the plural strokes, for the simple is that of Mertiu-heru. At the head of it,

termination of hern ; the variants of Ta-se-nekht marked 1 was the base of an


, Osiride statuette,

and Mehit-ta-se-nekht ; also of Mert-tefnut and and a model coffin with a jackal upon it, both
Nes-tefnut, which latter is probably an error turned upside down, see base of pi. lxxii ; and
for the similar form of mer. The value of the at 3 was the canopic box figured on the same
baboon reading zed, though rare, is already plate (lxxii). On raising the stone lid, a large

known. wooden coffin was seen inside, inscribed across

On name Ta-sen-meht, as copied


pi. lxxiii the the breast and down to the feet, as copied on

by Mr. Weigall in a damaged passage, should pi. lxxiii. On opening the coffin, the mummy
;

36 ABYDOS I.

was seen, covered with a cartonnage ; on the (named there Ta-sen-meht). Inside the stone

head a and bine headpiece, with ebony


gilt coffin was a wooden coffin, with an inscription
beard; on the neck a collar in bands with in which the name is always spelt Tay-nckht,
hawks' heads at the top corners; on the breast a see pi. lxxiii. Upon the mummy was a diagonal

figure of Nut with wings extended, coloured, netwmdc of beads, in vertical stripes of black

and the four genii in gold on a blue ground, and green alternately, with yellow ball beads at
at the corners; down the legs a gilded strip, the junctions.

inscribed ; and on the foot-piece a figure of The sarcophagus D is that of Mert-tefhut.

Anubis. The whole of this, as well as the By the foot of it was a block base of an Osiride
wooden coffin, was so much rotted that nothing statuette (7 in the plan) ; and on the other side

could be preserved. Beneath the cartonnage, a of the tomb, next to B, was the white painted
network of beads in diagonal squares covered canopic box figured in pi. lxxiv, 4 — 7, (3 in

the mummy, 20 squares wide at the top, and plan). The wooden coffin inside bore an in-

10 below. The colours were alternately five scription, the only legible part of which is given
squares of green and one of bine, in stripes in pi. lxxiii. On the mummy was a diagonal
across the body. The left hand was clenched, network of beads, in horizontal rows of five

the right hand open ; the arms were crossed on green squares and one blue square alternately.
the breast ; and along the left humerus was Around these sarcophagi were many other frag-
a roll of papyrus, too much decayed to be ments of funeral furniture, like those already
opened. described ; but so completely eaten by white
The sarcophagus B is that of Heru-maa-kheru ants that they could not be examined or pre-
at the head of which was placed the model served.
coffin, pi. lxxiv, 3, a block base of an Osiride The sarcophagus E had its stone lid propped
statuette, and a decayed canopic box. Upon up with a course of bricks ; this was evidently
the sarcophagus lay a mummified body, only done in order to open it easily for the next
53 in. (1.346 in.) long: this was not quite burial, but it was found empty and unused.
adult, as the basilar suture was unclosed, and 32. An important class of tombs at Abydos
there was no trace of the third molars, but it are the large subterranean vaults, with a super-
seems too small to belong to a youth of normal structure above them. These were restored by
stature. On the wooden coffin, inside the Mariette as brick pyramids with a central

sarcophagus, was the inscription of Heru-maa- domed chamber; and his restoration has passed

kheru, given in pi. lxxiii. The linen wrappings into a familiar item in later books. He also

of the mummy were thick, and covered with attributed these to the XVIIIth Dynasty. But
pitch ; the arms were crossed on the breast: apparently both this restoration and this date
the right hand was open, the left hand clenched arc wrong.
on a bullions root. A typical tomb of this class is shown in plan
The sarcophagus C that is of Ta-se-nekht; at and section on pi. Lxxx, <!. 50 : and a view of the
the foot of it was a model coffin (I in plan), superstructure is on pi. lxxix, L0. In the first

with a hawk placed on each corner, and a jackal place, was this sloping outside ever carried up to
013 the lop ;
while between 1! and C was a point, as a pyramid? If it had been of such
another model coffin, with figures of genii a form, an immense mass of broken brickwork
holding knives, painted on its side-. Portions would have resulted from the collapse of the

of a wooden canopic box were also found, pyramid. Vet in no case was any fallen mass
bearing the inscription given in pi. lxxiii of bricks found by us within the outer wall;
i i

THE CBMBTEB

and the space between the wall side- was always accumulation if iroken mummies, thrown in

lower than the walls themselves, which could from other torn
not be the case if a mass of bricks, some thirty The small tomb <!. •'>!
was very differcnl to

or forty feel bigh, had been disintegrated above .in-, other. Between two vaulted chambers,
the tomb. Further, in the instance G. 50 a near the surface, a stone sarcophagus had been
greal mass of gravel, which had been dug oul placed; and brick recesses \. i'>. buill al the
when constructing the chambers, was thrown sides, to hold the funeral furniture.
back over the tomb. This gravel had covered The tomb G.
line -'>
s contains the larg

over the surrounding wall and perfectly pre- chandier that we found. A wide well-pil leads
served it: and it could thus be seen that the through a doorway loan arched chamber; and
wall was finished off quite level all round; and descending the steps in that, another doorway
though sloping smoothly outside, it Avas left leads into a grand vaulted chamber over twenty
rough on the inside. The only possible con- feet long, nine feel wide, and fourteen and a

clusion from the facts is that the surrounding half feet high. A slope of brickwork led down
wall was that of a mastaba above the tomb, to to the sarcophagus at the bottom.
retain a mass of gravel covering the tomb; 33. We now turn to the contents of the
exactly as, long before, over the tomb of k iilt tombs of the XXXth Dynasty. The tomb of

Zet. The whole restoration of these tombs as Zedher, <!. 50, was the most important, as

pyramids then is impossible. being extensive and undisturbed. The wesl


The age of the burials in these tombs, in chamber was filled with (dean sand up to the
every one that we excavated, was of about the spring of the arch, perhaps to prevent the

XXXth Dynasty ; hence the attribution of crushing of the wall; when the sand was
as,

them to the earlier ages is impossible. removed, the arch crushed down and collapsed.
The photograph, lxxix, 10, is taken looking This sand entirely covered the figure-shaped

along one side of the sloping mastaba, the sarcophagi in this chamber. The sarcophagus A
measuring rod set up at the side being vertical. contained only a plain mummy without orna-
The straight inside of the lower part of the ment or amulets.
wall, is replaced at the corner by overhanging The sarcophagus B was the most important,
courses, each projecting beyond the course containing the mummy of Zedher. There was
below, until the square base is replaced inside no inner wooden coffin, but only a wooden tray
by a circular top. The purpose of this was to beneath the body. Upon the breast, outside of

strengthen the wall at the corners, so that the the wrappings, lay a set of glazed pottery

pressure of the gravel tilling should not bulge amulets, the plan of which was noted by my
it open. wife, shown on the left at the base of
as

The construction of some other tombs may pi. Ixxviii. The order was evidently confused
be also noted. The great arched tomb r. 68 < by some parts of the strings of figures having

lxxx) is unique, so far as I have seen. been turned over in laying them down; and
(pi.
may be pretty safely restored to the
Only one chamber was observed : but the mass they
contain a order shown on the right hand. Within the
is square at the top, obviously to

second chamber. The ancient plunderers had wrappings there was another set of amulets,
made of various stones, the actual positions of
not tried to reach the doorway, but had sunk
a shaft down through the outer wall from the which very fully noted, as on the left at top
I

top, and so revealed the successive courses of pi. Ixxviii; here again some of the rows or

of arching. The tomb only contained an strings had been twisted over in placing them,
;

38 ABYDOS I.

so that the original order was probably as on The sarcophagus D, of Nebta-ahyt, wife of

the right. The materials are limestone (1), Zedher, contained an outer wooden case, with
haematite (h), steatite (s), beryl (b), obsidian (o), inscriptions down the front on stucco, all

faience (f), black limestone (b.l.), lazuli (z), destroyed by white ants. At the left side of

brown limestone (br. 1.), porphyry (p), red it an Osiride wooden figure, gilt, and inscribed ;

glass (g), and carnelian (e). A few ball beads containing a bundle of fibres of papyrus (ap-
lay among these, the intended place of which parently a cheap substitute, for a document)
could not be fixed. Beneath the head was the wrapped in cloth. The inner coffin of wood
bronze hypocephalus, pi. lxxvi, and fig. 5 on had the wig painted blue, and the eyes inlaid
pi. lxxix, which has no personal name ; the with glass, which was entirely rotted and
example with the name Zedher, born of the brittle; the coffin was eaten by white ants.

lady Uza au (?Uza Hern), pi. lxxvii, G. 50 c, On the mummy was a cartonnagc decoration,
and pi. lxxix, 3, was found in sarcophagus C. gilded ;
on the face a head piece ; on the breast
Outside of the sarcophagus at the head were the deep collar, a pectoral, and the figure of
two boxes of ushabtis, shown in the plan. One Nut with outspread wings ; below that a bier,

box contained 1 98, the other 196 figures; and the four genii ; and on the legs a strip of
examples of these are the 1st, 3rd and 5th in inscription naming " the Osirian Neb-ta-ahyt,
fig. 1 pi. lxxix. Beneath the western box maa-lcheru ; daughter of the prophet, the royal
was a great quantity of much ruder ushabtis, scribe Nefer-ra-ab, maa-lcheru ; born of Ta-du-
such as the 2nd and 4th of the above group. mehit (?)." This gilt cartonnage had no support
The better ushabtis were of fairly hard, from the cloth, with which it had been backed,
dark, greeny-blue glaze, inscribed in ink. The as that had entirely gone to poAvder ; it merely
mixture of two such different qualities of consisted of thin gold leaf, and a film of stucco.
figures at one time, shows that there was much The gold leaf gave some slight tenacity to it

variety of manufacture. The numbers recall and by carefully shifting a portion at a time
those of Horuza at Hawara, 203 and 190 ;
on to a slip of card, it was lifted off the
evidently 200 figures was the regulation number mummy. Then it was transferred to a sheet

for each of the pair of deposits. of card covered with paraffin wax, and melted
The sarcophagus C contained a coarse wooden into the wax with a hot iron. In this way
coffin of figure form, with gilt face. Within nearly the whole is now preserved unalterable,

that was an inner wooden coffin, with a square and as strong as new work. Beneath the head
plinth ; an engraved inscription in columns of the mummy was the small hypocephalus,
down the front was entirely eaten away by lxxvii, G. 50 i), and lxxix, 4 ;
and on this Avas

white ants ; it had a blue striped wig, and a pile of small amulets of stone, like those of
inlaid eves of glass and on the breast was a
; Zedher, but of poorer work.
roll of the Book of the Dead much rotted. The We noAv turn to the Avest chamber. This
mummy inside had gilt cartonnagc for the face, Avas evenly filled Avith sand, entirely covering
pectoral, collar, winged figure of Nut, and strip the stone figure -shaped sarcophagi. Lying
of inscription and 12 cross-bands on the lejrs. upon the sand in the axis of the chamber,
All of this was too much rotted to be moved. above the sarcophagi, were two painted canopic
Beneath the head was the Largesl bronze hypo- boxes, 13 inches square, 22 inches high. The
cephalus, pi. lxxvii, G. 50 C, and lxxix. 3, with lids lay loose, with a hawk figure on the top,
the name of Zedher. One splint hone of the painted, with gilt lace. In one box were
mummy had been broken during life. mummified viscera in wrappings. By the body
;

NIK CEMETERY G
39

was a mummified hawk in wrappings, bul here m k\\


pi. The style of the head is
headless also an Isiride figure, on a block coarse and
: <
poor. The body was covered with
base 20 x 7 inches, painted on top and sides. cartonnage, like thai of II >ruza.
A clean vertebra, a finger bone, and two bits of The sarcophagus G was thai of Peduasai
a tibia, lay loose on the sand by the funereal the ushabtis were for him, and there is no other
furniture. Throughoul the sand filling many unnamed burial in the tomb. Bui the sarco-
ushabtis were found lying apart, of which phagus, though of the fine style of thai of
examples are given on pi. Ixxix, 2. These are Horuza, was left quite plain. The lid was
brightly glazed, of a brilliant light blue; some tilted over 20 toward F : the inside was partly
with purple wigs; and others larger, with filled with sand, and three of the ushabtis lay
purple wigs and inlaid purple inscription for upon the sand. At the neck of the mummy
the priest of Hathor and Uazit, Peduasar son of u 'as a bunch of amulets; some threaded in
Zedher. It is thus well settled that this style, order, as a a sceptre, I hearts, scarab, double
which is well known in late times, immediatelj feather, 2 eyes, frog, eye, scarab, eye, Bonis
followed on the very degraded style found in seated, and sam; some also loose, as scarabs,
ushabtis of Zedher. The ushabtis were mixed double leather, aper, heart, eyes, and girdle tie.

throughout the sand around the three burials . A large heart scarab lay in the pelvis.
three were in the sand within the sarcophagus All of these sarcophagi are taken to the Cairn
G, the lid of which was tilted ; but more than Museum.
half lay in one group north of that. The total 34. The other large tombs need but little

numbers were, plain 266, purple heads 83, notice, as nothing was found intact in them.
inscribed 3(> ; the total of 385 seems to have The tomb of Ilapi men was different to any
been originally 400, like the deposits already other (see pi. lxxx, G. 61), as the sarcophagus
noticed. was put in between two other tomb chambers,
The sarcophagus E was that of Horuza, son and had two brick hollows, A, B, at the sides of
of Zedher and Nebta-ahyt. The figure-shaped it for the funereal furniture. In A was a box
lid is shewn in pi. Ixxix, 7; the inscription in of ushabtis, poorer than those of Pedu-asar, and
pi. Ixxv. [The lithograph should be corrected evidently later examples of the same family;
col. i, 4 up, neb per without a blur; col. iii, ! 30 were plain small figures, 2 were larger, and
5 up, no blur between ma a ; col. iv, 7 up, add one was inscribed in a line down the front, for
£ before a.] There was no inner coffin ; and the 1 lap-men. Over the ushabti box were two
cartonnage on the body was coloured, and not Osiride figures and a hawk of w 1. In I)

gilt except on the face. On the breast was the was a canopic box, very carefully painted with
deep collar, the scarab and wings, the winged much detail, containing two long round packets
Nut, the bier with Isis, Nebhat, and four genii, of salt; and a figure of Nebhat. All of this

the leg cover with red and white bands and woodwork was destroyed by white ants. Within
garland pattern, all of it too much rotted to be the square stone sarcophagus was an inner stone

moved. On the neck were three heart amulets sarcophagus of the figure form. The face was
and an uza eye; on the body a red jasper girdle of rather debased work, but carefully coloured

tie, a two-finger amulet, and a large heart in the eye.- : and down the front was a collar,

scarab on the right side in the body. engraved and painted, and a line of inscription,

see pi. Ixxv. J>oth of the sarcophagi had been


The sarcophagus F was that of Pedu-en-ast,
son of Zedher and Nebta-ahyt. The lid is broken through at the side; and the mummy
was torn to pieces over the breast, by ancient
painted with red hieroglyphics in outline, given
;

40 AUYDOS 1.

plunderers in search of amulets. Torn from the graphed on pi. lxxix, 6, and has been copied in

breast was the pectoral, and ou the feet was the facsimile but is not yet published.
foot case, showu in pi. lxxix, 9. These are well Later than all these a tomb of the type of

made and finely painted. Below the mummy, G. 50 had been stripped of its chambers ;
and on
about the middle, was the bead fringe, figure 8 the floor of the open court which was left, rows
probably displaced from the neck. And at the of mummies were laid, side by side. On some
side of the feet was a small mummified dog (?), of these were networks of blue tube beads, of
carefully swathed in wrappings. the poorest kind ; and the scarab and wings,
The great tomb G 58, pi. lxxx, had been and four genii, of dark blue rough glaze. By
utterly plundered, and partly filled with broken these were pieces of box coffins, made of wood
coffins and rubbish. The original sarcophagus painted red, with green inscriptions, rude and
was found in place, and most of the pieces of poor ; and the latest canopic boxes of rough
the lid. It was figure-shaped, larger than any wood, either left plain, or with very coarse
other such sarcophagi, and of a fine hard figures of the genii painted in red. These
crystalline limestone. The inscription, as far boxes instead of containing the mummified
as it could be recovered, gives the name of viscera only had linen packets of broken
Nefert-iut, a chantress of Khent amentit, and is potsherds in them. On the floor amid the
copied in pi. lxxxv. Two fragments which mummies were hundreds of brown pottery

cannot be put in place, are shown at the side. ushabtis, very roughly made, and coloured red,

In the great court G. 57 a lid of a sarco- black, or blue. These seem to be the very

phagus was found, broken in two, and bearing latest stage of the style of burial which began
an inscription in red paint. This is photo- in the XXVIth Dynasty.
II

CHAPTEB \.

THE INSCRIPTIONS.
Bi A. B. Wbiqall.

35. The inscriptions discovered this year at ser i in hdt .... chief among the prii

Abydos are very varied in fcheir nature and and . • m Pe "'<<" nn Dep greal in Pe.
date, and represent many of the importanl rable in Dep — these being the two sacred
periods from the Vlth to the XXXth Dynasty. shrines of the city of Buto (Brugsch, Aegypt,
The majority were found in the Temple of p. 239). (
>siris Temple. Dyn. VI.
1
>siris, but the late sarcophagi and funeral 2. Upon this plate will also be noticed two
furniture were taken from the Ptolemaic ceme- limestone fragments, inscribed with the cartouche
tery, known as " Gr," to the south-west of the ul' Merenra. In tin' first In: is called .... seU n

Osiris enclosure. Although not of extreme bdti Mer-ne-Rd de dnlch ded usr dnlch zetta

importance, these inscriptions add a number of 'The King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Merenra,
new names to the aristocracy of Ancient Egypt, endowed with life, stability, and power, living
and repeat with no little interest those of many for ever' ; and in the second he holds the usual
of its kings. That this material has been placed title '
The double Horus of Cold.' Osiris Temple.
in the hands of the present writer is due to the Dynasty VI.
kindness of Prof. Petrie; and help has been PI. lvi. Portions of some hexagonal limestone
most generously given in the clearing up of columns, placed in position in the plate in order
some difficult points by Mr. Percy Newberry, to show the original style of construction. The
Mr. Herbert Thompson, and Mr. Alan Gardiner. largest fragment reads .... seten bdti Ed-nub-
Especial thanks must be rendered to Mr. hheper sc Bd Antef Anher neb Theni meri il<-
Thompson for permitting free use to be made dnlch ilnt list .... 'The King of Upper ami
of his notes upon the subject of the hypocephali. Lower Egypt, Ra-nub-kheper, son of the Sim,
PI. liv, 1. Three fragments of limestone false Antef [the Fifth,] beloved of Anhur Lord of
doors belonging to a Prince (or Princes) of Theni, endowed with life, stability, and power
Abydos whose name is unfortunately lost. His . . The other fragments give the usual
.
.'

titles are erpd ha Hereditary Prince, smer udti formulae, such as se Ed ne lehat-f mer-f 'Son
Chiefly Companion, hheri heb Lector, heri dep of the Sun, the beloved of his body '
; and de
ad ne Abdu Prince of Abydos, mer neter /«•/• ,;„/•/, ded usr neb senb neb md lid 'endowed
Superintendent of the Temple. He is also with all life, stability, power, and all health,

connected with the pi r net Anher Temple of sun-like '


Osiris Temple. Dyn. XL
Anhur. His mother was the seten kheJeer Royal l'l. lvii. Two fragments of a limestone stele
Handmaid, Ad. The him
inscription speaks of of Prince Nekht, the son of Antef the Fifth.

in the usual laudatory terms, among which we It is of rough workmanship, and there are

may notice that he was ur em dant-f great in many obvious errors in the hieroglyphs. In

his office, ser em sdh-f lordly in his nobility, the upper portion we have the ligure of the
;

42 ABYUOS I.

owner, who is called seten se fieri pezetu Nefcht PI. lix, 1. Fragment of an inscribed granite
'The Royal Son, Commander of the Archers, block of Sebek-hotep III. The inscription
Xekht,' and of his father, the neter nefer 'good above the figure reads neter nefer neb dri fchet

sod,' i.e. the King. The first line of the Rd-khd-nefer se Rd mer-f Sebefc-hetep d* anfch
horizontal inscription repeats the titles of Xekht; zetta 'The Good God, the Lord, Creator of
and an interesting point to be observed here Things, Ra-kha-nefer, Son of the Sun, his

occurs in the fragment of the first portion, Beloved, Sebek-hotep, endowed with life for

where the title s*-ten se ne heq An[tef] 'The ever.' The Horus-name Anhh-db appears.
royal son of the heq-iprmce Antef appears. Osiris Temple. Dyn. XIII.
The second line speaks of the fiet Antef em 2. A large, roughly-made, altar of offerings,
Abdu 'Temple of Antef in Abydos,' some inscribed with the name of a person Ad-dnefchen-
remains of which were excavated this year dd, born of the lady Mes-nefcht\T\-dd. Cemetery
and the third repeats the titles. Then follows G. Dyn. XI.
an inscription in five lines of a religious charac- 3. Two fragments of a limestone stele with
ter ; and in the ninth line the titles again perpendicular lines of inscription, giving seten
appear, followed by an invocation to the de hetep formulae to Ptah-nefer-her and to

[priests,] waft-priests, children, and lectors, that Hathor Lady of the House of Eternity, for the

they may pray for funeral offerings, all good fcas of the udrtu ne fchaut heqt Sebefc-hetep mud
and pure things, an entrance into the under- fcheru 'Secretary at the Royal Table, Sebek-
world, and a coining forth by day, for the hotep, true-voiced ' ;
and his wife, the seten

deceased. Osiris Temple. Dyn. XL fcheher Nefert-uben 'Royal Handmaid Nefert-


36. PL lviii. A large limestone lintel [?] uben.' It should be mentioned here that the
inscribed with the cartouches Rd-fcheper-ka and female relatives of persons having the title

Sen-usrt, i.e. Usertesen I. Along the face of udrtu ne fchaut heqt very often hold the position
the stone are three faint lines of a later — of seten fcheher; and we may perhaps see a
probably Xlllth Dynasty — inscription, the direct conformity in the two titles, the one
cartouche in each case being erased. The first being the male attendant upon the king, and
reads ditkh neter nefer neb dri fchet se Rd the other the female attendant upon the royal
JJp-uaut res meri de anhh ded usr end Ra zetta. harem. Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XIII.
'
The living One, the Good God, Creator of PL lx. 1. A limestone fragment, giving a
Things, Son of the Sun, , beloved of seten de hetep formula to Usdr neb Dedu niter
Anubis of the South, endowed with life, ad neb anfch heq zetta. 'Osiris, Lord
stability, and power, Sun-like for ever.' The of Dedu, the Great God, Lord of Life,

second reads anfch //< r Ra Prince of Eternity,' that he may grant per-
fehent Amentet meri de 'The living fch ('/'/(-offerings etc. for the fca of a certain
Horus, , Ra , beloved of erpd /n't Hereditary Prince, whose name i< un-
[Osiris] Khent-Amenti, endowed [with Life, fortunately missing. Osiris Temple. Dyn. XII.
stability, etc.';] and the third anfch neter 2. An inscription in four perpendicular lines,

nefer neb taui ltd Up-uaut meh meri from the lap of a limestone kneeling figure of a

de anfch etc. 'The Living One, the Good God, man. It- reads (1) Seten de hetep Usdr neb
Lord of the Two hands, Lla ,
beloved Abdu de-f fchet neb nefer udb per (2) her fchaut
of Anubis of the North, endowed with life' etc. ne sdr em fchert her net ra neb ne fca ne
I

as before. Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XII. and (3) y heri dep aa ne T nebu
XI II. tdhu bdti smer udti (4) erpdt Abdu mer sdhu
,

Till: INSCRIPTIONS. 13

udn tern em aha [?] neb net s< tt u pi r. 'The King Amen-set i
His brother, the Judge belonging to
gives an offering to (Osiris Lord of Abydos. the city of Nekhent, Sebek-hotep '; (ii) sets
May he -rant all good and pure things, and a si ten kheh r \ ub lehd-t Her daughtt
'
r, the
coming forth (2) upon the altar of Isiris al all I
Royal Handmaid, Nub-kha-es'; (iii) sen-fudtu
times of the day. for the lea of (3) the ehaut heq
, Sebele-hetep 'His brother, the
Prince of all the Royal Sealer, Secretary at the Royal Table, Sebek-hotep';
Chiefly Companion, (I) Heriditary Prince of (iv) her sesheta ne Het-her nebt Innu Udh mes
Abydos, Superintendent of the Treasury, ne nebt per De-nub-merd 'The master of the
banishing the evil-doer at all times[?] from mysteries of Hathor Lady of Heliopolis, Hah :

the Palace.' The lasl words of the inscription born of the lady of the house, De-nub-mera.'
are given hypothetically, being founded on the hieroglyphs are so roughly cul thai two of
the supposition that the hieroglyphs read the above titles can only be translated hypo-
1 In sign thetically: I (ii) The original gives ifj^ D 1
-if i ™™^ -^izn: Jji^

at the beginning of the second line is an which seems to be a miswriting for ^*18,
original error: it should be ?*. riie name shortly written ^=, n 1 ur res met; and 1 (iv)

does not appear on the statue. Osiris Temple The original


j
|1 i may perhaps be intended
Dyn. XII. for the same title ur res met. Osiris Temple.
3. Portion of a limestone stele, giving the Dyn. XIII.
inscription [//<]'/• sdhv. Ameny mad lehern dri ne •").
Portion of an inscription from a broken
Set-Pepy madt leheru 'The Superintendent of limestone statuette, giving a seten de hetep
the Treasury, Ameny, deceased ; born of Set- formula for the lea of the Erpd ha sdhu bdti
Pepy, true-voiced.' In the second line Ameny mer per Sndd-db mad kheru *
Hereditary
is called mer per 'Superintendent of the Prince, Royal Sealer, Superintendent of the
Palace'; and two other persons are mentioned, Palace .... Snaa-ab, true- voiced.' By the
the one sesh senb '
the scribe Senb,' and the coincidence of the names it would seem that
other iwbt per Set-Hether aril ne A-ten [?] 'The this noble lived during the reign of Snaa-ab,
lady of the house, Set-Hathor, born of A-ten.' a king of the XHIth Dynasty, only known
Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XIII. from a tablet found at Abydos. Osiris Tern pie.
4. Part of a limestone stele, upon which two Dyn. XIII.
lines of figures still remain. In the upper line, 37. PI. Ixii. Limestone, coloured reliefs,

reading from left to right, these figures repre- giving the usual titles of Amenhotep I [Zeser-
sent (i) sets seten Icheher Nub-em-tehhi 'Her lea-Ba], and his father Aahmes I. Osiris
daughter, the Royal Handmaid, Nub-em-tekhi ';
Temple. Dyn. XVIII.
(ii) sen-f ur res ///('/[?] sesh Benutet-se 'His PL lxiii. Similar reliefs of king Amenhotep,
brother, the Great One of the Southern Tens, [?] which call for no special comment. Osiris
the scribe, Renutet-se'; (iii) set-s seten Icheher Temple. Dyn. XVIII.
Amen-set 'Her daughter, the Royal Handmaid, PL lxiv. In the middle of this plate is to be
Amen-set'; (iv) sen-f [ne~\ m\d-\_f%r\ resmet[?~\ seen the great lintel of Tahutimes the Second
Merit- ef 'The brother of his mother, the Great and Third. In the three horizontal lines the
One of the Southern Tens [?] Meritef; and inscriptions commence from the central ¥•, and
(v) shems Pen-hhenya 'The attendant, Pen- read to left and right. The left hand side is as
khenya.' In the lower line the figures are follows: (1) Anhh Her lea em Uast (2) Seten
(i) sen-f sab er Nehhent Sebeh-hetep mes ne bdti ifli taui Ed-men-hheper md Bd (3) se Bd
41 A1SYD0S I.

ne khat-f Tahut-mes-nefer-kheperu zetta (1) 'The tions to thy ka, Osiris.' Osiris Temenos.
living Horus, Bull in Thebes, (2) King of Upper Dyn. XIX.
and Lower Egypt, Lord of the two Lands, 4. Two fragments of the inscription upon a
Ra-men-kheper, (3) Son of the Sun, of his small basalt statuette of Miu-mes, the High
body, Tahutimes-nefer-kheperu (the Third), Priest of Anhur. Min-mes, who is known from
like the Sun for ever.' The right hand various other monuments (Garstang, El Arabah,
side gives the cartouches Bd-ad-kheper-ne pp. 11, 35; Proa, ttoc. Bib. Arch. vol. xxiii,
and Tahut - mes - nefer - khdu (the Second), p. 250 ; idem p. 13), lived in the reign of
with similar titles. Osiris Temple. Dyn. Rameses II, and was the step-brother of the
XVIII. High Priest of Osiris, Un-nefer, who is men-
PI. Ixv. 9, 10. Standing figures of a man and tioned in this chapter. Early in life he held
woman, roughly worked in grey granite, having the positions of royal scribe, and priest of Shu
two vertical lines of hieroglyphs upon the front and of Anhur: his father Herd being High
and back. The frontal inscriptions read : neter Priest of the latter deity. He was later elevated
hen dep ne Usdr Un-nefer mud kheru; and sent-f by Rameses to the position of ami as Shu
nebf per-f qemdt ne Ast Thiy 'The High Priest Tefnut '
OfficialShu and
of the Temple of
of Osiris, Un-nefer, true-voiced ; his sister, the Tefnut and on his father's death became High
;

lady of his house, the Singer of Isis, Thiy.' Priest of Anhur. A statuette calls him kheri
That upon the back reads: Se-hez Usdr neter heh hcri dep ne neb taui '
Chief Lector to the
hen dep ne Usdr Un-nefer mad kheru; nebt per-f King.' The Lectors seem to have corresponded
qemdt Usdr Thiy madt kheru zed nes Nefert-dri in a manner to the Magi of Persia and the ;

'
The glorified Osirian High Priest of Osiris, Un- position of Chief Lector, although at this
nefer, true-voiced ; the lady of his house, the period much deteriorated, was in the Old
Singer of Osiris, Thiy, true-voiced, also named Kingdom one of the highest in the land.
[lit. said of her] Nefertari.' A few notes with Dyn. XIX.
regard to the life of this famous High Priest 5. Part of a limestone stele, showing a seated
are given in connection with two other of his male figure holding a lotus flower. At the to])

inscriptions upon pi. lxvii. Osiris Temenos. is a short inscription reading . . . . ne ka ne


Dyn. XIX. dkhu dker lid neb pet selen neteru Pa-dsi '. . . .

Fragment of a small limestone


PI. lxvi. 1. for the ka of the perfect glory of Ra, Lord of
stele, upon which a man is figured, holding in Heaven, King of the Gods : Pa-asi.' A some-
his hand a kind of brazier. Above his head is what similar stele of this person, whereon his
inscribed per hen-f . . . u-nefer Amen - name is written
\\
has just been
/^.lll'rv
neb uhem dnkh '
. . . of the palace of His
published by M. Capart in his '
Iiecueil de
Majesty [in] the city of u-nefer;
Monuments Egyptiens, 1902.' He is there
Amen-neb, renewing Life.' Osiris Temenos.
Dyn. XVIII. called the <s^ (£ O jj
'
glory of Ra,' Pro-

2. Portion of a limestone stele of a man and fessor Maspero has several times called atten-
his sister. The name of the former is destroyed, tion to the formula ne ka ne dkhu dker »<
but that of the latter is Bakt-mut. Osiris lid, and lie remarks that this apparent identi-
Temenos. Dyn. XIX. fication of the deceased with Ka occurs in a few
3. Two fragments of a limestone statuette inscriptions of the XlXth and XXth Dynastic.-,
of a person named yd, giving the but at no other period. There is a Pa-asi
interesting invocation dan nt ka-Je Usdr 'Adora- known on a papyrus at Turin, who held the
TIIK INSCRIPTIONS. u.

position of Commander of the Troops, and M. .1///"' [e?i] Bed '


Anubis, who is the
Capart thinks thai an identification may be of Ded' (the original ^a, ' Tfl ls a sculptor's
possible. < Isiris Temple. Dyn. XIX.
error l'oi-
im^\ a com title of Anubis),
An
i

6. Portion of a limestone stele inscribed ,

»i zat m I
Keni-Ai, '
Bora of thai lie may gran! hesn em bah seten Favour in '

King for the ha. The fifth


1

the standard-bearer of Amen. Keni-Amen, the presence of the


true-
voiced.' The stele evidently contained originally line to Anpnt neb rekh 1 Anubis, Lord of knowledge,'
the figure of the son of Keni-Amen as well.
praying for ha nefer shems ne ka-f 'a g W.

Osiris Temple. Dyn. XIX. tomb, and a following for his ha '; the sixth to

7. Limestone stele upon which five persons


Osiris, that he may grant akhtt em pet u&r em ta

arc depicted seated before a table of offerings. hherii em set madt 'Glory in heaven, power

Above them there are the remains of a group of on earth, and a trueness of voice in the Place ol

gods. At the bottom of the stele two lines of Justice' [the r ^~i is a miswriting for fh=1
hieroglyphs give a seten de hetep formula to undoubtedly]; and the seventh to Usdr neb
Usdr Khent Amenta neb Ta-zeser '
Osiris Khent- ta-zeser Anpu ami em id 'Osiris Lord of the
amenti, Lord of the Necropolis,' that he may Necropolis, and Anubis dwelling in embalmment,
grant per kherv, offerings for the ka of the that they may grant sh( S ker'a following
Seten uhem dep ne neb taui senna medehi ddebui of the god Seker' for the ha. The uame and
KIu'iij 'Chief Royal Herald of the Lord of the titles of the owner appear at the end of each
Two Lands, reporting the countries' affairs: line, and in other parts of the statue, and read,
Khay.' Elsewhere we see that his father was when written in full, Mer lean emt hei lid-usr-
mad-setep-ne-Rd Amen em per Ptah-em-uah
named rn'^n ^j /I<ai or m'vx U <§\ i§\ Hada,
mad hheru 'Superintendent of the Cattle in

and bore the titles sab 'Judge,' and her pezetit the Temple of Ramessu II, in the Amen Temple,
ne neter nefer 'Commander of the King's Ptah-em-uah, true-voiced. This building, which
archers.' His sister was the nebt per Tm-d-mer is still to be seen at Abydos, is known as the
'
lady of the house, Imamer '; and his mother Rameses Temple, and stands near to the great
the qemdt ne Amen nebt per Nub-em-U kh 'Singer Temple of Sety. In one place Ptah-em-uah is

of Amen, the Lady of the house, Nub-cm-tekh." called seten sesh hetep neter ne neterv. nebu '
the
Another personage holds the title mer shenuti royal scribe of the divine otlerinu's of all the
'
Superintendent of the Granary,' but his name gods.' The cartouches of Ramessu II are in-

and relationship is lost. Osiris Temenos. Dyn. scribed upon the sides of the statue. < Isiris

XIX. Temenos. Dyn. XIX.


PI. lxvii, 1. Limestone statue with seven 2. Wooden fragment with an inscription,

horizontal lines of hieroglyphs, each line begin- giving a prayer for the welfare of an untitled
ning with a seten de hetep formula. The first person named Lay. Cemetery G. Dyn. XIX.
is to the gods Ra-Harmakhis and Turn, that ,",. Part of a lime-tone stele, upon which two
they may grant nefu 'breezes' to the lea of the figures are represented in attitudes of worship.

deceased; the second to Usdr khent enti er Above them is a much damaged inscription,
Amentet '
Osiris, the Chief who is [existent] in reading, as far as can now be seen, seten sesh ne
the Underworld,' that he may grant the usual a I W-niadm mad Icheru dri ne y
funeral offerings; the third to Usdr Un-nefer 'The Royal Scribe of 1'hara »h, I'rmaau, true-

neb ta-zeser 'Osiris Lnnefer, Lord of the Necro- voiced, born of J- s i ris Temple.
polis,' without a prayer. The fourth line is to Dyn. XIX.

46 ABYDOS I.

38. PI. lxvii. 4. Two fragments from small of the inhabitants of Abydos of all ages, it may
basalt statuettes of Un-nefer, High Priest of be as well to mention a few points with regard
<
>siris in the reign of Rameses II. The first to his life and family. Unnefer was born pro-
inscription reads (I) neter hen dep ne Usdr bably in the reign of Sety I, as he appears to
Un-nefer mad kheru (2) sew. het Sekeri Un-nefer have been an elderly man in the reign of
mm) Icheru 'The High Priest of Osiris, Un-nefer, Kamessu II. He began his sacerdotal career as

true-voiced; the sem -priest of the Temple of a priest of Osiris, in which position he appears

Seker, Un-nefer, true-voiced.' The I ¥\ si m- on the shrine found this year by the Egyptian
understood, Research Account, near the Sety Temple. Later
priesthood is very little but it

The he became, as we have seen, the sem-priest of


was evidently of a mystical character.
the Sanctuary of Seker in that building and
officiated at the most solemn
;
si //(-priest cere-
also received the position, which we have just
monies, such, for instance, as the '
opening of
the mouth ' of a mummy, where he performed discussed, in connection with the Mad Kheru.

the chief part ; and at many other of the more He finally became High Priest of Osiris at

The Abydos, and caused himself to be remembered


occult services he took a leading place.
by filling the temple with statues, statuettes,
Temple, or Sanctuary, of Seker was that
and steles, inscribed with his name and titles.
portion of the Temple of Sety known in
With regard to his father there was evidently
Mariette's Abydos as Salle T. In the inscrip-
an unpleasant mystery. On nearly all his later
tions upon the temple walls we find it con-
monuments when his parentage is given he is
stantly mentioned, being sometimes written
said to be the son of the High Priest of Osiris,
and sometimes =5. Once the Meri, and of his wife the Singer of Osiris,
i i

following invocation occurs r| •


Ma-aa-nuy. But on one or two statues his
^ ^"" ^"n father is said to be the High Priest of Osiris
°t1i/ V ^' 1|
"' ' 'i>-i"'f'->' her db het
\ll
Yu-yu, and on the above mentioned shrine the
Seker de-f dtihh usr ne Ra-men-maat 'May
name Meri is, in each of the three places where
•Jsiris-Unnefer within the Sanctuary of Seker
it occurs, erased, and the name Yu-yu sub-
grant and power to Ra-men-maat [Sety I].'
life
stituted. Unnefer married the lady Thiy whose
The second fragment gives an extremely inte- second name was Nefert-ari ; and by her he had
resting title. It appears to read mer zazanut ne.
several children, whose names are given [?] on a
mad Icheru Un-nefer mad Icheru 'Superintendent
monument found in his tomb at Abydos, and
of the judicial court of the true- voiced, Un-nefer,
not yet published. His two step-brothers are
true-voiced.' The word [ °, I | °, or I J*l to be noticed : the one is Pa-ra-hetep the Vizir,
"iizniuil signifies a court or office, usually of a and the other Min-mes, the High Priest of
judicial character ; and Unncfer's title '
Super- Anhur, mentioned on pi. lxvi. They were the
intendent of the court of the True of Voice sons of Ma-aa-nuy by Hera, High Priest of
[mad Tcheru, i.e. the dead] '
seems to be to some Anhur, the son of Un-nefer, High Priest of
extent the religious equivalent of the judicial Amen. The base of a statuette of this Hera
title 'Superintendent of the royal zazanut was found this year at Abydos, hut was stolen
court of the deliberating upon all words' (vide almost immediately by some loafers from the

Mai;.. Mast, 10!); Erman, Life In. A. 138). /•:., village. A portion of the extensive genealogy
I siris Temple. Dyn. XIX. of Unnefer may be given here, as it illus-

As we have thus had three inscriptions of this trates also the family positions of Min-mes and
Unnefer, who \v;is perhaps the most importanl Hera.
THE [NSCRIPTIONS. 47

Min-mes [Jn-nefer = Asl Maa-rema


High Priesl of [sis and Min. Eligh Priesl of Amen. 1
1 igh Priesl of [sis and Min.

Pa-Keny = Qtaa . . . .
y Meri or Y"u-yu = Ma-aa-nuy Hera
Superintendent of II igh Priesl of High Priesl
the Granaries. < >-iris. of Anhur.

Tlii\ = Un-nefer Pa-ra-hetep Mill- tins = Gemat-klia


also oamed High Priesl < rrand Vizir. High Priesl
Nefertari. of < >siris. of Anlnir.

A A

5. Upon this plate there still remain two Ptah, governor of Thebes, hut was probably
inscriptions to be discussed. They are cut (if Cypriote origin, as a wonderfully carved
upon natural limestone rocks lying in the portrait-head — (bund by Miss Benson and Miss
desert, between the village of El Arahah and Gourlav in the Temple of Mill inscribed with
the site of the Royal Tombs. The longer reads his titles, seems to show (see Newberry in Temple
Neter hen 1\ ne Amen-Rd seten neteru mer res <;/' Muf, Of him Miss Gourlav writes
p. 352).

nut ma. hedes Menthu-em-hdt mad Icheru. 'The "He probably helped Taharqa [in whose reign
4th Priest of Amen-Ra, King of the Gods, he lived] to repel the first Assyrian invasion;
Superintendent of Thebes in its entirety, Mentu- nevertheless, after the conquest of Upper Egypt
emhat, true-voiced.' The other reads Neter hen and the sack of Thebes by Assurbanipal, he
71" Amen-Rd, seten neteru mer \_res nut]
ne still retained his position as governor of the
Mentha-em-hdt 'The 4th Priest of Amen-Ra, Thebaic!. . . . When the withdrawal of the
King of the Gods, Superintendent [of Thebes] Assyrian invaders left him free to exercise

Mentuemhat.' It would seem that Alentuemhat his governorship, he devoted himself to the
came to Abydos to inspect the royal tombs, restoration of the broken and pillaged temples,

and had his name roughly inscribed upon one and of the worship and festivals of the

of the rocks near by : the inscription being gods .... These pious labours . . . were
re-written more neatly, and at greater length, wholly swept away in the second invasion of

with the addition of mad Icheru also, after his Assurbanipal and the conserpuent ruin of the
death. Mentuemhat, it will be remembered, city. No record has yet been found to show
avus the <2i*eat vizir at the time of the whether after that catastrophe he still retained

Assyrian invasions of Egypt. Besides the his governorship and painfully attempted a
above titles he held the offices of Fa-Prince second restoration of the desecrated shrines, or

of Thebes, Great Prince of the Temple,


whether his career then came to an end with
[JJ] Our inscription,
that of the dynasty he served."
Instructor of the Priests, Superintendent of
however, which seems to show that he was
the Priests of Mentu, Eeq- Prince of the
powerful to the end of his lite, suggests that
IWI
Desert Superintendent of the Frontier attempt a second restoration and
[I he did ;

indeed the strength portrayed in his face is


^ etc. etc. He was the son of Nes-
IIIJ
48 ABYDOS I.

a guarantee of his ability to undertake such a son of the nebt per Nes-her '
Lady of the house,
task, however painful it was. Dyn. XXYI. Nesher.' Upon the other side a curious inscrip-
39. l'l. lxix. 1. Limestone altar of offerings, tion occurs, reading dep-fc db-k dnkh-k ami-/
around the edge of which run seten de hetep 'Thy head, thy heart, thy life are in it' [i.e. in
formulae to 'Osiris, Chief of the Underworld, the coffin]. The signs here transliterated db-k,
Great Lord of Abydos,' and to 'Osiris, Lord of are in the original L_~\ which might perhaps
Dedu, Great Lord of Abydos,' for the lea of the
be rendei-ed '
thy first, or chiefest, thing.' But
r sahutiii Her dri ne Set-Het-her 'Super-
it seems more probable that the group is a
intendent of the Treasuries, Hor, born of Set-
Hathor.' Osiris Temenos. Dyn. XXVI.
mis-writing for y '
db-k '
thy heart."

2. Limestone altar of offerings, around which PI. lxxiii, 1. The coffin of Merti-heru gives

is inscribed twice the following. Ankji Her us some more details, with regard to his family.

smen madt sma uti Net se sepd taui Her nub He was the son of a person holding the same

,i teru st tep seten bdti Bd-udh-db se Ed Aahmes- titles as himself, named Udh-db-Bd; and his
net-se Usdr hhent Amentet neter ad neb Abdu mother, as stated above, was named Kes-her,

meri dednlch Ret md zetta. 'The Living Horus, and held the title dhyt ne Ichnd enti Amentet

establishing Truth, Lord of the Vulture and


'
Sistrum player of the Chief who is in the

the Uraeus, Son of Neith, the Vigour of the Underworld,' i.e. Osiris. Cemetery G. About
two Lands, the Golden Horus, Chosen of the Dyn. XXVIII.
Gods, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 40. PL lxxiii, 2. The coffin of Tay-nckht
Ra-uah-ab, Son of the Sun Ahmes-net-se, has the following genealogical inscription: Usdr
beloved of Osiris Lord of the Underworld, the Tay-nelcht set ami as Zed-her mes ne nebt per

Great God, Lord of Abydos, endowed with Ta-kherd-ne-Min 'The Osirian Tay-nekht,
Life, like the Sun for ever.' Osiris Temenos. daughter of the ami as priest Zedher, and of
Dyn. XXVI. the lady of the house, Ta-kherd-ne-Min.' The
l'l. Ixxi. Portions of a painted wooden coffin, text of these inscriptions is unimportant, and is

inscribed with religious texts, too fragmentary so corrupt that it is unnecessary to translate it

to be translated with interest. The owner's in full. Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX.


name is Tahuti-mes, but his only title is , 3. The coffin of Heru-makheru speaks of him
'scribe.' Cemetery G. Dyn. XVIII— XX. as Usdr Her-viad-kheru mad-kherii se Merit-hern
PI. lxxii, 1. Painted wooden canopic box, mes ne nebt per MeMi-[db ^-ta-senekht 'The
inscribed down either side with seten de hetep ( Heru-makheru, deceased, son of Merit-
)sirian

formulae to Anubis, that he may grant aHn n


heru, and of the Lady of the house Mehti-ab-ta-

pet kher ltd usr em la ... . 'glory in heaven senekht.' There seems to be no doubt that the
under Pa, and power on earth . . . ,' and the siuiis
° <=>
j
d
should be read ^^
^ o mehti-db

— the
usual funeral offerings of beer, bulls, geese, etc., common expression 'filling, or pleasing, the
to tin' ka of the owner, whose name, Merti-heru, heart.' Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX.
appears in the centre. Cemetery G. About 4. The box of Tasenmeht doubtless belonged
Dyn. XXVIII. this same lady. Her name is here written
to
2. The model coffin figured upon this plate
bul this is an obvious error
belongs to the same personage, as also does a
coffin represented upon the next plate. Upon for o <= .\lehti-ab-la-senekht.

the one side he is called the hesi-ka priest, and < 'emetery G. I >yn. X XX.
i
ds [it kind of priesl |, and is said to be the •
r
>. The inscription on the coffin of Mert-tcfnnl
;

THE [NSOBIPTIONS. I:-

reads Mert-tefnut maat kheru set if d hesi I. The lattei inscription gives a longer
ka Zedher '
Mert-tefuut, deceased, daughter of prayer to Osiris, for the neter hen Un sesh
the ami as and hesi ka -priest Zedher.' Ceme- Per-ad du-f dpi [hetepu?] ne neter pen per neb
tery G. Dyn. XXX. i Ant Reruza mud kheru se neter hen
6. The gilt cartonnage of Neb-ta-ahit has Ret-her nebt Ant mert [?] Ed Zed-her mad
inscribed upon it Usdr Neb-ta-dhy[t~\ maat kh( ru kheru drit m per Neb-ta-dhyt maat kheru
set neter hen seien sesh Nefer-db-Bd [?] mad- "
I'ricM of I'u, Scribe of Pharaoh, counting [the
kheru, mes ne Td .... [?] 'The Osirian offerings] of this god in every temple in Uazeti-
Neb-ta-ahyt, true-voiced, daughter of the priest Ant, Heruza, true-voiced ; son of the Priest "I

and royal scribe Nefer-ab-Ra, true-voiced, and Hathor Lady of Ant, the Eye of Horus,
ofTa .' .Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX.
. . Zed-her, true-voiced; born of the Lady of the
PI. lxxv, 1. The inscription of Nefert-iut House, Neb-ta-ahyt, true-voiced.' In this in-

speaks of her as Usdr qemdt khent Amentet scription there are a few points to be noticed.
Nefert-iut .... The Osirian, Singer of Khent-
i\ ft An \\ 'www
'
The sentence \\ x (I lo du-f dpi ne /

amenti, Nefert-iut.' Cemetery G. Dyn. XXX.


pen seems to require an additional word, such
2. The sarcophagus of Hapi-men is inscribed
as hetepu 'offerings,' to complete the sense.
with a seten de hetep formula to Usdr khent
The words neter pen per neb are also
Amentet neter ad neb Abdu 'Osiris, Khent- I A/WW\ V /

Amenti, the Great God, Lord of Abvdos,' written ]


ii n i
towards the close ot the
that he may grant the usual offerings for the ka inscription, which seems to be erroneous. The
of the neter hen III ne Mut nebt em Aben [?] "^ neter lieu Un sesh Per-ad, or
1 C cr3 1
'

f rQl '

neter hen Her Usdr Hapi-men mad kheru 'The


iH^ffilTc? neter hen Un sesh ne neter pen
3rd Priest of Mut Lady in Aben, Priest of
Horus, the Osirian Hapi-men, true-voiced.' The as it is written upon the sarcophagus of Pedu-
enast, may be translated as above ;
but the fact
town -jJ-a Ab or Aben is unknown. Cemetery
that the god -^ Un is very rarely found
2

G. Dyn. XXX. /vww\

The two middle inscriptions are from the urges the necessity of another reading to the

sarcophagi of the brothers Peduenast and passage. Regarding un as the auxiliary verb,

That of the former gives a prayer to it might be rendered 'The Priest, being the
Horuza.
Scribe of the King'; or again it has been
Osiris on behalf of the neter hen Un sesh n<

neter pen Her an mut-f Pe-de-ne-dst mad suggested that the word should be read *||?

kheru se neter hen Het-her nebt Ant mert [?] Ed un 'opening,' thus giving the sense 'the Priest,
Zed-her mud kheru ant ne nebt per Neb-ta-dhyt opening the writings of the King.' But the
maat kheru '
Priest of Un, Scribe of this God corruption of the whole text makes a close
[i.e. the King], Horus Supporter of his Mother, 1
translation impossible. Cemetery G. Dyn.
Peduenast, true-voiced ; son of the Priest of XXX.
Hathor Lady of Ant, the Eye of Ra, Zed-her, 41. PL lxxvi. Three bronze hypocephali,
true-voiced ; born of the Lady of the House decorated with the usual magical figures and
Neb-ta-ahyt, true-voiced.' inscriptions. The latter are hopelessly confused

1
For this title see Ceum, Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch. 1894,
2
Un is mentioned in the leading hieroglyphieal dic-
and is doubtful whether
xvi, 131; Breasted, New
Chapter in Life of Tahutmes tionaries without references, it

III., p. 12 ; and Griffith in Deshasheh, p. 47. there is such a god.


E
;

50 ABYDOS I.

many of the groups of signs bearing but a faint the four genii of the dead. Behind these there
resemblance, if any at all, to known words. is an interesting group, consisting of a lotus,
Although there are some thirty specimens in the a lion, and a ram, which occurs in chapter
various museums, a comparison of these with clxii of the Book of the Dead [line 5] in the
the present ones does not help much in their form N(~ 2§^ (1
"%\ M. . Following this group is
decipherment ; and it would therefore be very
a pylon croAvned with the head of Khnemu
undesirable to offer even a conditional trans-
the god Horus-Ra holding the -¥- diikh; and
lation. Such an one, however, giving an idea of
the style of the texts should be referred to in Dr.
finally the kheper or scarabeus. Second line :

the Sun-boat navigated by Horus and two apes,


Budge's Egyptian Magic, page 119. Of the three
Isis and Nephthys being conspicuous among the
hypocephali the third alone bears the name of
occupants the youthful Horus seated above
the person for whom it was made. This reads
;

the jjj|r tempest [?] ; the Moon-boat steered by


«= mini Harpocrates ; and the goddess Nut and scara-
Lsdr inter hen Zed-he)- mad kheru mes nebt per beus. Turning the hypocephalus round we
TJza-du madt kheru The Osirian'
priest Zed-her, notice the Four-headed ram-god, in whom the
true-voiced, born of the Lady of the House spirits °f th e f° ur elements, Ra [fire],
5£$ '

T7za-au, true- voiced.'


Shu [air], Geb [earth], and Usar [water] were
The hypocephalus appears to have had its
said to be united.
1
In this form the god was
origin in connection with chapter clxii of the
worshipped at Mendes ; and an inscription 3
Book of the Dead. From the rubric of this
chapter we
speaks of him as the Jn a & — -
' Fourfold
learn that a figure of the cow
Hathor was to be fashioned in gold, and placed god in the land of Mendes,' £ — - Anep being
upon the neck of the mummy and that an- ; his shrine in that city. Two small apes, the
other was to be drawn upon papyrus, and final degradation of the eight adoring cyno-
placed under the head, the idea being to give cephali may be noticed. These represent the
" warmth " to the deceased in the underworld. four primeval pairs of gods of chaos, whose
After the XXVIth Dynasty the cow-amulet fell names were Nun and Nunt [moisture], Hehu and
into disuse, and the drawing upon papyrus Hehut [air], Kekui and Kekuit [darkness], G-ereh
developed into the hypocephalus, upon which and Gereht [rest] ; being called collectively
the cow always remained an important figure. Kheme'im^ a miswriting of im^Ll i-
"TT ftl '

Papyrus was almost entirely abandoned in


Above, there are, three boats : the first contains
favour of more durable material, such as linen,
Horus, the second Horus-Sept, and the third
stucco, and rarely bronze. The fashion, how-
Khepera. Finally there is the double god
ever was not long-lived, and did not survive
who personified the rising and setting of the
the fall of the XXXth Dynasty.
sun. Figures such as these just described
Taking the largest specimen as an example,
are to be found on nearly all the known
the figures are as follows. First line : Nehebha
hypocephali, however erratic the inscriptions.
holding the uzat eye. Although here pictured
Nevertheless, as may be seen from the two
as an ape, Nehebka is in reality the serpent-god
whose worship was carried on at Heracleopolis.
He stands, here, in front of the seated figure of
1
Beugsch, Thes. 4te Abt. 734 ct scq.
Horus-Min, behind whom is an nzai-headed 2
Ibid., Oase, pi. xxvi. 1. 27.

ddess. Then follow the cow of Hathor, and Ibid., Thes. 4te Abt. G72-3.

THE INSCRIPTIONS. 6J

smaller specimens, they may be greatly cut named .... //</-/' dri rn Sba ". . . . hotep,
down, and are subject to much degradation of boni of Sl>a'; and the fchird a male whose
form. Cemetery G. Dvn. XXX.
1
name is destroyed. Around the edges there
42. Besides the above inscriptions there are are seten <l< hetep formulae to Osiris Lord of
one or two which may be noted, taken from Abydos, and [Anpu] Lord of Ta-zeser, that
steles and other objects so much damaged as they may grant /> r hheru offerings to the Km.
not to have been worth preserving. Osiris Temple. Dyn. XIII.
I. Limestone stele, originally coloured. A 3. Remains of a limestone stele, inscribed 86
figure is repre- n< ... se§h Ij'SiUn null i/r I'siir I 'it- nefer . . .

sented
ing before
stand-
a
u 'Son of the scribe of the accounts, the uab-

table of offer-
ings, and the
i^k?^<L1i 111111 PUP
IPJ n
ill! i i i

accompanying
AAAAAA A/VWV\ i^ vi i i i
<=4
inscription,
above and in front of it, reads Seten priest of Osiris Un-nefer . .
.' The rest of

de hetep I sd/r neb D[edu] the long inscription is completely obliterated.

dmakhu Icher neter ad Cemetery G. Dyn. XVI.


hhet neb infer uabt ne lea ne sdhu bdti
4. Painted wooden box, now fallen to pieces,
<=> D
smer udti A . . . em-hetep reu-f nefer .... of Heru-maakheru, who is mentioned on plate
'
The King gives an offering to Osiris
lxxiii. It was inscribed as follows :

Lord of Dedu
the great god .... all
reverence with
good and pure
IIP
H u u u u 1A
things, for the ka of the Royal Sealer, HP AAAAAA

the Chiefly Companion, A . . . em-hotep, III I ^ i


<=>

f\
AAAAAA
surnamed '
Cemetery G. Dyn. XI.
*l D ill HI
2. Limestone stele in three divisions, of which
the two lower are destroyed. In the upper fi
iii
1
portion
offerings.
three
The
figures
first
sit

represents a male
before a table
named
of
H U
(J ^c 1 Anlch at an ne Sba
A -«-
II U 1 III
III
'
Ankh-at, born of Sba '
; the second a female
i \h 111 II IIP
iii
ppp
Mi IB m iM
1
Eeference should be made to Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch. pip ill
vol. vi, 37, 52, 126, 129, 170, 185, 187;
:

vol. vii, 213;


IIP iii im III
vol. xix, 146. Liedemann, Religion, p. 298. Rev. Arch. As will be seen, it gives seten de hetep formulae
1862, 129. Archacol. xxxvi, 1855, 163. Catalogue of
vi,
to Osiris and Anpu for the benefit of the
Edinburgh Nat. Mus. 1900, p. 8. Leemans, in Trav. du
Osirian hexi-L-u-priest Heru-maakheru. Ceme-
Congres des Orientalistes a Leide, 1881. Catalogue of
Turin Mus. tery G. 'About Dyn. XXVIII.
53

INDEX.

Anilines I, portrait of
54
.

I \ 1
1 E\
66

..
-o doors
fringe
....
....
F< '-par, green, in foundation depos
56
INDEX. 57

Nekht-hor-heb, cartouche of . 33 P ivory


,, statues of age of . 33
Nes-her .
35, is
(letter, hone L8, 24
N umerical signs . 4
Nut, representations of 19,50

Objects in M. tombs 17, 18


Obsidian amulets . 38
Offering chambers .
. 34
Offerings, altars of . •-', 18
12,

,, list of . 30
„ per-kheru 11. 18, 51

,, table of .
. 45, 51
Older of pre-Menite King . 5
Osiride statuettes 35, 36, 38, 39
Osiris, bronze figures of 30, 32, 45
,, high priest of . 46
,, Jca name of .
. 44
,, Khentamenti .
29, 45
,, mummified . 32
,, shrine of . 9
,, temenos of 1, 9, 27
„ temple .
9, 27
,, ,, inscriptions 41—48
„ titles of .
45, 46, 48, 51
Ox-bones in tomb . 17

Pa-asi 44
Paint, white . 18
Painted pottery 23
Aegean 6
...
,,

,,

Palettes, slate
,,

sculpture
,,

.......
date confirmed

17, 23, 24,


6
30
25
Panelling 3, 4
Papyrus 36, 38
Paraffin wax, for preserving wood and cartonnage . 38
Pe, shrine of Buto 41
Pectoral
Pediment
Pedu-asar
.......
.........
of breccia
38,
34
39
40

Pedu-en-ast 39, 49
Pendants 23
Perabsen . . 4, 6
Pcr-hhcru offerings 42, 44, 48, 51
Pesh-hcn amulet .24
,, ,, ,, connections of . . . .24
Pilgrim bottle
Pillared court
hall
........ 6, 34
34
29
58
INDEX. 59

Stone, vases, see Vases.


.

60 ABYDOS I.

Weight .
. 25 Zed .

White paint . 18 Zed-her .

Wooden framing in tombs . 16 Zer .

7, 37 „ flints of
tray .

Workmen, Qufti 1, 2 Zeser


trained . 2 Zeser-ka-ra
,,

Zet .

Ymamu 31 ,, flints of

Zigzag pattern on bird's leg bone


Zazanut, mer 4G ,, Aegean pottery
1 2 ABYDOS. TOMB OF
:

KING KA-AP.

Nf
Bfl

y 11
Pi 13
UNIVERSITY
NEW YORK
W0M SQUARE CBUB*
1 : 2 ABYDOS. TOMB OF KING KA-AP.

18
21

20
f J

'#
7 n m>
y

$k

26

F.R
NNKM »
1 : 1 ABYDOS. luMB OF KIN., >, ai>, anu QUEEN HA,

.•..

(Ml

il

ii ,r,
ii

©
:)H

VI

"<ty

*
«/
V
:'.,
\h
i |

>
II II llll u
fill

ill
17

m
46 46

n
T t>«
r
H $L
4 : 3 ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. INSCRIPTIONS. \c. IV.

6. VASE OF NEITHOTEP 7 1:1 PLAIT AND FALSE FRINGE. TOMB OF ZER.

10. BOWL EDGE OF ZER.

8. VASE OF ZER
9. POTTERY FROM ZER.

13. IVORIES OF ZET. 14. VASE OF W.


11. DWARF OF ZER. 12.
, UBR^
ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. INSCRIPTIONS. V.

4 : 3 VOLCANIC ASH OF QA.

— ,

1 : 2 ALABASTER OF AZAB.
See R.T. i. vi. 2. vii. 10. viii. 11

4 : 3 GOLD FOIL OF QA.

v-

1:4 QUARTZOSE STELE OF QA.


NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

LIBRARY
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
GTQN SQUARE COLLEGE

LIBRARY •
1 : 6 ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: POTTERY. VII.

LlMESTO N£ B'19
1 : 6 ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: AEGEAN POTTERY. VIII.

|v * \
NEW YuRK UNIVERSITY
WASHIkSTON SQUABE COLLEGE

• LIBRARY
1 : 3 ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: STONE VASES.

B.
SYENITE

B. 15
CRYSTAL

r -n

v.

DOLOMITE MARBLE

j3

v,

DOLOMITE MARBLE

12 13

^ '
V.
ALAB.

15

14

F.P.
ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: ALABASTER VASES. &C X.

t:3
16 17
20

z:3
C £ D/4 8 TRAY V.
21
22 23

Ai.ABASTEM
Vases .

All V.

H0f\N CUP BIJ


24
25

GROUP Z II

z=f /
28

/ /

32
33
34

r r
v
ID 1

J
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

• LIBRARY
.

1 : 2 ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: IVORY AND EBONY LABELS.

i^nr

<

x-

iff
/Jj]

Cffi?^^ -r
II

T iv.

J%^ Tirr ^ragggge

XJ Z . iv.

r>^
b
j±.

a ~u
T\T y
T.

Du.p>L. of R.T.
at.

j XV. 16 L AD*
n\v
tts
T efc.

10

|j5^

q. iv
WFW YORK UNIVERSITY
mmm sum eg
2 3 ABYDOS.
:

ROYAL TOMBS: MARKS ON S'ONE VASES.


XII.

itc R.T H vn ft

11 13

16

19 22
'21

II
7=T
(til

\y A\ -Jk
23 25
24
26

/t
n
1 : 6 ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS: STELES.

149
NEW YORK UhlVEKSlTY
2 : 7 ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. WORKED FLINTS. XIV.
MENA ZER. 2ET. MERNEIT. DEN.
ABYDOS. ROYAL TOMBS. WORKED FLINTS. XV.
AZAB. MERSEKHA. QA. PERABSEN KHASEKHEMUI

X
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY \

WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

• LIBRARY
ABYDOS. FLINT KNIVES WITHOUT HANDLES. XVI.

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.

1
>,

p?

(lit

27
WITHOUT HANDLES. XVI
ABYDOS. FLINT KNIVES
1 : 2
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

• LIB'' '
1 : 2 ABYDOS, FLINT KNIVES WITH HANDLES. XVI
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.

1
11!
1 : 2 ABYDOS. FLINT KNIVES WITH HANDLES. XIX.
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.
1 ; 2 ABYDOS. FLINT HOES. XX.
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS; LEVELS IN INCHES.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

• LIBRARY
1 : 2 ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, TAILED. XXI.

TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.

104-

105 108 no
NfeW ¥§RK UNIVERSITY
mmm mm mm
* LIBRARY
1 : 2 ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, VARIOUS. XXII
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.

140

149
^s
1 : 2 ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, ROUND, &C. XXIII.
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES

15S

165

166
,<^=CTOJx 170
169

2.5-

183
184
185

5T
...
ABYDOS. FLINT SCRAPERS, LONG; FLAKES. XXIV.
1 : 2
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.

214 216
199 200 208 219
HEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON mm COUEGf
LlB;A.;y
J
1 : 2 ABYDOS. FLINT FLAKES. TIPPED, WORKED, ROUNDED, SQUARE. XXV.
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.

io io

254

281

287 291
289
283 284
282
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY

LIBRARY .
1 : 2 ABYDOS. FLINT ANIMALS, SAWS, CRESCENTS. COMBS. XXVI.
TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: LEVELS IN INCHES.

295
298 E^3oo "2Sj302 .30

~:=3esd

299
pz2T2Tg 301

313
306 309

308

310
MEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASH SdUftRt COLLEGE

LIBRARY
1 3 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF
:

OSIRIS: STONE VASES. XXVII.

BASALT

ALAB.
SLATE 1 8

4-0

40 85

45

• 20
STEATITE
14.

^
13
SHELLY LIMEST.

UK. LIV.EST.
NUMBERS STATE INCHES ABOVE SAND.
ALAS. r |
LIBRARY .
1:6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXVIII.
. library
1:6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXIX.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE
. LIBRARY
1:6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXX.

ft. 75
76 77
WSHINfilON SQUARE
COLLEGE
° LIBRARY
1 :6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXX
NEW YORK UhWEfiSITY
WASHINGTON SQUftSE COLLEGE

• LIBRARY
1 : 6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXXII.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
1 : 6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXXIII.
106
. LIBRARY
1:6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXXIV.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

• LIBRARY
1 : 6 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: POTTERY OF EARLY DYNASTIES. XXXV.

•141
nru: «H3 «f 14.4 m g -

jE"'"
1
m| H|ho 1 »i5o ^ST if 152

^w " w P w w™ fB 5

162
153 r 154
•155
o

• ••# 22 27

90

206
1VERSITY
MGTON SQUftRt UlLLbnt

LIBRARY
1 : 6 ABYDOS. TOMB M12: POTTERY. XXXVI.

SLATE

Also Form
M 19, 60
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

LIBRARY
1 : 6 ABYDOS. TOMB M 13 : POTTERY.
XXXVII.
. l\BRMW_
1 : 6 ABYDOS. TOMB M13: POTTERY.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WSHINGION SQUARE C0U£GE
LIBRARY
1 : 6 ABYDOS. TOMBS M 14, 15, 17, 18: POTTERY. XXXIX,

M 14
28
24
26

27 21

M 15 4, 6 1 to 3 10 to 15

M17 M 18
1 :6 ABYDOS. TOMB M16: POTTERY. XL

4-7
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE GQLLE6E

LIBRARY •
ABYDOS. TOMBS M 19 ; 24, 25; 26: POTTERY. XLI.

71

77 74
80

76

70 72
79 83
89 91
170
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQOARE COLLEGE

LIBRARY •
1 :3 ABYDOS. TOMB M12: ALABASTER VASES. XLII.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLlfSE
J
LIBRARY
1: 3 ABYDOS. TOMB M 12 : STONE VASES. XLIII.

8LATE

TOMB M 13.

BAS

A LAB.

BAS.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE
COLLEGE

LIBRARY
1 : 3 ABYDOS. TOMB M 14, AND OTHERS: STONE VASES. XLIV.

51 40 54

52

TOMB M 15.

27
SLATE

22

23

#-
SLATE

TOMB M 17

ALL ALABASTER UNLESS STATED


YELL. LIMST
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

LIBRARY
1 :3 ABYDOS. TOMB M 16 : STONE VASES.

50

51

SLATE

SYENITE

IVORY

44

ALL ALABASTER UNLESS STATED


SLATE
LIBRARY
1 : 3 ABYDOS. TOMB M 19 : ALABASTER VASES.

18

19

23 22
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEI

• LIBRARY
1:3 ABYDOS. TOMB M 19. AND OTHERS: STONE VASES. XLVII.

SLATE

ALAB. VOLC.

TOMB M 24 TOMB M 25 TOMB M 26

PINK MARBLE

PINK MARBLE

.ALAB

PINK MARBLE

BRECCIA
BRECCIA

PINK MARBLE
LIBRARY
1 : 25 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: EARLY DYNASTIC GRAVES. XLVIII.

M 25
M 24 M 26

1
M 18

§\4^\\\\\\\^\\\\\^\^N>^^^^

^\\\\^^^\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^\\^^§^

^>^^^W M 14

M 17

M 15

\ 1

I
\<\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\^s\\\\Vv\\4>
1 : 25 ABYDOS, TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: EARLY DYNASTIC GRAVES. XLIX.

M12

M13

M 16
I NEW YORK -

COLLEGE
WASHINGTON SQUARE

. LIBRARY
I :4 ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: PAINTED POTTERY. SLATES. TOOLS. MARKS.

in su,„ ...
,„ (_

COPPER TOOLS.
r
n
M 13
> M-l*
M i3
) J*

%.

20
M-13
ISi M-13

MARKS - v POTTERY.

V c> M 1327 M 1243 r\

oK P
-"TUX'S

o^MIZiO on m, 15-45 M .|9.6o )


MN T7**i
M| 9 69 M-IW
M'lJiC M 12-4-7 Ml3 28
-

M ijzs
NUMBERS SHEW LEVEL IN INCHES ABOVE SAND; M NUMBERS ARE THOSE OF
TOMBS.
LIBRARY !
2 : 3 ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: AMULETS, &C LI.

n <s

35
Crteri £lotze
^ C^iiKjb"
C'ten 5ti'tieii(inc OM 7 ue 6r itrji!
1 0r " Se.r/>!
Calcifc SUft
4.'3
43
4-:3

/^To~l^
4-9
Vio/ti' Gid ze
5 late SKtii (irttn C^aze
Cl.iy Calender

16 18 19
'7

fi

I90
1 BUck Po tCar if
/vo ry

Ivory
SZa te v o r
I
y

Flln.C
FLtlnt
^mM^0^
SKe-LL P o tLe-r y

<^
« fa

pc>
^^ a y Se-a.linjs f y o m. W.oF OslylS Te m. en. o 5.

4:3

o
S o n e.

Biu-e Waze Button


Co ppe.r
F.P.
NEW
w^man mm m%
LlRRAoy o
2 : 3 ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: BEADS, WHORLS. &c. LIT.

Ca.rnclia.n If S hells 103

103

^MooQOCOr^^c
Car nc-li an, Garnet, frShtll. 50 bu.M-19

—MXKKWXKHK^ -KHKh '-OQOQOO


B^c k SUatiU Crtun Glaze- -£ a r h e, Z ( a n
Green Glaze 91 MI4

4:3

Blu-e. Glaze.
3e.-a.cL
ik^
Laz.iMli
• UNIVERSITY
| £w YORK
ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. EARLY DYNASTIES. Llll.

1. BONE. 2. FLINT. 3. GOLD CAP. 4, 5. QUARTZ. 6. LIMESTONE. 7-11. GREEN GLAZE. 12. SLATE.

23, 34. STONE VASE GRINDERS. 35, 36. POTTERY FIGURES. 3V. STONE FIGURE. 38-42. POTTERY.
"V YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

• LIBRARY
1 : 4 ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF MERENRA, AND FALSE DOOR. VI. DYN. LIV.
ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. IVth_XI|th DYNASTIES.

8. STELE OF NEKHT. 9. OFFERING SLAB (?) OF USERTESEN I. AND BASE, 10. 3-5. COLUMN OF ANTEF V.
1 NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

LIBRARY
1 : 10 ABYDOS. ANTEF V: PARTS OF COLUMNS. LVI.

1«A
IfiJril

ir 2

Ml
if

m< —— L-HJ5Z
4
V
1
^=7

II

1 © A»»»^»»V

tA
tl ft

W9\
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE

LIBRARY
1 :
4- ABYDOS. TEMPLE OF OSIRIS: STELE OF NEKHT. LVI

^rfy

a
Of^fc^
V^^iPlf f^^l
* O , - >4-l £-&?
crra

?
^ Pi.

C <=> X « ° '.& Cp 1—4. &»d


NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASMON SQUftRE COUfBE

LIBRARY
ABYDOS. OSIRIS TEMPLE: USERTESEN I.
LV
1 : 6

>*

^*»

r%

"o
m=

IT

H. P
1 : 4 ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF SEBEKHOTEP III, &c LIX.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE CQU£i
• LIBRARY
4: 9 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS: INSCRIPTIONS XII. -XIII. DYN. LX.

Y |
'

iili, M
.£A.J
ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. XVIII™ DYNASTY. LXI.

FOUNDATION DEPOSITS.
3. GREEN GLAZE. 4. LIMESTONE, AMENHOTEP III. 5. MODEL TOOLS, VASE, &c, TAHUTMES III.

%£§^m?

k -

- Mr - -
'

6. SLAB OF INSCRIPTION. 7. JASPER HEAD. 8. STEATITE HEAD. 9. BLUE GLASS FISH.


NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COUfBE

LIBRARY
2 : 13 ABYDOS. TEMPLE OF AMENHOTEP LXII

H.P
1 : 8 ABYDOS. TEMPLE OF AMENHOTEP I. LXIII.

L.C
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE CflUfGE
1 : 8 ABYDOS. TEMPLES OF AMENHOTEP I. AND TAHUTMES III. LXIV.
NEW
^TUN^S^
BMiBBE
A0E1QN
LIBRAE
ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. XIX™ DYNASTY. LXV.

1. FRAGMENTS OF STATUES. 2-4. LIMESTONE STATUE OF PTAHEMUA.

5-7. BACK AND HEAD OF GRANITE FIGURE OF UN-NEFER.

8. LIMESTONE FIGURE OF UN-NEFER. 9, 10. UN-NEFER AND TIY, GRANITE. 11. STELE OF KHAY.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE C8UH"
LIBRARY
1 :4 ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF XVIII- XIX DYN. LXVI.

\l i*
•™"i i
N/

-I? <

M£IIV
L.C.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
WASHINGTON SQUARE COLLEGE
o LIBRARY
1 :4- ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS OF PTAHEMUA, MENTUEMHAT, &C LXVII.

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1:8 ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS; TOP OF GRANITE SHRINE OF APRIES. &C. LXVIII.
LIBRARY
1 : 3 ABYDOS. TABLES OF OFFERINGS, XXVI. DYN. LXIX.

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ABYDOS. TEMENOS OF OSIRIS. XXV|th_xXXth DYNASTIES. LXX

6,8,9. FOUNDATION DEPOSITS OF APRIES : 7. OF AAHMES. 10. ALTAR OF AAHMES.

11. DEPOSIT OF NEKHTNEBEF (?).


12—14. STATUES OF AGE OF NEKHTHORHEB.
NEW YORK UNIVERSITY
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2 : 5 ABYDOS. PORTIONS OF PAINTED COFFIN OF TAHUTMES. lx:

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3: 8 ABYDOS. CANOPIC BOX AND MODEL COFFIN OF MERTI-HERU. LXXI

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ABYDOS. INSCRIPTIONS ON COFFINS, XXVI. DYN. LXXIII.

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ABYDOS. CEMETERY G. XXV|th_XXX"th DYNASTIES. LXXIV.

1,2. MODEL COFFIN OF MERTIHERU. 3. MODEL COFFIN OF HERU.

8. LIMESTONE MODEL CAPITAL. 9. HEAD OF PTOLEMAIC SANDSTONE COFFIN.


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ABYDOS. BRONZE HYPOCEPH ALUS, TOMB G 50 B. LXXVI.
2: 3 ABYDOS. BRONZE HYPOCEPHALI, TOMB, G 50. LXXVI

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