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1. Know how the Hierarchy of Effects can be used to set research objectives a. Cognitive (think) i. Awareness/familiarly 1. Knowledge 2. Beliefs ii. Measure consumer awareness of brands iii. Determine consumer awareness of advertising and recall of copy iv. Determine if consumers know the differentiating characteristics of brands b. Affective (feel) i. Attitudes/opinions 1. Preferences ii. Measure the importance consumers place on various products iii. Measure beliefs that various products possess these important traits iv. Measure consumer attitudes towards various brands c. Behavioral (do) i. Behavioral intentions ii. Behavior iii. Measure purchase intentions for various brands/products iv. Assess consumer’s current or past use of various brands/products
2. You should know the three main goals of survey research. a. Get people to cooperate b. Get people to give truthful answers c. Gather meaningful information
3. NON-RESPONSE IS THE BIGGEST THREAT TO VALID SURVEY RESEARCH
1. You should know the sources of bias that may be associated with
survey research and some strategies you can take to reduce potential bias. a. Sample bias
Common with new product research f. Some respondent action/inaction such as nonresponse or response bias c. Respondent error i. Respondents tend to answer questions with a certain slant that misrepresents the truth ii.ask same question with different wording e. Especially a problem with mall & internet surveys d. computer programming. Caused by improper administration ii. Administrative errors (k l m n) i. Tendency for the results of a sample to deviate in one direction b. Response Bias (e/f/g/h/i—are types of response biases) i. To avoid. Caused by carelessness.i. Data-processing error i. Incorrect data entry. Income is the number one thing lied about 1. Extremity bias i. Respondent gives answers they think interviewer wants to hear iii. neglect. Sample selection error i. Some people tend to agree with all questions to concur w/ particular position ii. or other procedural errors l. Interviewer bias i. Education is overstated as well. Some people tend to use extremes when responding ii. confusion. Common with a Likert scale (many select either 1 or 5) g. Should be put at the end of a survey iv. j. Mistakes made by interviewer who fail to record correct responses ii. Non-verbal characteristics of interviewer may influence respondent h. Respondents may deliberately give false answers 1. Acquiescence bias i. Interviewer error i. Respondents desire to gain prestige or appear in a different social role ii. Presence of interviewer influences answers ii. Such as someone checking wrong answers to cannot write fast enough . Social desirability bias i. REDUCE: Identify research organization i. Improper sample design or procedure m. Respondents tend to answer what is socially acceptable iii. omission k. Respondents influenced by the organization conducting the study 1. Nonresponse error i. Statistical differences between a survey including only those who responded 1. Auspices bias i.
What are the various ways we can assess non-response? a. Stratified Sampling – 9. Non-respondent: Person who is not contacted or refused to cooperate with research a. Make sure you’ve read the following articles: 7. Sampling Unit 8. Mall Intercept Approach 13. Provide an incentive d. Identify research organization (auspices bias) c. Review the handout that compared the strengths and weaknesses of the various survey methods 6. 5. “A Quick Fix for Faulty Surveys” Sampling Terms: 1. Cluster Sampling 15. Systematic Sampling 7. Periodicity 12. Filing in fake answers or falsifying questionnaires o. You should know how to encourage people to participate and ways to deal with non-response. Population 6. Gain their attention (mail survey) e. Census 5. Proportional & Disproportional 10. Interviewer cheating i. Sampling 3. Purposely mis-recording an answer 2. Causes interviewer to mis-record data that does not support their own beliefs ii. Selective Perception i. Shorter surveys 3. Judgment Sampling 4. Quota Sampling . Anything in your required reading (Zikmund & Babin. Guarantee it’s not a sales call b. 4. Foot-in-door technique—make a small request. Follow-up reminders (mail/phone) f. “Consumers rebel against marketers (see BB Daily Agenda) 8. “Judging Survey Research Quality” 9. Simple Random Sample 14.easier to target bigger goals g. “Online Polling” 10.n. Sampling Frame 2. Chapter 7) is fair game. Strata 11. Convenience Sampling 16.
Anything in your required reading (Zikmund & Babin. Questionnaire Design Know the Do's and Don'ts of question writing and questionnaire design as presented in class. Know how to correct problems to reduce biases. Attitude Measurement Know the following types of scales: Simple Attitude Categorical Comparative Non-Comparative Likert Semantic Differential Likert type/Numerical Graphic Behavioral Differential Ranking Grading Scale Forced Choice Non-Forced Choice Balanced Unbalanced Know how we can measure past and current behavior. Know the following terms: Double-barreled Question Pivot Question Screening Question Funnel Technique Leading Question Counterbiasing Statement Filter Question Open-ended questions Be able to critique survey questions and response options. Sampling Frame Error Snowballing What are the steps involved in determining your sampling plan? What is the difference between probability and non-probability sampling? Which of the above methods fall under each of these broad classifications? What are the approximate sample size ranges for projections to local. regional and national populations? If I describe a sampling scenario.17. . you should be able identify the sampling method. 18. Chapter 12) is fair game.
e. However. You did examples in class. You should be able to interpret frequencies. how to define variables. means. 8. What are the various measures of central tendency and dispersion? 4. Hypothesis Testing & SPSS • • • • Null Hypothesis Alternative Hypothesis Hypothesis Testing Significance Level 5.Types of Measurement Scales 1. You should know how to input survey data into the SPSS program. and how to perform the statistical procedures discussed in class. Know the four basic types of scales: Nominal. In other words. 7. but you have to know which significance level on the printout is appropriate. You should be able to develop a coding scheme for survey questions (i. Descriptive Statistics 2. Ratio 2. Ordinal. Interval. You should be able to make appropriate marketing communications recommendations based on your statistical results. 6. The decision rules for determining whether or not the test statistic is significant will be provided. developing variable names within SPSS constraints and assigning numerical values to options). Editing and Coding 1. Know what types of statistics are appropriate for each scale type. 9. You will be identifying scale types on survey questions like we did in class and you did on your homework and your group survey. Know the basic types of descriptive statistics 3. and standard deviation from SPSS printouts. . You should understand when the t-test or a chi-square is the appropriate test statistic. 3. you should have a basic knowledge of SPSS. you do not have to memorize the drop-down menus. the homework and on your group survey. You should know how to articulate the null and alternative hypotheses related to particular survey questions or a particular SPSS output file. You should be able to interpret SPSS printouts for t-tests and chi-square.