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Highlighting research and communication at the UK’s Tyndall Centre

Carbon dioxide emissions must go

to zero to allow for aviation

Hurricane survival guide for

overseas territories

Communities want more say in

shoreline management plans

Sea level rise may boost some


Public perceptions of nuclear

power and renewable energy

Hollywood does not influence

climate change behaviour

Carbon cost of $150 needed to

stimulate low-carbon innovation

...researching sustainable responses to climate change

Researching sustainable responses
to climate change
Founded in 2000 and led by the University global-to-local research programmes. Tyndall Centre aims to be academically
of East Anglia, the UK’s Tyndall Centre for The Centre is core-funded by the Natural strong, socially relevant, and an active
Climate Change Research fuses traditionally Environment, the Engineering and Physical communicator of science. We are always
separate disciplines from across leading UK Sciences, and the Economic and Social very pleased to respond to suggestions
universities into a single coherent research Research Councils. for initiatives the Tyndall Centre should
organisation. Bringing climate change take; please contact Asher Minns (the
research to bear on decision-making, Named after John Tyndall, the discoverer Communication Manager) with your ideas
we bring together climatologists, social of the greenhouse effect and successor
scientists, economists, policy analysts, of Michael Faraday as Director of the tel: +44 (0) 01865 275867
engineers and natural scientists into seven Royal Institution of Great Britain, the

Photographs on cover:
Ashley Sampson, Henny Osbahr,
© Joerg Boethling/Still Pictures,
the effect 2006

The Director’s View

Welcome to the 2006 edition of the effect, (which some interpret as catastrophic);
the Tyndall Centre’s annual magazine. It is and a new aggressiveness in climate
in fact two years since the last issue … in change campaigning which laments the
July 2005 we instead published Key 8 for lack of measurable progress in reducing
G8, a summary of eight discoveries made greenhouse gas emissions.
by the Centre that we wished to enter
public discourse around the time of the G8 Against this changing backdrop, the Tyndall
Summit in Gleneagles. During these last Centre’s mandate and mission remains
two years the Centre has also had to invest to undertake research, from a range of
a considerable amount of intellectual and inter-disciplinary perspectives, which
emotional energy into securing a renewal of will help society develop and implement
its baseline funding contract from the three sustainable responses to climate change.
UK Research Councils – NERC, EPSRC To make such research effective we need to
and ESRC. That we have eventually understand this changing public discourse,
succeeded, at least out to 2009, reflects as well as the changing geopolitics of the
Professor Mike Hulme of UEA is the Founding Director of the
on the determination and self-belief of the international climate change negotiating
Tyndall Centre
researchers, support staff and university process. We have to listen carefully to
Faculty who comprise the 75 or so people a wide range of stakeholder voices and and relevance of this endeavour. I would
who have made the Tyndall Centre the concerns. Yet we must also remain rooted encourage you to get in touch with us
success it has become. in the various knowledge communities so – through our web site or headquarters
that we can create, shape and translate the office – if you wish to find out more about
The last two years have also seen a intellectual insights about the phenomenon these stories or to explore ways of working
significant change in the tone of the debate of climate change against which all with the Centre in the future.
about climate change, at least in the UK if sustainable actions must in the end be
not always elsewhere. In public discourse tested. Professor Mike Hulme
there is now often a distinction made UEA Norwich, 2006
between ‘climate change’ and ‘catastrophic The stories of the Centre’s work and
climate change’, as though these are two activities told in this issue of the effect will
quite different phenomena or as though two I am sure convince you of the breadth
different belief systems are implied. The
frequent insertion of the qualifying adjective “that we have succeeded, reflects on the
‘catastrophic’ now arises I think for two
reasons – new scientific research about
determination and self-belief of the researchers,
irreversible thresholds in the Earth system support staff and university Faculty”

The Tyndall Centre has a long-standing interest in working

with threatened coastal communities in the East of England,
wider UK, and the British Overseas Territories’

the effect 2006

Decarbonising the UK, led by Tyndall Manchester, is the UK’s

first comprehensive roadmap to how the UK can achieve its
climate change targets across all sectors of the economy

Everyone’s carbon dioxide emissions

must go to zero to allow for aviation
All householders, motorists and businesses carbon dioxide emissions over the next 45 Improvements in energy efficiency can
will have to reduce their net carbon years by detailing the actions that need dramatically decarbonise many sectors
dioxide pollution to zero if the growing to be taken by Government and industry. Policies for reducing energy demand
aviation industry is to be incorporated The report, called Decarbonising the UK, are a more flexible tool than
into Government climate change targets describes pathways for cutting carbon implementing low-carbon supplies
for 2050 revealed new research that was dioxide emissions from road transport, Supplying low-carbon energy is both
launched by Tyndall in September 2005. housing, industry and coal-fired power technically and economically viable
The report shows that even if aviation’s stations; and the role of renewable energy, A society with high energy demand will
current growth is halved from today’s level, nuclear power and hydrogen fuel in face future infrastructural challenges in
the rest of the economy will require carbon providing low-carbon energy supply. The providing secure energy
dioxide cuts far beyond UK Government report also considers the potential of policy A low-carbon society does not
targets. instruments to cut carbon dioxide, such necessarily preclude increases in
as the newly proposed scheme of citizen’s personal travel
“If the UK Government does not curb carbon permits. Government must implement and
aviation growth, all other sectors of the enforce minimum energy standards
economy will eventually be forced to Though Decarbonising the UK led with an Allocating carbon fairly between the
become carbon neutral. It could undermine aviation headline, there is substantially more rich and poor needs innovative policies
the international competitiveness of all UK to it than an analysis of aviation growth. It is and mechanisms
industry, except airlines”, says Dr Kevin the first in-depth study to combine carbon All sectors must be included in any
Anderson who led the research at the dioxide emissions from the UK’s energy carbon-reduction strategy
Tyndall Centre at Manchester University. infrastructure, buildings and industry with International aviation and marine
The Government’s Aviation White Paper those from air, sea and land transport. emissions must be included in national
predicts that UK passenger numbers will It is unique in incorporating the different carbon reduction targets
more than double from 180 million to 475 perspectives of energy analysts, engineers,
million over the next 25 years. economists and social and environmental i Further information
scientists into a wide understanding of or
These new findings are part of a five year the whole UK energy system. The main Tyndall Technical Report 33
comprehensive study by Tyndall that conclusions include:
sets-out a far reaching agenda for cutting

the effect 2006

Water A Cranfield University led study within Tyndall

shows that most farmers believe that they
can adapt to climate change and future water


There is a clear risk of major restrictions
on crop irrigation because of the changing
climate concludes a study of agricultural
river catchments in the East of England
© Joerg Boethling/Still Pictures

led by Keith Weatherhead at Cranfield

University. For all the UK climate change
scenarios considered, groundwater
recharge will be substantially reduced,
summer river flows fall considerably, and
winter river flows also fall despite higher
winter rainfall. decision-making for a more sophisticated agriculture. Not all believe in the forecasts.
and complex real-world understanding. Most believe that they can adapt to climate
“These changes imply major reductions in The results indicated that cropping patterns change later as necessary” says Keith,
the water available for abstraction and its will be changed, low value crops will be “though they may be underestimating the
reliability” says Keith. “Farm irrigation would irrigated less, and some farmers will want water resource issues.”
have the lowest priority for taking available to build new reservoirs, filled from winter
water and would be impacted first, either abstraction. However, the risk of low river “We only looked at two catchments,
through water restrictions already set in flows in the winter suggests a limitation to develop our new framework of
abstraction licences or new rules in the to this last strategy, currently an option understanding, but in formulating
future”. preferred by government adaptation advice for farmers it is also

“most farmers are aware of climate change but are focussed on

shorter-term issues, due to the financial uncertainty in agriculture”
By the year 2050 yields of a wide range agencies. These modelled results were important to consider climate change
of crops become significantly adversely consistent with the findings of interviews impacts on market competition from
affected with a high emissions scenario. with farmers. abroad” he warns. Follow-on research
Average summer temperatures in the South is now looking at the range of water
of England could then be 3 to 3.5 degrees Farmers were asked about how they had adaptations available for growers and
higher than now, and summer rainfall 30 adapted to water scarcity in the past and farmers in the Vale of Evesham.
to 40% less. It is unlikely that sugar beet their attitudes to the future. Most believed
or potato could be produced on light soils that they had a range of coping strategies The project team comprised seven research
without irrigation. One unknown is the and longer term options, but did not think organisations, with Universities at Cranfield,
fertilisation impact of higher carbon dioxide that there is substantial scope for increasing Nottingham, Southampton and East Anglia,
levels. It is long established that plants grow their water efficiency. Higher efficiency is the Stockholm Environment Institute in
better in elevated carbon dioxide levels but presently one of the main targets of the Oxford, and agricultural researchers at
large-scale field experiments on vegetables government agency that regulates water ADAS.
and potatoes are lacking. abstraction.
i Further information
The study modelled how farmers might “Most farmers are aware of climate or
react. The researchers allowed for change but are focussed on shorter-term Tyndall Technical Report 44
uncertainty and variability in farmers’ issues, due to the financial uncertainty in

the effect 2006

The world in 3000 could be warmer

than for the past 55 million years

Tyndall’s 1000 year climate change scenarios use a new

modelling system that takes days of free computing rather
than many months of super-computer

“If we could see climate change from an next millennium. The same scenario shows
Earth-system perspective, a thousand Changes in an abrupt change in the North Atlantic
years would seem but a blink in the eye circulation long after emissions cease.
for geological time” says Dr Tim Lenton at atmosphere and
the University of East Anglia, discussing his ocean circulation Over the millennium, the ocean becomes
climate change scenarios to the year 3000. a less effective carbon sink the more the
He believes that most projections of future
are more likely to emissions of carbon dioxide, and the land
climate change end at 2100 because we re-balance around a carbon source. Overall, the models show
have trouble contemplating the world after
we cease to live in it. “It might seem like
the millennial than that total emissions are the controller of
millennial climate change, but the rate
folly to predict humanity beyond 2100, but century timescale of emissions controls the speed of the
not looking may be a greater folly than not changes and to an extent whether an
trying”. 15.6 degrees Celsius over the next 1000 abrupt climate change occurs.
years. The maximum warming is four times
Tim invokes Earth-system logic for why we more than the 0.9o to 3.7oC predicted by “Only the minimum emissions scenarios
should realise that a century is too short the end of this century, and more than – a deep green future - can prevent global
to understand the climate consequences doubles the 1.4o to 5.8oC by 2100 of the temperatures from rising more than 2oC
of our actions today. “Graphs to the year Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change. relative to before the start of our coal and
2100 typically leave global temperatures For the UK, the millennial scenarios show oil age. If we exploit the unconventional
or sea level rising off the page”. Changes a warming between 1.2o and 10oC over fossil fuels, then the world could be warmer
in atmosphere and changes in ocean the next 1000 years. For comparison, within 1000 years than it has been for the
circulation are more likely to re-balance the scenarios of the UK Climate Impacts past 55 million”.
around the millennial than century Programme show a warming by 2100
timescale. Slower is the thermal expansion between 1o and 5oC. Tim used a new i Further information
of sea water, the melting of ice sheets modelling system that takes days of free and
and the consequences for sea level rise. computing power, rather than many months Tyndall Technical Report 41
Even slower is the neutralisation of ocean on expensive super-computers.
He shows that sea level will still be rising
Tim’s millennial models, done in a in 3000. If all reserves of known and
partnership with the UK’s Environment unconventional fossil fuels are burned-up,
Agency, predict a global warming of 1.2 to sea level will have risen 11.4 metres by the

the effect 2006

The British public is

increasing its acceptance
of nuclear power but
overwhelmingly prefers
other energy options

© Martin Bond/
Still Pictures
In January 2006, the week before the The Government’s energy review should take very seriously during its own
Government began its consultation on the considered whether the nation needs to energy review.”
future of UK energy, an extensive survey by replace its ageing nuclear power stations
UEA of the British public’s attitudes towards with new-build as one contribution towards The findings of the Government’s Energy
future energy options showed that just over its climate change objectives. Polls over Review were released in July 2006. Kevin
50 per cent may be prepared to accept the past four years have shown a gradual Anderson who leads Tyndall’s energy
new nuclear power stations if it would help lessening of opposition to replacing nuclear research from Manchester University said
to tackle climate change. But few people power stations; these new results still show at the time: “It is an electricity review that
actively preferred the nuclear option over more opposition than support. This work ignores the big issues of UK energy and
alternatives such as renewable sources helps to understand public opinions of the global climate change, neglecting the other
and greater energy efficiency. Most people nuclear power and climate change debate. 82 per cent of UK energy use. Electricity
believed that promoting renewable energy provides just 18 per cent of the UK’s
sources (78 per cent), and reducing energy Professor Nick Pidgeon, who led the survey final energy consumption, with nuclear
use through lifestyle changes and energy research team, explained: “The survey providing only 3.6 per cent of UK energy.
efficiency (76 per cent) are better ways of findings suggest that, given the numbers Consequently, replacing ageing nuclear
tackling climate change than nuclear power. who are still opposed to renewal of nuclear plant with new nuclear power stations
power, there remains considerable potential has an all but irrelevant impact on targets
The detailed survey was released in for conflict around this issue. Additionally, for reducing the UK’s carbon dioxide
January 2006 and was carried out jointly many of those who do accept new nuclear emissions.”
by researchers at the University of East power for Britain do so only reluctantly,
Anglia from the Centre for Environmental and only if renewables and other strategies The full public perceptions survey report
Risk and the Tyndall Centre, in conjunction are developed and used alongside. is at
with Ipsos MORI, with part-funding from the Ordinary people have a more sophisticated EnergyFuturesSummary.pdf
Leverhulme Trust, the Tyndall Centre and understanding of energy futures than many
the ESRC. decision makers like to believe. This wider Dr Kevin Anderson’s analysis of the Energy
context is something which the government Review is in a Tyndall press release for 11
July at

the effect 2006

Carbon cost
of $150 should
stimulate low-
carbon innovation
The first comparison of different economic pays, is critical to stimulating innovation in in economic wealth. On the other hand,
models that simulate innovation in low- climate change technology. Just as if water one model shows a GDP loss of 10 per
carbon technologies has been coordinated had a high cost per litre then Government, cent for achieving such a stabilisation. After
by Jonathan Köhler of Cambridge University industry and perhaps even individuals 2050, the models are more divergent, with
and the Tyndall Centre with colleagues would do more to save water and design losses to GDP increasing significantly in two
Michael Grubb, Ottmar Edenhofer and and invest in water-saving technologies. So models, but GDP actually benefiting from
Carlo Carraro. He has led a consortium too a higher cost of carbon would trigger stabilisation in another two models.
of international researchers to improve new emissions reducing actions.
the analysis and understanding of the “Innovation in technology is something
economics of climate stabilisation. Climate Jonathan’s comparative study shows that that we economists have long debated
stabilisation is the phrase for preventing the mean of the different costs of carbon as an exceptionally complex area for
the amount of carbon dioxide in the calculated by leading models to stabilise economic theory. With this study we
atmosphere to go above a concentration the atmosphere at 450 parts per million by gathered together a range of leading
that will cause dangerous climate change. 2030 to be between $100 and $150 per models and expertise to look for where
It is the central concept to mitigating global tonne. (The current spot price of carbon different economic models agreed and
greenhouse gas emissions. in the EU is between €10 and €20 per disagreed. The development and diffusion
tonne.) At this level, the carbon cost is an of low carbon technologies will be central to
Scientists think that to prevent a global economic incentive to stimulate innovation stabilizing the climate over the twenty-first
temperature rise above 2 degrees Celsius, in new low-carbon technologies. One of century” says Jonathan.
carbon dioxide concentration in the the models suggests that carbon prices
atmosphere has to be stabilised in the need to peak between $100 and $200 i Further information
range 450 or 550 parts per million. The per tonne, and then decline as low-carbon and The Energy
current CO2 concentration is 380 parts per technologies dominate the emerging Journal Special Issue, (2006) Endogenous
million and has risen by around 100 parts economies of the industrialising world. Technological Change and the Economics
per million since the 1800s. of Atmospheric Stabilisation, Vol 27.
In four out of ten models, the cost to Global
Central to stabilisation is the global cost Domestic Production (GDP) of stabilisation
of achieving it. The rising price of carbon, at 450 parts per million is about 1 per cent
based on the principle that the polluter by 2050. This is less than one year’s growth

the effect 2006

“the concept of
shocking the public
into action is flawed”
Hollywood’s The Day After Tomorrow had an influence on
film goer’s risk perception but this was not backed-up by
behavioural change

© 2004 Twentieth Century Fox

Hollywood film does not influence

climate change behaviour
It was mostly pre-release propaganda from Tomorrow ticked many of these boxes, audience. The focus groups showed that
campaigning organisations that 2004’s eco but also departed the realms of reality and any increase in concern appeared short-
disaster blockbuster from 20th Century Fox understanding. lived, with most viewers seeing the film
was going to improve public understanding as purely entertainment. In comparative
of climate change. The Chief Executive of Tom and colleagues surveyed over studies of film-goers in Germany, Japan,
the Government’s Energy Savings Trust 300 cinema-goers in 2004 while they US and Cambridge UK, a decrease was
said of the world’s 37th top grossing film, were queuing to see the film and when also detected in viewers’ estimations of the
“We hope that The Day After Tomorrow will they came out. Three months later they likelihood of global climate change. Tom
help to break consumer apathy towards convened focus groups to explore longer- concludes, “The powerful imagery had an
climate change. Even if we can get a small term perceptions. A later, controlled influence on risk perceptions, but this was
number of the film’s audience to make the experiment compared the perceptions of not backed-up by behavioural change.
link between climate change and what they film viewers to those of individuals reading In the case of climate change, immediate
do in their day to day lives, then this will be scientific information. It was found that the responses and behaviour are not entirely
a big achievement.” film increased short-term anxiety about related. The concept of shocking the public
environmental risks and some viewers into action is flawed.” The only significant
Tom Lowe, a researcher of public experienced difficulty in distinguishing difference between the film-goers and the
understandings of risk from the University science fact from dramatised fiction. In readers of scientific literature was that the
of East Anglia and the Tyndall Centre, is particular, the dramatic portrayal reduced film distanced its viewers from climate
exploring the extent to which film taps into belief in the likelihood of extreme events change.
psychological function. “Persuasive risk as a result of climate change. This effect,
communication must have a content which combined with the predominantly American i Further information
triggers attention, is unambiguous, definitive iconography, tended to distance the
and easily interpretable”. The Day After film from reality in the eyes of this British Tyndall Technical Report 43

the effect 2006

Next century of power station

pollution can be stored underground
© Statoil/Kjetil Alsvik

Underground storage of carbon dioxide new coal-powered stations so that they The cost of capture and underground storage of carbon
dioxide is £25 to £60 per ton shows a comprehensive study
emitted from UK power stations could are capture-ready for when CCS becomes led by Tyndall Manchester. Statoils Sleipner, pictured, already
be sufficient to store a century’s worth of commonplace” says Clair Gough at Tyndall injects CO2 beneath the North Sea

carbon dioxide at current emissions levels Centre Manchester.

concludes a major study of the geological, The greatest uncertainty surrounding the
environmental, technical, economic and The UK is well placed to exploit the capture technology is whether the stored carbon
social implications of technologies for and underground storage of carbon dioxide dioxide will leak from the reservoirs.
carbon capture and storage. The technique and has a large offshore storage capacity Assessments will need to be site specific
of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in disused oil and gas fields and saltwater and sites monitored long term, which will
scrubs the carbon dioxide from power aquifers. The case studies of power likely mean transferring the responsibility to
stations’ emissions before they reach stations in the East Midlands and Yorkshire the state once the storage site has closed.
the chimney. Once captured, the carbon show the cost to be between £25 and £60
dioxide is pumped underground for storage. per tonne of carbon dioxide. This is two to “One of the benefits to our industry
four times the current price of a tonne of stakeholders of carbon capture and
With the majority of the UK’s coal fired carbon dioxide in the EU emissions trading storage is that it fits readily into the existing
power stations due to be retired during scheme. infrastructure of power stations and the
the next 15 to 20 years, the UK is at a electricity grid” says Clair.
decision-point for installing clean-coal The assessment also shows that in addition
power stations. China, India and the US to its technical and economic feasibility, it i Further information
all use large quantities of coal and will is also potentially acceptable to the public or
increase in the future. Carbon capture and (against social and environmental criteria), Shackley and Gough (Eds) Carbon Capture
storage is a potential bridging-gap while provided it is adopted as a portfolio of and its Storage: An Integrated Assessment.
genuinely clean energy technologies are measures for mitigating climate change. It Ashgate.
developed, enabling use of the world’s vast is also likely to be a more acceptable option
coal reserves. “There is a need to design for the public than nuclear fission.

“in addition to its technical and economic feasibility, it is also

potentially acceptable to the public, provided it is adopted as a
portfolio of measures for mitigating climate change”
the effect 2006

Hurricane Survival Guide

for Overseas Territories
“June too soon, July stand by, August Kyoto Protocol. It is the only UK Overseas
come it must, September remember, Territory to do so, in no small measure due
October all over” says a Caribbean rhyme to the Tyndall Centre’s collaboration with the
where hurricanes are so common that Islands’ Government.
generations of islanders have passed-along
the poem. Drawing upon the practical The guidebook describes in detail the
experience of these islanders and the latest reasons why climate change is creating risks
academic thinking, Emma Tompkins and for small islands, argues why small islands
colleagues from the Tyndall Centre at the need to address these risks, and proposes
University of East Anglia have written a methods for managing them. The survival
guidebook to help the islands of the UK guide provides information, ideas, tools and
Overseas Territories and other regions techniques to help people living on small
prepare for the impacts of hurricanes, islands prepare for climate change.
storms and sea level rise - predicted to
change as global warming further influences At the centre of the survival guide are eight
the climate. elements for adaptation to climate change
ranging from identifying responsibility
“While established media networks made for preparedness, through planning and
Hurricanes Katrina and Rita seem like a legislation, to the science and the financing.
new phenomenon for 2005, the small Though primarily aimed at governments
islands of the Caribbean are hit each year and public workers who want to learn more
and every year. There are many lessons that about the impacts of climate change and
can be learned from these islands about how to start preparing their island, it is
the importance of anticipatory action. I also useful for other organisations and
hope that those countries which have a less businesses who want to develop plans.
well established response will be open and
willing to learn from these small islands.” Over two thousand copies have been
said Emma. downloaded from the Tyndall website since
the guide was launched on 1 December

“by preparing for 2005 at the UN Montreal climate change

climate change
you make yourself “We have had a good idea of what climate
change can bring and small islands which
more resilient to are on the frontline of climate change
other emergency need to start adapting now. Adaptation
and preparedness to extreme weather
situations” and climate change is a no-regrets policy”
said Emma “By preparing a society and
The in-depth research into understanding infrastructure for future climate change you
disaster risk management for hurricanes make yourself resilient not only to extreme
and climate change lies behind the weather, but to other emergency situations
guidebook and this was possible through as well”.
Dr Tompkins’ partnership with the Cayman
Islands’ Government and funded through i Further information
the UK’s DFiD. Over the past 15 years The full guidebook is downloadable at
the Cayman Islands has developed an
exemplary hurricane preparedness strategy.
It also recently confirmed its intention to
the UK Government to sign the United Emma Tompkins’ Hurricane Survival Guide evaluates lessons
from the Cayman Islands hurricane preparedness strategy.
Nation’s Framework on Climate Change In 2004, Hurricane Ivan, pictured, lashed-out at the Cayman
Islands with maximum sustained winds of 240 km/hr (150
and to join the UK’s commitment to the
mph) and a storm surge as high as 25 feet

the effect 2006

Sea level rise may boost

some beaches
Accelerated sea level rise from global This study is the first time the flood and Tyndall’s Coastal Programme of research
warming is certain to increase coastal erosion risk of a coastal region has been is better understanding coastal erosion,
flooding and erosion in general, but analysed in an integrated way. The long its impacts and the engineering choices
the first integrated analysis of a coastal period over which the predictions have available through the integration of models
region under climate change shows that been made and inclusion of climate of climate change, wave conditions,
some UK beaches may increase rather change are also unique features of erosion, flooding, ecology, communities and
than reduce in size. These larger beaches this work. costs. Importantly, the Programme is also
will in some locations provide additional exploring how the results of the work can
defences against rising sea levels and By fully understanding one area, the be effectively communicated to decision-
would reduce the likelihood that big methodology can be rolled-out to other makers, and how coastal communities can
waves overtop and cause coastal land to coastlines and communities. Tyndall’s usefully adapt.
be flooded. integrated coastal models together
represent 50 kilometres of the North Engineers at Newcastle University are
It is well known that the building of a Norfolk coast and the Norfolk Broads providing the models of erosion and flood
sea wall for one area, say to protect its for the next 100 years. The models are risk for the Coastal Programme, which is
eroding cliffs, can weaken the beaches driven by simulations of wave conditions, led by Professor Robert Nicholls at the
of its neighbouring communities by climate change, sea level rise and different University of Southampton and Professor
reducing their supply of beach sediment. strategies for coastal management. The Andrew Watkinson at the University of East
Likewise the removal of a sea wall can model describes the development of the Anglia.
boost its neighbour’s beaches, making coastal form to better understand future
them less vulnerable to subsequent sea erosion, beach development and the i Further information
level rise and storms. It appears that reliability of sea defences. Overall flood risk
a similar effect would bring benefit to is assessed by combining the likelihood
some areas through the large volumes of flooding with the economic costs that
of sediment released as cliff recession would ensue.
increases under climate change.

“the first time that the flood and erosion risk of a coastal region has
been analysed in an integrated way”

© Ashley Sampson

the effect 2006

Exploring adaptation to
climate change in southern
African communities
Rural communities in southern Africa which are adapting to flood and drought. A
depend on natural resources for their forthcoming publication in the scientific
everyday livelihoods have had to cope with literature will highlight how their adaptation
climate variability and change for millennia. is subtly differentiated by climate, capacity
A team led by Tyndall Oxford has looked at of their household and individual perception
how farmers respond and adapt to climate of risk.
variability, drought and flood. Their aim is
to better understand what characteristics To further understand the adaptation of the
drive how people cope and adapt with a households and communities, the research
changing climate. By understanding the also draws on new insights from the
recent past they hope to better understand theoretical understanding of the resilience

© Henny Osbahr
the future. of socio-ecological systems to changes
and shocks. It focuses on how markers
Over the next fifty years in Southern Africa, of success, such as capacity to adapt,
scenarios of climate change show that stability and self-organisation, are achieved
there will be significant warming of the through individual activities as well as
Tyndall Oxford’s study of what makes successful adaptation in
average air temperature, more seasonal through collective actions. southern African communities focuses on capacity to adapt,
stability, and self-organisation through individual and collective
variability, lower yearly rainfall, as well as actions
more extreme weather. Understanding the types of adaptation
at national and local scales and how In addition to Tyndall Centre researchers
Fieldwork and interviews showed that they interact with each other is important from the UK, the project team included
people living in these areas were clearly both for successful policy delivery and for an Oxfam representative, the University of
recognising changes in rainfall among the equitable development in southern Africa. Cape Town and Potchefstroom University
many complex factors that disrupt their These are explored in two forthcoming in South Africa, Nzuki Development
resource-dependant livelihoods. Three papers focusing on livelihood adaptation to Association, Save the Children US and
study regions in South Africa have been disturbances in rural Mozambique and what National Institute for Disaster Management
investigated because of their changing makes successful adaptation to climate in Mozambique.
timing of rain onset, frequencies and change in southern Africa. A new project is
intensities and different types of regional now considering these and other lessons i FFurther information
climate. A fourth region in southern for effective adaptation and international,
Mozambique has provided a different development across the African continent. and
rural context to investigate how people

Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change

published by MIT Press
Edited by Neil Adger and Jouni Paavola of UEA and the Tyndall Centre, Saleemul
Huq of the International Institute for Environment and Development and MJ Mace
from FIELD, the book brings together scholars from political science, economics,
law, human geography, and climate science to offer the first assessment of
the social justice issues in adaptation to climate change. The book outlines the
philosophical underpinnings of different types of justice in relation to climate
change, present inequities, and future burdens, and it applies these to real-world
examples of climate change adaptation in Bangladesh, Tanzania, Botswana,
Namibia, and Hungary. It argues that the key to adapting to climate change lies in
recognizing the equity and justice issues that are inherent both in its causes and
in the range of possible human responses.

the effect 2006

Friends of the from rising two degree centigrade above

pre-industrial levels. If emissions continue at

Earth urge for the current rate the UK would emit close to
double this amount by 2050.

Government The study also outlines what the

action based
Government could do - and by when - to
keep within this carbon budget and maps

upon Tyndall
out how homes, business and transport
in the UK could change as a result. The
report demonstrates that the UK can
Centre analysis achieve the necessary carbon reductions
if the Government implements a major
programme of action within the next four
The UK Government has only four years
years. Delaying action will require much
to implement a major new programme
more drastic and less manageable cuts
of action to cut carbon emissions if the
later on.
nation is to play its part in keeping global
Avoiding Dangerous temperatures below danger levels, said a
The UK needs to achieve significant
report launched in September 2006 by Co-
Climate Change operative Bank and Friends of the Earth,
emission cuts – of around 70 per cent
- within the next 30 years. The UK
published by Cambridge based upon research commissioned from
Government target of a 60 per cent cut in
University Press Tyndall Manchester.
emissions by 2050 is not sufficient if the UK
is to play an equitable role in keeping world
Edited by Professor John Building upon Tyndall’s comprehensive
temperature rise to below 2 degrees. The
Schellnhuber, Tyndall’s Distinguished report, Decarbonising the UK, Friends of
report also points out that total UK carbon
the Earth see the research as a roadmap to
Science Advisor and Research emissions have not fallen since 1990.
a low carbon economy that would deliver
Director from 2000 to 2005, this Government calculations under the terms of
on the UK Government’s commitments to
seminal book summarises the the Kyoto Protocol which show a decrease
prevent global temperatures from rising by
are misleading since they fail to take into
UK Government’s climate change 2°C above pre-industrial levels. It highlights
account emissions from international
science conference at Exeter in 2005. milestones for UK climate change policy for
shipping and aviation.
the years 2010, 2030 and 2050.
Held during the UK’s G8 Presidency,
the conference was convened ahead The leader of Tyndall’s Energy and Climate
The report suggests that a cumulative
of the UK-led G8 Gleneagles Summit. Change Programme, Dr Kevin Anderson
carbon budget of around 4.6 Giga tonnes
said: “Our research demonstrates that the
It focuses on three specific questions between 2000 and 2050 would allow the
UK can move to a low carbon economy.
to gather state-of-the-art science UK to play its part in keeping temperatures
However the journey will become
for evidence-based climate change much more demanding the longer the
policy. First, for different levels of Government delays taking concerted
global warming, what are the key action. To make a smooth transition to
a low carbon future the Government,
impacts for different regions and
business and we as individuals need
sectors and for the world as a whole? immediately to begin to implement a major
Second, what would such levels of programme of action to significantly reduce
global warming imply for stabilising our carbon emissions.”
concentrations of greenhouse gases
and pathways to achieve the levels? “the journey will
Third, what are the technological become much
options for achieving stabilisation of
more demanding
greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,
accounting for economics costs and
the longer the
uncertainties? Government delays
concerted action”

Tyndall Manchester research commissioned by Friends of the

Earth highlights milestones for UK climate change policy for
the years 2010, 2030 and 2050

the effect 2006

Communities want a say in

Shoreline Management Plans
© Environment

As part of Tyndall’s coastal programme of and natural frontage in the form of tidal
research, Jess Milligan and Professor Tim “people look for marshes, mud flats, dune formations
O’Riordan at the University of East Anglia assurance of and reed beds, designed by nature to
have conducted a number of rigorous accommodate the changing tidal currents,
surveys of residents’ and businesses’
adequate sea sediment movement and rising sea levels.
opinions of North Norfolk local Shoreline defences and
Management Plans. They have found While managed realignment has always
a deep-seated lack of trust in the Plan
compensation for been official policy, it is now more explicit
process and a serious loss of business loss of property value” in the new breed of Shoreline Management
confidence. But Jess and Tim also have Plans. On the other hand, it is still too early
the ear of the communities affected and so processes of erosion, and even less so with to be sure that more natural defences
are working alongside local residents and the impact of sea level rise”. can effectively be reconstructed in highly
business people to help them address the variable coastal conditions.
awkward but necessary transition to a more The Tyndall Centre has a long-standing
sustainable coastline economy. interest in working with threatened coastal The Tyndall surveys show that local people
communities to create more sustainable look for better assurance of adequate
Shoreline Management Plans are and resilient coastlines and viable local sea defences, appropriate compensation
mechanisms for managing stretches of economies and livelihoods. Much of this for loss of property value and even the
coastline along natural processes. The work has concentrated on the North prospect of their homes eventually being
Plans are creations of the Environment Norfolk coast, especially the region demolished, and for a much clearer
Agency, which is responsible for shoreline between Cromer and Winterton. This is perspective on how their businesses and
defence, and of the local maritime the most vulnerable section of the strip of communities may be enhanced as the new
authorities, who are charged with reducing former glacial cliffs and low-lying grazing Plans evolve.
erosion of vulnerable cliffs and beaches. marsh.
Various other bodies are also involved, not “We are working within a complicated and
least the new Natural England, which brings There is already a set of Shoreline unusual task. There are no ready made
together English Nature, the Countryside Management Plans for the whole of solutions for such a transformation to a
Agency and the Rural Development Service. England, and these form the basis of sustainable coastline community. The
investment in coastal protection for Tyndall team is working with a wide range of
“Shoreline Management Plans must the time being. The new generation of governmental, NGO and community groups
also win the hearts and minds of local plans were due to begin in 2005 and to find the best way forward” says Tim.
communities. Notably, these include the are much more controversial since they
parishes and residents’ groups who are explicitly incorporate new policy in favour i Further information
established to campaign for better coastal of managed realignment. Managed and
protection and adequate protection” realignment is the process of progressively
says Jess. “It is not possible to protect setting back the current location of coastal
every area of the coastline against natural protection in favour of more resilient

ADAM is a Tyndall-
© Paul Glendell/Still Pictures

led project involving

26 organisations
from 15 countries to
evaluate and design
EU adaptation and
mitigation strategies

Assessing and devising EU adaptation

and mitigation polices
ADAM is a new EU-funded research project framing scenarios of future change that international development agenda;
that will lead to a better understanding guide the ADAM analysis around a 2°C and analyzing both the supply and the
of the trade-offs and conflicts that exist 5°C warmer world. The second domain demand side of the electricity sector to
between European adaptation and of work involves appraising policies and assess novel policies of climate change
mitigation strategies. governance for achieving international mitigation and adaptation;
agreements and is developing a Policy place-based studies, focusing on areas
ADAM researchers in 26 organisations from Appraisal Framework, a mechanism which with distinct environmental problems
15 countries are examining the extent to will allow policy-makers to examine the related to climate change such as
which existing policy trajectories in Europe effectiveness of different strategic policy water management, forestry, agriculture,
will deliver Europe’s commitments to the options for climate change mitigation and bio-energy and planning. The Tisza
UN Framework Convention on Climate adaptation. Basin in Eastern Europe has conflicts
Change and to the Kyoto Protocol. They around flooding, water contamination
are working with stakeholders to develop The third domain is evaluating the cost and forestry, the Guadiana Basin in Spain
portfolios of new strategic options where and effectiveness of mitigation polices and is a drought area, and Inner Mongolia in
current policy trajectories are insufficient to their contribution to global carbon dioxide China has issues of water management,
reduce greenhouse gas emissions in line reduction, while the fourth domain is putting desertification and implementing the
with EU and international targets. together a knowledge base on Europe’s Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development
vulnerability and adaptive capacity to Mechanism.
Dr Henry Neufeldt manages the project climate change for identifying priorities for
from the Tyndall Centre at the University of adaptation. “ADAM completes in spring 2009 and we
East Anglia. The project leader is Professor will then have an overarching framework
Mike Hulme, Director of Tyndall. ADAM is To apply the learning from these four for devising and analyzing EU policy that
also a test-bed for using web and other domains, specific case studies are being integrates mitigation and adaptation
technologies that enable European-wide analysed where both mitigation and policies. It will inform the next round of
scientific project meetings where no-one adaptation responses are necessary. The Kyoto negotiations and make for more
has to travel and pollute. case studies are: joined-up consideration of climate change
appraising frameworks, strategies, and at a European level” says Henry.
The research is structured around four governance beyond 2012 when the
domains that integrate to become an current Kyoto agreement ends; i Further information
overarching framework for strategic policy restructuring development aid to or
appraisal. The first domain is laying out incorporate climate change into the

Suraje Dessai now has a Fellowship within the Tyndall Centre
to look at decision-making frameworks in climate change
uncertainty and adaptation

All pictures ©Tyndall Centre/Richard Drury

Training the new generation of
Neil Jennings’ PhD is
analysing discourses
around rapid climate
interdisciplinary researchers
Seven Tyndall-funded and four affiliated Esteve Corbera (UEA), 2005, Interrogating
PhD researchers working within Tyndall development in carbon forestry activities: a
have successfully completed their doctoral case study from Mexico
training during Phase 1 of the Tyndall Suraje Dessai* (UEA), 2006, Robust
Centre, with the majority continuing to adaptation decisions amid climate change
work within the Centre. Tyndall-funded PhD uncertainties
researchers were in addition co-funded John McWilliams (UEA), 2005,
Ruth Wood is
by outside organisations to ensure that Implications of climate change for
assessing integrated their research was relevant to designated biodiversity in the UK Overseas Territories,
for mitigating stakeholders. with emphasis on coral reefs
greenhouse gases Emma Lisa Schipper (UEA), 2004,
and air pollution
To ensure interdisciplinary training in Exploring adaptation to climate change: a
keeping with the Tyndall vision, meetings development perspective
of the PhD researcher network throughout Dorian Speakman* (Manchester), 2005,
Tyndall Phase 1 brought together PhD The impact of severe weather upon the UK
engineers, environmental scientists, social Fire Service: a study in four regions
scientists and international development Sophie Nicholson-Cole* (UEA), 2004,
researchers to understand each other’s Imag(in)ing climate change: exploring
Seb Carney produced approaches and methodologies. In Tyndall people’s visual imagery, issue salience and
the GRIP software
with significant Phase 2, this networking approach personal efficacy
interest from has been extended across all contract Petar Varbanov (Manchester), 2004,
researchers. Optimisation and synthesis of process utility
Alison Colls (UEA), 2006, The carbon Emily Boyd*, 2004 (UEA), Forests post
consequences of habitat restoration and Kyoto: global priorities and local realities
Sebastian Carney (Manchester), 2006, * externally funded research
The Greenhouse Gas Regional Inventory
Ali Colls’ PhD was Project (GRIP): focus North West
a collaboration David Chow (Manchester), 2005, The
with the UK’s main
nature conservation effects of future climate change and near-
organisations and led
by English Nature
extreme weather on UK office buildings

the effect 2006

Twelve months at the Treasury

Review’s wide-ranging remit, spanning published its own report in 2005 ahead
the discounting of costs in the future if of the G8 Summit in Scotland, but it was
policies are enacted now, comparing the not a well-informed report. By focusing on
many different ways of measuring impacts, the already much discussed uncertainties
through to evaluating policies and taxes to around climate change, it took more if a
stimulate international carbon trading. ‘wait-and-see what happens’ approach.

An environmental scientist turned “Before my secondment I did not really

environmental economist, Simon is a Tyndall understand how policy works and what
Centre Fellow who did his first degree policymakers need from academics”, says
at the University of East Anglia which he Simon. “Policy people do need to know
followed with further study and a PhD at what the world might be like in 20 years
the London School of Economics. The time; but above all they want to know what
Secondment came about through a new to do about it now”.
scheme funded by the academic funding
body, the Economic and Social Research He believes that the question of what to do
Council. Simon is the first Tyndall person now is where academics can contribute
Simon Dietz has been seconded from academia to work more and formulate rigorous advice. He has
to be embedded in Treasury, following two
within the Government Treasury team that is reviewing the
economics of climate change past Tyndall secondments in DEFRA. At found that he has to take academics offline
least eight other Tyndall researchers have for conversations about what they really
“I’m the man who does the algebra and contributed to the Review, including their think, since this is what policymakers need
the graphs” explains Dr Simon Dietz when expertise being contracted-in. to know. “In formulating policy advice, civil
asked about his role within the Government servants tend to have a broad knowledge
Treasury team that has been interrogating With an ever strengthening consensus that and academics a deep knowledge. The
new and existing knowledge about the human-induced climate change is a reality, weakness of one approach is compensated
economics of climate change – the costs a better understanding within governments, by the strength of the other. I highly
of the impacts of climate change, the costs business and academia of the economics recommend funding for more secondments
of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, of avoiding dangerous climate change is a of academic researchers into policy and
and the costs of adapting to the changing new constraint to devising policy for society. business”.
climate. “By algebra and graphs I mean Named ‘The Stern Review’ after the man in
that I have mainly been providing support charge, it is the first such comprehensive i Further information
on economic theory. My job title is Policy report and should be influential over Tyndall Working Papers 90 and 91
Analyst”. Simon has worked across the the next few years. The House of Lords

Flood Hazards and Health

published by Earthscan
Earthscan have published the first detailed discussion of the worldwide
health implications of flooding and future flood risk, edited by Roger Few and
Franziska Matthies of UEA and the Tyndall Centre. With the tragedy of New
Orleans still a focus of the world’s media, this highly topical book combines
rigorous analysis of the human health impacts of flooding with an appraisal
of individual and societal response to those risks, and sets these findings in
light of potential future increases in flood hazard as a result of climate change.
Findings from epidemiological, environmental, social and institutional studies
are brought together. The analysis is rooted in an approach that emphasizes
the developmental as well as environmental causes of flood risk and the socially
differentiated nature of vulnerability and coping capacity. A detailed discussion
of the global health impacts of floods and the nature of human response to the
health risks posed is reinforced by new research evidence on specific health
aspects of floods covering mental health, water and sanitation, local level
responses and the responses of health systems.

the effect 2006

Communicating science

© Laura Middleton
of East Anglia, the Headquarters and
lead institution of the Tyndall Centre.
Tyndall Centre researchers ran sessions
on sustainable transport and housing
for Norfolk as part of a European-wide
research project. Discussions were lively as
local people decided that cycling, walking
and better public transport were what
they wanted, with some support for new
technologies such as hybrid cars and even
personal jet packs. Everyone agreed that
they did not want was the same transport
Laura Middleton’s (UEA) From Cromer to Kyoto exhibition as now. Tyndall also chaired a series of
is funded by DEFRA’s Climate Change Challenge public lectures looking at climate and
initiative and includes a carbon calculator game, quizzes,
information boards and tree-ring analysis civilization past, the social and scientific
history of climate change modelling, and
future energy options for UK householders.
The Tyndall Centre is named after John much of the world’s population now living
Tyndall, the Victorian scientist who identified in cities and responsible for 75 per cent of In Norwich Cathedral’s 900 year old
the greenhouse effect, and as Director total energy use, cities are intrinsically linked transept was Laura Middleton’s DVD-
of the Royal Institution of London a well- to any responses to climate change. Not powered ‘From Cromer to Kyoto’ exhibition,
known communicator of science. Likewise, only will this occur through the need for a journey of discovery for cartoon
the Tyndall Centre strives to communicate deep cuts in their carbon emissions, but characters Sally and her grandad exploring
its science to wide audiences around the cities also face the challenge of adapting to climate past, climate change future and
world. Tyndall has policy people, opinion- a changed climate and to sea level rise. ways of reducing their energy waste. In
formers and the media as its key audiences addition to talking screens and animations,
but the Centre looks occasionally to directly Zero Carbon City is almost certainly ‘From Cromer to Kyoto’ includes a carbon
engage the general public. Over the past the biggest climate change awareness calculator game, display boards and DIY
year, researchers have been involved with campaign that the world has seen, and tree-ring analysis. Successfully engaging
the British Council’s Zero Carbon City separate activities have now taken place with the Cathedrals’ audiences, the
campaign and they also played a role at the in many countries and all continents, Comments Book shows how interested the
British Association for the Advancement of from Café Scientifique meetings in city public is in engaging more with information
Science’s annual festival for 2006. restaurants, through to invitation-only around climate change and sustainability.
high-level debates with leading opinion-
Alex Haxeltine of UEA and Tyndall wrote the formers, and convening and taking-part in i Further information
original briefing for the British Council’s Zero international meetings for young scientists. ...about Zero Carbon City
Carbon City campaign, a global initiative and
to raise awareness and stimulate debate The British Association’s annual Festival the BA Festival
around greenhouse gas emissions. With of Science was this year at the University Events/FestivalofScience

the effect 2006

The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan

Williams, launched the Tyndall Centre’s new
research strategy in May 2006
© Tyndall Centre

The Archbishop of Canterbury praises

the Tyndall Centre’s vision
The Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan The topic of justice and equity around recognizing the justice issues inherent in
Williams, was guest of honour at the launch climate change was the focus of a new climate change causes and responses.
of the second phase of the Tyndall Centre book from the Tyndall Centre that was
in May 2006. He spoke on how the Tyndall first published at the launch. Fairness in A further keynote speaker was Mr John
Centre project encourages recognising Adaptation to Climate Change by UEA’s Neil Gummer MP who is the Chair of the
the connections between ecology Adger and Jouni Paavola, IIED’s Salameel Conservative Party’s new Quality of Life
and economy and that issues about Huq and MJ Mace from FIELD shows that Policy Group and Former Secretary of State
development cannot be counter-poised to the concerns of developing countries are for the Environment. The launch of Tyndall
issues about environmental justice. marginalised in climate policy decisions Centre phase 2 celebrated the start of three
and argues that the key to adapting to years further core funding of £5.7m from
He said, “We’re being encouraged quite the impacts of climate change lies in the UK’s Natural Environment Research
simply, to be exact and precise about the Council, Engineering and Physical Sciences
knowledge we need in order to address the Research Council and Economic and Social
crisis, to think about it in relation to those “we’re being Sciences Research Council. The
questions of the unequal balance of power encouraged to be Centre’s phase 1 research strategy
in our world between wealthy and poor.” spanned 2000-2005.
He also spoke of his excitement to see the exact and precise
way in which “ … these themes are woven about the knowledge i Further information
so consistently into the programmes of the
years ahead of the Tyndall project.”
we need in order to There is a transcript of the Archbishop’s full
speech that he made on 4 May 2006 at
address the crisis”

Tyndall’s new research strategy includes new programmes on
the effect 2006
international development, cities, and global policy

Oxford and
are new
Launched in May 2006, the Tyndall Centre’s
new research strategy for 2006 to 2009
comprises seven programmes with three
new research endeavours. A specific
new area is asking the question how
international development can be sustained
in a warming world. It has particular
focus on vulnerable communities in Africa
and Asia and is designed to help inform
last year’s G8 outcomes when nations
agreed joint actions on both international
development and climate change. The new
“four of the seven greenhouse gas inventory and scenario
software that can be applied to any region
research programme will work closely with programmes are or city; and Avoiding Dangerous Climate
development agencies, international donors incremental from Change, the published proceedings of the
and vulnerable peoples. Government’s ‘Exeter Conference’ edited
the success of the by Professor John Schellnhuber, Chair
A second new research programme aims previous research of Tyndall’s Science Advisory Board and
to inform international climate policy for
beyond the current Kyoto Protocol that
themes” Distinguished Science Advisor to Tyndall.

expires in 2012. The third new programme Oxford and Manchester join the existing i Further information
is seeking to engineer cities so that core partners of the University of East
they can both grow in size and reduce Anglia, University of Manchester, University
their climate change vulnerability and of Southampton and the University of
greenhouse gas emissions. Sussex. The distributed design of the
Tyndall Centre draws together into a single
The other four of the seven programmes organisation the UK’s wealth of expertise
of Tyndall Phase 2 are incremental from from different academic disciplines to
the success of the previous research explore what to do about climate change.
themes focusing on: decarbonising energy;
sustainable coastlines; adaptation and High impact policy-relevant outputs from
resilience; and innovations in integrated Tyndall phase 1 (2000-2006) were also
climate change modelling and economics. demonstrated at the launch including:
Decarbonising the UK, the most
The Tyndall Centre consortium now comprehensive analysis to date of how
includes as new core partners Oxford the UK can achieve its carbon dioxide
University, led by Professor Diana Liverman emissions reduction targets; Surviving
Director of Oxford’s Environmental Change climate change in small islands, which
Institute, and Newcastle University led is a guide aimed at the British Overseas Professor Kate Brown is the
by engineer Professor Jim Hall of the Territories and other small islands; Energy Tyndall Centre’s New Deputy
Institute for Research on Environment and Policy a special issue journal focusing on
Director for Social Science, based
Sustainability. at UEA’s School of Development
the economics of innovation for low carbon
technologies; GRIP, an innovative new

the effect 2006

Think vegetable
So, bear with me while I describe how a
well-designed interdisciplinary research
organisation or project can be visualised

Samosa when designing as a well-made vegetable Samosa. It is

triangular and has a well-mixed three-

interdisciplinary research
dimensional matrix of peas (natural
scientists) carrots (engineers) and potatoes
(social scientists and economists). In the
cooking, some of the ingredients get
mashed-together (interdisciplinary experts),
but many retain their own texture and
flavour (specialist individuality).

This mix of hybridised expertise and

specialisation is the critical factor. A
traditional environmental research
organisation would consist of specialist
filling with no mixing and the different
flavours clustered at each apex of the
Samosa. An entirely interdisciplinary
organisation would have all the expertise
mashed-up and concentrated in the centre,
but would then have no discrete specialists.

Good interdisciplinary research requires the

interdisciplinary experts and the discrete
specialists researching in unison and only
in combination are they a successful recipe
beyond the sum of their parts, like a well-
made Samosa.

This whole-system (whole-flavour?)

approach is key in addressing the problem
of climate change and is best exemplified
by the four flagship projects of Tyndall
Phase 1. A good example is the coastal
No vegetable Samosas were cooked, locked in a fridge, In May 2006 we published an account that simulator. It combines coastal engineers
dissected or eaten to make possible this light-hearted
understanding of interdisciplinary science
captures our five years of learning about and flood modellers (carrots) working
how (and how not) to do interdisciplinary together with social scientists (potatoes)
and solutions focused climate change analysing community decision-making in
“in the cooking, research. Called Truly Useful…doing the planning process, and ecologists (peas)
some of the climate change research that is useful understanding the impact of sea-level
for both theory and practice it is a series rise on sea-bird breeding grounds. Mixed
ingredients get of personal reflections about the lessons appropriately and cooked together, it is at
mashed-together, learned from applying the Tyndall vision the middle of the interdisciplinary Samosa

but many retain their to climate change research that is

meaningful to stakeholders and informing to
that they work together to give a detailed
integrated picture for the future of coastal
own texture and policymakers. communities and planning.

flavour” Much of the writing is around learning i Further information

how to set-up and successfully do or
interdisciplinary research. A focus of Tyndall Briefing Note 14
our self-understanding is the Tyndall
interdisciplinary triangle. Tyndall researchers
have each year self-assessed their position
within this interdisciplinary triangle to show
how they perceive themselves in terms of
our three component meta-disciplines of
natural science, engineering and physical
science, and economic and social science.

the effect 2006

Tyndall Technical Reports

Brown K, Tsimplis M, Tompkins E. L, Few R., (2005)
Responding to climate change: inclusive and
integrated coastal analysis: Tyndall Centre Technical
Report 24

This final section summarises the Technical Reports of the Tyndall Centre that are Anderson D., Kohler J., Barker T., Pan H., Warren R.,
free to download without registering at Technical Reports are Winne S., Agnolucci P., Ekins P., Foxon T., Green K, (2005)
published at the completion of each Tyndall-funded project. Technology policy and technical change a dynamic
global and UK approach: Tyndall Centre Technical
Report 23
To date, forty-six research projects have published their final Technical Reports and
have produced 255 papers in professional journals. They have also produced 89 Abu-Sharkh S., Li B, Markvart T, Ross N, Wilson A,
Tyndall Working Papers, 106 book chapters and 15 Briefing Notes. Steemers K, Kohler J., Arnold R, Yao R, (2005)
Microgrids: distributed on-site generation: Tyndall
Centre Technical Report 22
Nicholls R., Hanson S., Balson P., Brown I., French J., Pearson S, Rees J., Poulton C, Dickson M, Walkden M,
Shepherd D, Jickells T, Andrews J, Cave R, Ledoux L,
Spencer T., (2005) Capturing Geomorphological Hall J, Nicholls R., Mokrech M, Koukoulas S., Spencer
Turner K., Watkinson A., Aldridge J, Malcolm S, Parker
Change in the Coastal Simulator. Tyndall Technical T., (2005) Towards an integrated coastal sediment
R, (2005) Integrated modelling of an estuarine
Report 46 dynamics and shoreline response simulator. Tyndall
environment: an assessment of managed realignment
Centre Technical Report 38
options: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 21
Nicholls R., Richards J, Bates P, Dawson R., Hall J,
Walkden M, Dickson M, Jordan A, Milligan J, (2005) Sorrell S., (2005) The contribution of energy service
Dlugolecki A., Mansley M., (2005) Asset management
Assessing coastal flood risk at specific sites and contracting to a low carbon economy:
and climate change: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 20
regional scales: Regional assessment of coastal Tyndall Centre Technical Report 37
flood risk. Theme 4: Tyndall Technical report 45
Shackley S., Bray D, Bleda M, (2005) Developing
Tratalos J, Gill J., Jones A, Showler, D, Bateman I,
discourse coalitions to incorporate stakeholder
Weatherhead K, Knox J, Ramsden S, Gibbons J, Arnell Watkinson A., Sugden R, Sutherland W, (2005)
perceptions and responses within the Tyndall
N. W., Odoni, N, Hiscock K, Sandhu C, Saich A., Conway Interactions between tourism, breeding birds and
Integrated Assessment: Tyndall Centre Technical Report
D, Warwick C, Bharwani S., (2006) Sustainable water climate change across a regional scale:
resources: A framework for assessing adaptation Tyndall Centre Technical Report 36
options in the rural sector: Tyndall Centre Technical
Dutton A, Bristow A, (2005) The Hydrogen energy
Report 44 Thomas C., Osbahr H, Twyman C, Adger W. N., Hewitson
economy: its long term role in greenhouse gas
B, (2005) ADAPTIVE:adaptations to climate change
reduction: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 18
Lowe T., (2006) Vicarious experience vs. scientific amongst natural resource-dependant societies in
information in climate change risk perception and the developing world: across the Southern African
Few R., (2005) Health and flood risk; A strategic
behaviour: a case study of undergraduate students in climate gradient: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 35
assessment of adaption processes and policies.:
Norwich, UK:
Tyndall Centre Technical Report 17
Tyndall Centre Technical Report 43 Delaney K, Adger W. N., Tompkins E. L, Arnell N. W.,
(2005) Vulnerability to abrupt climate change in
Brown K, Boyd E., Corbera E., Adger W. N., (2004)
Atkinson P W., (2006) Towards an integrated coastal Europe: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 34
How do CDM projects contribute to sustainable
simulator of the impact of sea level rise in East
development?: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 16
Anglia: Part B3- Coastal simulator and biodiversity Anderson K., Shackley S., Mander S, Bows A., (2005)
- Modelling the change in wintering Twite Carduelis Decarbonising the UK: Energy for a climate
Bristow A, Tight M, May A, Berkhout F, Harris M,
flavirostris populations in relation to changing conscious future: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 33
(2004) How can we reduce carbon emissions from
saltmarsh area:
transport?: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 15
Tyndall Centre Technical Report 42B3 Halliday J, Peters M., Powell J, Ruddell A, (2005)
Fuel cells: Providing heat and power in the urban
Levermore G, Chow D, Jones P, Lister D, (2004) Accuracy
Watkinson A., Gill J., Sutherland W., (2006) Towards an environment.: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 32
of modelled extremes of temperature and climate
integrated coastal simulator of the impact of sea
change and its implications for the built environment
level rise in East Anglia: Part B2- Coastal simulator Haxeltine A., Turnpenny J., O’Riordan T., Warren N, (2005)
in the UK: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 14
and biodiversity: models of biodiversity responses to The creation of a pilot phase Interactive Integrated
environmental change: Tyndall Centre Technical Report Assessment Process for managing climate futures:
Jenkins N, Strbac G, Watson J, (2004) Connecting new
42B2 Tyndall Centre Technical Report 31
and renewable energy sources to the UK electricity
system: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 13
Ridley J., Gill J., Watkinson A., Sutherland W., (2006) Nedic D, Shakoor A, Strbac G, Watson J, Mitchell C, Black
Towards an integrated coastal simulator of the M, (2005) Security assessment of future electricity
Hanson C, Holt T, Palutikof J., (2004) An Integrated
impact of sea level rise in East Anglia: Part B1- scenarios: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 30
Assessment of the Potential for Change in Storm
Coastal simulator and biodiversity - Design and
Activity over Europe: Implications for Insurance and
structure of the coastal simulator: Tyndall Centre Shepherd J., Challenor P, Williamson M., Lenton T.,
Forestry in the UK: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 12
Technical Report 42B1 Huntingford C, Ridgwell A, (2005) Planning and
Prototyping a Climate Module for the Tyndall
Berkhout F, Hertin J, Arnell N. W., (2004) Business and
Stansby P, Launder B, Laurence D, Kuang C., (2006) Integrated Assessment Model: Tyndall Centre Technical
Climate Change: Measuring and Enhancing Adaptive
Towards an integrated coastal simulator of the Report 29
Capacity: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 11
impact of sea level rise in East Anglia: Part A-
Coastal wave climate prediction and sandbanks for Lorenzoni I., Pidgeon N., Lowe J., (2005) A strategic
Tsimplis M, (2004) Towards a vulnerability assessment
coastal protection: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 42A assessment of scientific and behavioural
for the UK coastline: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 10
perspectives on ‘dangerous’ climate change: Tyndall
Lenton T., Loutre M., Williamson M., Warren R., Goodess Centre Technical Report 28
Gill J., Watkinson A., Cote I, (2004) Linking sea level
C. M., Swann M., Cameron D., Hankin R., Marsh R.,
rise: coastal biodiversity and economic activity in
Shepherd J., (2006) Climate Change on the millennial Boardman B, Killip G, Darby S, (2005) Lower Carbon
Caribbean island states: towards the development
timescale: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 41 Futures: the 40% House Project:
of a coastal island simulator: Tyndall Centre Technical
Tyndall Centre Technical Report 27
Report 9
Bows A., Anderson K., Upham P., (2006) Contraction and
Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the Dearing J., Plater A., Prandle D., Richmond N., Wolf J,
Skinner C, Fergusson, Kroeger K., Kelly C., Bristow A,
implications for UK air traffic: Tyndall Centre Technical (2005) Towards a high resolution cellular model for
(2004) Critical Issues in Decarbonising Transport:
Report 40 coastal simulation (CEMCOS): Tyndall Centre Technical
Tyndall Centre Technical Report 8
Report 26
Starkey R., Anderson K., (2005) Domestic Tradeable
Adger W. N., Brooks N, Kelly M., Bentham G., Eriksen S.,
Quotas: A policy instrument for reducing greenhouse Timms P., Kelly C., Hodgson F., (2005) World transport
(2004) New indicators of vulnerability and adaptive
gas emissions from energy use: Tyndall Centre scenarios project: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 25
capacity: Tyndall Centre Technical Report 7
Technical Report 39
For more information contact:
Tyndall Centre UEA (HQ),
Zuckerman Institute for Connective
Environmental Research,
School of Environmental Sciences,
University of East Anglia,
Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
Phone: +44 (0)1603 593900
Fax: +44 (0)1603 593901







International Energy Adaptation International Coasts Cities Integrated
Policy Development Modelling

The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research is core-funded

by the UK Research Councils NERC, EPSRC, and ESRC.
External funding doubles our annual core budget of £1.9m.

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