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Climate Change

the Arctic and the United Kingdom

directions for future research

A Tyndall Centre initiative

in association with the Polar Regions Unit,
Foreign and Commonwealth Office

Contents Page no.

Cold Facts 1
The Arctic of Today 2
The Arctic of the Future 3
Implications for the UK, an Arctic Neighbour 4
Integrated Research, Providing Choices for the Future 5
Knowledge Gaps and Emerging Issues 6
Adding value to UK Research 8

In May 2002 the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change University of Aberdeen), Professor Graham Bentham
Research, in association with the Foreign and (School of Environmental Sciences, University of East
Commonwealth Office, hosted a one day symposium Anglia), Dr Howard Cattle (Hadley Centre for Climate
“Climate Change and the Arctic and its implications for the Prediction and Research), Professor Terry Callaghan
UK: Towards a New UK Research Agenda” in Norwich. The (University of Sheffield and Abisko Research Centre,) as
objectives of this event were (i) to bring together key well as panel discussion led by Dr Corell, Dr Neil Gilbert
members of the UK’s Arctic research and policy-making (Polar Regions Unit, Foreign and Commonwealth Office),
communities and to raise awareness of the work of the Dr Bill Hare (Greenpeace International) and Professor
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment and the UK’s Duncan Wingham (Centre for Polar Observation and
engagement in this initiative (ii) to identify important Modelling, University College London).
knowledge gaps and the extent to which the UK can help
to address these deficiencies through co-ordinated This document draws heavily upon the ideas and concepts
research; and (iii) to assist in formulating the UK’s future presented by the speakers as well as contributions from
research effort in topics related to climate change and the the other participants who attended the event.
Arctic. A list of participants is given on the back inside
cover. The production costs of this document were supported by
the Polar Regions Unit of the Foreign and Commonwealth
The symposium was planned by a Steering Group Office and the Natural Environment Research Council
consisting of Gillian Watson (Tyndall Centre and School of (NERC).
Environmental Sciences, UEA), Dr Neil Gilbert (Polar
Regions Unit, Foreign and Commonwealth Office), Further sources of information:
Professor Liz Morris (NERC Arctic Science Advisor), Arctic Council:
Professor Steve Albon (Centre for Ecology and
Arctic Climate Impact
Hydrology, Banchory), Professor Mike Hulme (Tyndall
Assessment (ACIA):
Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA) and
Dr Neil Adger (Tyndall Centre and CSERGE, School of International Arctic Science
Environmental Sciences, UEA). Committee:

The Tyndall Centre:

The event benefited from presentations given by Dr Robert
Corell (International Arctic Science Committee), Professor Foreign and Commonwealth Office:
Julian Dowdeswell (Scott Polar Research Institute,
Natural Environment Research
University of Cambridge), Professor Mark Nuttall, (School of
Council (NERC):
Sociology and Anthropology and Northern Studies Centre,

Cold Facts
Disturbing things are happening in the Arctic; temperatures 2.5 2.5

are rising, sea ice is thinning and permafrost is thawing. 2 2

These changes in the physical environment are already 1.5 1.5

triggering change in the natural, social and economic 1 1

Temperature anomaly (deg C)

character of the region. 0.5 0.5

0 0

In short, climate change is significantly affecting the Arctic.

-.5 -.5
It is happening NOW and is set to continue for the
-1 -1
foreseeable future.
-1.5 -1.5

-2 -2
So what?
In recent years, climate change has emerged as a major 1850 1900 1950 2000

development issue for the Arctic region. It is recognised

that climate change impacts and consequences will Arctic-average surface temperatures (1851 to 2001), a
become stamped not only on the physical and natural combination of surface air temperature over land and sea-
environment, but also on Arctic economies, regional surface temperature over the oceans. Individual bars show
resources and peoples. annual values as deviations from the 1961 – 1990 average;
the curve emphasises variations over time-scales of at
The Arctic also plays a crucial role within the Earth System, least 30 years. This data set was provided by the Climatic
for example through its role in the planetary energy Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, UEA.
balance and through its interaction with the thermohaline
circulation of the oceans. Present and prospective Did you know?
changes in the Arctic will have consequences well beyond
the region itself. Climate warming is occurring faster in the Arctic than
It is important to consider the implications of Arctic climate
change for the United Kingdom; although the UK is not an The extent of Arctic sea ice has shrunk by about 5
Arctic rim nation, climate change and its impacts in the per cent in the last 20 years and its thickness in
Arctic merit particular attention in the UK because: some areas by 40 per cent. Some model simulations
suggest an ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer as early
the UK has sizeable commercial, environmental and as the 2050s.
strategic interests in the Arctic which will be affected by
climate change; Permafrost covers more than 20 per cent of the
the UK can expect a number of direct and indirect world’s land surface, including most of Alaska and
environmental, economic and social impacts in the more than half of Canada and Russia.
short-, medium- and long-term arising from climate
change in the Arctic; The Greenland Ice Sheet holds ice representing
enough water to raise global sea levels by 7m –
Many questions remain to be answered about the extent sufficient to flood much of London.
of future Arctic climate change and its consequences, not
only for the Arctic region itself, but also for the world at The Arctic is thought to hold a quarter of the global
large. The UK is well-placed to make a significant and co- petroleum resources yet to be discovered,
ordinated research contribution to the international estimated at 130 billion barrels of oil.
understanding of the processes and consequences of
climate change in the Arctic.

The Arctic of Today
The Arctic region covers the ice-
bound Arctic Ocean and Did you know?
neighbouring seas, as well as
Iceland, Greenland and the Observations show that Arctic regional climate is
northern fringes of the North changing, although not necessarily uniformly.
American, European and Specific examples include:
Asian land masses.
Interests in the region can be Average surface air and upper soil temperatures are
characterised as: rising, particularly during springtime. There are,
however, significant spatial variations in temperature
Environmental The Arctic trends (see plot below left).
environment is shaped by low
temperatures and extreme seasonality. It supports a Overall both the extent and thickness of sea ice are
unique biodiversity and is of critical importance for reducing, although in certain areas sea ice is
migratory birds. Large stretches of the region can be accumulating.
counted amongst the world’s few remaining pristine
wilderness areas. Ice-melt is increasing over the Greenland Ice Sheet.
Glaciers are retreating across the region.
Economic The principal Arctic industries are currently
fishing, timber, mining of mineral ores, oil and gas and, Levels of UV radiation are increasing as the polar
increasingly, tourism and renewable energy. stratospheric ozone is depleted.

Social and cultural Much of the region is sparsely The distribution of vegetation is changing. Woody
populated built up of small, often very isolated scrub is expanding in Alaska and tundra is being
communities. There are, however, several major displaced by taiga throughout Arctic Europe and
population centres (for example, Tromsø, Murmansk, Russia.
Arkhangelsk, Barrow and Iqaluit). The Arctic is home to
several groups of indigenous peoples each of which retain Permafrost thaw is accelerating; unstable ground
a rich heritage of cultural traditions. conditions are leading to damage to infrastructure,
for example, buildings, roads, airport runways and
Strategic The region is crossed by important air pipelines.
transportation corridors, however, sea transportation
routes are extremely restricted due to the presence of sea Seasonal peaks in Arctic river discharges are
ice. becoming earlier and freshwater flows into the Arctic
Ocean are increasing.
Novel weather conditions are being experienced, for
example thunder and lightning are reported for the
Annual Data first time by communities in northern Canada.

Ice travel is being restricted due to safety concerns
+0.5 linked to thinning ice; communications/transport are
increasingly impacted.


(OC per decade)

Source: Abisko Scientific Research Station

The Arctic of the Future
The Arctic in a future, warmer world will be significantly as others attracted by improved infrastructure and
different to today. Changes are likely to include: transportation networks. Large demographic changes
such as these would bring widespread and significant
Environmental Changes will occur in average and social and cultural changes to indigenous people.
extreme temperatures, precipitation, cloud cover, sea-ice
extent, snow cover and permafrost extent. The Strategic As accessibility improves and activity
consequences of these new environmental conditions in increases, the Arctic region has the potential to become a
the region will be far-reaching and will include effects on future political hotspot. Existing tensions over the extent of
Arctic plant and animal biodiversity and species distribution. internal waters could escalate as nations compete for the
For example, significant loss of sea ice would have a right to the region’s natural and physical resources.
devastating impact on Arctic wildlife such as the polar bear,
which requires the presence of sea ice to enable it to hunt
for seals. On land, more frequent extreme events may
displace or even locally eliminate keystone species like
reindeer (caribou).

Stored up trouble?

The Arctic currently stores globally significant

quantities of:

water locked within the Greenland Ice Sheet, small HadCM3 predictions of September Arctic sea ice by the
ice caps, glaciers and permanent pack ice; 2080s under a “high emissions” scenario (Source: Hadley
carbon accumulated within the Arctic ecosystems; Centre)
methane held in permafrost and in methane
hydrate deposits in marine sediments. An ice-free Arctic Ocean -
a future of opportunities?
Even relatively minor changes in Arctic climatic
conditions could trigger the release of extra water into Explorers have long sought to link Europe, eastern
the world’s oceans and large quantities of additional North America and the Orient via the shortest possible
carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere. sea route – across the Arctic. After centuries of effort
two such routes have been identified – the
Economic In an ice-diminished future Arctic, improved Northwest Passage, which passes west of
accessibility is likely to encourage commercial Greenland, through the islands of Arctic Canada and
development. Under some scenarios the region’s along the coast of Alaska, and the Northern Sea
economy could grow significantly through full exploitation Route (also known as the Northeast Passage) which
of the Arctic’s rich reserves of petroleum and mineral ores. skirts the coast of Siberia. Both are currently open for
Other industries such as fishing are also likely to expand. very limited periods to specially reinforced vessels
Arctic shipping routes are likely to open up attracting escorted by icebreakers.
increasing numbers of cargo vessels to the region.
Heightened economic activity in the region would also Global climate models, however, predict substantially
threaten to encroach upon wilderness areas and increase less Arctic sea ice in future. Research suggests that
the risk of environmental damage such as pollution both the Northwest Passage and the Northern Sea
incidents. Route could be open to deep draft vessels with no
reinforcement every summer by as early as the 2050s.
Social and cultural A booming economy is likely to Both routes have the potential to become commercially
trigger a rapid growth in the Arctic population with an influx feasible for summer shipping before 2080 and could
of workers and their families as Arctic commercial and cut sailing distances between northwest Europe and
support industries are established and developed as well northeast Asia by up to 40 per cent.

Implications for the UK,
an Arctic Neighbour
The UK lies just beyond the Arctic’s fringe. As a nation, the
Feeling the effects of
UK has a strong tradition of Arctic exploration and
climate change in the UK
maintains a long-held interest and involvement in
environmental, social, economic and military developments As a close neighbour of Arctic Europe, the UK can expect to

in the region. The UK has also been actively engaged in experience a number of direct or indirect effects of climate-

Arctic research in several disciplines for many years. related changes in the Arctic over the short-, medium- and
longer-term. Examples include:

The UK’s current commercial interests in the region are Short-term (less than 25 years)
wide-ranging and include fishing and exploration, UK population’s exposure to UV radiation will increase by a
extraction and processing of petroleum products and combination of depletion of Arctic ozone and climate
mineral ores. The UK’s insurance industry is also a world change related effects (for example changes in cloud
leader in underwriting Arctic activities, covering major items cover, increasing average and extreme temperatures and
of infrastructure (for example pipelines) and other industrial changes in recreational behaviour). The interplay between
developments throughout the region. climate change and the chemistry of the Arctic atmosphere
will have a direct bearing on the risks of malignant
The UK has also retained a strategic political engagement melanomas for the UK population.
in the Arctic. The UK is an observer state to both the Arctic
Council and the Barents Euro-Arctic Council. Medium-term (within 50 years)
Climate-related changes to Arctic habitats, such as
reductions in tundra area and shifts in the timing of spring
The Arctic Council
growth periods, are likely to have substantial impacts on

The Arctic Council is a high-level intergovernmental forum breeding success of Arctic-breeding bird species which

that provides a mechanism to address common concerns would have serious implications for numbers of migratory

and challenges of the Arctic region. The Arctic Council has birds in the UK.

Members drawn from the eight Arctic-Rim States and Opportunities for UK companies to exploit rich and newly

importantly is open to participation from up to eight accessible Arctic reserves of petroleum, mineral ores and

Indigenous Peoples organisations. Key objectives of the fish. This will need to be set against new priorities –

Arctic Council are to: nationally and globally – for a less polluting energy economy

promote co-operation among Arctic States on issues of and more sustainable industrial development.

sustainable development and environmental protection; The UK insurance industry will need to adjust to escalating

oversee and co-ordinate working groups established claims associated with climate change related incidents,

under the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy; for example repair and clean-up following Arctic pipeline

co-ordinate a sustainable development programme fractures caused by subsidence due to melting of

e.g. trade, transport, education and health matters; permafrost, but will also be presented with new

disseminate information, encourage education and opportunities as Arctic activities increase.

promote interest in Arctic related issues. Long-term (beyond 50 years)

Weakening of the thermohaline circulation through injection
The UK is a State Observer to the Arctic Council. In doing of increased amounts of freshwater through the Arctic. This
so UK Ministers recognise the importance of maintaining has the potential to disrupt ocean currents in the North
an influence in the high north; of providing support to the Atlantic and under some scenarios could alter UK and
Arctic states in meeting the objectives for the Arctic northwest European climate significantly, possibly eventually
Council, and of the potential scientific and commercial inducing lower winter temperatures. The risks associated
opportunities that the Arctic holds. The Foreign and with such perturbations remain very poorly known.
Commonwealth Office (FCO) is lead Government Loss of Greenland ice-mass contributes to sea level rise,
Department, with attendance at Senior Arctic Official and thus exacerbating problems of coastal inundation and
Ministerial meetings provided by the FCO’s Polar Regions erosion at vulnerable points around the UK coastline. This is
Unit (PRU). a very long-term impact since the Greenland Ice Sheet

For more information visit the Arctic Council responds to multi-decadal warming trends over a period of
web site at many centuries.

Integrated Research,
Providing Choices for the Future
The challenge
Climate change in the Arctic poses many interlinked The Arctic Climate Impact
environmental, social and economic questions and
challenges, but it is just one of many drivers of change in
the Arctic; political restructuring and liberalisation, The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) is an
globalisation, changes in land use and energy technologies international research initiative being conducted under
will also have substantial effects on the region. The effects the auspices of the Arctic Council. The goals of ACIA
of, and responses to, climate change must therefore be are to:
considered within this broader context. estimate and synthesise knowledge on Arctic climate
variability, climate change and increased UV radiation
Uncertainties surrounding future climate change will in the Arctic, and their consequences;
continue to be large, but it is essential to start to plan now provide useful and reliable information to
and to make decisions that allow the consequences of governments, organisations and peoples of the
climate change to be managed through the pursuit of Arctic region in order to support policy-making
desirable long-term environmental, social and economic decisions;
objectives. Such decisions can best be informed through input to the continuing work of the Intergovernmental
programmes of integrated assessment and research. Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

Taking an integrated approach to research The initiative involves the close collaboration of experts,
Integrated assessments draw together findings from a peoples of the Arctic region and others impacted by
wide range of traditional research disciplines (for example changes across the Arctic region. It aims to integrate
physical sciences, life sciences, engineering sciences, both scientific and indigenous knowledge and is being
social sciences and economics) and organises them in a conducted within the context of other developments
coherent way. At the same time, the value and relevance and pressures on the Arctic environment, its economy,
of the research findings can be optimised by close regional resources and peoples. Detailed and synthesis
engagement and dialogue between the researchers and reports of the findings of the scientific analysis and
those affected, such as community organisations, industry indigenous insights as well as a set of policy/action
representatives, planners and decision-makers at a local, recommendations are expected to be delivered in 2004.
regional, national and international level. The Arctic Climate A number of leading Arctic and climate change experts
Impact Assessment is one example of such an activity in the UK have been, or continue to be, involved in the
(see Box right). ACIA initiative, which represents a sound basis for
further integrated research on the topic.
Integrated assessments, however, need to be
complemented by programmes of underpinning trans- Further information is available at the ACIA
disciplinary research that pay due attention to the science web site at
of integration. This is not just an exercise in piecing
together elements of knowledge from different disciplines,
but of co-designing research activities from the beginning
using insights from natural and social sciences and allowing
the resulting common methodology to deliver qualitatively
different research findings to emerge. This mode of
research is being increasingly recognised as essential in
relation to questions global change and sustainable
development and the Arctic is a prime candidate for
applying such emerging methods, as recognised by the
European Science Foundation in its 2002 Global Change © BP p.l.c. (2003)
Forward Look: “An integrated programme of research in
the Arctic and sub-Arctic Basin … is identified as a flagship
programme ..” (ESF, 2002)

Knowledge Gaps and Emerging Issues

It is generally acknowledged that we still have a limited Assessing vulnerability to change and the
understanding of many aspects of the Arctic system, and capacity to adapt
that predictions of the extent and nature of future climate- When and how often are critical thresholds likely to be
related changes in the Arctic remain subject to exceeded in future?
uncertainties. Will species adapted to harsh conditions prove inflexible
when the environment becomes more benign?
At the meeting, a large number of widely ranging research How vulnerable are biological systems, including
topics were suggested. These have been consolidated humans, to increases in UV radiation?
and collated into five cross-cutting headings which could How vulnerable is Arctic infrastructure to permafrost
be used to add focus to a co-ordinated programme of melting?
research. Exemplar questions spanning the research
Placing Arctic climate change in the Earth
disciplines are suggested for each heading. System context
Why has climate warming been greater in the Arctic
Establishing Arctic baseline information under
than globally?
current climatic conditions
Is the Arctic a net sink or source of greenhouse gases?
What is the background natural level of climatic and ice
How fast will the Greenland Ice Sheet melt?
variability in the Arctic?
How sensitive is the thermohaline circulation to
What are the critical dynamics of Arctic ecosystems,
freshwater exchange between the Arctic and the North
especially during winter?
How do indigenous Arctic communities define
How do global and Arctic changes interact?
sustainable development?

Defining critical thresholds, linkages and In addition, the following general observations were
feedbacks in the Arctic system highlighted.
What are the key thresholds for change?
How will climate change interact with other drivers of Construction of a community integrated regional model
environmental/social change? for the Arctic, representing physical, ecological and social
What types of events trigger changes in individual processes and with trans-national ownership would be
and/or community behaviour? highly beneficial. It is unrealistic for any single country to
attempt to develop a model of this type on its own, but
Identifying the pivotal drivers of change UK researchers and research groups could make very
What controls the magnitude and frequency of extreme significant contributions to any multilateral project of this
events in the Arctic system? nature.
What controls the distribution limits and population
abundance of species and ecosystems? The marginality of much of the Arctic for human activities
How will changes in species zoning impact on resource- means that interactions between environmental changes
dependant communities? and social responses are particularly sensitive. Arctic
communities’ need to promote social-ecological
resilience and to design adaptive responses for uncertain

The Arctic research community should investigate using

equipment and methodologies and research tools
developed by researchers in other fields. There is
potential for applying these tools in an Arctic research

Knowledge Gaps and Emerging Issues (cont.)

UK strengths in relation to Arctic research

The UK has a particularly strong tradition of excellence in The UK has a strong background in Antarctic research -
climate modelling, glaciology and ecosystem science much of this expertise and experience is directly
and research bridging natural and social sciences – there transferable to Arctic systems.
is plenty of scope for UK scientists to apply high quality
science and technology to Arctic problems. The UK has substantial archival data and records relating
to the Arctic that can be exploited for understanding
Many UK or expatriate UK scientists already lead/co- historical changes.
ordinate international Arctic science projects. Examples
include: the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX), DART The UK has no Arctic territory and so UK researchers
(project on dynamic response of the forest-tundra have a pan-Arctic approach.
ecotone to environmental change), the Land Arctic
Physical Processes experiment (LAPP), CONVECTION The Arctic represents a relatively well-bounded system
(project on mechanism of convection in the Greenland about which it is possible to develop new integrated
Sea), GreenICE (Greenland Arctic Shelf Ice and Climate models that represent both physical and social dynamics
Experiment), as well as selected International Arctic and which allow relevant decision and policy makers to
Science Committee (IASC) projects and Arctic Climate explore the implications of different scenarios. Such
Impact Assessment (ACIA) chapters. scientific integration is an area where UK scientists have
an international lead.

Adding Value to UK Research
The UK has an active Arctic research interest involving a improved capacity for the development of and input to
number of research councils, government agencies, bilateral (e.g. with Canada or Russia) or multilateral (e.g.
universities and higher education institutes and commercial through the European Science Foundation or EU FP6)
organisations. Furthermore, the UK’s researchers are Arctic programmes;
active in a broad range of disciplines and geographical arctic research that is more closely allied to government
locations. objectives and policy in the region;
greater capacity to influence the international Arctic
But against this broad spectrum of Arctic research interest, scene through enhanced scientific diplomacy.
is the UK handling its Arctic research effort in the most
effective way? Mechanisms to achieve this might include:
establishing or identifying a UK Arctic focal point
Recommendation: representing the range of UK Arctic interests and that
In addressing this issue the meeting recognised that there has recognition from both the research councils and
were significant benefits to be gained from improved co- from government (e.g. through an existing institution or
ordination on Arctic issues, including among the research as a virtual centre as a partnership initiative across
community, industry and government. several institutions);
enhanced communication on Arctic issues through the
Benefits would include: development of a UK Arctic research network;
enhanced opportunities for inter-disciplinary research increased participation of the UK research community in
initiatives spanning the interests of several research international programmes such as those of the Arctic
councils; Council.

Credits and Acknowledgements

Front cover: photo by Martin Johnson
page 1: photo by John Sharp
page 2: image by CAFF
page 5: photos by BP p.l.c. and Martin Johnson
page 6: photo by John Sharp
page 7: photo by Martin Johnson
page 8: photo by Martin Johnson

Participants at May 2002 “Climate Change and the Arctic and its implications for the UK:
Towards a New UK Research Agenda” meeting:

Dr Neil Adger Tyndall Centre and CSERGE and School of Environmental Studies, UEA
Professor Steve Albon CEH Banchory
Dr Sheldon Bacon Southampton Oceanography Centre
Dr Chris Baker NERC
Dr Bob Baxter Department of Biological Sciences, University of Durham
Professor Graham Bentham School of Environmental Studies, UEA
Dr Grant Bigg School of Environmental Studies, UEA
Dr Rob Brooker UK Arctic Network (UKAN)
Mr David Brown NERC
Professor Terry Callaghan Abisko Scientific Research Station and University of Sheffield
Dr Howard Cattle Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research
Alison Champion Marine and Waterways Division, DEFRA
Dr Bob Corell Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA)
Professor Trevor Davies School of Environmental Studies, UEA
Professor Julian Dowdeswell Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge
Dr Vincent Fleming Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC)
Dr Neil Gilbert Polar Regions Unit, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Dr Jenny Gill School of Biological Sciences and Tyndall Centre, UEA
Dr Dougal Goodman Foundation for Science and Technology
Dr Richard Harding CEH Wallingford
Dr Bill Hare Greenpeace International
Dr Mike Harrison Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research
Dr Alex Haxeltine Tyndall Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA
Dr Karen Heywood School of Environmental Studies, UEA
Professor Mike Hulme Tyndall Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA
Lord Julian Hunt University College London
Professor Brian Huntley Department of Biological Sciences, University of Durham
Dr Elaine Jones Tyndall Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA
Dr Malcolm Light Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM), University College London
Professor Liz Morris NERC Arctic Science Advisor
Mrs Angela Morrison NERC
Dr Larissa Naylor Tyndall Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA
Professor Mark Nuttall Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Aberdeen
Dr Mike Richardson Polar Regions Unit, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Dr Clare Robinson King’s College, London
Daniel Sherry Polar Regions Unit, Foreign and Commonwealth Office
Professor Graham Shimmield Scottish Association for Marine Science
Ms Alyce Tidball 1st Secretary, American Embassy
Dr Simon Torok Tyndall Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA
Dr Ian Townend ABP Research
Professor Peter Wadhams University of Cambridge
Dr Rachel Warren Tyndall Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA
Professor Andrew Watkinson Tyndall Centre and School of Biological Sciences, UEA
Dr Andrew Watson School of Environmental Studies, UEA
Ms Gillian Watson Tyndall Centre and School of Environmental Sciences, UEA
Professor Duncan Wingham Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling (CPOM), University College London
Dr Sarah Woodin Department of Plant & Soil Science, University of Aberdeen
Dr Christoph Zöckler UNEP-WCMC

Produced by the Tyndall Centre in association with the Polar Regions Unit
and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Winter 2002/2003

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