Table of Contents
Perforating Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1 Perforating Solutions History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-2 Sharing Knowledge to Exceed Customer Expectations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-4 Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-6 Doing the Right Thing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-7 The Perforation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-2 Damaged Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-4 Completion Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-5 Underbalanced Perforating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-13 Extreme Overbalanced Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-15 ShockProSM Shockload Evaluation Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-17 SurgeProSM Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-19 Modeling and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-21 Post-Job Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-26 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-27

PerfPro® Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1

Installation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-1
Single-Zone Completions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-3 Horizontal Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6 Automatic-Release Gun Hangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-8 Single-Trip Perforating and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-13 Multizone Perforating and Testing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14 Annulus-Fired Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17 Modular Gun System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-19 Enhanced Overbalanced Perforating Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-20 Sand Control Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-22 Perforate and Squeeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-25 Select Fire™ Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-26 Live Well Perforating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29 Downhole Pump Completions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-33 Coiled Tubing Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-34 History of Perforation Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-2 VannGun® Assemblies 1 9/16 in. to 7 in. and 4 SPF to 21 SPF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-9 VannGun Phasing and Shot Patterns* . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-10 VannGun Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-15 Scalloped Gun Charge Performance Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-27 Gun Washover/Fishing Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-29 Gun Swell Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-30 VannGun Pressure Ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-32

VannGun® Assemblies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-1

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Thermal Decomposition of Explosives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-32 Time Vs. Temperature Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-34

Firing Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1
Detonation Interruption Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-5 Mechanical Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6 Model II-D Mechanical Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-7 Model III-D Mechanical Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-8 Pressure-Actuated Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-9 Model K Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-10 Model KV-II Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-11 Time-Delay Firer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-12 Multiaction-Delay Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-13 Annulus Pressure Firer-Control Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-14 Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-15 Slimhole Annulus Pressure Firer—Internal Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-16 5-in. Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-16 3 1/8-in. Internal Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-16 3 1/8-in. Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir—Internal Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-16 Differential Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-17 Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head and Swivel-Type Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head . . . . .5-18 Mechanical Metering Hydraulic-Delay Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-19 Slickline-Retrievable Mechanical Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-20 Slickline-Retrievable Time-Delay Firer Firing Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-22 Extended Delay Fuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-23 Modular Mechanical Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-24 HalSonics® Firing Head. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-26 Side-Pocket Mandrel Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-28 Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-29 EZ Cycle™ Multi-Pressure Cycle Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-30 Operating the EZ Cycle Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31

Special Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-1
DrillGun™ Perforating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-3 Select Fire™ Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-5 Isolation Sub-Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-6 AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-7 Ratchet Gun Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-8 Shearable Safety Sub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-9 Modular Gun System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-10 Setting Tools for the Auto-Release Gun Hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-14 Detach™ Separating Gun Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-15 G-Force® Precision Oriented Perforating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-16 Explosive Transfer Swivel Sub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18 Eccentric Orienting Tandem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-19 Roller Tandem Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-20

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Centralizer Tandem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-21 StimGun™ Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-22 StimTube™ Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-24 PerfStim™ Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-26 POWR*PERFSM Perforation/Stimulation Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-27 Quick Torque™ Connector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-28 Pump-Through Firing Head . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-30

Ancillary Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-1
Automatic-Release Gun Hanger—Rotational Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-4 Automatic-Release Gun Hanger—Automatic-J Mandrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-6 Emergency Release Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-8 Y-Block Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-9 Fast Gauge Recorder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-10 Balanced Isolation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-12 Annular Pressure-Control Line Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-14 Annular Pressure-Control Line Swivel Sub . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-15 Annular Pressure-Control Line Tubing Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-16 Bar Pressure Vent. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-17 Below-Packer Vent Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-18 Maximum Differential Bar Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-19 Pressure-Operated Vent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-20 Vann™ Circulating Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-21 Automatic Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-22 Mechanical Tubing Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-24 Pressure-Actuated Tubing Release. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-26 DPU® Downhole Power Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-27 SmartETD® Advanced Electronic Triggering Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-28 Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-29 Fill Disk Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-30 Gun Guides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-31 EZ Pass™ Gun Hanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-32 Hydraulic Metering Release Tool for the Single Trip System (STPP™-GH) . . . . . . . . . . .7-34

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1
United States Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-1 Frequently Asked Questions and Answers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-3

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iv Table of Contents .

21 spf superhole – 4 3/4-in. Halliburton has built a reputation for innovative ideas. • • • • • • • Release devices Debris barriers Live well perforating systems Gun hangers Enhanced overbalanced perforating Special applications Ancillary equipment New Perforating Solutions Technology Halliburton strives to be the leader in identifying. is licensed by Halliburton. Halliburton Perforating Solutions offers the most experience in the industry. illustrations. and flawless service quality assure that the final product and service is world class. Some of the more recent technological innovations described in this catalog are listed below: • • • • • • • • PerfPro® process HalSonics® firing head DrillGun™ perforating system Detach™ separating gun connector G-Force® internal orienting system StimGun™ assembly Fast gauge recorder New shaped charges – Millennium™ charges – Mirage® charges – Dominator® charges – Maxim™ charges • New gun systems – 5 1/8-in. and products to accomplish this communication. systems – 5-in. Manufacturing methods. developing. however. system – 7-in. quality equipment. This catalog will provide the reader with general information about the perforating optimization process as well as provide examples of perforating system installations. StimGun™. In addition. inspection/testing. the reader will find useful information about Halliburton perforating products including descriptions. Patented by Oryx and licensed by Halliburton From Tubing Conveyed Perforating to Perforating Solutions Communication between the formation and the wellbore is of critical importance in cased hole completions. POWR*PERFSM. and specifications of the following: • • • • VannGun® assemblies Firing heads Special applications Ancillary equipment precision oriented perforating system. environment. Business development groups stay in close contact with technology to assure that clients have the latest technology available. PerfStim™ is a trademark of Oryx Energy Company. previously known as Halliburton Tubing Conveyed Perforating (TCP) services is responsible for developing and delivering these solutions.Introduction Perforating Solutions Introduction Halliburton Energy Services has excelled in delivery of oilfield tools and services for more than 80 years and has continuously set the industry standard. tools. systems – 4 1/4-in. packaging. 18 spf Mirage system POWR*PERF. systems – 6 1/2-in. Halliburton Perforating Solutions include the following: • VannGun assemblies • Firing heads • Venting devices Perforating Solutions offers the most options for perforating configurations and completion optimization including PerfStim™. The quality of our products starts with the continuous innovation by our multi-disciplined technology group. Halliburton's commitment to health. The method in which the guns are deployed in the well is an important detail. equipment. Halliburton Perforating Solutions service line. PerfConSM. Halliburton offers an array of methods. it is immaterial as long as the most efficient perforating solution is used. systems – 5 3/4-in. With the combined strengths of Halliburton’s Jet Research Center's perforating charges and the originators of the VannSystem® completion services. and modular gun systems. Halliburton will always meet and strive to exceed your expectations. Since the inception of our VannSystem completion services in 1970. and warehousing assure the quality of our products at the point of delivery to operations. safety. Halliburton Perforating Solutions product line maintains an unequalled success and safety record while continuously developing and introducing new and innovative products. and commercializing new technology. StimTube™ and StimGun™ are trademarks of Marathon Oil Company and are licensed to Halliburton by Marathon. and dependable operations. POWR*PERF is a service mark/trademark of Marathon Oil Company and licensed by Halliburton. a process of Marathon Oil Company. G-Force® Introduction 1-1 . Whatever your perforating needs.

First Modular Gun System First TCP Snubbing Gun Connector System for Standard BOP Stacks Introduced AutoLatch™ TCP Gun Connector—The several hours formerly required to make each connection when snubbing into live wells is cut to an average of 20 minutes. Azide-free boosters can safely be installed at the shop and transported to the locations.Perforating Solutions History There are different methods that can be used to create perforations in wellbores. Armstrong founded Well Explosives Company.. In 1946. Vann Tool Co. Introduced Dual Completion Systems—VannGun assemblies run in on dual tubing strings to complete isolated zones. the release drops the VannGun assemblies into the rathole to eliminate pulling guns out of the hole. First TCP System for Pumping Wells—The benefits of underbalanced perforating brought to well pumping. Introduced the PerfPro® process for well inflow optimization 1981 1983 1985 1986 1988 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1996 1997 1998 2000 2001 1-2 Introduction . Introduced Single Trip Perforating and Testing Systems Introduced TCP Systems for Gravel Packing—Carefully controlled underbalance pressures with high-shot density.. later to be known as WELEX. The major drawbacks with this method were that the bullet remained in the perforation tunnel.000-ft interval for Shell Oil Company (Offshore California) in a single trip First bottom shot detection device First safe Quick-Connect System—The Polymer Alignment Insert (PAI). there are specific projects in several locations around the globe that will require Halliburton Perforating Solutions to continue the introduction of new technology and perforating solutions to safely and efficiently handle today's complex completion requirements. and introduction of new technology to the oil industry. In 1970. and some casings could not be perforated effectively. Introduced the Millennium™ VannGun assembly—Offers the best performance in 9 of 11 API tests of the most popular gun systems. In 1949. First Extremely High Temperature (500°F) System Introduced the Slickline-Retrievable Firing Head First TCP Monobore Completion System (i. One of the first was bullet perforating which was conceived and patented in 1926. maximizing underbalance First Tubing Release—Actuated via conventional wireline tool. Roy Vann runs the first TCP completion for an independent operator in southeast New Mexico. Welex introduced the shaped charge. First to license StimGun™ Technology—Productivity enhancement is achieved by perforating with propellant. greatly enhances safety by recessing and securing detonating cord and boosters inside the gun body or tandem. First Azide-Free Bidirectional Boosters—New boosters eliminate hazards created by lead azide sensitivity to shock and heat. the Auto Release Gun Hanger) First Select Fire™ System—System offers the ability to shoot multiple zones in a single trip at desired time. VannSystems was the leader in introducing TCP technology in the oil industry. In October 1985. Introduced the Time-Delay Firing Head—This firing head also provides for firing several guns independently. This StimGun technology is licensed worldwide for both TCP and Wireline Perforating. known as VannSystems.000 ft)—Successfully completed a 1. The principle of the shaped charge was developed during World War II for armor piercing shells used in bazookas to destroy tanks. 1970. Halliburton purchased VannSystems and since then Halliburton has continued to be the industry leader in research. At the present time. development.e. still an industry standard. Ramsey C. big-hole guns yield improved results for gravel pack operations. First DrillGun™—All aluminum drillable gun assembly. developed and ran the first commercially successful tubing conveyed perforating system. Introduced stinging VannGun® assemblies through large-bore permanent packers First Vent—Tubing runs in dry. In January 1945. First High Temperature TCP System (400°F) First Automatic Release Firing Head—The firing head automatically drops the expended guns into the rathole. Throughout the early years. This new technology allowed the oil producers to have some control over the perforating design (penetration and entry hole size) to optimize productivity. McCullough Perforating Company made an attempt at developing tubing conveyed perforating but was not successful. Inc. penetration was not very good. First Horizontal Well Completion—The first horizontal well completed using TCP technology was drilled under Canada’s McKenzie River. First long interval completion (over 1. Zones can be produced without commingling production. Perforating Solutions Timeline Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1980 Accomplishment Introduced tubing conveyed perforating via development of the first pressure-balanced mechanical firing head First successful TCP job—On October 13.

000 perforating jobs.50 95. In addition to documenting relevant well and reservoir information for each job.00 98.50 96.) Perforating misrun and/or more than 1-hour downtime Halliburton tool problem (non-Perforating problem) Job Efficiency Table 1993-2004 100. has performed more than 36.00 Job Efficiency 97.370 ft 7.50 99. reliable perforating components with the versatility of drillable materials Introduced EZ Cycle™ multi-pressure cycle firing head that can be cycled several times prior to firing the perforating guns Introduced EZ Pass™ gun hanger to run in conjunction with the modular gun system and designed with slips that stay retracted during the perforating event until the tool is set 2004 Since 1970. Halliburton employs a classification system that rates each Perforating Solutions job for overall success. Halliburton. and Tubing Conveyed Perforating Technical and Engineering Support Facility in Carrollton.Perforating Solutions Timeline Year 2002 2003 Accomplishment Introduced the Mirage® improved low debris perforating system Introduced G-Force® gun system—First internal oriented gun system Introduced ShockProSM software program to evaluate mechanical risk factors to well components from gun detonation shock loads Introduced SurgeProSM software program to model a variety of dynamic wellbore calculations Introduced HalSonics® firing head designed to actuate guns by sending an acoustic signal down the tubing Introduced Dominator® shaped charge to optimize perforating performance in reservoir rock Introduced Maxim™ shaped charges for applications where multiple strings of casing are to be perforated Introduced Quick Torque™ connector to simplify TCP gun assembly and save time by eliminating assembly of components on the rig Developed composite DrillGun™ perforating system that combines rugged. Testing. etc.600 ft 62 30.00 95. the database also serves as a measure of technical efficiency. Each VannGun® perforating job has been documented and is stored in a database that is maintained at our Tools. the perforating success is 97.00 99.50 98. no problems Non-Halliburton problem (could not run in hole.00 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Years 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Presented are additional perforating milestones achieved with the VannGun Perforating System.57%. packer set off-depth. Of all the VannGun jobs performed worldwide. Perforating Classification System Class 1 2 3 4 Results Successful job. Texas. Perforating Milestones Milestone Longest overall perforating job (gross) Longest perforated interval (net) Most firing heads in one run Deepest completion measured depth Highest temperature Results 9.50 97.00 96. originally VannSystems.521 ft 460°F Introduction 1-3 .

Please note. It concerns the method in which operators. and technical tools that provide users with improved technology and best practice integration for reduced operating expense and improved reserve development. www. and Formation/Production Enhancement. Evaluation of the Asset. case histories. Internal and external web portals are now used to improve expedience in alignment and communication between all supplier and operating personnel. job schedules. allowing users to view the entire commercial workflow for a particular service job. tools.com Home Page 1-4 Introduction . and applications that allow cross-functional teams to collaborate in a single. engineers. myHalliburton. user-friendly environment that can be personalized to meet the goals of all users by: • Decreasing initial tendering time frames through collaborative web applications • Accessing commercial information such as invoices. easy to access environment.Sharing Knowledge to Exceed Customer Expectations While state-of-the-art equipment and procedures continue to be developed to enhance operational efficiencies in the oilfield.com® portal’s organizational architecture is structured around the oil and gas development through production workflow addressing Asset Discovery.myHalliburton. Consult your local Halliburton representative for registration information. field tickets. Halliburton’s extranet portal. reducing the disputes that can increase operating expenses for oil companies and suppliers • Accessing portal communities which can remove the problems inherent in coordination of remotely located personnel To gain access to the Halliburton electronic business portal.com portal requires a user name and password to gain access. the myHalliburton. Well Maintenance. web-based access to technical content.com or “Intelligence Central™” portal provides personalized. current best practices. one significant enhancement to the way in which oilfield procedures are handled today does not relate to equipment. userfriendly.myHalliburton.com. myHalliburton. and proposals. The Perforating Solutions Completion Products and Services section of the workflow contains perforating well completion product specifications and catalog content. myHalliburton. Completions. and suppliers are now conducting their business relationships. log on to www.com creates efficiencies by providing transparency to the technical and commercial workflow tools and applications in a single. simulators.

and special completion applications are discussed and highlighted around the globe via the webbased portal. perforating systems. Topics such as firing systems. The system gives Halliburton’s perforating community the extra edge in providing the right information at the right time to improve safety. and the quality of the solution. etc. monitored by a subject matter expert (SME) to capture new knowledge • Coordinates processes and prioritizes issues that require SME input • Provides the latest technology in real time Knowledge Portal Screen Capture Introduction 1-5 .) • One-on-one interaction. Features • Provides Halliburton’s experts with easy access to written information (tool manuals. The Perforating Solutions Knowledge Management Portal is an exciting new tool that provides a virtual location for Halliburton perforating experts to expand and share knowledge and best practices. drawings.Halliburton is committed to providing world class solutions. service quality.

quality of purchased parts. The quality team works with technology. “Take care of the customer. Processes. marking/identification. Employees are empowered to make decisions for removing questionable or defective products from the system when discovered. packaging. The success of the quality process is dependent. Management support is required for the system to be implemented in a manner to deliver results. which is an ideal business approach for managing costs and providing products to customers to meet their needs. Everyone plays an important part. Improvements are usually made in small increments that turn into a successful project or solution. The quality process is owned by all JRC employees—not just the Quality department. methods. and procedures are reviewed for windows of opportunity to create improvements. test fire charts. Our commitment to quality products starts with the design by technology and continues through the entire process with proper documentation of orders by customer service. training. not only on management. we have internal customers to take care of as well. and manufacturing to pursue continual improvement. etc. Some recent accomplishments or problems solved are as follows: • Realized more consistent targets and greater penetration of targets now than in the past • Improved powdered metal blending to reduce spoilage and deterioration • Achieved main load powder improvements • Improved data recording and documentation (notes. This means the management team must be committed to making the tough decisions required when building quality into the products. traceability. including safety and protection of the environment. Corrective and preventive action is taken where necessary to affect change.) • Reduced incidence of delivery of damaged material for charge holder tubing • Reinstated sampling inspection to identify problem products • Improved use of SAP to download quality and supplier performance data • Improved packaging of charges to reduce deterioration • Covered more calibration of equipment without redundancy • Increased surveillance of vendor performance • Eliminated poor-performing vendors Success can be attributed to continuously improving the quality of our processes and products measured by the elimination of poor quality and the satisfaction everyone shares with doing the job right the first time. There is a registered ISO Quality system. The quality system consists of documented processes that are assessed annually for proper implementation. Not all improvements are monumental in size or scope. manufacturing methods. and final delivery to the customer. Inspection plans are being implemented on selected purchased materials to assure quality parts are available and delivered to the manufacturing team in a timely manner. but on all employees. purchasing. 1-6 Introduction . All are encouraged to make suggestions for improvements. One of the keys to our quality success is our motto. In addition to our external customers.Manufacturing Product quality is the primary objective at Halliburton’s Jet Research Center (JRC). inspection/ testing. The process of continual improvement results in change. warehousing. and review to determine the effectiveness.” To achieve this goal requires pursuit of continual improvement.

Since its introduction in 1997. and Service Quality performance using Halliburton’s Performance Improvement Initiative (PII) PII is Halliburton’s annual planning process for improving HSE and Service Quality. Executive PII Teams Safety & Health Service Quality Environment Monthly global conference calls led by executive teams assess progress and provide a platform for best practice exchanges and discussions of barriers to success. and risk analysis help control dangerous conditions. PII includes a review of past performance. hazard observation.Doing the Right Thing Planning with the Halliburton Performance Improvement Initiative (PII) Planning for Superior Health. AUDIT PROCESS “0” PRE/LEFTof ZERO INCIDENT FOCUS Introduction 1-7 . PII introduced tools such as the Halliburton Management System (HMS) that facilitates the integration of HSE and Quality into the way we do our work. HMS PROCESS DOCUMENTATION RISK ASSESSMENT JSA HAZARD OBSERVATION SITE SURVEY PREVENTION CPI IMPROVEMENT NEAR MISS INCIDENT INVESTIGATION W/ FEEDBACK ROOTCAUSE W/ FEEDBACK POST CORRECTION Area PII Teams S&H SQ E Each year since 1997. and the development of objectives and strategies for continuous global improvement. approve. an assessment of currently available tools. PII has helped to ensure organizational alignment in the quest for continuous improvement and has yielded demonstrable results. Halliburton executive teams have set strategies and objectives then review. Environmental. Site surveys. Region/Country PII Teams S&H SQ E Focusing on Prevention PII is primarily focused on the prevention of incidents. Safety. and monitor region/country plans.

5 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Halliburton Historical Lost Time Incident Rates 1-8 Introduction . Annual employee surveys show increasingly favorable views of the company’s HSE values. causal analysis and corrective action. 2.5 1 0. and integrated HSE management. the executive teams evaluate the progress to plan and award Regions/Countries with the PII President’s Award for exemplary accomplishment. risk evaluation and management. Results Since the implementation of PII.Objectives Service Quality • Perform at the highest levels and exceed customer expectations Safety and Health • Establish visible evidence of leadership in all employees • Eliminate fatalities • Eliminate lost time and recordable injuries • Eliminate vehicle accidents Environment • Identify the top five high risk behaviors • Achieve closure on outstanding assessment/audit issues • Track incidents and prevent their recurrence • Determine significance of our environmental inventory • Manage our chemicals Recognition At the end of each year. thousands of employees have been trained in HSE leadership. environmental awareness.5 0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Halliburton Historical Recordable Incident Rates 1.5 3 2. process documentation. and injury rates have been reduced by over 50%.5 2 1.5 2 4.5 4 3.5 1 0.

and BOP stack closed. Surface flow equipment is in place. non-lead azide explosives. storing. Halliburton uses one of the highest grades of steel in the industry to create guns and has complete traceability of materials in all its equipment. Firing system designs do not include electrical detonators. but are not limited to: • Institute of Makers of Explosives (IME) • American Petroleum Institute (API) • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) • Bureau of Alcohol. Halliburton requires its Detonation Interruption Device to prevent accidental firing. Azide-free boosters and an innovative connector system that protects detonating cord and boosters enhances surface safety. and transportation of explosives • Provide guidelines and procedures for safe handling. The company designs its systems with safety as the foremost consideration. Safety and reliability are the building blocks of Halliburton's Perforating Solutions's industry leading reputation. The company's long and extensive experience in completing oil and gas wells has helped create an unparalleled record of safe. low shrink detonating cord.S. In situations where a mechanical firing head is the only choice. and use of explosives Introduction 1-9 . Tobacco. Halliburton uses non-electrical detonators. the packers set. Environment. transportation. specialized gun connection inserts. • Maintain global uniformity in procedures followed by Halliburton employees when using explosives • Provide training to all employees on safety and security while using. Department of Transportation (DOT) • International Marine Dangerous Goods (IMDG) • International Air Transport Association (IATA) • Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) Implementation of Halliburton's Performance Improvement Initiative tools and processes combined with perforating-specific HSE efforts has led to industry-leading performance in the areas of Health.Operational Safety As with all Halliburton jobs and services. using only top quality materials in the construction of its equipment and following wellsite procedures that help ensure safe operations and reliable results. bidirectional boosters. Halliburton firing systems require hydrostatic pressure or the application of tubing or annulus pressure to fire. storage. and Firearms (BATF) • U. guidelines. Halliburton Perforating Solutions provides the inherent safety of perforating with the well under full control. Safety. and advanced firing head technology. eliminating problems caused by stray electrical currents. storage. Explosive Safety and Security Halliburton maintains an explosive safety program which strives to deliver the following: • Promote a culture that recognizes and identifies the hazards associated with the handling. and recommended procedures • Maintain limited access to secure storage of explosives The industry organizations establishing standards include. handling. and transporting explosives • Maintain compliance with applicable governmental regulations and HES policies • Recognize best practices as established by industry standards. and Service Quality. safety comes first. reliable operations.

1-10 Introduction .

PerfPro® Process

The Halliburton PerfPro® Process
Introduction
The Halliburton PerfPro® process takes a systematic approach to delivering engineered perforating systems. The process is based on extensive experimental work at Halliburton's Perforation Flow Laboratory and includes perforation flow modeling and damage assessment performed with a fully three-dimensional finite-element model. To deliver the highest possible completion efficiency, the PerfPro process also utilizes experimental testing, modeling, and field validation studies to optimize perforation selection and execution. The final step in a natural cased and perforated completion requires a way to establish communication between the reservoir and the wellbore to efficiently produce or inject fluids. The most common method involves perforating with shaped charge explosives to get through the casing and cement sheath. Numerous perforating strategies are available. These include choices of gun type, charge type, shots per foot (spf), shot phasing, gun position, and degree of under- or overbalanced pressure at the time of perforating. Since perforating is typically the sole means of establishing communication with the reservoir, it is critically important that this aspect of the completion receive the proper engineering focus.

Damaged Zone Diameter (Caused By Drilling) Casing Diameter Casing Cement Sheath

Crushed Zone Diameter Perforation Diameter Perforation Spacing (Dependent On Shot Density)

Entrance Hole Diameter In Casing

HAL15324

Perforation Length (Cement To End Of Perforation)

Phase Angle

Perforated Wellbore Geometry

PerfPro® Process

2-1

The Perforation Process
The shaped charge or jet perforator is the explosive component that creates the perforation and uses the same technology as armor-piercing weapons developed during World War II. These shaped charges are simple devices, containing as few as three components. However, optimizing charge performance is not an easy matter due to the physics of liner collapse and target penetration. The extreme dynamic conditions that exist during collapse and penetration involve calculation concerning elasticity, plasticity, hydrodynamics, fracture mechanics, and material characterization. The process of liner collapse and jet formation begins with detonating the base of the charge. A detonation wave sweeps through the explosive, chemically releasing energy. Highpressure gases at the detonation front measure approximately 3 to 5 million psi and impart momentum, forcing the liner to collapse on itself along an axis of symmetry. Different collapse and penetration characteristics will result depending on the shape and material of the liner. If the liner geometry is conical, a long, thin stretching jet will be formed. In this case, the penetration of the jet into the target is relatively deep, and the hole geometry is small. If the liner is parabolic or hemispherical, a much more massive, slower-moving jet will be formed, creating a shallow penetration with a relatively large hole diameter. Because liner design has a tremendous influence on the penetration characteristics of a shaped charge, the shape of the liner is used to categorize jet perforators as either deep-penetrating (DP) or big hole (BH). Typical DP charges create hole diameters between 0.2 and 0.5 in. with penetration depths in concrete of up to several dozen inches. DP charges are primarily used for perforating hard formations. BH charges are generally used for perforating unconsolidated formations that require some form of sand control. BH charges are designed with hole diameters of between 0.6 and 1.5 in. to facilitate placement of sand or proppants, and penetrations are normally 8 in. or less.
Case Explosive

HAL15325

Liner

Shaped Charge Perforator

2-2

PerfPro® Process

Deep-Penetrating Sequence

1

Formation Casing Fluid Gap Carrier Conical Liner

2
Liner Collapses to Form Jet

3
Later Stages of Liner Collapse Produce Slower-Moving Slug

4
Jet Penetrates Carrier Slug

5
HAL12131

Stretching Jet Penetrates Formation

Big Hole Sequence

1

Formation Casing Fluid Gap Carrier Parabolic Liner

2
Liner Collapse and Inversion

3
Relatively Slow-Moving Jet Concentric of Material

4

Jet Expansion Slowly Stretching Jet Slug

5
HAL12132

Large Hole in Casing

Small Hole in Carrier

PerfPro® Process

2-3

Damaged Zones
During the jet penetration process, some damage occurs to the rock matrix surrounding the perforation tunnel. The altered area, called the damaged (crushed and compacted) zone, results from high-impact pressures that occur during perforating. A damaged zone consists of crushed and compacted grains forming a layer approximately 0.25 to 0.5 in. around the perforation tunnel (Asadi and Preston, 1994; Pucknell and Behrmann, 1991). Later work by Halleck et al. (1992) shows that damaged zones are of nonuniform thickness and decrease down the length of the perforation tunnel. Some evidence suggests BH charges may cause damaged zone layers that approach 1 in. around the perforation tunnel. In addition, laboratory studies indicate that the permeability of the damaged zone can be 10 to 20% of the surrounding formation (Bell et al., 1972). Accordingly, it is very important to design the perforation event to minimize this effect on well performance.

HAL12000

Sand Grains Prior to Perforating Event

HAL12001

Sand Grains After Perforating Event

Cement Casing

Damaged Permeability, from Drilling, Production or Injection kd

Undamaged Permeability, k

Open Perforation Charge and Core Debris
HAL15326

Pulverization Zone Grain Fracturing Zone Compacted Zone (With Damaged Permeability from Perforating, kc)
Perforation-Damaged Zone

2-4

PerfPro® Process

S t = S c + θ + S p + S d + ΣS i Pressure In Formation Skin Or Zone Of Altered Permeability p Pressure Drop Across Skin Skin HAL15327 Flowing Pressure Pressure Distribution in a Reservoir with a Skin PerfPro® Process 2-5 . Partial well penetration. is derived from the following radial flow equation: -3 q 7. Drilling and completing a well normally results in reduced formation permeability around the wellbore. perforations. or plugging of perforations would also result in a damaged formation response. typically used to assess the performance of a well over time. can be modeled using the radial flow equation: re qμβ P e – P wf = --------------------------.⎞ + S -3 ⎝ rw ⎠ 7. the dispersion of clay.ln ⎛ ---. They should create clear channels through the portion of the formation damaged during the drilling process. The total skin factor summarizes the change in radial flow geometry near the wellbore due to flow convergence. However. in turn. Completions can be classified into four types: openhole.= -----------------------------------------P e – P wf ⎛ re ⎞ μβ ln ⎜ ----. and the presence of mudcake or cement.⎟ + S ⎝ rw ⎠ Wellbore Static Pressure Skin Factor The skin factor or S term is usually defined as a zone of reduced (or higher) formation permeability near the wellbore. and sand control.Completion Types The effectiveness of the communication path through the cement and casing is critical to the completion and well performance. A similar effect can be produced by reductions in the area of flow exposed to the wellbore.08 × 10 kh PI = --------------------. wellbore damage.08 × 10 kh The productivity index (PI). natural. in every case. These decreases in permeability can be caused by the invasion of drilling fluid into the formation. limited perforating. Perforations should enhance well productivity in several ways. negative for a stimulated well. The factor is positive for a damaged well. and well deviation. and zero for an unchanged well. partial penetration. the objective is to maximize production which. stimulated. They should provide uniform tunnels for hydraulic fracturing fluids and proppants and should make many large uniform holes for sand control and hydrocarbon production. The skin factor can be used as a relative index to determine the efficiency of drilling and completion practices.

⎞ ⎝ ⎠ 41 2.+ 2.753⎟ for y > 0 ht ⎝ ⎠ The term y is equal to the distance between the top of the sand and the top of the open interval.35 ⎜ ----. replace ------.5 .⎟ ht ht ht ⎠ ⎝ 2-6 PerfPro® Process .by ⎜ 1 – ------.⎞ log ⎛ --------⎞ 10 ⎝ 100⎠ ⎝ 56 ⎠ ⎛ ht ⎞ KH Where h tD = ⎜ ----.1 ln ⎜ h t --------⎟ ln ( r wc ) – 1. (1975). degrees.> 0. such as drillsite location and avoidance of coning undesirable gas or water. y = 0 Zm Zm Z m⎞ ⎛ When ------. and θ ′d is adjusted well deviation. Skin effects caused by partial penetration and slant are often significant and result from operational considerations.865 – ⎛ ------.+ 7⎟ – 0.825 ⎧ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎫ S c = 1. KH K H⎞ ⎛ ht ⎞ 0. ft.⎟ -------⎝ r w⎠ K V θ′ ⎞ -1 ⎛ K H tan ⎜ -------. ft.tanθd⎟ d = ⎝ KV ⎠ Where htD is formation thickness dimensionless. S θ = θ′d – ⎛ ------.– 1⎟ ⎨ ln ⎜ h t -------. r wc = r w .The term Sc+θ represents the effects caused by partial penetration and slant as described by Cinco-Ley et al. degrees.95 ⎬ hp ⎠ KV K V⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭ Where ⎛ Zm ⎞ r wc = ( r w )exp 0.2126 ⎜ ------.49 + 0.06 h tD θ′d 1. θd is well deviation (sum of the deviation and the true dip—the angle that the wellbore makes with an imaginary normal to the zone). Zm = y + ( hp ⁄ 2 ) The term rwc is equal to the corrected wellbore radius.

These parameters are given by: K s L p ′ = L p – ⎛ 1 – ------⎞ r d ⎝ K⎠ And Ks r w ′ = r w – ⎛ 1 – ------⎞ r d ⎝ K⎠ In both cases. is expressed by three distinct components: horizontal plane-flow effects.⎟ + S ⎝K ⎠ ⎝r ⎠ p s w For perforations that extend past the damaged zone (Lp > rd). the focus should be on understanding and controlling the other skin factors that influence well productivity. Sh. the modified perforation length. Accordingly. and Off-Centered Well Configuration PerfPro® Process 2-7 . This filtrate invasion can reduce the productivity of an openhole completion and severely impair the performance of the perforated completion. Partially Completed. skin caused by the perforation. and the vertical converging effect.– 1⎞ S p ⎝K ⎠ o s This relationship is appropriate for perforations that terminate inside the damage zone (Lp < rd).⎟ ⎝K ⎠ ⎝r ⎠ o w s hw = completion thickness zw = elevation rw hw h h rw O hw zw HAL15328 zw Vertical Well Slanted Well Inclined. ( Sd ) ⎛ rs ⎞ K = ⎛ -----. The term rs represents the damaged zone radius and (Sd)o is the equivalent openhole skin effect.– 1⎞ ln ⎜ ----. wellbore effects. The Halliburton PerfPro® perforation analysis program was developed to assist in this effort by analyzing these effects for various gun systems. A complete understanding of skin and its effect on completion efficiency is vital to optimizing well productivity. K = ( S d ) + ⎛ -----. especially when the perforation tunnels terminate inside the damaged zone. Sp. A calculation for perforation skin effect (Sd)p can be approximated by taking into account formation damage: ( Sd ) ⎛ rs ⎞ K = ⎛ -----.– 1⎞ ln ⎜ ----.The term Sd represents the effects of formation damage attributed primarily to filtrate invasion during the drilling process. Sv. Karakas and Tariq (1988) quantified Sd for both openhole and perforated well completions. This term is less important to the total skin factor. the amount of damaged skin can be approximated by: (S ) = S – S ′ d p p p Here Sp' is the perforated skin evaluated at Lp'. and rw' is the modified radius. They also developed a technique to calculate skin effect resulting from perforations based on phasing and perforation length. Swb. S p = S h + S wb + S v The term ΣSi includes pseudoskin factors such as phase and rate-dependent effects.

balance. Deep Penetrating Overbalanced HAL10997 Balanced HAL10999 Underbalanced HAL11001 Alignment of Perforation with Preferred Stress Plane 2-8 PerfPro® Process . With natural completions. the entire perforation tunnel was not cleaned as efficiently. charge phasing.Natural Completions “Natural” completions can be defined as those wells with sufficient reservoir permeability and formation competence to produce economical hydrocarbon rates without stimulation. Whereas. resulting in much lower core flow efficiencies. Overbalanced or balanced perforating has a significant disadvantage. Maximum perforation cleanup can be applied to the entire perforation interval from the surge effect with no fluid invasion into the reservoir. Because there is no perforation cleanup. effective communication to the undamaged formation becomes critical. Recent experiments at Halliburton's Perforation Flow Laboratory highlight the importance of optimizing the degree of underbalanced pressure.25 in. Perforation damage can occur from perforating with overbalance. In the underbalanced experiment. the entire perforation tunnel was effectively cleaned during the instantaneous surge and subsequent flowback period. percentage of the productive interval that is perforated. offering significant benefits. and effective stress condition. Underbalanced perforating creates negative differential across the formation during the perforation. and underbalance. The primary perforation factors are depth of penetration. the results are larger positive skin values. the effective shot density.500 psi. with the balanced and overbalanced experiments. Well fluids injected into the core can potentially damage the formation through fluid invasion and plugged perforations. All three experiments were perforated under the same test conditions with the same shaped charge. and degree of underbalance pressure. The only variable in the three experiments were the degree of underbalanced or overbalanced pressure at ± 3. Note that all three cores were flowed and injected at the same flow rates to simulate well cleanup during field conditions. The perforation diameter is generally unimportant if it is larger than 0. pore pressure.

This pre-fracture technique is called “limited entry” perforating. Obtaining the most uniform perforation helps minimize this friction component and fluid shearing. improper placement of proppant or acids. fluids and proppants are injected at high pressure and rate (to alter the stress distribution in a formation) and create a fracture or crack in the rock. the proppant or acid may cover only part of the interval or enter only one zone because of permeability variations. Hydraulic fracturing is performed to increase the effective wellbore radius. Perforation erosion leads to loss of differential pressure. Proper gun orientation maximizes perforation to fracture flow communication and minimizes breakdown pressures to initiate fracturing. To fully maximize stimulation performance. The perforation diameter and uniformity are important because they are the limiting factor in creating pressure restrictions in the well and providing a sealing surface for ball sealers if needed. This tortuous path may cause higher treating pressure. and perforation phasing. Perforation phasing has been studied in great detail. Completion success for stimulated wells is influenced by three perforation effects: perforation erosion. The work by Hazim Abass et al. fluids and proppants will travel through an annular path around the casing to initiate or propagate the fracture plane. perforation bridging. and is usually performed in reservoirs with extremely low permeabilities (k < 1 md). the perforation diameter should be six times greater than that of the proppant diameter as suggested by Gruesbeck and Collins (1978). Perforation bridging reduces the effective shot density of the completion and potentially causes early screenout of the stimulation treatment. Limiting the number and diameter of perforations can increase the pressure in the casing to a point where intervals of lower stress may be fractured. HAL15337 Unoriented Perforation HAL15335 Oriented Perforation PerfPro® Process 2-9 .Stimulated Completion Stimulated completions are typically either hydraulically fractured or acidized or a combination of the two. In long intervals or multi-zone treatments. At proppant concentrations greater than 6 lbm/gal. The success of the limited-entry technique depends on the differential pressure across the perforation. a 60° phased gun should be utilized to minimize the perforation and stress plane offset. If the perforations are not aligned with the preferred stress plane. To ensure success during stimulation when the preferred stress plane is unknown. and a poor stimulation treatment. The perforation strategy can be critical to the success of a planned stimulation treatment. shows the effects of not having the perforations aligned properly with the preferred stress plane. Studies by Warpinski (1983) and Daneshy (1973) indicate that if the perforations are not within 30° of preferred stress plane. it is also important to accurately define the near-wellbore stress field and orient the perforations at 180°. and asymmetric penetration of the fracture wings. and its importance to the successful placement of proppant is recognized. In hydraulic fracturing. rw. Fractures preferably initiate and propagate in a plane perpendicular to the minimum stress direction.. the fracture may initiate on a plane different than the perforation. premature screenout.

However. Bullet perforators will improve the ability of the ball sealers to seal on the casing wall.15 0. HAL15329 Maximum particle concentration (vol/vol) 10 0 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. The etched surface significantly improves the effective wellbore radius.Perforation diameter Average particle diameter Acidizing is a stimulation process used to repair formation damage caused by the drilling or perforation process. The disadvantages of acid fracturing are the expense of the fluids and the non-uniform leakoff which results in “wormholes” with potentially untreated formation intervals.31 Tap Water 100-cp HEC solution 0. Acid fracturing is usually performed on carbonate formations to etch the surface of the hydraulically induced fracture. 2-10 PerfPro® Process .27 0.21 0. bullet perforators still create a less than desirable slug or carrot that typically remains in the perforation tunnel impairing well productivity. If a “ball-out” acid job is planned.08 0.58 Bridging region 2 4 6 8 10 30 Maximum gravel content (lbm/gal) Bridging of Particles in Perforations Wellbore HAL15330 Restriction area Channel to fracture wings Perforation Fracture Orientation to Perforation Not Within 10° to 30° of the Fracture Plane. making the job less operationally complex because proppants are not required. Perforation hole size is less important since proppants are not normally utilized. specially designed shaped charges or bullet perforators are desirable because they create a uniform hole size with no burr on the casing. Injecting acids below fracturing rates allows the acid to dissolve any plugging in the perforations or pore throats. removing damage from the matrix rock.

+ -------------------------------------------------------3 2 1. a series of filters is created to hold back the formation sand while producing formation fluids. casing. and costly sand disposal. however. the materials inside the flow path have a tremendous impact on well productivity.107 × 10 β ( qβ ) ρl P wfs – P wf = --------------------------------------------. Fluid flow entering the perforation tunnel of a gravel packed well must flow linearly through the sand and gravel in the perforation tunnel and inside the annulus of the well before entering the gravel pack screen. In a natural completion. formation fluids entering the perforation tunnels can flow unimpeded into the wellbore. These include the plugging of perforations. If these stresses exceed formation cohesive strength. sand is produced and near-wellbore permeability is altered.500 md 2 in Formation Sand Permeability 500 md Screen Fluid Flow 3 bbl/D perforation 0. tubing or surface facilities.79 psi 4.+ ------------2 Kg A A Typical Cased Hole Completion Cement Casing Production Tubing Typical Cased Hole Gravel-Packed Completion Cement Casing Production Tubing Packer Oil Reservoir Perforations Screen HAL15331 Packer Perforations Gravel 40-Mesh Gravel Permeability 27. fluid restrictions.9.4 in.Sand Control Completions Sandstone formations that are not structurally competent often produce sand along with formation fluids. Wellbore Cross-Section for a Natural Completion and a Cased Hole Gravel-Packed Completion PerfPro® Process 2-11 .8 cp Oil Pressure Drop 14. this simplifies to: 2 C1 q C2 q P wfs – P wf = -----------. Fluid movement through the reservoir produces stress on the sand grains because of fluid pressure differential. The linear flow path is only a few inches.1271 × 10 kg A A For a specific well. 0. and overburden pressure. casing collapse due to changing overburden stress. the destruction of downhole and surface equipment. Sand production can lead to some undesirable results. Inflow performance for a cased gravel-packed completion can be expressed as follows: -3 2 qβμ1 .84 psi Tunnel Diameter 0.7 in. In the gravel packed completion.

Perforation phasing is important to maintain uniform flow patterns around the wellbore. it may be possible to complete the well and manage sand production without traditional screens in place. The area open to flow (A) is essentially the number of perforations multiplied by their respective cross-sectional flow area. This promotes the creation of a stable arch around the perforation and reduces the influx of formation fines that can lead to screen erosion or plugging of the gravel pack. Perforation impact on the sand grains surrounding the perforation tunnel includes crushed sand grains or fines that are generated. Perforations oriented to maximum principle stress result in more stable perforation tunnels that are less susceptible to collapse or sand production. High shot density guns (> 12 spf) with spiral phasings provide optimum flow area and flow patterns while maintaining casing integrity. sand production may occur for a short period of time until a different shaped stable arch occurs. Gravel pack sand permeability is typically many orders of magnitude higher than the formation permeability with values up to 40. Selective perforating to avoid weaker sand members along with oriented perforating is an effective strategy to avoid gravel packing and the potential for reduced well productivity. High shot density perforating with deep penetrating charges may be utilized to maintain the stable arch and manage sand production. Perforation damage when perforating overbalanced and underbalanced with big hole charges includes crushed sand grains and liner debris that remain in place with the balanced and overbalanced test shots. resulting in lower fluid velocities and formation sand movement.The two key parameters to well productivity (q) for a gravel packed completion are the area open to flow (A) and the permeability of the gravel in the perforation tunnel (kg). The key perforating strategy for gravel-packed completions is to make sure that high permeability gravel pack sand can be placed in the perforation tunnel. Deep penetrating charges provide greater depth of penetration into undamaged formation material while destroying a smaller radius around the perforation tunnel. When the producing rate is adjusted. Another approach to managing sand production is to orient perforations in the direction of maximum principal stress. In some semi-consolidated formations. the smaller the pressure drop through each perforation and the slower the fluid velocity. stable arch bridges occur at the set producing rate. The greater the perforation density and hole diameter. HAL10998 Overbalanced Perforating with Big Hole Charge HAL11002 Underbalanced Perforating with Big Hole Charge 2-12 PerfPro® Process . Insufficient underbalanced pressure leads to perforation damage that can adversely affect injectivity and sand placement. which means removing perforating debris and crushed formation material. Restricting the flow of fluids is another way to avoid collapse of the stable arch.000 darcies common. In field operations in unconsolidated sandstones. Charge phasing is critical to maximize the vertical distance between perforations and maintain formation integrity between perforations.

(1985) and others have published the results of a large number of underbalanced perforating jobs in which initial well productivity was compared to subsequent well productivity after acidizing. A perforation job pressure record from a high-speed recorder samples pressures at 100. Dynamic underbalanced pressure refers to the transient fluid gradients on the millisecond time regime that occur due to fluid movement or fill-up of the free gun volume or other artificial surge chambers in the downhole assembly.300 psi overbalanced pressure. The ideal underbalanced example shows that all perforation damage has been removed with the proper differential applied across the perforation.1 LEGEND s Acid did not improve production l Acid did improve production n Problems 0. the minimum surge pressure was 695 psi during the initial transient period following detonation. (2001) shows that in addition to focusing on underbalanced pressure as it is defined in our industry.1 LEGEND ss Acid did not improve production Acid did not improve production l Acid did improve production 0. HAL15971 Oil 1000 ss s ss s ss ss s ls s s s s l l 10 l l 1 l l s s s s s s s FORMATION PERMEABILITY MD l 100 l l s s l 0.01 100 1000 10000 TOTAL UNDERBALANCE PSI Overbalanced Perforation Before Flowing Cement Casing Charge Debris Crushed and compacted lowpermeability zone Overbalanced Perforation After Flowing Part of lowpermeability zone still exists Perforation partially plugged with charge debris Ideal Underbalanced Perforation Immediately After Perforation Low-permeability zone and charge debris expelled by surge of formation fluid HAL12140 Underbalanced Perforating PerfPro® Process 2-13 .000 samples per second. King et al. some consideration needs to be given to the so-called “dynamic” underbalanced pressure. The level of pressure differential is important to create open. Note that even though this well was perforated with approximately 3. undamaged perforations and optimize well productivity. a low permeability zone due to perforation jets remains.Underbalanced Perforating Underbalanced perforating occurs when the pressure in the wellbore is lower than the pressure in the formation.01 100 1000 10000 TOTAL UNDERBALANCE PSI Gas 1000 s FORMATION PERMEABILITY MD ss s 100 l 10 l l l l l s s sss ss sss s ll ll l l ll l l sl n Stuck Packer n Casing Collapse s s s l l s s 1 0. Recent laboratory studies performed by Halliburton suggest higher underbalanced pressures are required to achieve clean undamaged perforation tunnels. Overbalanced perforating without flow typically results in a perforation tunnel with severe tunnel plugging due to crushed formation material and charge debris. The work by Folse et al. However. Overbalanced perforating with cleanup flow reveals that typically most of the charge debris is removed.

however.450 psi 3. The goal is to achieve the highest underbalance pressure that will yield optimum productivity without compromising well integrity. Berea test shot balanced with effective stress at 3.70 7.000 psi and dynamic volume at 308 cc. 2-14 PerfPro® Process .150 psi Pore Pressure 8. The instantaneous underbalance must be followed with continued sustained flow of several gallons per perforation to further clean the perforation and remove the crushed rock and other materials that have been loosened.50 Guns fire 695 psi 7.90 8. 14000 12000 11.000 psi and dynamic volume at 1.50 HAL15334 Time (sec) High-Speed Pressure Recorder Data HAL15991 HAL15992 Berea test shot balanced with effective stress at 3. resulting in a much higher core flow efficiency.10 6.430 cc. complexity due to well control operations. and the increased risk of sticking perforation or wireline-conveyed guns due to debris movement. the only variable that changed was free gun volume with a subsequent effect on perforation tunnel cleaning capability. This critical point is well documented in literature.30 8. increased completion cycle time. In some actual experiments.000 psi. on many jobs it is overlooked due to operational constraints. These constraints include how hydrocarbons are handled at the surface.800 psi Pressure (psi) 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 7. Note that both cores were shot at balanced perforating conditions with an effective stress of 3.Experiments in Halliburton's Perforation Flow Laboratory have verified that dynamic surge pressure is an actual event that can be controlled in field applications. The core shot with the higher dynamic underbalanced volume did not exhibit any perforation plugging.

(1985) and others. where formation competence is questionable and the risk of sticking perforating assemblies is greater. which is a near-wellbore stimulation technique. further enhances productivity by scouring the perforations to leave some residual conductivity on the fracture plane. eliminates the need for conventional perforation breakdown methods. For optimum results. Wellhead Isolation Tool Nitrogen 300 ft of Fluid Radioactive Collar Packer Tubing Pressure-Operated Venture Firing Head Bauxite Proppant Carrier VannGun® Assembly PerfPro® Process HAL15314 Typical Extreme Overbalanced (EOB) Perforating Assembly 2-15 . EOB perforating also provides perforation breakdown in preparation for other stimulation methods. some (Handren et al. Most EOB perforating jobs are designed with a minimum pressure level of 1. and therefore. sufficient underbalance pressure is not possible. Snider and Oriold. To address the perforation damage in these cases. The EOB technique involves pressuring the wellbore with compressible gases above relatively small volumes of liquid. In other cases. Pettijohn and Couet. Recently. Marathon Oil Company incorporated proppant carriers into the perforation assembly to introduce proppants into the flow path as the gun detonates. The gases have a high level of stored energy. 1993.Extreme Overbalanced Perforating In many formations. 1994.4 psi/ft of true vertical depth. 1996) have suggested using extreme overbalanced (EOB) perforating. patented by Marathon Oil Company. Upon expansion at the instant of gun detonation. the remaining reservoir pressure or underbalance is insufficient to effectively clean the perforations as suggested by King et al. The POWR*PERF SM process. the gases are used to fracture the formation and divert fluids to all intervals. it is suggested to utilize the highest possible pressure level without compromising wellbore integrity or operation safety. The high flow rate through relatively narrow fractures in the formation is believed to enhance near-well conductivity by extending the fractures past any drilling formation damage.

propellant-assisted perforating techniques are becoming more widely accepted. Schatz Research and Consulting.Along with standard EOB perforating with applied pressure from compressible gases and proppant carriers. HAL15977 2-16 PerfPro® Process . RA Marker Safety Joint Retrievable Packer Fill Disk Firing Head Centralizer Fast Gauge Recorder StimGun™ Assembly PulsFrac™ Analysis Report Extreme Overbalanced (EOB/StimGun™ Job) *PulsFrac is a trademark of John F. PulsFrac software package is utilized to safely design EOB perforating or propellant-assisted perforating jobs. The StimGun™ assembly. The PulsFrac software output indicates anticipated peak pressure and the degree of fracturing that can be expected. creating carbon dioxide gas. the propellant generates carbon dioxide gas at high peak pressures typically well above the formation fracture gradient. PulsFrac software is a very useful tool for screening candidate wells for types of EOB perforating techniques and for identifying potential operational issues. Inc. patented by Marathon Oil Company. As the shaped charges detonate. The StimGun assembly is an effective method for mild stimulation (fractures on order of 2 to 9 ft) for treating nearwellbore problems. combines solid propellant technology with conventional perforating. The propellant sleeve in the StimGun assembly simply slides over the perforation scalloped carrier and is held in position on the gun with the centralizer rings. The hardware utilized for either system remains the same aside from added protection by using centralizer rings to protect the brittle propellant material. The StimGun assembly may be utilized for either EOB or conventional underbalanced perforating. The propellant material is potassium perchlorate. the propellant is ignited by extreme heat from the gun system. One of the benefits of licensing the StimGun assembly technology is the access gained to the proprietary design called the PulsFrac™* program. an oxidizer that burns rapidly. As it burns.

The following failure modes are accounted for in the numerical solution: • Tubing burst / collapse • Packer axial load / differential • Tubing axial buckling or bending • Tubing compressive / tensile yield • Gun burst / collapse • Gun compressive / tensile yield • Casing burst • Sump packer / bridge plug axial load • Wireline tensile yield / pull-out HAL15037 Buckling / Collapse of Tubing Joint Below Retrievable Packer During Perforating Event *Software programs used under license from John F.Physics Based Numerical Modeling Physics based numerical model accounts for fluid dynamics and dynamic failure of solids by accounting for the following forces: • Pressure on surfaces • Drag • Internal stress waves and reflections • Gravity The time-marching finite differences technique is applied as the numerical method for both fluids and solids. The software is compiled on a personal computer and typically executes in times of several minutes to several hours. packers. Halliburton utilizes its proprietary ShockPro™ software package* to evaluate the mechanical risk factors of all well components to ensure that all aspects of HSE and Service Quality are covered. Schatz Research and Consulting. Accuracy . depending on complexity of job design. To help avoid such potential disasters. Inc. Advanced System for Analyzing Every Completion or Reservoir’s Unique Characteristics Halliburton’s ShockPro service determines the dynamic pressure behavior during the perforation event in addition to the solid loading that is imparted to the tubulars.ShockProSM Shockload Evaluation Service Engineer Perforated Completions to Evaluate the Mechanical Integrity of All System Components Relying on old rules of thumb or utilizing standard mechanical configurations to cover all perforating cases can lead to catastrophic results. PerfPro® Process HAL15038 2-17 . and other completion hardware in the perforating assembly.

000 samples per second. for instance the maximum tension or compression on a joint of pipe or the differential pressure applied to the packer. temperature. 2-18 PerfPro® Process . The physics based model has been validated special high speed recorders that sense pressure. Once dynamic failure criteria have been established. HAL15039 Steps can then be taken to correct unusually high peak loads to manage job risk factors. ShockPro software can be utilized to examine whether or not potential problems may occur with a given perforating assembly. and acceleration at sampling frequency on the order of 115.ShockPro™ Software Graphic Display with Error Flags for Tubing Yield and Buckling Failure This information is utilized to determine the peak pressure applied to a packer.

perforation. and perforation tunnel) • Valves. the SurgePro program takes into account a wide variety of factors: PerfPro® Process HAL15567 A typical screen capture from SurgePro™ software simulation. understanding and prediction of dynamic pressure behavior becomes paramount when conventional underbalance techniques are not an option. and orifices • Multiple diameter effects in the well including: . and solid rock mechanics for perforation breakdown. simultaneous coupled finite-difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for wellbore. The sub-models contained in the program are physics-driven and rely on measurable or estimated actual input parameters. no curve fitting or back of the envelop calculation. As a result. Capability to Model a Wide Range of Wellbore Conditions To fully represent dynamic wellbore behavior. perforation and fracture flow.SurgeProSM Service Halliburton’s SurgePro™ perforating-design software program* is robust and can be used for a large variety of dynamic wellbore calculations. and residual energy deposition (gun. and energy are conserved for each time step. the SurgePro program is ideal for predicting: • Wellbore. The solution is derived by using energy release equations for the gun. pumping. pumping.Subsequent transient return flow from perforations Mass. and flow back of fluids . well. 2-19 . and gun pressurizations • Wave propagation—fluid injection/production • Perforation behavior—perforation damage • Completion integrity—burst/collapse and packer differential Accuracy—Physics Based Solution with Documented Validation The SurgePro program is based on a proprietary analysis developed from: • API Section IV perforation flow laboratory studies • Time marching finite difference modeling • High-speed pressure measurements • Empirical field data • Thermodynamic mixing and multiple compressible fluid types/phases • Various energy sources.Flow into and breakdown of perforation tunnels . including perforating gun ignition. momentum.Surface pressurization.

5 seconds. Inc. The difference in productivity or core flow efficiency in this case is on the order of 82% by not completely cleaning up the perforation tunnel with proper underbalance pressure or differential surge flow. Hundreds of high-speed pressure records have been collected under varying well conditions to validate the modeling results generated.000 psi underbalance pressure.200 psi that can potentially improve well productivity. Note the gauge reading atmospheric pressure in the chamber prior to the perforating event following a sustained minimum surge pressure across the perforated interval of ± 1. *Software programs used under license from John F. HAL15569 HAL15570 Balanced Underbalanced 2-20 PerfPro® Process . In cases where conventional underbalance perforating is not applicable.HAL15568 Actual High Speed Field Pressure Measurement Dynamic underbalance is created with the application of a special fast opening surge vent assembly.000 psi for 0. This minimum surge pressure across the formation results in a dynamic underbalance 3. Schatz Research and Consulting. The picture on left is perforated in a balanced condition and the picture on the right is perforated ideally with 3. Identical sandstone targets perforated with the same 39 gram shaped charge at the same reservoir pressure and effective stress condition. The high speed gauge readings are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction from the physics based model. it may be possible to apply the SurgePro service to create a localized dynamic underbalance pressure to overcome the perforation damage or skin factor associated with balanced or overbalanced perforating techniques while still maintaining well control.

Modeling and Evaluation Halliburton's PerfPro® process is a systematic approach to optimize well inflow performance by proper selection of the gun system. PerfPro software is a web-based application that analyzes the effects of downhole conditions on perforator performance and productivity. The PerfPro workflow is designed to provide optimum perforating conditions and prediction of gun system performance. conveyance method. phasing. charge type. shot density. The PerfPro program performs calculations for charge performance (formation penetration and perforation hole diameter) and well productivity (productivity index and total skin). Change limits of measurement Start a new job? Yes Create a new job file No Configure a report Configure general information Save a job file Configure completion information Upload a job file to the web Export a job file to Well Evaluation Model Save a file to the post job data collection End: Exit PerfPro Configure well information HAL15332 Configure Perforation Penetration Model information A PerfPro® Workflow PerfPro® Process 2-21 . and well condition (overbalanced or underbalanced pressure). A Calculate productivity index? Yes Open a job file Configure reservoir information Display results No Start: ® Open PerfPro Before you start Ensure that all web browsers are closed before starting PerfPro.

Halliburton's PerfPro® charge performance calculations for penetration are based on proprietary models derived from theoretical and experimental studies carried out at Jet Research Center (JRC), a Halliburton Company. API RP-19B defines the procedure for evaluating gun system performance at surface conditions in unstressed concrete targets. A fully loaded gun system is perforated in actual casing surrounded by concrete, and the target penetration, casing entrance hole, and burr height are recorded. Halliburton's PerfPro program transforms API RP-19B Section I surface test data to downhole conditions by correcting for the formation compressive strength and effective stress. The associated downhole charge performance takes into account the gun positioning, casing grade, wellbore fluid density, and well condition.

Casing Gun Test Specimen Water Steel Form 28-Day Concrete
HAL15333

API Section 1 Concrete Target

HAL15393

PerfPro® Charge Performance Calculations

2-22

PerfPro® Process

The primary objective of the Halliburton PerfPro® process is to optimize gun selection and job execution to deliver the highest productivity index or lowest skin factor. Therefore, after charge performance values are calculated, the PerfPro program makes a productivity index and skin factor assessment. The PerfPro process accounts for skin factors due to perforation, drilling damage, partial penetration, nonDarcy flow, and well deviation. A fully three-dimensional

(3D) flow model is utilized, as described by Ansah et al. 2001, to characterize the skin component due to perforation geometry. Input well parameters and calculated charge performance values are linked to an artificial neural network, trained by the 3D finite element model, to generate the perforation skin component. The productivity index and total skin factor are corrected, utilizing analytical calculations for well inclination, partial penetration effect, non-Darcy flow, and drilling damage effects.

CHARGE PERFORMANCE REPORT

General Data
Reservoir fluid type Borehole Diameter Porosity Permeability Formation Compressive Strength Drilling Damage Radius Oil 12.25 24.0 1191.0 3891.0 3.0 in % md psi in Mid-Perforation Depth Reservoir Pressure Reservoir Temperature Completion Fluid Type Completion Fluid Density Lithology 3250.0 1464.0 112.0 Diesel 6.83 Sandstone ft - TVD psi °F lb/gal

Completion Data
Casing Description Outer Diameter Inner Diameter Grade Weight 1 9.63 8.68 N-80 47.0 in in lb/ft

PRODUCTIVITY REPORT Completion Data
Reservoir Fluid Type Drainage Radius Pseudo-Skin due to Well Deviation Oil 1500.0 -0.697 ft Well Deviation @ Perfs Net Sand Thickness Perforated Total Length 56.2 27.0 27.0 deg ft ft

Perforator Information
Charge Name Charge Type Charge Loading, gm Phasing, deg Shot Density, spg Gun Position Avg Formation Penetration, in Avg Entrance Hole Dia*, in API 5th Edition Section I Data Total Target Penetration, in Entrance Hole Diameter, in Gun 1 7" MILLENNIU M DP 39.0 45.0 12 Eccentered 40.68 0.36 43.3 0.36 Gun 2 4" MILLENNIU M SDP 39.0 60.0 5 Eccentered 43.22 0.29 52.0 0.37 Gun 3 4-1/2" MILLENNIU M SDP 22.7 30.0 12 Eccentered 23.78 0.28 26.8 0.38

Distance To Top Perf Interval Skin due to Partial Penetration

0.0 0.0

ft

Reservoir Data
Permeability Anisotropic Ratio, kV/kH Formation Volume Factor Formation Fluid Viscosity 1191.0 0.2 1.1 4.36 md bbl/stb cp Reservoir Pressure Reservoir Temperature Porosity API Gravity 1464.0 112.0 24.0 32.6 psi °F % °API

Perforator Information
Charge Name Gun Position Shot Phasing, deg Shot Density, spf Avg Formation Penetration, in Avg Entrance Hole Dia, in Underbalance Condition, psi Gun 1 7" MILLENNIU M Eccentered 45.0 12 40.68 0.36 -350.0 Gun 2 4" MILLENNIU M Eccentered 60.0 5 43.22 0.29 -350.0 Gun 3 4-1/2" MILLENNIU M Eccentered 30.0 12 23.78 0.28 -500.0

Productivity Analysis
Gun No. 1 Gun No. 2 Gun No. 3 Total Skin -0.666 -0.158 0.319 Perforation Skin 0.031 0.539 1.016 Productivity Index, STB/day/psi 7.2 6.682 6.261

PerfPro® Process

2-23

Total Pressure Drop Vs Flow Rate

1600 1400
Total Pressure Drop (psi)

1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0
0 2000 4000 Gun No.1 6000 Gun No.2 8000 Gun No.3 10000

HAL15390

PerfPro® Graph Example
Pl and Total Skin Vs Gun 7.2 1.0

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Gun 2 Gun Number PI Total Skin

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PerfPro® Graph Example

Total Skin

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PerfPro® Process

The Halliburton Perforation Flow Laboratory (API RP-19B Section IV)
The petroleum industry often evaluates gun systems solely on the results of an API RP-19B Section I test, choosing the gun system with the longest penetration in concrete or largest hole diameter. Unfortunately, the shaped charge manufacturers are well aware of this selection process and design and optimize their shaped charges for peak performance in unstressed concrete. Basing the perforation selection on Section I test data can lead to inefficiency in the shaped charge design process and in transforming surface data to downhole conditions. API RP-19B has provisions for a testing setup to evaluate shaped charges at conditions as close as possible to downhole conditions with Section IV testing. In the Perforation Flow Laboratory, a formation core can be perforated with a single shaped charge at reservoir pressure, effective stress, and a given well condition (underbalanced or overbalanced). This special testing apparatus allows each shaped charge to be evaluated by perforating in actual formation material as opposed to unstressed concrete. The core can be injected or flowed into after perforating to characterize the degree of perforation damage and cleanup as a function of the perforating condition. Following the perforating flow study, the core can be removed and the actual perforation geometry (tunnel length, shape, and damage) measured. Utilizing the Halliburton Perforation Flow Laboratory puts the focus on completion efficiency as a function of the way the perforation job will be executed at field conditions. This allows a more accurate way to assess perforator efficiency than simply evaluating Section I penetration results. For instance, a given charge may penetrate 2 in. deeper in a Section I target; however, if the charge cannot be shot with sufficient underbalance to effectively clean the perforation tunnel, then the full potential of the given shaped charge may never be realized. Core samples evaluated in the Perforation Flow Laboratory under the same conditions of pore pressure, effective stress, and charge type illustrate the importance of an underbalanced condition. The only variable changed between the two samples is the well condition. One sample was shot balanced and shows perforation damage due to plugging. The other sample shows that the entire perforation tunnel is completely open to flow when sufficient underbalanced pressure is applied.

Flow Path After Perforation Wellbore Chamber Shaped Charge Core Sample Overburden Pressure Vessel

Wellbore Pressure

Overburden Pressure

Simplified Perforation Flow Facility Schematic

HAL10997

HAL15391

Overbalanced

HAL11001

Underbalanced

PerfPro® Process

2-25

The Halliburton PerfPro® process completely optimizes post-job information to quantify well productivity. HAL15392 Post-Job Database Example 2-26 PerfPro® Process .Post-Job Evaluation The petroleum industry as a whole has begun to focus on designing/executing perforating jobs to achieve optimum completion efficiency. This powerful tool allows Halliburton to offer technically sound engineered perforating solutions with empirical data to support the solution. then gathers and archives that information into the PerfPro database. This allows Halliburton's deployed technical advisors to access a global perforation database that directly links the method by which we perform perforating services to completion efficiency. However. the validation of this process is generally somewhat lacking.

1201-1206. L.” paper 14321. J.E. M.” paper SPE 22811. 8. 1993.” World Oil (Nov. F.” paper SPE 73760.Y.: “Experimental Investigations of Hydraulic Fracturing Through Perforations.: “Particle Transport Through Perforations. 2002. Snider. and Millar. W. Karakas. F.: “Perforating System Selection for Optimum Well Inflow Performance.” paper SPE 18247. Pucknell. 1978. M. PerfPro® Process 2-27 . and Hardesty. Folse. and Soliman.. 5. Warpinski. 773-786. A. H. C.” paper SPE 26515. 1991. Halleck.. 1992. 2. L.H.E. Proett. A.K. Ramey Jr.” JPT (Sept. 6. 10. Gruesbeck.: “An Investigation of the Damaged Zone Created Perforating.G.” paper SPE 24771.” SPE paper 73762..R. 1996) 41-48. H. N..: “Laboratory Flow Characteristics of Gun Perforations.. and Behrmann.D. Daneshy. M. S. Anderson.T. 1994. J.: “Pseudoskin Factors for Partially Penetrating Directionally Drilled Wells. 12. and Bingham. and Preston. Jupp.M.A. 13. and Collins. 1985.” Journal of Petroleum Technology (October 1973) 25..” paper SPE 8006.: “Advances in Well Completion Design: A New 3D Finite-Element Wellbore Inflow Model for Optimizing Performance of Perforated Completions.Symposium on Rock Mechanics (1983) 24. Atwood. C. K.. King.. Handren.J.” Proceedings ..D. and Oriold.” paper SPE 28555. A. E. and Black.. T. 15... P. 1994.: “Semianalytical Productivity Models for Perforated Completions. and Harrigan Jr. J. Cinco-Ley. P. 2002. H.: “Investigation of the Accuracy and Reliability of In-Situ Stress Measurements Using Hydraulic Fracturing in Perforated Cased Holes.A Rock Mechanics View.F.: “Characterization of the Jet Perforation Crushed Zone by SEM and Image Analysis. J. 16.W.: “Extreme Overbalance Stimulations using TCP Proppant Carriers..Bibliography 1. Ansah. Pettijohn.: “X-Ray CT Observations of Flow Distribution in a Shaped-Charge Perforation.W. and Couet. B. 7. 11. Allin.. Bell. and Dees. 4. M.. D.: “Modeling of Fracture Propagation During Overbalanced Perforating. Abass. Chow. 1972) 1095-1103. M. 1975.: “Overbalance Perforation and Stimulation Method for Wells.B.M.. et al: “Oriented Perforation .M. 1988.C.M. 3. M. F. 9.” paper SPE 28560.J..A.. and Tariq. R..: “A Field Study of Underbalance Pressures Necessary to Obtain Clean Perforations Using Tubing-Conveyed Perforating. G. Asadi. J. P. Brieger. 14.” paper SPE 5589.” SPEFE (June 1994) 135-139.

2-28 PerfPro® Process .

tested. cost-efficient solutions. PerfStim™ is a trademark of Oryx Energy Company. The perforating assembly can be positioned and retained adjacent to the desired interval. and selective testing and perforating of an unlimited number of zones. Enhanced Overbalanced Perforating Solutions (page 20) These completions include POWR*PERF™. Once surface equipment is installed. In addition. it is possible to perforate and test the lower zone. shots can be oriented toward fracture planes or other needed areas of completions. accurate Halliburton data collection technology provides the information necessary to evaluate formation potential. Multizone Perforating and Testing (page 14) Multizone completions include dual completions and selective completions. STTP™-GH Single-Trip Perf/Pack. These methods offer unprecedented flexibility including the ability to test two zones in one trip. The drillpipe or tubing is then removed. commingling flow from both zones for the second test—all in a single trip. Annulus-Fired Systems (page 17) Annulus-fired systems are ideal for situations when nitrogen is unavailable or too costly. StimTube™ and StimGun™ are trademarks of Marathon Oil Company and are licensed to Halliburton by Marathon. POWR*PERF. swivels. Annulus-fired systems let you fire the guns without pressuring the tubing—maintaining maximum underbalance. The modular gun system brings tubing conveyed perforating advantages to monobore completions without creating flow restrictions. Sand Control Solutions (page 22) Sand control techniques include Shoot and Pull. Tubing runs in dry or with a minimal fluid pad. is licensed by Halliburton. Sophisticated. Patented by Oryx and licensed by Halliburton. cost-efficient solutions. StimTube™. a process of Marathon Oil Company. Modular Gun System (page 19) Horizontal Completions (page 6) Horizontal completions allow for perforating of long horizontal intervals. screenless FracPacSM. which maximizes the productive potential of these completions at the same cost as singletrip perforating. which cuts rig time and killfluid costs by using a single-trip procedure. by combining orienting fins. and StimGun™ systems. It also eliminates the need and cost for tubing between guns and the packer. and PerfConSM processes.Installation Examples Installation Examples Single-Zone Completions (page 3) Single-zone completions help minimize perforating costs while maximizing potential. This section describes typical single-zone completions as well as perforating below a permanent packer and how each component of the completion functions to provide quality. When combining a Y-block with Halliburton sliding sleeves. Each increases productivity by incorporating different perforating techniques. Single-Trip Perforating and Testing (page 13) Single-trip strings combine the benefits of tubing conveyed perforating and advanced testing technology to save rig time. Perforate and Squeeze (page 25) The perforate and squeeze method utilizes single-trip block squeeze (DrillGun™ system). All provide innovative. and then perforate the upper zone. guns are automatically detonated and released in the bottom of the well. Automatic-Release Gun Hangers (page 8) Automatic-release gun hangers (ARGH) allow perforating and testing of a zone without downhole restrictions. Halliburton dual completions help maintain maximum underbalance and reduce costs while enhancing flexibility. Select Fire™ Systems (page 26) Select Fire™ systems utilize dual and multiple zone perforating and testing. POWR*PERF is a service mark/trademark of Marathon Oil Company and licensed by Halliburton. and selectively produced through a single string. isolating two zones for selective testing and perforating. With piggy back multizone completions. multiple zones can be perforated. Installation Examples Special Applications 3-1 1 . and low-side VannGun® assemblies. PerfStim™.

KV-II.Live Well Perforating (page 29) Live well perforating utilizes ratchet connectors or AutoLatch™/release gun connectors. The firing heads are the ball drop actuator firing head. Downhole Pump Completions (page 33) Rod pump completions offer the advantages of underbalanced perforating in rod-pumped wells and are able to keep fluids away from sensitive formations. The isolation sub-assembly is a more economical tool which may be utilized on wells with lower surface pressures. and pressure-actuated firing heads such as TDF. The firing mechanisms used to detonate the guns are hydraulically operated. The AutoLatch connector combines coiled tubing economies with perforating benefits. Coiled Tubing Perforating (page 34) Coiled tubing is another method used in the industry to deploy perforating guns into a well. etc. model K. which is also available with a swivel. The ratchet connector is conducive to snubbing into live wells much faster without a drilling rig. 3-2 Special Applications 2 Installation Examples Special Applications 2 .

allowing circulation at any point.Single-Zone Completions Closed System Single-zone completions help minimize perforating costs while maximizing potential. circulation removes debris from the tool’s glass disk. swabbing or displacing fluids with nitrogen provides for an underbalance. It runs in with the ports open. This string runs in virtually dry to create maximum underbalance without swabbing or nitrogen blow-down costs. The BIT’s design separates the clean fluid below it from the kill fluids above it. Open System Replacing a vent with the ported balanced isolation tool (BIT) provides for underbalanced perforating and replaces the fill disk and perforated sub. Before firing. Radioactive Sub Radioactive Sub Retrievable Packer Retrievable Packer Profile Nipple Balanced Isolation Tool Maximum Differential Bar Vent Tubing Release Model II-D or Model III-D Pressure-Assisted Firing Head Mechanical Firing Head Detonation Interruption Device VannGun Assembly HAL15401 ® Automatic Release VannGun Assembly Time-Delay Firing Head Single-Zone Closed System Installation Examples Special Applications HAL8145 Single-Zone Open System 3-3 3 . Redundant firing heads minimize delays caused by firing problems. Once the guns are positioned.

With Circulation Valve To limit underbalance pressures. the Vann™ circulating valve runs in open but closes automatically when a predetermined pressure is reached. With Pressure-Operated Tools Halliburton developed this string of pressure-operated tools when the use of wireline is not feasible. Radioactive Sub Tubing Joint Retrievable Packer Hydraulic Packer Vann™ Circulating Valve Bar Pressure Vent Profile Nipple Pressure-Operated Tubing Release Model II-D or Model III-D Pressure-Assisted Firing Head VannGun® Assembly Circulating Valve Model II-D or Model III-D Pressure-Assisted Firing Head VannGun® Assembly Pressure-Operated Vent Time-Delay Firing Head HAL15402 HAL5869 Time Delay Firing Head Vann™ Circulating Valve Pressure-Operated Tools 3-4 Special Applications 4 Installation Examples Special Applications 4 .

or wireline. Temperature chart in Section 4. then stinging the perforating string through it minimizes the charges’ exposure to high temperatures. Permanent Packer Permanent Packer with Sealbore Extension Profile Nipple Balanced Isolation Tool Mechanical Tubing Release (Optional) Balanced Isolation Tool Mechanical Tubing Release (optional) Model II-D or Model III-D Pressure-Assisted Firing Head VannGun® Assembly Model II-D or Model III-D Pressure-Assisted Firing Head VannGun® Assembly Time-Delay Firing Head HAL11799 HAL8147 Time-Delay Firing Head Guns Sting Through Packer Guns Run With Packer Installation Examples Special Applications 3-5 5 . The packer and guns are run in on drillpipe. Guns Run With Packer Running VannGun® assemblies with the permanent packer eliminates the packer bore restrictions on gun size.Perforating Below a Permanent Packer Guns Sting Through Packer Perforating charge explosives deteriorate rapidly at high downhole temperatures. This design offers another advantage. After displacing mud and heavy fluids out of the tubing to create the underbalance. Once the perforating string is spaced out. This allows larger guns to be run. the tubing seal is stung into the packer and the guns fired. circulating mud and heavy fluids out of the tubing string establishes underbalance. If required. (See the Time vs. the guns can be retrieved without drilling out the packer.) Running and setting a large-bore packer on wireline. String design places the VannGun assemblies across the interval to be perforated when the packer is set. tubing.

This independent rotation is important on long strings of guns in horizontal wells when it is necessary to orient them in a specific direction. maximizing the productive potential of horizontal completions while providing the economies of singletrip perforating. Explosive Transfer Swivel Sub The explosive transfer swivel sub was designed to allow two sections of guns to rotate independently of one another. Typically. this sub passes on the explosive transfer to the next gun. In other words. Retrievable Packer HAL15994 Ported Time-Delay Nipple Firing Head VannGun® Assembly Tubing Spacers Horizontal Completion Retrievable Packer (Optional) HAL10507 Ported Nipple and Time-Delay Firer Orienting Subs VannGun Assembly ® Ported Nipple and Time-Delay Firer Tubing Swivel Explosive Transfer Swivel Subs Swivel Sub Installation 3-6 Special Applications 6 Installation Examples Special Applications 6 . but widely separated gun sections. all intervals are perforated and underbalanced. Since the guns fire virtually simultaneously. It is easier to orient several short sections of guns than one long gun section. Using pressure-actuated Halliburton timedelay firing heads on each gun eliminates misfires caused by the breaks that so frequently occur in long firing trains.Horizontal Completions This string perforates extremely long horizontal intervals. the string incorporates short. This swivel sub can be run as a connector between two guns to allow them to rotate independently without breaking the explosive train.

swivels. which allows perforating in any direction.G-Force® Precision Oriented Perforating System The combination of orienting fins. irrespective of the gun's position relative to the casing. Annulus Pressure Crossover Retrievable Packer HAL15396 Pressure-Operated Vent Fill Disk Time-Delay Firing Head G-Force® System Time-Delay Firing Head G-Force® System Installation Examples Special Applications 3-7 7 . This system features an internal orienting charge tube assembly and gun carrier. The recent introduction of the G-Force® internal orienting system allows very accurate gravity based charge orientation. and low-side VannGun® assemblies keep shots oriented toward fracture planes or other areas of interest in horizontal completions.

The perforating assembly can be positioned and retained adjacent to the desired interval. and no restrictions left in casing below the packer. Retrievable Packer ARGH Completion Below a Retrievable Packer When using an ARGH completion below a retrievable packer. the guns are detonated and then released automatically into the bottom of the well.Automatic-Release Gun Hangers For high volume testing and production. Other benefits include no tubing required between guns and packer. The drillpipe or tubing is then removed. On-Off Tool VannGun® Assembly ARGH Set ARGH Release HAL15413 ARGH Completion Below a Retrievable Packer 3-8 Special Applications 8 Installation Examples Special Applications 8 . Additional perforations may be added through the tubing at a later date. After all surface equipment is installed. Modular design allows for the use of less make-up space. the automaticrelease gun hanger (ARGH) allows perforating and testing of a zone without imposing downhole restrictions. no wireline work required to drop the assembly. the completion uses the maximum desired underbalance.

while the ARGH and guns are run on the workstring. One of the main benefits of using the ARGH completion below a permanent packer is that the production tubing is run and tested independently of other tools. the permanent packer sets on wireline. Other benefits include less risk of presetting the packer. and lower pressure needed to fire guns since setting the packer requires no pressure. Permanent Packer On-Off Tool ® VannGun Assembly ARGH Set ARGH Release HAL15414 ARGH Completion Below a Permanent Packer Installation Examples Special Applications 3-9 9 .ARGH Completion Below a Permanent Packer When using an ARGH completion below a permanent packer.

Monobore Completion Below a Permanent Packer When using a monobore completion below a permanent packer. production tubing and a permanent packer are installed before running the ARGH assembly. Permanent Packer On-Off Tool VannGun® Assembly ARGH Set HAL15415 ARGH Release Monobore Completion Below a Permanent Packer 3-10 Special Applications 10 Installation Examples Special Applications 10 . and the use of lower firing pressures since production equipment is tested prior to installing guns in the well. Other benefits include having the guns on bottom for a shorter period of time. Remedial work can be performed without pulling production equipment. This allows retrieval and replacement of the perforating assembly without tripping expensive production tubing.

while the sealbore of the PBR is protected from any damage that might occur. Polished Bore Receptacle On-Off Tool VannGun® Assembly ARGH Set HAL15416 ARGH Release Monobore Completion Below a Polished Bore Receptacle Installation Examples Special Applications 3-11 11 . The full ID of the liner and production tubing can be used for fluid flow. production tubing and seal assembly are installed in the PBR and tested before running the ARGH and guns.Monobore Completion Below a Polished Bore Receptacle When using a monobore completion below a polished bore receptacle (PBR). Other benefits include having the guns on bottom a shorter period of time.

No tubing is required below the pump. while continuing production via the ESP. all benefits of TCP are provided. and since the guns are not connected with the tubing. Electric Submersible Pump On-Off Tool ® VannGun Assembly ARGH Set ARGH Release HAL15417 ARGH Completion Below an Electric Submersible Pump 3-12 Special Applications 12 Installation Examples Special Applications 12 . Even in wells with casing too small to run a tubing string along the ESP. they do not transmit any mechanical shock. allows the well to be perforated underbalanced.ARGH Completion Below an Electric Submersible Pump The ARGH completion below an electric submersible pump (ESP).

economics. Sophisticated. This schematic illustrates tools typically used in single-zone. Perforating underbalanced removes damage that can adversely impact data accuracy and production. and testing objectives determine the specific tools used. Halliburton one-step procedures incorporate redundant well control systems—surface control equipment in place. accurate Halliburton data collection technology provides the information needed to evaluate the formation’s potential. Slip Joints OMNI™ Valve Radioactive Sub OMNI™ Circulating Valve Sampler Select Tester® Valve Gauge Carrier and HMR Gauges Bypass Safety Joint BIG JOHN Jars Safety Joint Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir Packer ® CHAMP® IV Retrievable Packer Gauge Carrier and HMR Gauges Vertical and Radial Shock Absorbers Perforated Tailpipe Balanced Isolation Tool Tubing Release Firing Head HAL15978 HAL15979 Circulating Valve Pressure-Operated Vent Pressure Transfer Control Line Annulus Pressure Firing Head with Extended Mechanical Firing Head ® VannGun Assembly VannGun Assembly Time-Delay Firing Head ® Collet Assembly Single-Trip Perforating and Testing Installation Examples Special Applications 3-13 13 . All tools are pressure-operated. one-step perforate and test procedures. Well conditions. Halliburton downhole safety valves. The annulus pressure firing head provides the benefits of tubing conveyed perforating in situations when heavy muds or regulations preclude the use of drop bars.Single-Trip Perforating and Testing These one-trip strings combine the benefits of Halliburton tubing conveyed perforating and advanced Halliburton testing technology that save rig time. eliminating the rig-time costs involved in calling out and running wireline equipment. and tester valves.

Multizone Perforating and Testing Piggy Back Multizone Completion With this system. and then perforate the upper zone. Retrievable Packer Balanced Isolation Tool Mechanical Tubing Release Model II-D or Model III-D Pressure-Assisted Firing Head VannGun® Assembly Time-Delay Firing Head VannGun Assembly HAL15394 Piggy Back Multizone Completion 3-14 Special Applications 14 Installation Examples Special Applications 14 . The upper zone can be evaluated by comparing data from the two tests. commingling flow from both zones for the second test—all in a single trip. it is possible to perforate and test the lower zone.

and your preferences determine the actual configuration. Usually the long string is run first. set. Drilling fluids in the short string are displaced by lighter fluids or nitrogen to provide underbalance. the packer set and tested. and the dual packer and string run. Dual String with Y-Block The Halliburton Y-block provides the flexibility to perforate widely separated intervals without the cost of gun spacers and long detonating cord runs. Well conditions. In some situations. After clean up. the bottom packer can be run and set on wireline. a plug is set in the packer. economics. Retrievable Hydraulic-Set Dual Packer Profile Nipple Balanced Isolation Tool Model II or Model III Assist Firing Head or Pressure-Actuated Firing Head Dual Phase VannGun® Assembly Time-Delay Firing Head Gun Guides Retrievable Dual Packer Halliburton Y-Block Time-Delay Firing Head Dual Phase VannGun Assembly Gun Guide Time-Delay Firing Head Halliburton Y-Block Time-Delay Firing Head ® Profile Nipple Bar Pressure Vent Model II-D Firing Head Automatic Tubing Release VannGun Assembly HAL5873 HAL5875 Dual Phase VannGun Assembly Gun Guide Time-Delay Firing Head Retrievable Packer Dual Completion Halliburton Y-Block Installation Examples Special Applications 3-15 15 . and the VannGun® assemblies fired.Dual-String Completion This typical dual-zone Halliburton VannSystem® configuration maintains maximum underbalance when each zone is perforated. and then both strings run simultaneously. and tested prior to perforating the upper zone. the tubing pulled.

and standard dual completions. A modified model III-D mechanical firing head is attached to the short string side of a side pocket mandrel. multizone completions. the tools can be used to complete multiple zones. The firing head is detonated with a kickover tool run on slickline. tested. and selectively produced through a single string. Side Pocket Mandrel The side pocket mandrel firing head (SPMFH) is designed for well conditions that preclude the use of a pressureactuated firing head run with a Y-block. The side pocket mandrel firing system is used on single-string. While the diagram shows a typical completion.Single-String Selective Completion Combining the Vann™ Y-block with Halliburton sliding sleeves allows multiple zones to be perforated. Retrievable Packer Dual Retrievable Packer Sliding Sleeve Y-Block Dual Phase VannGun® Assembly Time-Delay Firing Head Sliding Sleeve Side Pocket Mandrel Model II-D or III-D Firing Head Retrievable Packer Hydraulic-Set Packer Profile Nipple Fill Disk Tubing Release Model II-D or Model III-D Pressure-Assisted Firing Head VannGun Assembly HAL15406 Sliding Sleeve Y-Block Time-Delay Firing Head Dual Phase VannGun Assembly Permanent Packer Profile Nipple Fill Disk Profile Nipple Model III-D Firing Head Kickover Tool Profile Nipple Time-Delay Firing Head Single-String Selective Completions Side Pocket Mandrel 3-16 Special Applications 16 HAL8143 Model II-D or III-D Firing Head Installation Examples Special Applications 16 .

which eliminates the need for external control line. This is accomplished through the use of concentric tubing.Annulus-Fired Systems Annulus Pressure Firer-Control Line This string maximizes underbalance pressures—ideal for situations when nitrogen is unavailable or too costly. Slimhole Annulus Pressure FirerInternal Control The operation of the slimhole annulus pressure firerinternal control (APF-IC) system depends on the transfer of annular pressure through the packer down to the APF-IC firing head. Annulus pressure firer-control line (APF-C) tools let you fire the guns without pressuring tubing—maintaining maximum underbalance. OMNI™ Valve BIG JOHN Jar BIG JOHN Jar Safety Joint Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir CHAMP® Packer Packer ® ® Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir Safety Joint Fill Disk Flow Ports Pressure Transfer Control Line Annulus Pressure Firing Head with Extended Mechanical Firing Head VannGun Assembly Collet Assembly HAL15403 HAL5883 ® APF-IC Firing Head with Model II-D or Model III-D Firing Head VannGun Assembly ® Collet Assembly Annulus Pressure Firer-Control Line (APF-C) Slimhole Annulus Pressure Firer-Internal Control (APF-IC) Installation Examples Special Applications 3-17 17 . Tubing runs in dry or with a minimal fluid pad.

Once the packer has been set. The pressures in the annulus and the tubing can also be manipulated to create the differential pressure necessary to actuate a differential-type firing head. The APCA creates a pressure chamber above the firing head that is equalized with the pressure in the casing annulus. Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly Packer Ported Sealing Sub Time-Delay Firing Head VannGun® Assembly HAL10535 Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly 3-18 Special Applications 18 Installation Examples Special Applications 18 .Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly The annulus pressure crossover assembly (APCA) allows the use of annulus pressure to actuate any one of several firing heads. the pressure on the annulus can be increased to actuate a pressure-actuated firing head. This assembly is compatible with retrievable packers of all types and sizes.

The system also eliminates the need for—and the cost of— tubing between the guns and packer in conventional completions. The automatic-release gun hanger is set. Surface equipment is installed and tested.Modular Gun System The Halliburton modular gun system brings tubing conveyed perforating advantages to monobore completions—without creating flow restrictions. Running/Releasing Tool Running Stinger Slickline Deployed Mechanical Firing Head or Time-Delay Firing Head Centralizers VannGun Assembly Modular Gun Skirt Shooting Stinger VannGun Assembly Modular Gun Skirt Shooting Stinger VannGun Assembly Shooting Stinger Automatic Release Gun Hanger ® Modular Gun System Installation Examples Special Applications HAL5907 3-19 19 . Then the guns are fired—causing the automaticrelease gun hanger to release and fall into the rathole with all perforating tools. or the expended guns can be removed on wireline. then VannGun® assemblies with modular gun connectors attached are run in on wireline and stacked.

an extreme overbalanced perforating system. a process of Marathon Oil Company. The spear removes crush zone damage and initiates fractures in the formation. The extreme overbalance—a pressure gradient of at least 1. POWR*PERF is a service mark/trademark of Marathon Oil Company and licensed by Halliburton. PerfStim™ is a trademark of Oryx Energy Company. reducing stimulation costs. Patented by Oryx and licensed by Halliburton. is licensed by Halliburton. driving a fluid spear into the formation. Wellhead Isolation Tool Nitrogen Nitrogen Fluid Column Radioactive Collar Fluid Column Radioactive Collar CHAMP IV Packer ® CHAMP IV Packer ® Tubing Tubing Model KV-II Firing Head Vann™ Model KV-II Firing Head Proppant Carrier with Punch Charges VannGun® Assembly VannGun® Assembly HAL15314 HAL15387 POWR*PERFSM Process PerfStim™ System 3-20 Special Applications 20 Installation Examples Special Applications 20 . it also initiates fractures in the formation.4 psi/ft (31Kpa/m)—creates a high-pressure surge at the instant of perforation. not only produces cleaner perforations in lowpressure formations. POWR*PERF. PerfStim™ System The PerfStim™ system. often creating negative skin factors.Enhanced Overbalanced Perforating Solutions POWR*PERFSM Process The POWR*PERFSM process uses bauxite to mechanically scour perforations. The system also produces information that can improve stimulation treatment design. aiding in damage removal.

The system produces cleaner perforations.StimTube™ System The StimTube™ system creates a surge of high-pressure gas at the formation face that cleans up damage. Slipping a propellant sleeve over a conventional VannGun® assembly before it is run creates the StimGun tool. The tool runs on standard Halliburton tubing conveyed perforating strings or wireline. StimGun is a trademark of Marathon Oil Company. and enters and fractures the formation. The pressure and shock wave created when the perforating charges fire ignites the sleeve. The gas enters the perforations. breaks through crush-zone damage. and improves production. StimTube is a trademark of Marathon Oil Company. Typical applications include stimulating thin zones with nearby gas or water and selectively stimulating multiple zones without running and setting packers for each zone. Radioactive Collar On/Off Connector Radioactive Mark Safety Joint PLS Packer Retrievable Packer Vent Fill Disk Firing Head StimTube™ System Firing Head Centralizer Propellant Sleeve over VannGun® Assembly Fast Gauge Recorder Fast Gauge Recorder StimTube™ System HAL15408 Installation Examples Special Applications HAL15405 StimGun™ Tool 3-21 21 . initiates fractures. The service can be used in cased holes after perforations have been shot or in openhole. StimGun™ Tool The StimGun™ tool generates large volumes of highpressure gas the instant the guns fire. lowers hydraulic fracturing costs. and removes emulsion blocks from existing perforations.

and circulating the kill fluid without requiring tubing movement. After perforating. PR Fas-Fil Valve RD Valve Bundler Carrier with Electronic Gauge BIG JOHN® Jar RTTS Safety Joint ® CHAMP Retrievable Packer Bar Pressure Vent Model II-D or III-D Pressure Assisted Firing Head VannGun Assembly ® Collet Assembly Sump Packer HAL15407 Shoot and Pull 3-22 Special Applications 22 Installation Examples Special Applications 22 . Halliburton’s annulus pressure operated OMNI™ valve provides for reversing out produced fluids. the string is pulled from the well.Sand Control Solutions Shoot and Pull Halliburton’s shoot and pull controls underbalance while limiting sand production and surging perforations. spotting a fluid loss pill across the perforated interval.

The STPP-GH system provides increased safety as well as economic benefits by combining multiple operations in a single pipe trip. the auto-release gun hanger mechanism allows the expended guns to drop to the bottom of the well. single run completions that combine perforating and frac-packing into a single string.STPP™-GH Single-Trip Perf/Pack System The STPP™-GH single-trip perf/pack system provides cost-effective. The single-trip system can minimize completion fluid loss. and reduce well control risks. the CHAMP® IV packer is lowered and set below the perforations to complete fracpack operations. With the STPP-GH system. After perforating. reduce rig cost. After the well is perforated. CHAMP IV Packer ® Closing Sleeve Assembly Blank Assembly VBA FracPac™ Packer Lower Sump Packer Closing Sleeve Blank Screen Hydraulic Release VannGun® Assembly Auto Release Gun Hanger Lower Sump Packer STPP™-GH Single-Trip Perf/Pack System Installation Examples Special Applications HAL8829 3-23 23 . the guns are detached from the packer before perforating to eliminate impact loads on the packer.

and larger tubing • One to five billion cubic feet reserves or less per zone • Six to 12 months production life per zone • Stacked zones. The perforating and vent screen assembly is run on CT. Pressure is applied to tubing to fire perforating guns and then guns are lowered to bottom and released from CT with hydraulic release. End of Tubing Production Packer Vent Screen Blank Screen Pressure Firing Head VannGun Assembly ® HAL15397 Plug Back Cobra Pac® Service 3-24 Special Applications 24 Installation Examples Special Applications 24 . such as a complete rigless process with electric line. limited reserves. Ideal zones have these characteristics: • Completion with 2 7/8-in. and small fault blocks Lower zone is isolated by setting a cement retainer or bridge plug on electric line for depth control. coiled tubing (CT). Sand control treatment is pumped through tubing and then CT is run in the hole to wash the sand off the top of the vent screen. and guns are correlated by tagging cement retainer/bridge plug or utilizing DepthProSM collar locator. and perforating solutions to install a vent screen completion.Cobra Pac® Service The Cobra Pac® service brings together key Halliburton technologies that can help make previously bypassed zones profitable to produce.

The well is controlled without replacing clear fluids with drilling mud while perforating. Radioactive Marker Setting Tool EZ Drill® SVB Squeeze Packer Brass Pressure-Actuated Firing Head All-Aluminum VannGun® Assembly Single-Trip Block Squeeze DrillGun™ System Installation Examples Special Applications HAL5912 3-25 25 . After pulling the workstring and pumping the squeeze job. the packer and aluminum gun are drilled out. so there are no mud disposal problems. The packer is set and perforations shot in the same trip. The system provides another substantial savings.Perforate and Squeeze Single-Trip Block Squeeze DrillGun™ System The unique Halliburton all-aluminum VannGun® system and brass firing head greatly reduce the costs of block squeeze procedures—especially in highly deviated wells.

the packer would be moved and reset after each zone was shot and tested.) Third VannGun Assembly ® Annulus Pressure Crossover Tool Packer Ported Sealing Sub Third Time-Delay Firing Head Second Air Chamber Second Select Fire™ Sub Second Pressure Isolation Sub Second VannGun Assembly Second Time-Delay Firing Head Control Line First Air Chamber First Select Fire Sub First Pressure Isolation Sub First VannGun Assembly First Time-Delay Firing Head HAL8191 Control Line Sub Select Fire™ Systems 3-26 Special Applications 26 Installation Examples Special Applications 26 . Guns can be configured to fire sequentially top down or bottom up—or in any order. The system provides the following benefits: • Eliminates the need to kill the well • Eliminates pulling and re-running the test string after firing each set of guns • Eliminates the need to re-establish well flow This sequence on the following page illustrates perforating and testing each zone sequentially from the bottom up and commingling flow from the zones. Zones can be isolated for perforating and testing or flow from each new set of perforations can be commingled with flow from earlier perforations. (If conditions required isolating each zone.Select Fire™ Systems Halliburton’s unique Select Fire™ system provides unprecedented flexibility.

The first Select Fire™ sub keeps pressure from reaching the second firing head. creating a path to the second firing head. Step 2—Annulus pressure is re-applied and travels to the second time delay firing head.Step 1—Annulus pressure from above the packer enters the crossover tool and is applied to the first (bottom) timedelay firing head. The second pressure isolation sub keeps pressure from venting through perforations in the first and second zones. The sub fires. the firing train continues to the Select Fire sub. Pressure is released. The first pressure isolation sub keeps pressure from venting through the first set of perforations. Pressure is released. the guns fire. Production from the second zone is commingled with pressure from the first zone for testing. When the guns detonate. the gun fires. The time delay provides time to bleed off pressure. HAL8191 Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Installation Examples Special Applications 3-27 27 . The zone is tested. Step 3—Pressure applied to the annulus passes through the annulus pressure crossover and down the control line to the third time-delay firing head. and flow from all three are commingled for testing. and the second Select Fire sub fires and opens a path to the third gun.

Additional pressure fires the lower set of guns. Produced fluid is reversed out using the Halliburton OMNI™ valve. isolating the lower zone. Increasing and releasing annulus pressure fires the upper guns. After setting packers. Annulus Pressure Crossover Hydraulic-Set Packer Pressure-Operated Vent Control Line Time-Delay Firing Head Select Fire™ Sub Time-Delay Firing Head Select Fire Sub Time-Delay Firing Head VannGun® Assembly Circulating Valve Time-Delay Firing Head CHAMP® Packer Time-Delay Firing Head VannGun Assembly Time-Delay Firing Head Dual Drillstem Test System 3-28 Special Applications 28 HAL5908 Installation Examples Special Applications 28 . this string isolates each zone for perforating and testing. pressuring up on the tubing opens the pressure-operated vent to provide communication below the lower packer.Dual Drillstem Test System Incorporating components of Halliburton’s innovative Select Fire™ system. annulus pressure closes the Vann™ circulating valve. After testing. The Halliburton CHAMP® retrievable packer sets mechanically while tubing pressure sets the top packer.

the stripper rams are closed and the blind ram opened. no kill-fluid caused formation damage. formation back-surge pressures clean perforations • Connection time of approximately 20 minutes or less per VannGun® assembly—a fraction of the time required by other systems • Halliburton hydraulic workover unit runs tools. Installation Examples Special Applications 3-29 29 . • Uses standard BOP stacks—special ram assemblies not required • Maintains positive pressure control—at least one BOP ram closed during every running in and retrieval step.Live Well Perforating Ratchet Connector The innovative design behind the Halliburton ratchet connector significantly reduces the cost of using perforating techniques in live wells. and the stripper ram opened. The next VannGun section is attached and the procedure repeated. The second gun section is lowered until the two ratchet connector sections meet. is stripped through the open stripper rams (not shown). Turning to the left activates the ratchet. The procedure is reversed when retrieving the perforating assembly. eliminating the risk of damaging currently producing zones First VannGun Section Ratchet Connectors The following outlines what occurs when VannGun assemblies are run under pressure with the Halliburton ratchet connector. Step 1—Closing the seal slip rams around the ratchet connector seal sub hangs the first VannGun section in the BOP stack. Benefits • Delivers the advantages of live well perforating with no costly kill fluids. so guns can be run and retrieved on coiled tubing or even wireline. After closing the ram. with the ratchet section of the ratchet connector attached. formation back-surge pressures clean perforations—without the cost of a drilling rig • Halliburton coiled tubing or wireline units run and retrieve guns. Benefits Ratchet Connector Seal Slip Ram Ratchet Connector Seal Sub HAL5809 • Delivers the advantages of live well perforating with no kill fluids. • Perforates new zones in producing wells without kill fluids. turning to the right releases the running tool. Connections make up in a fraction of the time required by conventional snubbing systems. no kill-fluid caused by formation damage. Step 4—The guns are lowered until the ratchet connector seal sub atop the second VannGun section is opposite the seal ram. Step 3—Once the gun section passes. freeing the drilling rig. which is then closed. The running tool is raised above the blind ram. The blind rams are closed. connecting the two sections. No rotation is required to connect the guns. • Uses standard blowout preventer (BOP) stacks with no need for special ram assemblies • Maintains positive pressure control—does not compromise pressure control systems engineered into Halliburton hydraulic workover units—since at least one BOP ram closes during every running in and retrieval step • Eliminates the risk of damaging producing zones with kill fluids when reperforating producing wells Second ® VannGun Section Blind Ram AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector The Halliburton AutoLatch™ release gun connector literally latches VannGun sections together in the BOP stack as they run in. Step 2—The second VannGun section.

Refer to the operating manual for procedures when running and retrieving under pressure. the seal/slip rams are opened and the two VannGun sections are lowered into the well until the seal area on the stinger assembly (at the top of the second perforating gun section) is positioned in the seal/slip rams. they are closed and the blind rams opened. Pressure-Actuated Firing Head Third VannGun Section ® AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector Second VannGun Section AutoLatch Release Gun Connector HAL11753 First VannGun Section Operation-Ratchet Connector 3-30 Special Applications 30 Installation Examples Special Applications 30 HAL5796 . When the tool components meet. Shear pins prevent disconnecting when rotating to the right. with the ratchet made up at the bottom. (There is a seal area on the stinger for the rams. To operate. The second VannGun assembly.) The running tool is released from the first VannGun section and then pulled from the BOP stack. or wireline. The ram is closed. The running tool is lifted above the blind rams. which are then closed on the stinger. hydraulic workover. which are then closed. and it is pulled out of the well. the connection sequence is reversed. Once the two VannGun sections are latched. The string is lowered until the seal area of the connector is next to the seal/slip ram area. The running tool is released. Once the connector and VannGun assemblies are past the stripper rams. Blind Ram Seal/Slip Ram Blank Ram Pipe Ram AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector Coiled Tubing or Jointed Pipe Operation-Ratchet Connector The ratchet connector connects with left-hand rotation.Operation-AutoLatch™ Connector The AutoLatch™ release gun connector consists mainly of the stinger and latching/releasing assemblies. The second VannGun section is then run into the well and set over the stinger. Weight is set down on the latching/releasing assembly to shear the screws and to latch the collet fingers onto the stinger. joining the two VannGun sections. Left-hand rotation shears the brass pins and allows the tool to disconnect. To retrieve the perforating assembly. This procedure is repeated until all VannGun sections are run into the well. is stripped through the open stripper ram. The connection sequence begins with one VannGun assembly hung in the BOP stack with the seal slip rams and blind rams closed. rotating to the left activates the ratchet. The first VannGun section is run into the well and set in the seal/slip rams. the stinger assembly is threaded into the top of the first VannGun® section. and the latching/releasing assembly is threaded into the bottom of the second VannGun section. or when using coiled tubing.

First VannGun® Assembly Once the AutoLatch running tool is above the blind rams. Blind Ram Assembly AutoLatch Stinger Assembly HAL5799 AutoLatch™ Stinger Assembly HAL5800 First ® VannGun Assembly The AutoLatch running tool is pulled out of the BOP stack. leaving the stinger and VannGun section suspended by the seal/slip rams. The seal/slip rams are closed to suspend the first VannGun section and stinger assembly in the BOP stack. unlatching the tool. Closing the pipe rams compresses stop-release pads on the AutoLatch running tool. Installation Examples Special Applications 3-31 31 . the rams are closed.AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector AutoLatch™ Running Tool HAL5797 AutoLatch Stinger Assembly AutoLatch™ Running Tool HAL5798 AutoLatch Stinger Assembly First VannGun® Assembly First VannGun® Assembly Each VannGun® section is connected to the AutoLatch™ running tool on the surface and run into the BOP through the stripper rams (not shown). AutoLatch™ Running Tool The assembly is lowered until the seal area of the AutoLatch stinger is opposite the seal/slip rams.

Guns are retrieved by reversing running-in procedures. Isolation Sub-Assembly Lubricator Upper Gun BOP Stack Snubbing Connector HAL12326 Lower Gun The isolation sub-assembly allows the customer the capability to complete or recomplete the well without killing it.AutoLatch™ Skirt Assembly Second ® VannGun Assembly AutoLatch Stinger Assembly HAL5801 AutoLatch™ Skirt Assembly HAL5802 AutoLatch Stinger Assembly First VannGun® Assembly First VannGun Assembly The AutoLatch™ skirt assembly is made up on the bottom of the second VannGun® section. The assembly is lowered onto the AutoLatch stinger atop the first VannGun section. and after the guns are deployed in or out of the well. during. The well can be producing before. The AutoLatch skirt on the second VannGun section sits down on and latches to the AutoLatch stinger atop the first VannGun section. and the cycle begins again. 3-32 Special Applications 32 Installation Examples Special Applications 32 .

Sucker Rod Tubing Anchor Sucker Rod Pump Pump Seating Nipple Pressure Transfer and Bypass Differential Pressure Firing Head VannGun Assembly ® Downhole Pump Completions Installation Examples Special Applications HAL15353 3-33 33 . it also keeps fluids away from sensitive formations. VannGun® assemblies run in on a standard rod-pump production string.Downhole Pump Completions This string not only provides the advantages of underbalanced perforating in rod-pumped wells. Pumping the well down creates the underbalance and initiates the Vann™ pressure differential firing head.

which is also available with a swivel. The firing mechanisms used are hydraulically operated. model K. KV-II.Coiled Tubing Perforating Coiled tubing is another method used in the industry to deploy perforating guns and other tools into a well. etc. Coiled Tubing Conveyed Bridge Plug with Pressure Firing Head Coiled Tubing Coiled Tubing Dual Flapper Check Valve Hydraulic Disconnect Pressure Relief Sub KV-II Firing Head Setting Tool Bridge Plug Bridge Plug HAL15409 Coiled Tubing Conveyed Bridge Plug with Pressure Firing Head 3-34 Special Applications 34 Installation Examples Special Applications 34 . The firing heads are the ball drop actuator firing head. and the pressure-actuated firing heads such as TDF.

Coiled Tubing Conveyed Pipe Cutter with Pressure Firing Head Coiled Tubing Tubing Dual Flapper Check Valve Hydraulic Disconnect Perforated Nipple Pressure Firing Head Cutter Severed Pipe Packer Sealbore HAL15410 Nipple Re-entry Coiled Tubing Conveyed Pipe Cutter with Pressure Firing Head Installation Examples Special Applications 3-35 35 .

Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating with Pressure Isolation (Closed System) Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating (Open System) Coiled Tubing Connector Dual Flapper Check Valve Hydraulic Disconnect Pressure Relief Sub Model KV-II Firing Head Connector Dual Flapper Check Valve Hydraulic Disconnect Perforated Nipple Pressure Isolation Device VannGun Assembly ® Coiled Tubing Pressure Firing Head HAL15411 Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating with Pressure Isolation (Closed System) Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating (Open System) 3-36 Special Applications 36 HAL15412 Pressure Isolation Device Installation Examples Special Applications 36 .

6 SPF 60° Phasing 4 5/8 in. HAL15404 3 3/8 in.VannGun® Assemblies VannGun® Assemblies The heart of Halliburton’s VannSystem® service is the VannGun® assembly. Additionally. The primary design factors for these components are safety and reliability. 12 SPF 30°/150° Phasing 4 5/8 in. 14 SPF 138° Phasing BH/SH VannGun® Assemblies 4-1 . nonlead azide explosives. shot phasing is designed to maintain the integrity and collapse resistance of the casing after perforating. as well as premium quality gun material. All these. are manufactured to Halliburton’s proprietary specifications. specialized connectors and inserts. and high velocity-low shrink detonating cord. 5 SPF 60° Phasing 7 in. All VannGun assemblies incorporate machined scallops. The VannGun assembly uses bi-directional boosters. This helps to optimize charge performance and prevents casing damage from perforating exit hole burrs.

ORYX Energy Company developed the PerfStim™ process which used TCP applications where the wellbore is overpressured above the fracture gradient prior to the perforating event to promote fracturing in the nearwellbore region to improve well productivity. Patented by Oryx and licensed by Halliburton 4-2 VannGun® Assemblies . StimGun™ is a trademark of Marathon Oil Company and is licensed by Halliburton. a process of Marathon Oil Company. TCP guns systems (using percussiontype detonators) provided a much safer alternative to through-tubing gun systems (with electrical type detonators) available at the time and also enabled operators to perforate the entire pay zone with the given underbalanced condition for optimum well productivity.History of Perforation Techniques Original cased hole completions utilized various mechanical tools to gouge or penetrate casing to establish reservoir to wellbore communication. and the nitrogen / fluid cushion is injected into the perforations. Design and utilization of these charges is based on the same principles as the steel armored tank penetrating bazooka technology from World War II. Hydraulic perforating is very slow and can be expensive since only a few holes are created simultaneously. In the 1950s. bullet perforators were patented and by the 1930s had gained widespread acceptance. cement. which restricted reservoir fluid flow into the wellbore. Mechanical tool use at the time was very inefficient and time consuming especially when longer pay zones were encountered. usually only a few inches at best. The simple design of the shaped charge features primary components that include a charge case. cement. Shaped charges are generically classified as either deep penetrating (DP) or big hole (BH). The shaped charge liner can be designed to either create a jet that makes a small casing exit hole with deep formation penetration or a large casing exit hole with minimal formation penetration. and formation. shaped charges account for more than 95% of the cased and perforated completions around the world. The TCP gun is actuated by conventional means. Marathon Oil Company improved on this process. In 1926. and liner. Vann Tool Company had perfected the Tubing Conveyed Perforating (TCP) technique. Today. is licensed by Halliburton. Another drawback was that the penetration depth achieved with a bullet perforator was quite short. which combines conventional TCP gun systems with a propellant energy source. Year Perforation Technique Mechanical Tools 1930s 1940s 1950s 1970s 1990s 1997 1960s and 1990s Bullet Perforators Shaped Charges Through-Tubing Guns Tubing Conveyed Perforating (TCP) Extreme Overbalance (EOB) Perforating Extreme Overbalance with StimGun™ Assembly Hydraulic Perforators POWR*PERF. The proppant carriers are designed to release proppant or any other scouring agent into the flow stream after the guns are detonated. By the 1970s. this technique has gained some renewed interest especially as a pre-cursor to planned limited entry hydraulic fracturing where only a few holes are required in the casing to pump the treatment. and formation. POWR*PERF is a service mark/trademark of Marathon Oil Company and licensed by Halliburton. special through-tubing gun systems (small OD hollow steel carriers and expendable strip guns) were developed. In the 1990s. by introducing the POWR*PERFSM process. The through-tubing gun systems offered great advantages over the casing gun technology of the time which required perforating be performed in an overbalanced condition. explosive powder. In recent years. In 1997. This led to better perforation cleanup and well productivity. allowing operators to convey unlimited lengths of perforating guns and safely creating much higher underbalance pressures than were possible with throughtubing gun systems. Hydraulic perforators were originally introduced in the 1960s as a means to penetrate the casing by pumping highpressure fluids with an abrasive agent (sand) to abrade the casing. Shaped charges or jet perforators were introduced to the oilfield in the late 1940s. The through-tubing gun systems allowed operators to run the completion and nipple up a tree for well control and then establish an underbalance prior to perforating. which used proppant carriers above the perforating guns. Marathon Oil Company also introduced the StimGun™ assembly. and then the propellant is ignited to generate CO2 gas at pressures above the fracture gradient to create small narrow fractures in the near-wellbore region. Bullet perforators are rarely used today except in cases where uniform casing hole size is required for utilizing ball sealers for acid diversion. The obvious drawback was the lodging of the bullet or projectile in the perforation tunnel. Bullet perforators used a propellant-driven bullet that would penetrate the casing. PerfStim™ is a trademark of Oryx Energy Company.

DP shaped charges consist of liners that are formed by compressing various blends of powdered metal. which do not require sand control or gravel packing. The majority of debris associated with the shaped charge is derived from the charge case material. Steel charge cases tend to fragment into larger steel particles that are likely to remain inside of the gun carrier because of the small exit hole in the gun scallop. will basically disintegrate into a powder-like substance capable of exiting the gun scallops completely. Formation penetration is relatively deep with a somewhat small exit hole size in the casing. leaving minimal residual debris from the liner itself after the perforation event. Deep penetrating type charges are typically utilized in natural completions. Deep Penetrator Charge Liners 4-3 . however. Powdered metal liners tend to break up during jet formation and tunnel creation. VannGun® Assemblies HAL16364 Big Hole Vs. Zinc charge cases. faster-moving jet.Deep Penetrating Charges Deep penetrating type charges have a generally cone shaped liner geometry that produces a thin. HAL16365 DP Shaped Charge Case and Liner HAL16363 DP Shaped Charge Liners HAL16035 Halliburton Shaped Charge Terminology Deep Penetrating Types DP SDP DP/LD Millennium™ Charge Dominator Charge ® Deep Penetrating Super-Deep Penetrating Deep Penetrating/Low Debris Trade Name Premium DP Trade Name Special DP Zinc Charge Case and Debris Big Hole Types HAL16032 BH BH/LD SH SH/LD Mirage® Charge Excalibur Charge Big Hole Big Hole/Low Debris Super Hole Super Hole/Low Debris Trade Name Special BH/LD Trade Name Hybrid BH/DP for Dual Casing Applications Steel Charge Case and Debris DP charge case material is typically classified as steel or zincbased with the zinc termed as low debris (LD).

88 . which was accomplished through tighter tolerances on liner specifications.95 .87 Area for Centralized Gun is 25% to 30% Higher Entrance Hole Diameters for Centralized Versus Non-Centralized Cases 4-4 VannGun® Assemblies . the Millennium™ line of DP shaped charges was the industry leading performer in API Section I test conditions for the most commonly used gun systems.89 . Millennium shaped charges were optimized for performance by improving jet tip velocity.96 . .) and are designed to yield the maximum shot density or total flow area. therefore. Dominator shaped charge development takes place using the Perforation Flow Laboratory facility.91 . . please contact engineering for an assessment. The Dominator® line of DP shaped charges are special charges optimized for actual shaped charge performance under the prevailing completion and reservoir conditions. Gun clearance. Failure to centralize BH gun systems can result in significant loss of shaped charge performance as shown in the illustration below where eccentered guns result in a total flow area reduction of 30%. The Perforation Flow Laboratory also has the benefit allowing post-perforation flow or injection into the formation sample to assess perforation efficiency or productivity.91 . and overall improvements in quality assurance during the manufacturing process. gun centralization is usually recommended.95 .95 .79 30° .96 .85 . etc. high-rate water pack. optimization of powdered metal composition.92 .97 Dominator shaped charge development typically results in improved formation penetration on the order of 15 to 20% over conventional DP charges designed for API Section I performance.When introduced. the annular gap between the gun and casing ID.83 . Big Hole Shaped Charges BH shaped charges consist of parabolic or hemispherical shaped liners that produce a slower-moving jet.91 .80 .89 .88 HAL15956 HAL15957 . The Perforation Flow Laboratory allows shaped charges to be fired with under or overbalanced well conditions in actual formation samples with a given effective stress condition applied. To evaluate if your specific completion and reservoir conditions warrant a Dominator shaped charge approach.87 .79 . . Formation penetration is typically very shallow with a large exit hole casing size.95 HAL16269 Actual charge performance in formation core samples comparing standard DP charge on left vs the Dominator® charge on the right.72 . gravel pack. is especially important for jet development with BH charges. BH type charges are typically utilized on completions that require some form of sand control (frac pack.71 .

Initial (Copper) 7-in. gun debris associated with all components of the perforating assembly is reduced. BH shaped charges utilize either steel or zinc (LD) charge case material. The Mirage line provides more of a total perforating system debris reduction solution. BH shaped charge liners are formed by pressing sheet metal into the desired liner shape. and thus are significantly less likely to create debris problems during the well completion. it also produced undesirable liner debris or slugs. other metallurgy was developed to produce a solution that would eliminate the copper debris issue. HAL16361 Similar to DP type charges.To compensate for the undesirable slug formed with copper liners. BH Liner Technology HAL16360 Current (Brass) 7-in. The Mirage® line of BH shaped charges was introduced as an improved low debris system. Although copper provided good ballistic characteristics. BH Liner Technology HAL16366 Latest (Mirage®) 7-in. With the Mirage line. Today. BH Liner Technology Charge Charge Holder Centralizer HAL16276 Rubber Pad End Alignment Origins of Gun System Debris VannGun® Assemblies 4-5 . Original BH shaped charge liners were formed with copper as the base material. virtually all conventional BH or Super Hole (SH) charges utilize special alloy liners that are designed to fragment into small pieces.

The bend tab is a significant source of gun debris because of the metal slivers generated during gun detonation. “Thick” region controlled to reduce debris HAL16275 Typical Charge Tube Design HAL16266 Charge Tube Debris “Thinned” region after forming HAL16270 Mirage® Super Hole Perforator HAL16274 Improved Mirage® Charge Twist Lock Tube Design 4-6 VannGun® Assemblies .Previous BH guns systems required that the shaped charges be positioned and retained in the charge tube holder using bend tabs. eliminating the debris associated with the bend tabs. The improved Mirage® system incorporates a new twist lock feature in the charge tube holder. the geometry of the Mirage shaped charge liner is carefully controlled during the manufacturing process such that those portions of the liner that might contribute to slug creation are removed. This process results in a charge liner with a controlled geometry liner (CGL). In addition to metallurgical considerations.

500 > 0.0 > 0.0 Mass Retained (g) HAL16267 40.0 Mirage Case Debris 60.0 LD Zinc Case Debris Steel Case Debris 50.066 > 0.0 0.011 Particle Size (in.375 > 0.187 > 0.0 20.0 30.033 > 0.) Sieve Analysis Charge Case Material VannGun® Assemblies 4-7 .250 > 0.The LD zinc charge cases with the Mirage® system have been optimized to reduce the particle size distribution as shown below.011 <. Case Debris Comparison (One Charge) 70.094 > 0.0 10.

HAL16362 HAL16359 Existing Dual String Technology Maxim™ Dual String Technology Expanding Case Fragments Stretching Jet Jet Tip HAL15955 Rearmost Portion of Jet Flash x-ray and hydro-code simulation of a shaped charge during detonation sequence. Maxim™ Charge Performance Data Charge Part No. The results utilizing conventional BH perforating systems in the past yielded a large exit hole in the first casing string and a very small exit hole in the second casing string with minimal formation penetration. the perforating strategy typically calls for perforations with the largest possible exit hole in the casing with as high a shot density (spf) as possible. As completion targets in deep water environments go deeper. 12 spf 28 gram BH gun system was tested under the completion configuration described resulting in a casing exit-hole of 0.00 5. These results show a significant 136% improvement in casing exit-hole size and 270% improvement in flow area on a per foot basis.1 #/ft P-110 and 9-5/8-in.Maxim™ Shaped Charges Well completion in unconsolidated formations generally requires some form of sand control or gravel packing for flow assurance.75 0.63 0. with an impressive formation penetration of 6.75 7. 47 #/ft P-110 casing.00 SPF 8 10 14 Explosive Load 47 56. For a cased and perforated sand control completion.1# P-110 8 5/8 60. this scenario results in secondary pay zones that have multiple strings of casing across portions or the entire length of the pay zone.78 0.00 7. drilling challenges are compounded forcing operators in many cases to set the casing shoe point higher than planned in order to safely reach deeper primary targets.8# P-110 9 5/8 473 lL-80 Exit Hole 0. The effectiveness of the new Maxim shaped charge concept was demonstrated with the development of a 5-in. Shaped charge design engineers at Halliburton's Jet Research Center (JRC) have unleashed the power of Maxim™ shaped charges by utilizing hydro-code modeling software and flash x-ray imaging to develop a proprietary shaped charge liner that optimizes the casing exit-hole size when penetrating multiple casing strings. 47. The newly developed Maxim perforating system resulted in a casing exit-hole size of 0. 101350449 101357518 101357518 Gun OD 5.5 Inner Casing 7 5/8 47.66 0. This situation presents a serious technical challenge because the typical big-hole (BH) perforating system cannot efficiently penetrate multiple casing strings and still produce an adequate casing exit hole.66-in. 8 spf 47 g charge for a completion scenario with 7-5/8-in. The large casing exit hole improves the likelihood of placing sand or gravel into the perforation tunnel and the higher spf increases the effective flow area resulting in lower pressure drop across the completion during production.50 8. 4-8 VannGun® Assemblies .5 56.61 Outer Casing 9 5/8 47 P-110 11 3/4 65# P-110 13 3/8 72# P-110 Exit Hole 0.28-in. A standard 5-in. Unfortunately.68 Penetration* 6.77 *Penetration is in cement measured from the OD of the outer casing.0-in.

25" 4.375" 3.125" 5.125" 2.00" 3.00" 1.00" 4.50" 6.625" 4.75" 4.VannGun® Assemblies 1 9/16 in.00" 6.75" 5. and 4 SPF to 21 SPF 7.50" 4.50" 2.563” VannGun® Assemblies 4-9 . to 7 in.75" 2.00" 5.875" 2.

and 6 SPF 4 SPF 6" 6" 5 SPF 6" 6" 12" HAL15978 12" 0º 60º 120º 180º 240° 300º 360º 0º 60º 120º 180º 240° 300º 360º 6 SPF 6" 6" 12" 0º 60º 120º 180º 240° 300º 360º *Other shot densities and phasings are available upon request. 5. 4-10 VannGun® Assemblies .VannGun® Phasing and Shot Patterns* 0° Phasing 4 and 5 SPF 4 SPF 6" 6" 5 SPF 6" HAL10590 6" 12" 12" 0º 180º 360º 0º 180º 360º 60° Phasing 4.

90° Phasing 4 SPF 4 SPF 6" 6" HAL15981 12" 0º 90º 180º 270° 360º 180° Phasing 4 and 8 SPF 4 SPF 6" 6" 8 SPF 6" 6" 12" HAL15982 12" 0º 180º 360º 0º 180º 360º VannGun® Assemblies 4-11 .

6° 154.1° 360º 0º 45º 90º 135º 180º 225° 270º 315º 360º 4-12 VannGun® Assemblies .3° 257.4° 102. 8.7° 308.9° 205. 6. and 18 SPF 5 SPF 6" 6" 6 SPF 6" 6" 12" HAL15355 12" 0º 45º 90º 135º 180º 225° 270º 315º 360º 0º 45º 90º 135º 180º 225° 270º 315º 360º 8 SPF 6" 6" 12 SPF 6" 18 SPF 6" 6" 6" 12" 12" 12" 0º 45º 90º 135º 180º 225° 270º 315º 360º 0º 51. 12.60° Phasing 6 SPF Two Planes 6 SPF 6" 6" HAL15356 12" 0º 45º 90º 135º 180º 225° 270º 315º 360º 45°/135° Phasing 5.

3° Phasing 12 SPF 12 SPF 6" 6" HAL15357 12" 0º 51.9° 205.3° 257.4° 102.140°/160° Phasing 11 SPF 11 SPF 6" 6" HAL15983 12" 0º 100º 110º 180° 260° 250° 360° 51.1° 360º 30°/150° Phasing 12 SPF 12 SPF 6" 6" HAL15354 12" 0º 60° 120º 180º 240° 300º 360° 30º 90º 150° 210° 270º 330° VannGun® Assemblies 4-13 .7° 308.4°/154.6° 154.

25.7°/128.5° Phasing 14 SPF 14 SPF 6" 6" HAL15993 12" 0º 51º 103º 154º 206º 257° 309º 360º 26º 77º 129º 180º 231º 283° 334º 60°/120° Phasing 18 and 21 SPF 18 SPF 6" 6" 21 SPF 6" 6" 12" HAL15984 12" 0º 60º 120º 180º 240° 300º 360º 0º 60º 120º 180º 240° 300º 360º 138° Phasing 14 SPF 14 SPF 6" 6" HAL15985 12" 0º 45º 90º 135º 180º 225° 270º 315º 360º 4-14 VannGun® Assemblies .

57) 21 (6.000 (1379) 70.22) Loaded lb (kg) 28 (13) 44 (20) 66 (30) 87 (39) 120 (54) 28 (13) 44 (20) 66 (30) 87 (39) 120 (54) Spacer lb (kg) 23 (10) 35 (16) 51 (23) 63 (29) 92 (42) 23 (10) 35 (16) 51 (23) 63 (29) 92 (42) 4 spf Millennium 4 0° 60° 90° 180° 20.22) 7 (2.13) 11 (3.000 (34 921) 7 (2.40) 6 spf Millennium 2-in.57) 21 (6.22) 100157028 HMX Millennium 6 60° 20.000 (1379) 77. 100157028 Explosive Type HMX Charge Type Millennium™ SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.35) 15 (4. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.13) 11 (3.57) 21 (6.Tensile ratings on the following tables are based on the box x pin connection.13) 11 (3. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.13) 11 (3.22) Loaded lb (kg) 21 (9) 31 (14) 46 (21) 60 (27) 81 (37) 21 (10) 32 (14) 48 (22) 63 (28) 85 (39) Spacer lb (kg) 17 (8) 24 (11) 34 (15) 44 (20) 59 (27) 17 (8) 24 (11) 34 (15) 44 (20) 59 (27) 4 spf Millennium 4 101210199 HMX BH 0° 60° 90° 180° 20.35) 15 (4.40) 6 spf Millennium 6 60° 20.57) 21 (6.000 (31 746) 7 (2.40) 4 (1. 1 9/16-in.000 (34 921) VannGun® Assemblies 4-15 .000 (1379) 77. 101208224 100008017 100157018 101206246 101208224 100008017 100157018 101206246 Explosive Type HMX HMX HNS HMX HMX HMX HNS HMX Charge Type Millennium™ SDP DP BH Millennium SDP DP BH SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.40) 4 (1.000 (1379) 70.35) 15 (4.35) 15 (4.000 (31 746) 7 (2.

35) 15 (4.4) 2 3/4-in.35) 16 (4.57) 21 (6.000 (54 875) 7 (2.57) 21 (6.000 (60 771) 8 (2.88) 22 (6.22) 7 (2.22) 6 60° Two Row 20.000 (54 875) 6 spf Millennium 4 (1. 101233817 100157026 100010399 101251723 101318485 101206793 101270158 101233817 100157026 100010399 101251723 101318485 101206793 101270158 Explosive Type HMX RDX HMX HNS HNS RDX HMX HMX RDX HMX HNS HNS RDX HMX Charge Type Millennium™ SDP SDP SDP Millennium BH BH Millennium SDP SDP SDP Millennium BH BH SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 6 spf SDP and Millennium 4 (1.13) 11 (3.2 1/2-in.000 (60 771) 4-16 VannGun® Assemblies .000 (1379) 121. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No. 101206251 101332418 Explosive Type HMX HMX Charge Type Millennium™ SDP SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.13) 11 (3.40) 101244923 HNS DP 101206251 101332418 101244923 HMX HMX HNS Millennium SDP DP 6 60° 20.35) 15 (4.000 (1379) 134. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.44) 11 (3.000 (1517) 134.22) Loaded lb (kg) 43 (20) 67 (30) 98 (44) 129 (59) 176 (80) 45 (20) 70 (32) 104 (47) 133 (60) 189 (86) Spacer lb (kg) 34 (15) 52 (24) 75 (34) 98 (44) 133 (60) 34 (15) 52 (24) 75 (34) 98 (44) 133 (60) 4 spf Millennium 4 0° 60° 90° 180° 20.71) 59 (27) 102 (46) 134 (61) 183 (83) 252 (114) 50 (23) 82 (37) 105 (48) 145 (66) 193 (88) 6 60° 22.000 (1379) 121.

44) 11 (3.35) 16 (4.2 7/8-in.35) 16 (4.88) 22 (6. Heavy Wall Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.71) VannGun® Assemblies 4-17 .71) 2 7/8-in.22) Loaded lb (kg) 64 (29) 112 (51) 148 (67) 204 (93) 281 (127) Spacer lb (kg) 55 (25) 92 (42) 120 (54) 166 (75) 221 (100) 6 spf Millennium Gas Gun 6 101318485 HNS Millennium 60° 25. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.000 (64 399) 8 (2. 101233817 Explosive Type HMX Charge Type Millennium™ SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.88) 22 (6.000 (64 399) 8 (2. 101233817 101414743 101388407 Explosive Type HMX HMX HNS Charge Type Millennium™ Dominator® Millennium SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.000 (1517) 142.000 (1724) 142.22) Loaded lb (kg) 62 (28) 106 (48) 138 (63) 186 (84) 258 (117) Spacer lb (kg) 54 (24) 86 (39) 110 (50) 150 (68) 198 (90) 6 spf Millennium 6 60° 22.44) 11 (3.

22) 8 (2.44) 11 (3.88) 22 (6.000 (1724) 238.000 (107 955) 4 (1.22) 8 (2.22) 8 (2.44) 11 (3.71) 4 (1.88) 22 (6.000 (107 955) 6 60° 25.71) 4 spf SDP and Millennium 101265876 101320459 100008014 101293450 101233819 101309223 101265876 100005321 100157017 101320459 100008014 101293450 101233819 101309223 101265876 100005321 100157017 100008251 HNS RDX RDX RDX HMX HMX HNS RDX HMX RDX RDX RDX HMX HMX HNS RDX HMX RDX Millennium DP SDP SDP/LD Millennium Dominator® Millennium BH BH DP SDP SDP/LD Millennium Dominator Millennium BH BH 6 60° Two Row 23.44) 11 (3.3 3/8-in.35) 16 (4.000 (107 955) 6 spf SDP and Millennium 4 (1.22) 8 (2.71) 89 (40) 150 (68) 197 (88) 271 (123) 365 (166) 77 (35) 125 (57) 160 (73) 219 (99) 290 (132) 4-18 VannGun® Assemblies .71) 92 (42) 158 (72) 207 (94) 287 (130) 388 (176) 77 (35) 125 (57) 160 (73) 219 (99) 290 (132) 12 spf BH BH 12 100005312 HMX BH 30°/150° OMNI™ 23.000 (1586) 238.35) 16 (4. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.88) 22 (6.88) 22 (6.35) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 77 (35) 125 (57) 160 (73) 219 (99) 290 (132) 77 (35) 125 (57) 160 (73) 219 (99) 290 (132) 4 spf DP 86 (39) 144 (65) 187 (85) 256 (116) 345 (157) 89 (40) 149 (68) 195 (88) 268 (121) 361 (164) 100008014 101293450 101233819 RDX RDX HMX SDP SDP/LD Millennium™ 4 60° 90° 180° 25.44) 11 (3.000 (107 937) 16 (4. 101320459 Explosive Type RDX Charge Type DP SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.35) 16 (4.000 (1724) 238.000 (1586) 238.

Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.44) 11 (3.88) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 99 (45) 155 (70) 197 (89) 267 (121) 351 (159) 99 (45) 155 (70) 197 (89) 267 (121) 351 (159) 99 (45) 155 (70) 197 (89) 267 (121) 351 (159) 99 (45) 155 (70) 197 (89) 267 (121) 351 (159) 4 spf DP 107 (49) 173 (78) 223 (101) 297 (135) 404 (183) 4 SDP SDP/LD SDP DP DP DP 6 SDP SDP/LD SDP 60° 90° 20.88) 22 (6.22) 8 (2.88) 4 spf SDP 110 (50) 179 (81) 230 (104) 309 (140) 420 (191) 6 spf DP 111 (50) 180 (82) 233 (106) 319 (144) 424 (192) 60° 20. 100005322 100005327 101332806 100008014 101293450 100008249 100005322 100005327 101332806 100008014 101293450 100008249 Explosive Type RDX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX RDX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX Charge Type DP DP DP SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.35) 16 (4.22) 8 (2.22) 8 (2.44) 11 (3.71) 4 (1.22) 8 (2.000 (126 077) 22 (6.4-in.000 (126 077) 22 (6.71) 6 spf SDP 114 (52) 189 (86) 244 (111) 336 (152) 448 (203) VannGun® Assemblies 4-19 .35) 16 (4.000 (1379) 278.35) 16 (4.35) 16 (4.71) 4 (1.88) 22 (6.71) 4 (1.44) 11 (3.44) 11 (3.000 (1379) 278.

71) 4 (1.71) 5 101287306 HNS Millennium 60° 6 spf 32 g DP 8 spf SH 151 (69) 245 (111) 316 (143) 420 (191) 574 (260) 4-20 VannGun® Assemblies .88) 22 (6.44) 11 (3.000 (187 755) 4 (1.35) 16 (4.88) 22 (6. 101210636 Explosive Type HMX Charge Type Millennium™ SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.71) 100005322 100005327 101332806 100008014 101293450 100008249 100005311 101228756 100156995 101233690 RDX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX RDX RDX HMX HMX DP DP DP SDP SDP/LD SDP SH SH/LD SH SH/LD 8 45°/135° 20.22) 8 (2.22) 8 (2. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.22) Loaded lb (kg) 156 (71) 257 (117) 333 (151) 447 (203) 611 (277) 147 (67) 235 (107) 301 (137) 405 (184) 544 (247) Spacer lb (kg) 135 (61) 208 (94) 265 (120) 357 (162) 469 (213) 134 (61) 207 (94) 262 (119) 354 (161) 464 (210) 134 (61) 207 (94) 262 (119) 353 (160) 462 (210) 5 spf 39 g Millennium 20.000 (187 755) 8 (2.44) 11 (3.4 5/8-in.000 (1379) 414.35) 16 (4.000 (1379) 414.44) 11 (3.000 (187 755) 6 60° 20.35) 16 (4.000 (1379) 414.88) 22 (6.

000 (187 755) 11 (3.000 (187 755) 8 (2.22) 8 (2.88) 22 (6.22) 8 (2.44) 11 (3.000 (1103) 414.71) 4 (1.000 (1241) 414.71) 4 (1.000 (187 755) 4 (1.88) 22 (6.35) 16 (4. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.88) 22 (6.71) 158 (72) 262 (119) 340 (154) 459 (208) 626 (284) 127 (58) 194 (88) 244 (111) 327 (148) 427 (194) 127 (58) 194 (88) 244 (111) 327 (148) 427 (194) 127 (58) 194 (88) 244 (111) 327 (148) 427 (194) 124 (56) 188 (85) 235 (107) 314 (142) 410 (186) 118 (54) 176 (80) 219 (99) 291 (132) 378 (171) 12 spf BH 154 (70) 254 (115) 328 (149) 442 (200) 602 (273) 12 spf SH 150 (68) 245 (111) 315 (143) 422 (191) 575 (261) 14 spf SH 100005311 RDX SH 150 (68) 244 (111) 315 (143) 422 (192) 575 (261) 100156995 HMX SH 18 spf 100156990 RDX BH 18 100157005 HMX DP 45°/135° 18.88) 22 (6.35) 16 (4.71) 4 (1.4 5/8-in.22) 14 25.44) 11 (3.35) 16 (4.44) 11 (3.5° 20.71) 12 spf Millennium 4 (1.44) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 129 (59) 197 (89) 248 (112) 334 (151) 436 (198) 11 spf BH 153 (69) 252 (114) 326 (148) 438 (199) 600 (272) 11 140°/160° 16.88) 22 (6.88) 22 (6.71) 139 (63) 222 (101) 285 (129) 379 (172) 513 (233) VannGun® Assemblies 4-21 .44) 11 (3.000 (1379) 414.44) 11 (3.22) 8 (2.7°/128.35) 16 (4.35) 16 (4.000 (1379) 414. 100005319 100005326 100157006 120038060 100005324 100014352 101210674 101343830 100005324 100005325 100014352 100005340 101210674 101343830 100005319 100005326 100157006 120038060 100005311 101228756 100156995 101233690 Explosive Type RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX HMX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX HMX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX RDX HMX HMX Charge Type BH BH/LD BH BH/LD DP DP Millennium™ DP DP DP/LD DP DP/LD Millennium DP BH BH/LD BH BH/LD SH SH/LD SH SH/LD SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.35) 16 (4.22) 8 (2.000 (187 755) 8 (2.22) 12 30°/150° OMNI™ 20.

Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.35) 16 (4.88) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 144 (65) 228 (103) 291 (132) 395 (179) 521 (236) 144 (65) 228 (103) 291 (132) 395 (179) 521 (236) 144 (65) 228 (103) 291 (132) 395 (179) 521 (236) 144 (65) 228 (103) 291 (132) 395 (179) 521 (236) 12 spf BH 169 (77) 284 (129) 370 (168) 505 (229) 685 (311) 12 spf DP 166 (75) 277 (126) 361 (164) 491 (223) 666 (302) 173 (78) 292 (132) 381 (173) 522 (237) 709 (321) 12 BH BH/LD BH BH/LD SH SH/LD SH SH/LD 30°/150° OMNI™ 24.71) 4 (1.44) 11 (3.22) 8 (2.35) 16 (4.22) 8 (2.35) 16 (4.71) 12 spf Millennium 12 spf SH 165 (75) 275 (125) 357 (162) 485 (220) 657 (298) 4-22 VannGun® Assemblies .000 (234 014) 22 (6.71) 4 (1. 100005324 100005325 100014352 100005340 101210674 101343830 100005319 100005326 100157006 120038060 100005311 101228756 100156995 101233690 Explosive Type RDX RDX HMX HMX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX RDX HMX HMX Charge Type DP DP/LD DP DP/LD Millennium™ DP SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.88) 22 (6.44) 11 (3.22) 8 (2.35) 16 (4.88) 22 (6.22) 8 (2.4 3/4-in.44) 11 (3.71) 4 (1.000 (1655) 516.88) 22 (6.44) 11 (3.

000 (1172) 427.88) 22 (6.35) 16 (4.71) 4 (1. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.35) 16 (4. 101350449 100005311 101228756 100156995 101233690 101307494 100005311 101228756 100156995 101233690 Explosive Type RDX RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX RDX RDX HMX HMX Charge Type Excalibur SH SH/LD SH SH/LD Mirage® SH SH/LD SH SH/LD SPF 8 Phasing 45°/135° Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 18.000 (193 651) 8 (2.7°/ 128.35) 16 (4.22) 12 30°/150° OMNI™ 18.000 (1241) 427.44) 11 (3.000 (193 651) 8 (2.71) 101268719 RDX SH 18 21 spf BH 185 (84) 304 (138) 393 (178) 540 (245) 717 (325) VannGun® Assemblies 4-23 .44) 11 (3.71) 4 (1.000 (193 651) 14 spf SH 177 (80) 286 (130) 368 (167) 504 (228) 667 (302) 25.35) 16 (4.88) 22 (6.5-in.000 (1241) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 427.000 (193 651) Weights Length ft (m) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 12 spf SH 4 (1.44) 11 (3.71) 4 (1.000 (1172) 427.22) 175 (79) 280 (127) 359 (163) 490 (222) 648 (294) 152 (69) 230 (104) 288 (131) 385 (175) 502 (228) 152 (69) 230 (104) 288 (131) 386 (175) 503 (228) 152 (69) 229 (104) 288 (130) 385 (174) 501 (227) 152 (69) 229 (104) 287 (130) 384 (174) 500 (227) 8 (2.000 (1103) 427.88) 22 (6.000 (193 651) 8 (2.44) 11 (3.5° 17.22) 14 18 spf SH 181 (82) 296 (134) 383 (174) 527 (239) 701 (318) 60°/120° 3/Plane 17.22) 101292616 RDX BH 21 60°/120° 3/Plane 16.88) 22 (6.

71) 182 (82) 292 (133) 375 (170) 511 (232) 679 (308) 186 (84) 302 (137) 389 (176) 531 (241) 708 (321) 157 (71) 238 (108) 298 (135) 399 (181) 520 (236) 157 (71) 238 (108) 298 (135) 399 (181) 520 (236) 156 (71) 236 (107) 296 (134) 395 (179) 515 (234) 14 spf 32 g SH 21 spf 190 (86) 311 (141) 402 (182) 553 (251) 734 (333) 4-24 VannGun® Assemblies .7 g 181 (82) 290 (132) 372 (169) 505 (229) 672 (305) 180 (81) 287 (130) 368 (167) 499 (226) 663 (301) 12 OMNI™ 16.22) 100157007 RDX SH 8 (2.88) 22 (6.35) 16 (4.44) 11 (3.88) 14 25.71) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 157 (71) 239 (108) 300 (136) 401 (182) 523 (237) 157 (71) 239 (108) 300 (136) 401 (182) 523 (237) 12 spf 22.000 (1103) 520.71) 4 (1.22) 8 (2.5° 16.5 1/8-in.7°/ 128.44) 11 (3.88) 22 (6.22) 8 (2.35) 16 (4.44) 11 (3.35) 16 (4.22) 101292616 RDX BH 21 60°/120° 3/Plane 16.35) 16 (4.88) 22 (6.000 (239 929) 12 spf 28 g SH 4 (1. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.44) 11 (3.22) 100157011 HMX SH 8 (2.000 (239 929) 22 (6.000 (1103) 520.000 (1103) 520.44) 11 (3.35) 16 (4. 100005319 100005326 100157006 120038060 100005324 100005325 100014352 100005340 101210674 101343830 100005311 101228756 100156995 101233690 101307494 Explosive Type RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX RDX HMX HMX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX Charge Type BH BH/LD BH BH/LD DP DP/LD DP DP/LD Millennium™ DP SH SH/LD SH SH/LD Mirage® SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.88) 22 (6.71) 14 spf 28 g SH 4 (1.000 (239 929) 8 (2.71) 4 (1.

71) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 192 (87) 293 (133) 369 (167) 496 (225) 648 (294) 14 spf SH 14 25.44) 12 spf SH/LD 14 spf SH Mirage 101304878 101213474 101357518 RDX RDX RDX Mirage SH SH Excalibur 14 138° 15.88) 4 (1.000 (1034) 480.000 (217 687) 16 (4.7°/ 128.88) 22 (6.000 (232 200) 216 (98) 344 (156) 442 (200) 647 (294) 859 (389) Mirage® Excalibur 10 45°/135° 17.44) Loaded lb (kg) 275 (125) 431 (195) 733 (333) 277 (126) 435 (197) 743 (337) 277 (124) 437 (198) 754 (342) Spacer lb (kg) 240 (109) 354 (160) 582 (264) 240 (109) 354 (160) 582 (264) 240 (109) 354 (160) 582 (264) 240 (109) 354 (160) 582 (264) 12 spf BH Mirage 12 SH SH/LD Excalibur Mirage 45°/135° 15.88) 4 (1.22) 8 (2. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.5 3/4-in.35) 16 (4. 100156993 100156994 100156992 100156991 Explosive Type RDX HMX HMX RDX Charge Type DP DP SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.22) 8 (2.000 (1172) 512.000 (232 200) 6-in.22) 8 (2.000 (1034) 480.57) 4 (1.2° 15.88) 14 spf SH 283 (128) 451 (205) 784 (355) VannGun® Assemblies 4-25 . Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.000 (304 762) 15 (4.000 (1034) 672.44) 16 (4.22) 8 (2.44) 15 (4.5° 17.000 (217 687) 16 (4.22) 8 (2.44) 16 (4.4°/ 154.22) 8 (2.22) 8 (2.000 (1172) 512.88) 4 (1. 101228037 101304878 101213474 101212693 101357518 101228037 Explosive Type RDX RDX RDX RDX RDX RDX Charge Type Mirage® Mirage SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1. 100157007 101307494 101357518 Explosive Type RDX RDX RDX Charge Type SH SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.44) 11 (3.57) 12 spf BH 251 (114) 398 (181) 608 (276) 6 1/2-in.44) Loaded lb (kg) Spacer lb (kg) 216 (98) 318 (144) 497 (225) 216 (98) 318 (144) 497 (225) 12 spf DP 272 (123) 447 (203) 706 (320) 12 BH BH 51.

44) 16 (4.88) 14 spf SH 305 (138) 496 (225) 871 (395) 7-in.88) 4 (1.44) 16 (4.88) 4 (1.88) 4 (1.22) 8 (2.000 (363 719) 4 (1.22) 8 (2.22) 8 (2.44) 16 (4.22) 8 (2.44) Loaded lb (kg) 298 (135) 476 (216) 824 (370) 300 (136) 481 (218) 834 (378) 300 (136) 482 (219) 841 (382) Spacer lb (kg) 268 (121) 410 (186) 684 (310) 268 (121) 410 (186) 684 (310) 268 (121) 410 (186) 684 (310) 268 (121) 410 (186) 684 (310) 12 spf BH Mirage 12 SH SH/LD Excalibur Mirage 45°/135° 20.88) Loaded lb (kg) 326 (148) 494 (224) 831 (377) 328 (149) 499 (226) 841 (381) 356 (161) 565 (256) 984 (446) 328 (149) 501 (227) 847 (384) Spacer lb (kg) 292 (132) 421 (191) 679 (308) 292 (132) 421 (191) 679 (308) 292 (132) 421 (191) 679 (308) 291 (132) 420 (190) 677 (307) 291 (132) 420 (190) 677 (307) 12 spf BH Mirage 12 spf SH/LD 12 45°/135° 13. 100005325 100005340 101228037 101304878 101213474 101212693 101207997 101357518 101228037 Explosive Type RDX HMX RDX RDX RDX RDX HMX RDX RDX Charge Type DP/LD DP/LD Mirage® SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.719) 16 (4.22) 8 (2. High-Pressure Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.000 (897) 802.44) 16 (4.000 (1379) 480.000 (897) 802.22) 8 (2.88) 4 (1.6 1/2-in.22) 8 (2.000 (1379) 480.88) Mirage SH SH/LD Millennium™ Excalibur Mirage 12 spf Millennium 14 spf SH Mirage 101304878 101213474 101357518 RDX RDX RDX Mirage SH SH Excalibur 14 138° 14 spf SH 334 (151) 515 (234) 877 (398) 4-26 VannGun® Assemblies .000 (217 687) 16 (4.88) 4 (1.000 (217 687) 16 (4.44) 16 (4.22) 8 (2.44) 12 spf SH/LD 14 spf SH Mirage 101304878 101213474 101357518 RDX RDX RDX Mirage SH SH Excalibur 14 138° 20.000 (363.44) 16 (4. 101228037 101304878 101213474 101212693 101357518 101228037 Explosive Type RDX RDX RDX RDX RDX RDX Charge Type Mirage® Mirage SH SPF Phasing Collapse Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) Weights Length ft (m) 4 (1.88) 4 (1. Premium VannGun® Assemblies Charge Part No.22) 8 (2.44) 13.

61 * 19B 6 3 3/8 4 12 4 4 6 60 G-Force 30/150 90 60 ® 4 G-Force 4 5/8 5 60 53.43 0.93 19B 5.85 19B 19B 28.02 5.00 26.1 15 15 15 14.5 25 25 25 22 24 24 24 15 21 14 14 39 39 32 32 32 39 39 39 39 39 39 32 32 32 4 1/2 2 7/8 4 1/2 3 1/2 2 7/8 3 1/2 2 7/8 3 1/2 4 1/2 3 1/2 3 1/2 3 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 4 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 5 1/2 7 7 7 7 7 7 5/8 7 7 7 7 7 7 5967 6949 5000 6470 6019 8636 7332 6418 5960 5854 6598 7128 6394 6093 6050 5340 5323 6000 6109 7381 5124 6388 6859 5754 6215 6578 7538 5251 5602 8853 6000 5671 7802 6300 6365 5490 5117 6155 5117 5518 7559 6349 5518 5502 7559 5325 7098 5862 Size in.1 14.4 3.34 8.30 3.46 0.7 15 15 18.80 20.27 0.00 31.8 37.72 Penetration Normalized to 5.37 0.33 5.91 19.64 0.81 ** * * 6.48 22.35 * * * * 19B 19B 19B 27.65 0.27 0.24 43.60 52.80 26.50 4.32 0.40 3.22 0.30 0.4 6.23 0. psi 3.00 4.31 0.17 12.20 30.42 0.23 0.26 0.0 27.00 26.38 0.20 20.48 0.26 0.31 0.24 0.61 21.31 0.35 0.10 17.50 40.40 44.05 24.07 32.00 43.33 0.40 22.64 0.84 * 20.35 0.50 5.31 6 60 VannGun® Assemblies 4-27 .7 15.37 27.7 14.58 45.39 0.27 0.75 6.42 0.45 0.45 26.39 0.37 Total Target Penetration in.20 19. 11.57 5.67 0.38 0.62 0. 1 9/16 SPF 4 6 4 Phasing 0 60 0 Explosive Type HMX HMX HMX HMX HMX Part Number 100157028 100157028 101210199 101208224 101208224 100008017 101206246 101206246 101206246 100157018 101206251 101332418 101244923 101233817 101233817 101318485 100157026 100010399 101251723 101206793 101270158 101233817 101233817 101388407 101233819 101233819 101265876 101320459 100008014 101293450 100005321 101233817 101366678 100008251 100005312 101210636 101210636 100005322 100005327 100005322 101210636 101210636 101287306 101210636 101210636 101287306 100005322 100005327 101332806 Charge Type Millennium™ Millennium BH Millennium Millennium Super DP BH BH BH DP Millennium Super DP DP Millennium Millennium Millennium Super DP Super DP Super DP SH SH Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium DP Super DP Super DP/LD BH Millennium Millennium BH BH Millennium Millennium DP DP DP Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium DP DP DP EHD in.20 30.83 11.46 0.48 0.14 21.30 8. 0.89 3.39 0.16 29.2 12.34 0.20 43.9 11 11 11.35 0.81 27.69 28.60 31.Scalloped Gun Charge Performance Data Explosive Casing Target Load Size Strength gm in.4 3.30 0.7 14.21 0.000 psi (5% per 1.20 30.26 0.80 27.29 0.60 28.28 0.33 0.60 26.75 6.26 18.31 0.09 20.60 27.8 6.75 6.40 21.08 5.32 0.61 Unofficial Data* 19B Special Request 19B 2 6 60 HMX HMX HMX HNS HMX HMX HNS HMX HMX HNS RDX HMX HNS RDX HMX HMX HMX HNS HMX HMX HNS RDX RDX RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX HMX HMX HMX RDX HMX RDX HMX HNS HNS HMX HMX HNS RDX HMX HNS 9.80 2 1/2 6 60 2 3/4 6 60 * 19B 19B3 19B 19B 19B 2 7/8 6 60 42.63 * 19B 19B 19B 27.000) 11.8 6.45 27.20 18.50 20.3 22.39 0.00 4.

80 38.The unofficial data for 4-5/8 G-Force guns obtained from official API test shots at different phasing.24 0.91 0.18 8.50 5.01 19.00 6.61 4 5/8 12 30/150 * * 18 12 5 14 18 21 12 5 1/8 14 21 5 3/4 6 1/2 14 12 or 14 12 7 12 or 14 12 18 45/135 30/150 45/135 30/150 30/150 30/150 25.70 43.org/ProductList. Actual performance may vary due to well conditions.07 1.09 18.37 0. 4-28 VannGun® Assemblies . 0.30 5.99 6.15 5.27 6. psi 22.03 1.000) 19. 24.92 5.02 6.96 0.93 0.11 5.23 6.83 5.00 Unofficial Data* 19B * 7.70 6.46 6.93 0. 1.7 23 23 23 23 21.60 6.00 6.5 56.37 24.80 6.66 0.43 5.8# C-110 casing *Indicates Un-official or QC data **API RP 4th Edition data Notes: Charge performance data is API RP43F 5th Edition unless otherwise noted.36 0.5 25 22.16 1.74 0.7 25 28 28 28 28 20 25 32 28 28 28 28 28 21 32 32 32 21 32 32 47 47 39 39 39 47 56.7/128 60/120 25.00 5.91 0.40 6.91 1.65 6.41 16.30 0.29 1.90 5. test conducted in dry 4 casing 62.Scalloped Gun Charge Performance Data Explosive Casing Target Load Size Strength gm in.60 5.65 5.4 16.25 17.94 0.00 0.ASP?Company=Jet%20Research%20Center%20(Halliburton)&Licenses=vwQPLicensesActive.00 6.65 0.80 0.00 6.84 0.07 0.80 5. SPF Phasing Explosive Type HMX RDX RDX HMX HMX HNS RDX RDX HMX RDX HMX RDX HMX RDX RDX RDX RDX HMX RDX RDX RDX RDX RDX RDX HMX RDX RDX RDX RDX RDX HMX HMX RDX RDX RDX RDX HMX Part Number 101210674 100005324 100005325 100014352 100005340 101343830 100005319 100005326 100157006 100005311 100156995 101228756 101233690 100156990 100005319 101307494 100005311 100156995 100005311 101228756 101269719 101292616 101307494 100157007 100157011 101292616 101307494 100157007 101304878 101304878 101207997 101207997 101228037 101304878 101213474 101212693 101414821 Charge Type Millennium™ DP DP/LD DP DP/LD DP BH BH/LD BH SH SH SH/LD SH/LD BH BH Mirage® SH SH SH SH/LD SH BH Mirage SH SH BH Mirage SH Mirage BH Mirage BH Millennium Millennium Mirage SH Mirage SH SH/LD Mirage EHD in.46 6.38 0.65 0.7/128 45/135 138 45/135 45/135 138 45/135 60/120 * 19B * * * 19B 19B 5.67 5.42 0. 2.19B data can be obtained at: http://compositelist.37 19.32 0.30 6.41 5.10 Penetration Normalized to 5.87 5.10 Total Target Penetration in.api.45 7.7/128 60/120 60/120 45/135 25.31 * * * 19B 19B 19B 47.74 0.75 0.10 5.license_id=3514#19B-0005 3. 71 lb N-80 casing 3 Gas gun.30 4.90 6.10 5.5 45 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 5/8 7 7 7 5/8 7 5/81 7 5/81 7 5/81 7 5/8 7 5/8 7 5/8 7 5/8 8 5/8 8 5/8 8 5/8 9 5/82 9 5/8 9 5/8 9 5/8 9 5/8 9 5/8 9 5/8 9 7/84 6322 9080 5685 9080 5685 5910 6840 7346 5723 6982 5016 5124 5622 5553 6508 6551 5192 6487 7877 6437 5538 5411 5576 5138 5250 6246 6230 6498 7043 5088 6397 7006 5746 6178 5975 6040 6100 Size in.000 psi (5% per 1.85 0.75 1.83 0.63 19B 19B 19B 19B * 1 7 5/8 in.97 6.16 7.72 0.73 0.88 0.35 9.40 5.51 7.10 5.81 0.36 1.57 18. 47 lb P-110 casing 2 9 5/8 in.

14 7. 4 in. 26 #/ft/** 7 5/8 in.79 5.86 4.26 4. 9.68 3. 9 5/8 in.203 TBD* 2.38 5.36 6 6.3 5.87 4.87 4. 29-lb casing.09 3.75 3.53 4.79 6.4 #/ft *Worst Case-Atmospheric pressure.15 Gun Size in.8 #/ft 9 5/8 in.745 1. 13. 58. 35 #/ft 7 in.67 2.79 3.88 4. 71.76 2.2 5 5.41 5.166 2. 35 #/ft 7 in. 15 #/ft 5.5 Maximum Shot (Density) per foot SPF 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 5 6 9 4 6 12 6 5 6 8 11 12 14 12 14 18 6 12 14 21 12 14 12 14 Minimum Casing Size (for washing over w/o milling guns) 4 in.125 3. VannGun® Assemblies 4-29 .68 3.97 2.23 5.Gun Washover/Fishing Specifications Gun OD in.5 in. **It is possible to washover 5 in. guns in 7 in.563 2 2. 1.125 5.* (Gun OD after shooting) 1.5 7 6.76 7.375 4 2. 4.21 5.25 3. but washover pipe to be used is not a common size and is difficult to find. 39 #/ft 9 5/8 in.96 4. submerged in water.5 in.5 #/ft 4.5 in. 23 #/ft 6 5/8 in.5 #/ft 5 in.625 4.

810 2.044 3.695 3.225 2.280 4-30 VannGun® Assemblies .600 3.546 3.850 2 6 6 4 5 6.760 1.Gun Swell Information Gun OD 1 9/16 Charge Shot Phase deg 60 0 0 60 0 60 60 22 LS 180 Test Results Explosive Weight gm 3.615 3.047 3.246 2.954 2.676 3.680 2.7 14.568 3 3/8 water water water 4.555 3.260 4.458 3.4 SPF 6 4 Charge Part No.645 3.5 13 14.177 2.893 2.7 15 15 15 15 15 32 32 32 25 22 25 24 25 25 25 14 14 14 39 28 water water 2 1/2 water 2 3/4 6 60 air 100158220 101206793 100010399 101233817 water 2.971 2.5 12.7 12.600 3. 100157028 100157028 100008017 100008017 101208224 101208224 101206251 100158220 100158220 100157026 100005329 100005329 Type Millennium™ SDP Tested In Air/Water water air Maximum Swell in.610 3.892 2.592 3.915 60 LS 2 7/8 2 7/8 HW 6 6 G-Force® 60 60 180 60 4 90 180 60 6 60 LS 60 8 12 12 4 4 7 180 30/150 90 150 101233817 101233817 101233817 101233817 100005322 100005327 100005327 100008249 100005333 100008249 101207640 100008249 101233819 101309223 100008251 100008251 100005312 101210636 101228756 water air water air water air 3.781 2.898 2.42 3. 1.520 3.705 2.853 2.8 Millennium DP DP LD SDP DP DP LD BH SDP Millennium Millennium Millennium Millennium DP SDP DP SDP SDP LD SDP Millennium Dominator® BH Millennium SH LD 11 13 13 14.221 2.

332 5.207 8 4 5/8 11 180 140/160 12 30/150 100005326 100005311 101228756 14 18 12 5 14 18 21 6 5 1/8 12 14 21 5 3/4 6 1/2 6 1/2 HP 7 14 14 12 12 12 14 25.834 4.685 6.860 4.762 7. VannGun® Assemblies 4-31 .196 5.5 45/135 30/150 25.5 22.5 32 32 23 23 28 22.813 4.770 4.413 5.7/128.945 6.5 water water water water water The above chart was taken from actual tests conducted by Halliburton Technology on RDX and HMX charges.790 4.876 4.268 5.904 4.895 4.7 22. 100005327 101210636 101321963 100005327 100005327 100005326 100005326 100005311 100005324 100014352 100005340 Type DP Millennium™ SH DP DP LD SH DP DP LD BH LD SH SH LD SH BH SH SH LD SH BH SH BH LD SH BH SH LD Mirage BH SH LD SH LD SH LD SH ® Tested In Air/Water water air water air water air Maximum Swell in.198 5. All tests were conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.7 23 22.7 28 20 water Charge Part No.7/128.868 4.7 32 20 34 47 56.715 6.304 5.5 56.7/128.210 5.125 7. It can be used as a general guideline for all explosives.7/128.840 4.696 4.5 56. or systems that are not listed.730 5.Gun Swell Information Gun OD SPF G-Force® 5 6 Charge Shot Phase deg 180 60 45/135 60 Test Results Explosive Weight gm 32 39 56.143 21 56.780 4. 4.5 138 45/135 45/135 45/135 138 100005311 100156990 100005311 100005311 101228756 101269719 101292616 101240223 100005326 100157007 101292616 101272769 101304878 101212693 101212693 101210063 101213474 28 water 5. If you have questions regarding these systems.229 5.5 60/120 25.925 4.5 60/120 45/135 30/150 25. please contact your local Halliburton representative.806 4.944 4.

The second term is linear with respect to temperature. Thus. Using these criteria also reduces any additional strength a thicker scallop may bring to the area around the scallop. The decomposition of explosives is a process that generates heat and releases gaseous by-products. however. Once a VannGun collapse test has been conducted and documented. Halliburton uses only the best materials and conducts rigorous tests to ensure a reliable VannGun assembly. the maximum collapse pressure rating of VannGun assemblies may be higher than tested since the pressure chamber used to qualify most VannGun assemblies do not exceed a pressure of 30. If. At room temperature. the initial gun rating is reduced to the last pressure at which it survived for one hour. the same material will react within microseconds at 825oC. In some instances. However. the rating is reduced to reflect a gun cut to minimum material conditions. Rate of temperature rise in the explosive Rate of heat generation due to decomposition Rate of heat loss to the surroundings due to conduction = - The first term on the right-hand side of the equation is an exponential function of temperatures. If no failure occurred. including catastrophic thermal explosion. This decomposition is called “thermal outgassing” and if the heat generated by decomposition can be balanced by heat dissipation to the surroundings. the heat generated by decomposition quickly begins to dominate and can result in a variety of outcomes. Other decomposition rates and corresponding lifetimes exist between these two extremes. each test gun is cut with a minimum scallop thickness to ensure the scallop is not a failure point. In addition to these requirements.VannGun® Pressure Ratings Halliburton VannGun® assemblies have remained an industry-leading product because of Halliburton’s commitment to high quality construction. the VannGun initial rating will be the last pressure at which the gun survived for one hour before the testing was terminated. After the initial rating has been determined. the heat generated by decomposition is not removed quickly enough. After the adjustment is made for minimum material conditions. it becomes apparent that as the temperature increases. Each system is qualified at 450°F (232°C) and meets all the requirements of API RP 19B Section 3: Evaluation of Well Perforators. during testing. The process can be stated in simple terms. A pressure chamber that allowed higher pressures in some cases would allow higher ratings for VannGun assemblies. it will still survive the pressure rating. the effective shelf life of an explosive can be one million years. 4-32 VannGun® Assemblies . Thermal Decomposition of Explosives Explosives are energetic materials with decomposition rates that are exponential functions of temperature. it is also possible that the gaseous by-products generated by decomposition can serve as catalysts to the reaction. All VannGun assemblies are made of a high quality seamless tubular that must meet strict metallurgical and mechanical property standards. thus increasing the rate even more. VannGun assemblies are rated to a specific collapse and tensile strength. where the decomposition rate is extremely small. the gun rating is lowered again so there is a minimum safety factor of 5% as required by API RP 19B Section 3: Evaluation of Well Perforators. If a VannGun assembly is collapsed during testing. To aggravate the process further. This ensures that even if a VannGun assembly is manufactured to the worst allowable tolerances. then it is possible for the process to become unstable and the reaction to accelerate uncontrollably until an explosion occurs (sometimes called “thermal runaway”). These calculations may be found in the section marked “Collapse Rating Calculations” for each VannGun assembly tested. The raw material and test criteria under which VannGun assemblies must be tested help ensure every VannGun run will survive the required collapse pressure rating. then the explosive quietly decomposes until none remains.000 psi (2068 bar). the information is reviewed.

relatively slowmoving pieces. but the explosive has thermally degraded to the point it compromises performance and/or reliability. • Exudation (extrusion)—the energetic material extrudes. and this must be accounted for when planning any downhole job requiring the use of energetic materials. which means it is entirely possible that a violent event can occur. Adjust accordingly. if the estimated time on bottom is 60 hours. the dotted-line portions of the curves are extrapolations of what the time-temperature relationships would be for longer exposure times. quiet decomposition may or may not take place. where detonation cord is exposed to both temperature and pressure. but other explosive material may be thrown burning or unreacted. • Burning (weak deflagration)—a consumption of energetic material by flame. The reaction along the length of the explosive train may cut off. For any jobs that fall in these extrapolated ranges of time. It is also important to recognize that no safety factor has been built into these curves. • Explosion (strong deflagration)— a subsonic but rapid burning of the explosive material leading to violent rupture of confining cases and pressure vessels. • Performance degradation— no violent reactions have occurred. please contact your local Halliburton representative. If conditions go above the curve. Always consider the accuracy of the bottomhole temperature and how long the explosives will remain at that temperature under worst case conditions. In order to provide guidelines for quiet decomposition versus violent events. In the case of capsule guns. Past experience related to exposure time has shown that a minimum safety factor of 50% should be applied when choosing the explosive type. Thus. then add 30 hours for a total of 90 hours when selecting an explosive from the time-temperature chart. Exudation may result in the energetic material coming into contact with other materials not chemically compatible with energetics. The curve is applicable only for hollow carrier guns where the explosive is exposed solely to the effects of temperature. the time-temperature relationship is different. The “shell” of detonating cord may remain intact. and jets are produced from lined cavity devices. which may stimulate more violent reactions. it is mandatory that an explosive systems test be conducted at Halliburton Technology. • Quiet decomposition— the explosive has decomposed at a rate corresponding to its thermal history. • Partial detonation— some of the energetic material is consumed by detonation. As long as conditions remain below the time-temperature curve for a given explosive. or flows out of its confining structure. VannGun® Assemblies 4-33 . For example. • Deflagration—a slightly less rapid reaction than an explosion but still sufficiently strong enough to rupture cases and pressure vessels into large. but the amount of decomposition is so slight it does not compromise performance or reliability. Also. Fragments are formed from metallic charge cases. No significant breakup of cases or metallic components occur. time-temperature curves have been generated for various explosives.The outcomes of thermal decomposition are somewhat distinct and can be divided into the following categories: • Full detonation—a supersonic reaction consuming all explosive material. For more information on the subject of thermal decomposition. it will function properly. procedures are in place to stay below the curves.

Temperature Chart Operational Limits for Hollow Carrier Gun Systems 650 600 550 500 Temperature °F 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 1 10 TIME (Hours) CONTACT HALLIBURTON TECHNOLOGY FOR RECOMMENDATIONS AND POSSIBLE NEED FOR SYSTEMS TESTING. or capsule guns. 2.Time Vs. Notes: 1. 100 1000 PYX HNS HMX RDX 343 316 288 260 Temperature °C 232 204 177 149 121 93 66 1 10 TIME (Hours) 100 1000 PYX HNS HMX RDX CONTACT HALLIBURTON TECHNOLOGY FOR RECOMMENDATIONS AND POSSIBLE NEED FOR SYSTEMS TESTING. It is not valid for TCP firing systems. detonating cord. This chart is valid for the explosive train inside hollow carrier guns only: Non-electric boosters. and shaped charges. electric detonators. 3. 4-34 VannGun® Assemblies . Contact your local Halliburton representative for information regarding these other components.

releasing the firing piston. Slimhole Annulus Pressure Firer—Internal Control (page 16) The slimhole annulus pressure transfer reservoir (APTR) system assembles in a similar manner to the 7-in. and 9 5/8-in. replacing the series of threaded tube mandrels from the larger APTR systems. These firing heads use tubing pressure applied to a pistontype firing pin. Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir (page 15) The annulus pressure transfer reservoir (APTR) is an integral component of the APF-C. When the metal is in a solid state.or overbalanced perforating through the use of a pressure-actuated firing head with a time delay fuse. but the explosive train will not transmit through the interrupt device to the guns. time-delay firer. a sleeve through the packer mandrel. Time-Delay Firer (page 12) The time-delay firer (TDF) allows under. Mechanical Firing Head (page 6) The extended mechanical firing head (MFH) is a special application tool that should only be used when well conditions preclude use of an alternate firing device. The detonating bar strikes the firing pin. The APF-C system consists of a pressure transfer reservoir.Firing Heads Firing Heads Time Vs. an adapter below the packer. Annulus Pressure Firer-Control Line (page 14) The annulus pressure firer-control line (APF-C) was developed as a dual-firing system that allows the perforating guns to be detonated by annular pressure. the model KV-II firing head makes firing of the guns and opening of the vent one operation instead of two. The detonation device contains eutectic metal that has a very low melting point. Pressure-Actuated Firing Head (page 9) The pressure-actuated firing head can run with small OD tubing or coiled tubing to detonate small OD perforating guns and is detonated by applied pressure. Firing Heads 5-1 . Hydrostatic pressure then forces the firing piston into the initiator. or tubing pressure. and high temperature initiator. Any of the mechanical or pressure-firing heads can be attached to the top of the APF-C firing head. and a control line to transmit pressure from the annulus above the packer to the APF-C firing head assembly on top of the guns. It is the mechanism that transmits pressure from above the packer to a differential pressure or pressure-actuated firing head on top of the perforating assembly. Model II-D and III-D Mechanical Firing Head (pages 7-8) The model II-D and III-D mechanical firing heads are pressure-assisted mechanical firing heads. With the delay fuse. APTR system. there is time for adjusting the actuating pressure in the tubing to achieve the desired pressure before firing the guns. Second. Multiaction-Delay Firing Head (page 13) The multiaction-delay firing head is a pressure-actuated redundant firing system that can be run with any one of several other firing heads. This tool helps allow the operator more accurate control of when the vent opens in relation to when the guns fire. Detonation Interruption Device (page 5) The detonation interruption device provides added safety for the VannSystem® service by helping to prevent firing at surface conditions. Temperature Charts (page 4) These charts display time vs. Only two design changes have been implemented in the new 5-in. Model KV-II Firing Head (page 11) Combining a firing head with a vent assembly. a series of concentric tubes below the packer replaces the control line from larger APTR systems. First. a drop bar. The model K firing head is a pressure-sensitive tool designed to hydraulically detonate at a prescribed pressure. Model K Firing Head (page 10) The model K firing heads were developed for conditions that are unfavorable for dropping a detonating bar in a horizontal well. the firing head could detonate. temperature for the PYX initiator. a single tube mandrel runs through the packer. APTR systems.

TDF firing head. which allows the lower portion of the firing head and the attached explosive assembly to rotate independently from the tubing string. The HalSonics firing head is also ideal for applications where extremely long delay times are required with traditional delay type firing systems. Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head and Swivel-Type Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head (page 18) The hydraulic actuator firing head (HAF) is a pressurebalanced tool that automatically fills the tubing string while it is running in the well. this system can be utilized when extensive well fluid manipulations are required or where multiple pressure cycles are performed prior to perforating. This condition can be created when pressure is applied to the ID or when the OD pressure is reduced. Delay time can be adjusted and is affected by temperature. This system can overcome obstacles in jobs where bar-drop or pressure actuated firing heads are not technically feasible or economically practical to detonate the downhole perforating assembly. Pressure applied to the tubing string actuates the HAF. Extended and modular delay fuses add time between the actuation of the firing head and the actual detonation of the guns. It is designed so 80% of the parts are used in all three applications allowing for more flexibility with less inventory. In addition. Each delay fuse lasts for six minutes at 70°F. Mechanical Metering Hydraulic-Delay Firing Head (page 19) The mechanical metering hydraulic-delay firing head provides a retrievable firing system with an adjustable delay for situations where longer delay times are needed. Extended Delay Fuses (page 23) Delay fuses are explosive devices with a slow burning fuse. A stainless steel ball is dropped from the surface or circulated into position. tool weight above the piston. Modular Mechanical Firing Head (page 24) Mechanical firing head is designed to be a retrievable firing system utilizing a standard mechanical firing head with a specialized drop bar for detonation. The firing head latches onto the guns and provides a positive indication that it is attached. The firing head works by requiring the internal pressure to be greater than the external pressure. the number of jets used. The system can be run with a mechanically operated head or a pressure-operated head. slickline. It is a pressureactuated firing head with built-in pyrotechnic time delay. or electric line. The perforation assembly is detonated by use of a special fluted bar dropped from surface. Slickline-Retrievable Mechanical Firing Head (page 20) The slickline-retrievable mechanical firing head is designed to give customers flexibility in completing a well. the firing head is set on the top module and released. and the amount of fluid in the tool. Once the guns are in place. Slickline-Retrievable Time-Delay Firer Firing Head (page 22) The slickline-retrievable time-delay firer (TDF) firing head combines two assemblies—the slickline-retrievable firing head and a 1 11/16 in. This system will allow the operator the flexibility to run the gun assemblies independently of the firing system. It can be run attached to the guns. The pressure required to actuate the firing head may be lower than that used for other pressure-operated firing heads because it is operated by differential pressure. separately from the guns. 5-2 Firing Heads . or using an auto-release firing mechanism.Differential Firing Head (page 17) The differential firing head was designed to allow underbalanced perforating with a differential pressureactuated firing system. A smaller swivel-type hydraulic actuator firing head incorporates a swivel into the firing head assembly. HalSonics® Firing Head (page 26) The HalSonics® firing head system is designed to actuate tubing conveyed perforating guns and may be conveyed by tubing.

EZ Cycle™ Multi-Pressure Cycle Firing Head (page 30) The EZ Cycle™ firing head is a pressure-operated tool that can be cycled several times prior to firing the perforating guns. Firing Heads 5-3 . Several pressure operations can also be performed on the well including tubing testing. Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly (page 29) The annulus pressure crossover assembly allows the use of annulus pressure to actuate any one of several firing heads.Side-Pocket Mandrel Firing Head (page 28) The side-pocket mandrel firing head is useful in well conditions when the use of a pressure-actuated firing head run with a Y-block is not possible. The assembly is compatible with retrievable packers of all types and sizes. Side-pocket systems are used on single-string. packer setting and packer testing prior to firing the perforating guns. A model III-D mechanical firing head is attached to the short string side of the mandrel and the firing head is detonated with a kickover tool run on slickline. multi-zone completions as well as standard dual completions.

The dashed lines are extrapolations out to 1000 hrs. 3. Temps noted on the graph are actual test points. PYX initiator -. If you have an application for any of these items that exceeds either the time or temps of the actual test data as shown on this graph. THESE RATINGS ARE FOR SPECIFIC SCIENTIFIC MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS ONLY. Temperature Chart Temperature (deg F) 450 PYX HTI TDF 450 437 425 395 375 400 1.232 deg C @ 100 hrs 225 deg C @ 200 hrs HTI -225 deg C @ 200 hrs 202 deg C @ 500 hrs TDF -218 deg C @ 200 hrs 191 deg C @ 500 hrs 2. If you have an application for any of these items that exceeds either the time or temps of the actual test data as shown on this graph we would recommend a qualification test be done. THESE RATINGS ARE FOR SPECIFIC SCIENTIFIC MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS ONLY 350 300 1 10 TDF Time (hr) HTI PYX 100 1000 250 PYX Initiator. PYX initiator -.450 deg F @ 100 hrs 437 deg F @ 200 hrs HTI -437 deg F @ 200 hrs 395 deg F @ 500 hrs TDF -425 deg F @ 200 hrs 375 deg F @ 500 hrs 2.500 PYX Initiator TDF & HTI – Time Vs. 3. Temperature (deg C) TDF 200 191 150 1 10 TDF Time (hr) HTI PYX 100 1000 5-4 Firing Heads . Temps noted on the graph are actual test points. The dashed lines are extrapolations out to 1000 hrs. TDF & HTI – Time Vs. Temperature Chart (Metric) PYX HTI 232 225 218 202 1. we would recommend a qualification test be done.

When the metal is in a solid state.33) 6P Acme Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.58 (0. (mm) 2.85) 3.000 (111 500) Maximum temperature is determined by explosives. it should be assumed that detonation transfer will occur if the tool is at or above 110°F. At 117°F or above.000 (63 400) 246. (mm) 2 (50.000 (1725) Minimum Required Temperature Rating °F (°C) 135 (57) 135 (57) 135 (57) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 121. the firing head could detonate. Detonation Interruption Device Detonation Interruption Device (DID) Specifications SAP No.50 (63. For more information. For safe operation. allowing the transfer of the explosive train from the firing head to the gun. Features and Benefits • Compatible with other firing heads • Disables transmission of explosive train at the surface • Used with redundant firing heads Operation The eutectic metal will remain solid as the assembly lowers into the hole (assuming the tool temperature is below 117°F).000 (54 885) 140. the metal returns to a solid state upon reaching a cooler surface temperature.70 (1. To help prevent accidental gun detonation when lowering or retrieving unfired guns.48) 3.5) 2.75 (69.Detonation Interruption Device The detonation interruption device (DID) provides added safety for the VannSystem® service by helping to prevent firing at surface conditions. Note: The eutectic material utilized actually melts at 117°F.375 (85.03) 6P Acme Box × Pin Maximum OD in. 100155745 101204860 100155746 Thread Size and Type in.000 (1380) 25. but the explosive train will not transmit through the interrupt device to the guns. These ratings are guidelines only.04 (0.93) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) N/A 20. the metal becomes liquid. When exposed to the bottomhole temperature (minimum 135°F for operational purposes). Firing Heads HAL10519 5-5 . consult your local Halliburton representative.13) 3.73) Makeup Length ft (m) 1.8) 6 Acme 2G 2 3/8 (60. This device contains a eutectic metal that has a very low melting point. the DID assembly will not prevent detonation.

(mm) 2. which holds the firing pin in place.8) 2.62) 1. 100155741 100005223 100005228 Thread Size and Type in.73) Make-up Length (w/tubing sub) ft (m) 1.56 (39. Temperature rating is determined by explosives.90 (48.50) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20.26) NU 10 Rd Pin × 2 3/8 (60. It should be used only when well conditions preclude the use of an alternate firing device.62) Tensile Strength (FH Body) lb (kg) 60.53 (38.33) 6P Acme Box 2 3/8 (60.92 (1.45) 4.33) EUE 8 Rd Pin × 2 7/8 (73. (mm) 1. For more information.000 (1380) Minimum ID (No-Go) in. Whenever it is used on a job.000 (1380) 20.000 (27 200) 140.0 (50.375 (85. and to detonate the initiator.000 (63 400) 238. the MFH must be used according to Halliburton standard operating procedures.56 (39. Operation The operation of the MFH depends on the amount of force delivered to the firing pin by the detonating bar.26) NU 10 Rd Pin 1.Mechanical Firing Head The extended mechanical firing head (MFH) is a special application tool. These ratings are guidelines only. This firing pin must be hit with enough force to shear the spiral pin. 5-6 HAL15376 Firing Head Sub-Assembly Firing Heads . The detonation interruption device (DID) and a minimum of 10 ft of safety spacer must always be used with the MFH.51) 8 UN 2 B Box × 1.48 (. The firing pin is driven into a percussion detonator.000 (1380) 20.000 (107 900) Burst and collapse pressures are determined by handling sub. HAL15358 Mechanical Firing Head (MFH) Mechanical Firing Head (MFH) Specifications SAP No. (mm) 1 7/16 (36.85) 3. consult your local Halliburton representative. which fires the guns.03) 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in.50) 4.86) 1.75 (69.90 (48.92 (1.

92 (1.Model II-D Mechanical Firing Head The model II-D mechanical firing head is a pressure-assisted mechanical firing head. The detonating bar strikes the firing pin.375 (85.03) 6P Acme Maximum OD in.000 (63 400) 238.90 (48.50) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20. HAL15377 Model II-D Mechanical Firing Head Model II-D Mechanical Firing Head Assembly Model II-D Mechanical Firing Head Specifications Thread Size and Type in. (mm) 1.73) Minimum ID (No-Go) in.62) Makeup Length (w/tubing sub) ft (m) 4.92 (1.000 (1380) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 1.500 psi hydrostatic pressure in the tubing to actuate the firing head properly.000 (1380) 20.50) 4. For more information.33) 6P Acme Box 2 3/8 (60. These ratings are guidelines only. (mm) 2.26) EUE 10 Rd Pin × 2 3/8 (60.500 (103) 1. consult your local Halliburton representative.85) 3.56 (39. (mm) 1.000 (107 900) SAP No. releasing the firing piston.56 (39. Temperature rating is determined by explosives.75 (69. Firing Heads HAL15378 5-7 . Features and Benefits • Cannot be detonated accidentally at surface • Ideal for use in mud environments where spudding may be necessary • Used in deviated wells Operation The model II-D firing head requires a minimum of 1.500 (103) Tensile Strength (FH body) lb (kg) 140.62) 1. Hydrostatic pressure then forces the firing piston into the initiator.33) EUE 8 Rd Pin × 2 7/8 (73. 100014156 100005227 Burst and collapse pressures are determined by handling sub. Adding more pressure to the tubing after the detonating bar has struck the firing pin will not actuate the firing head.

000 (550) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 250 (17) 250 (17) Tensile Strength (FH Body) lb (kg) 140.56 (39.000 (107 900) SAP No. (mm) 2. (mm) 1. increasing the hydrostatic pressure in the tubing may cause it to fire. 100155742 100005191 Burst and collapse pressures are determined by handling sub. HAL15379 HAL15380 Model III-D Mechanical Firing Head Model III-D Mechanical Firing Head Assembly Model III-D Mechanical Firing Head Specifications Thread Size and Type in.375 (85. The model III-D firing head requires a minimal amount of hydrostatic pressure to actuate the firing head.92 (1.62) Makeup Length (w/tubing sub) ft (m) 4.26) EUE 10 Rd Pin × 2 3/8 (60.56 (39.90 (48. This minimal actuating pressure is ideal for applications that require maximum differential pressures.50) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 8. Hydrostatic pressure then forces the firing piston into the initiator. 5-8 Firing Heads .000 (550) 8.03) 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in.000 (63 400) 238.33) 6P Acme Box 2 3/8 (60.73) Minimum ID (No-Go) in.33) EUE 8 Rd Pin × 2 7/8 (73.92 (1. consult your local Halliburton representative.75 (69.62) 1. Features and Benefits • Cannot be detonated accidentally at surface • Requires minimal hydrostatic pressure to actuate the firing head • Ideal for use in mud environments where spudding may be necessary • Used in deviated wells Operation The model III-D firing head requires a minimum of 250 psi hydrostatic pressure in the tubing to actuate the firing head properly. and the head does not fire. Temperature rating is determined by explosives. The detonating bar strikes the firing pin. (mm) 1. If a detonating bar is dropped on the model III-D firing head with less than 250 psi hydrostatic pressure in the tubing. These ratings are guidelines only.85) 3. releasing the firing piston.Model III-D Mechanical Firing Head The model III-D mechanical firing head is a pressure-assisted mechanical firing head.50) 4. For more information.

a firing piston that is shear-pinned in place across the circulating ports.200 (150) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 65.88) No. which forces the firing piston into the initiator to detonate the explosive component attached to the PAF. Pressure applied to the tubing string shears the shear set. pressure-actuated firing head (PAF) can run with small-OD tubing or coiled tubing to detonate small-OD perforating guns. For more information. and ID of Ports in. consult your local Halliburton representative. and an initiator contained in a lower housing.88 (5.75 (19.688 (42.000 (1170) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 2.2 (cm2) 0. The PAF is detonated by applied pressure.68) Makeup Length ft (m) 0.51) 8 UN-2 B Box Maximum OD in. (mm) 1.40) NU-10 Rd Pin × 17/16 (36. Firing Heads HAL10561 Pressure-Actuated Firing Head (PAF) 5-9 .22) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 17.000 (1860) SAP No. The downward movement of the firing piston opens the circulating ports. PAF consists of an upper housing with circulating ports.315 (33. Features and Benefits • Can be run on the top and bottom of the gun assembly • Initiates a bridge-plug setting tool • Initiates tubing cutters • Detonates tubing punch charges for squeeze or circulating jobs • Can be run to remain closed after detonation • Can be modified to be run as a slickline-retrievable firing head and a time-delay firing head (TDF) Operation The 1 11/16-in. These ratings are guidelines only. (mm) 2 @ 0.73 (0.000 (29 400) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 27.05) Flow Area of Ports in. 100005224 Temperature rating is determined by explosives.Pressure-Actuated Firing Head The 1 11/16-in. (mm) 1. Pressure-Actuated Firing Head (PAF) Specifications Thread Size and Type in.

These firing heads do not have a built-in delay. (mm) 3. 100005190 100014215 Temperature rating is determined by explosives.500 (1345) 19.000 (2070) SAP No.000 (84 800) 220. For more information.38) 1.25 (0.01082* *Legacy number Model K-II Firing Head Specifications Thread Size and Type in.33) 6P Acme Box × 4 1/2 (114.85) 3.33) 6P Acme Box 2 7/8 (73.75 (69.000 (275) 4. HAL15381 Features and Benefits • Allows the operator to determine the exact time of firing the guns since the firing heads require a predetermined pressure before the guns can fire • Works with full-opening or non-fullopening downhole tools • Ideal for balanced or overbalanced perforating • Can be used for dual completions.000 (2070) 30.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × 2 7/8 (73.375 (85.50) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 19.64 (0.03) 6P Acme Box 2 7/8 (60.03) 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in.000 (275) 4.000 (275) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 187.90 (48.000.000 (895) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 4.500 (1345) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 4.73) 6.73) Makeup Length ft (m) 1.000 (275) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 220. (mm) 2 7/8 (73.13 (0. This action detonates the guns.000 (895) 13. the shear pins shear.Model K Firing Head The model K firing head was developed for conditions that are unfavorable for dropping a detonating bar in a horizontal well.3) IF Box × Pin Maximum OD in.000 (2070) SAP No. 100014211 993.000 (1725) 30. The model K firing head is a pressure-sensitive tool designed to hydraulically detonate at a prescribed pressure. thereby allowing the firing pin on the lower end of the piston to be driven into the initiator.12 (155. • Can be run on the top or bottom of the perforating assembly • Can be easily redressed Operation The model K firing head is designed to provide a reliable and cost-effective method for firing guns using hydrostatic pressure.45) Makeup Length ft (m) 1.000 (99 700) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 25. Each firing head contains a firing piston that is shearpinned in place above an initiator. When enough hydrostatic pressure is applied to the piston.000 (99 700) 1. These firing heads use tubing pressure applied to a pistontype firing pin. consult your local Halliburton representative. drillstem testing.38) 1. These ratings are guidelines only. The number of shear pins used varies for each well situation.375 (85.000 (453 500) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 30.34) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 13.24 (0. 5-10 Firing Heads . (mm) 2.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × 2 7/8 (73. or production perforating • Well-suited for highly deviated well completions Model K Firing Head Model K Firing Head Specifications Thread Size and Type in.26) EUE 10 Rd Pin × 2 3/8 (60. (mm) 1.

The model KV-II firing head combines a firing head and a vent assembly. This tool allows the operator more accurate control of when the vent opens in relation to when the guns fire. Firing Heads 5-11 .0) 3.88) EUE 8 Rd Pin × 2 7/8 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in.27) Minimum Makeup Length ft (m) 1.000 (1035) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 145.75 (69.375 (85. In the model KV-II firing head.000 (65 700) 235. Features and Benefits • Useful in wells with open perforations where it is not possible to pressure up on the wellbore to actuate a firing head • Useful in perforating and stimulation jobs where the tubing pressure exceeds the limitations of the casing • Useful because the firing head and vent operate at one pressure • Ideal for deviated wells • Piston mechanically locked after firing HAL15459 Model KV-II Firing Head Model KV-II Firing Head Specifications Thread Size and Type in.000 (106 600) SAP No.41) 1.000 (1725) 25.000 (1035) 15.85) 3.33) EUE 8 Rd Pin × 2 3/8 6P Acme Box 2 7/8 (72. This venting feature allows operators to run the tubing in the hole dry if needed. Operation In many tubing conveyed perforating applications. To delay the gun detonation. and the vent often opened either too soon or too late. These ratings are guidelines only.79 (18. (mm) 2. a piston is sheared to cause the guns to detonate and the ports to open and equalize (or vent) pressure. In the past.14 (20. For more information.000 (275) Maximum Differential Pressure psi (bars) 15.000 (1725) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 3.43 (0.Model KV-II Firing Head The model KV-II firing head makes the firing of the guns and the opening of the vent one operation rather than two. one or more delay devices may be added to the assembly. the tubing was kept closed by a firing head with some type of vent assembly.000 (206) 4.33 (0. 100014153 100014155 Temperature rating is determined by explosives.44) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 25. In the standard KV-II firing head. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. it is either desirable or necessary to keep the tubing closed until the guns have been detonated.2 (cm2) 2. the ports in the tool open the instant the firing head is actuated and the guns detonate. consult your local Halliburton representative.73) Flow Area in. Coordination between the two tools was sometimes hard to achieve.

or overbalanced pressure • Can be run in heavy mud systems • Can be used with full-opening or non-full-opening tools • Reduces cost by allowing the running of multiple guns without gun spacers • Ideal for production completions.000 (895) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 2.4) NU-10 Rd Pin 1.69 (0.81 (0.03) EUE 8 Rd Pin × 2 7/8 (73. The maximum pressure shears the pins in the shear set and forces the firing piston into the primer.65) 1.52) 1.000 (2070) SAP No.26) EUE 10 Rd Pin × 2 (50.000 (275) 4. The primer ignites the pyrotechnic delay fuse.73) Makeup Length ft (m) 2.90 (48. For more information.200 (150) 4.5) 3. Features and Benefits • Allows independent perforating of selected zones • Allows maximum use of under. The delay fuse burns for a predetermined time (between 4 and 6 minutes) depending on the bottomhole temperature and detonates the perforating assembly.16 (0.8) 6P Acme Box 2 7/8 (73.03) 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in.55) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 17. and dual completions • Allows additional time-delay elements as needed for increasing delay time HAL15382 • Recommended for running on the top and bottom of gun assemblies Time-Delay Firer (TDF) Time-Delay Firer (TDF) Specifications Thread Size and Type in. drillstem testing.688 (42.50 (63.000 (1655) 13.or overbalanced perforating through the use of a pressure-actuated firing head with a time-delay fuse.000 (99 700) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 20. The delay fuse allows 4 to 6 minutes for adjusting the actuating pressure in the tubing to achieve the desired pressure before firing the guns.315 (33. Operation The TDF is run with a predetermined number of shear pins for specific well conditions. The tubing is pressured to the maximum actuating pressure slowly. consult your local Halliburton representative.000 (1170) 24.375 (85.88) 2.Time-Delay Firer The time-delay firer (TDF) allows under. (mm) 1.000 (2070) 30. These ratings are guidelines only.000 (54 432) 220. (mm) 1 7/16 (36.000 (25 400) 120.000 (1380) 30.51) 8 UN-2 B Box × 1. 5-12 Firing Heads . 100014157 100005231 100005230 Temperature rating is determined by explosives.000 (275) Temperature Rating °F (°C) 425 (218) for 200 hours 415 (213) for 100 hours 425 (218) for 200 hours Tensile Strength lb (kg) 56.

33) 6P 3. Multiaction-Delay Firing Head Multiaction-Delay Firing Head Specifications SAP No. 100155753 Thread Size and Type in.74) (1. These ratings are guidelines only. (mm) Maximum OD in.000 (77 100) 201.375 3. For more information.000 (1515) 29. Features and Benefits • Allows the use of a redundant firing head without having a firing head on the bottom of the gun string • Allows multiple redundancy when a multiaction firing head is placed on both the top and bottom of the gun string • Allows operators to postpone the decision of whether to use the bar drop or pressure side of the firing head as the primary firing mechanism • Allows use of additional delay elements Operation One side of the multiaction firing head will always be pressure-actuated.Multiaction-Delay Firing Head The multiaction-delay firing head is a pressure-actuated redundant firing system that can be run with any one of several other firing heads.000 100155750 Acme Box × Pin (85.000 Acme Box × Pin (78.73) (1. Either side of the firing head may be used as the primary or backup firing system. (mm) Makeup Length ft (m) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 4.000 (275) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 170. consult your local Halliburton representative.000 (2000) 2 3/8 (60.41 25.000 (275) 4.03) 6P 3.41 18. The other side of the firing head may be a bar drop-type head or another pressure-actuated firing head.000 (91 100) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 22.04) (1240) 2 7/8 (73. Firing Heads HAL10511 5-13 .04) (1725) Temperature rating is determined by explosives.10 3.

HAL10515 Features and Benefits • Can be used with non-full-opening test tools and partially filled tubing strings • Can be used for drillstem testing or shoot-and-pull for gravel packs • Can be used wherever a pressureactuated tool is desirable • Ideal for deviated wells • Provides a system of two firing heads on top of the guns Annulus Pressure Firer-Control Line (APF-C) Firing Head Annulus Pressure Firer-Control Line (APF-C) Specifications SAP No. This pressure creates a differential pressure across the mandrel where the firing piston is housed. When the predetermined differential pressure is reached. 100156138 Thread Size and Type in. The operation of the drop bar or pressure-actuated firing head depends on which firing head system is used.000 Acme Box × Pin (93. and a control line to transmit pressure from the annulus above the packer to the APF-C firing head assembly on top of the guns.13) (1380) Temperature rating is determined by explosives. a sleeve through the packer mandrel. The piston strikes the firing pin which detonates the initiator.03) 6P 3.000 (1170) 2 7/8 (73. These ratings are guidelines only. the pins shear and the mandrel moves up and releases the firing piston. 5-14 Firing Heads . Any of the mechanical or pressure-firing heads can be attached to the top of the APF-C firing head. (mm) Makeup Length ft (m) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 250 (17) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 174. • Can be run with a mechanical or pressure-actuated firing head as a secondary firing mechanism • Enhances safety because the annulusoperated portion is pressure balanced before the packer is set and the tester valve is opened Operation The APF-C system depends on the transfer of annular pressure through the packer down to the APF-C firing head.68 3. For more information. (mm) Maximum OD in.000 (78 900) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 17.70 20.47) (1. which is driven down by rathole pressure. or tubing pressure. a drop bar.Annulus Pressure Firer-Control Line The annulus pressure firer-control line (APF-C) was developed as a dual-firing system that allows the perforating guns to be detonated by annular pressure. consult your local Halliburton representative. The APF-C system consists of a pressure transfer reservoir. an adapter below the packer.

41) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 328. consult your local Halliburton representative. For more information. Features and Benefits • Features a full-opening ID • Compatible with mud environments • Adapted for RTTS and CHAMP® IV packers • Ideal for applications that require a partial fluid column in the tubing string • Eliminates the need for nitrogen Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir Operation The APTR transmits annulus pressure into a microannulus created by the packer mandrel and the APTR mandrel.00 (50.55) 4.02 (0.34 (1.90) EUE 8 Rd Pin Length Above Packer ft (m) 5.32) Length Below Packer ft (m) 1.000 (1515) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 15. The APTR is the mechanism that transmits pressure from above the packer to a differential pressure or pressureactuated firing (PAF) head on top of the perforating assembly.Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir The annulus pressure transfer reservoir (APTR) is an integral component of the annulus pressure firer-control line (APF-C).8) 2. Packer Bottom Connection Packer Top Connection Lower Control-Line Housing HAL15439 HAL15440 Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir (APTR) Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir (APTR) Specifications SAP No.37 (60.000 (1310) 100156028 101016453 Temperature rating is determined by o-rings.09 (1.000 (148 700) 587. A stainless steel control line connects the APTR to the pressure-responsive firing head on the perforating assembly. (mm) 5.31) 1. Maximum OD in.000 (1035) 19.45) Minimum ID in.000 (266 200) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 18. The pressure is ported to a control-line sub on the lower end of the packer.03) EUE 8 Rd Box x Pin 4 1/2 4-IF Box x 3 1/2 (88.33 (0.00 (50. These ratings are guidelines only.8) 6.20) Top Assembly 3 1/2 4 IF Box x 3 7/8 6 Stub Acme Pin 4 1/2 4 IF Box x Pin Lower Assembly 2 7/8 (73.12 (155.000 (1240) 22. (mm) 2. Firing Heads 5-15 .

APF-C with diameter reductions in many of the component parts to achieve a true 3. (mm) 3. Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir— Internal Control The slimhole 3 1/8-in.000 (689) SAP No.5) Min ID in.41 (17.000 (1378) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 250 (17) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 87. 6P Acme Box × Pin Max OD in. a series of concentric tubes below the packer replaces the control line from larger APTR systems. APTR system. Flow Ports Firing Head VannGun® Assembly HAL15403 Slimhole Annulus Pressure Firer— Internal Control (APF-IC) Installation Slimhole Annulus Pressure Firer—Internal Control (APF-IC) Specifications Thread Size and Type 2 3/4-in.75) No. (mm) 1. replacing the series of threaded tube mandrels from the larger APTR systems. Internal Control Concentric tubes eliminate the need for an external control line in slimhole casing. Annulus Pressure Transfer Reservoir The slimhole annulus pressure transfer reservoir (APTR) system assembles in a similar manner to the 7-in. The firing head design remains the same as the 3 3/8-in.Slimhole Annulus Pressure Firer—Internal Control 5-in.13-in.13 (79. a single tube mandrel runs through the packer. APTR systems. of Ports 2 Makeup Length ft (m) 56.406 kg/cm2 with Extreme Environment Kit) Call Technology for temperatures above 325°F (162°C). and 9 5/8-in. Second. 3 1/8-in. 5-16 Firing Heads . First. 101301541 Temperature Rating 325°F (20K psi) with Extreme Environment Kit (162°C 1. Only two design changes have been implemented in the new 5-in. OD.25 (31. (APF-IC) firing head is designed for use with the 5-in. APTR system with internal control.2) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 20. Ball Valve Annular Pressure Transfer Sub Safety Joint Retrievable Packer 3 1/8-in.000 (39 463) Burst Pressure psi (bars) N/A Collapse Pressure psi (bar) 10.

The upward movement releases the dogs holding the firing piston in place.000 (69) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 130.59) 1. The DFH works by requiring the internal pressure to be greater than the external pressure. (mm) 3.000 (1380) 20.000 (69) 1.73) 100014232 Temperature rating is determined by explosives or o-rings.33) 6P Acme Box 2 7/8 (73.60) Maximum Operating Pressure (differential) psi (bars) 10. consult your local Halliburton representative. allowing the dog retainer to move up. This condition can be created when pressure is applied to the ID or when the OD pressure is reduced.000 (99 700) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 20.000 (345) Minimum Operating Pressure (differential) psi (bars) 1. The pressure required to actuate the DFH may be lower than that used for other pressure-operated firing heads because it is operated by differential pressure.03) 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in. the shear pins holding the dog retainer piston will shear.000 (1380) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 20. Firing Heads HAL10518 5-17 . This differential pressure can be created when surface pressure is applied to the tubing or by reducing the hydrostatic pressure in the annulus. These ratings are guidelines only.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × 2 3/8 (60.94 (0.98 (0. When the predetermined differential pressure is reached.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × 2 7/8 (73. Features and Benefits • Allows underbalanced perforating in horizontal wells without a packer • Ideal for perforating with a sucker rod or submersible pump in place • Offers added safety because it is pressure-balanced when being run into the well • Helps allow maximum underbalanced pressure in lowpressure wells when mechanical firing is not desirable Differential Firing Head (DFH) Differential Firing Head (DFH) Specifications Makeup Length ft (m) 1.0 (76. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. For more information. 120002262 Thread Size and Type in. and the internal pressure drives the firing piston into the initiator.Differential Firing Head The differential firing head (DFH) was designed to allow underbalanced perforating with a differential pressureactuated firing system.20) 3. • Can be used when equipment or well conditions will not permit the use of high pressures • Allows the use of time-delay elements as needed Operation The DFH is actuated after a predetermined differential pressure is created in the firing head ID.000 (1380) SAP No.000 (58 900) 220.000 (1380) 20.38 (85.000 (690) 5.

000 (1379) Actuating Pressure psi (bar) 3.88) (15.70) (2.51) (42.625 2 @ 0.26) EUE-10 Rd 3/4 TPF Pin 2.40) NU-10 Rd Pin × 1.Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head and Swivel-Type Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head The hydraulic actuator firing head (HAF) is a pressure-balanced tool that automatically fills the tubing string while it is running in the well. Circulation is regained as soon as the firing pin has been sheared.625 2 @ 0.28 101007031 2 3/8 (60.200 (221) 3.000 (22 680) 50. For more information. Pressure applied to the tubing string shears the retaining pins and forces the hammer piston into the firing pin. and ID Flow Area of Ports of Ports in.70) (2.625 2 @ 0.5 0.5 0.000 (1379) 20. consult your local Halliburton representative. Features and Benefits • Allows packerless completions • Makes actuation easily observable Swivel-Type Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head (SHAF) Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head (HAF) Specifications SAP No.69 0. Pressure applied to the tubing string actuates the HAF.000 (22 680) 113.70) (2.39 2.000 (138) Tensile Rating lb (kg) 50.000 (1379) 20.90 (48.51) 8UN-2B Box 1.315 (33.33) EUE 3.84 17/16 (36.315 (33.69 0.85) (34.000 (1379) 20. A stainless steel or ceramic ball is dropped from the surface or circulated into position. (mm) Ball OD in.000 (51 256) 210.88) (15.52) (0. The added swivel feature allows the lower portion of the firing head and the attached explosive assembly to rotate independently from the tubing string.0 3.14 2.200 (221) 3. deviated wells. 100156011 (Swivel Type) Thread Size and Type in.66) 17/16 (36.375 4 @ 1. • Useful in coiled tubing conveyed completions. 5-18 Firing Heads HAL10563 Hydraulic Actuator Firing Head (HAF) HAL15384 . (mm) Makeup Length ft (m) Maximum Operating Pressure (differential) psi (bars) 20.26) (0.40) (20.85) (15.875) (12.875) (12.39 2. (mm) Maximum OD in.52) (0.40 8 Rd Pin × 100156150 (85. The firing pin detonates the initiator.200 (221) 2. (mm) No.39 2. These ratings are guidelines only.03) 6P Acme Box Temperature rating is determined by explosives. The smaller swivel-type hydraulic actuator firing head (SHAF) has a swivel incorporated into the firing head assembly.87) 8UN-2B Box 1.52) (0.5 0.75 0. which starts the detonation of the perforating assembly.925) (25.691) Box 2 3/8 (60. and through-tubing perforating • Reusable • Rotation of explosive assembly from tubing string possible with swivel type Operation A stainless steel or ceramic ball is dropped from the surface or is circulated downhole into the hammer piston.875) (12.38 1.2 (cm2) in.000 (95 254) 1.33) 6P Acme (69.40) 1.18 NU-10 Rd Pin × 100156025 (42.73) 2 7/8 (73.

75 (4. pulled completely out of the hole. These ratings are guidelines only. Firing Heads HAL6559 5-19 . (cm) 1.6) Temp Rating °F (°C) 350 (176. Operation The MMHD assembly is run into the well using normal monobore completion techniques.000 (896. For safety and flexibility.100 (23 100) Total Volume (Silicon) gal (liter) 1/2 (1.67) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 51. and number of jets. the tool will not start metering until it is landed on the top gun. silicon fluid.86 (139. Features and Benefits • Adjustable time-delay—May vary from 1 up to 6 hours. the firing head can be quickly relatched and retrieved using the same conveyance methods as during deployment.95) SAP No.Mechanical Metering Hydraulic-Delay Firing Head The mechanical metering hydraulicdelay (MMHD) firing head provides a retrievable firing system with an adjustable delay for situations where longer delay times are needed. Delay time is affected by temperature. and the number of jets used (maximum of two). • Retrievability—Firing head can be pulled and another one run without affecting the rest of the bottomhole assembly. consult your local Halliburton representative. 101201927 * Length from top sub to firing head body (does not include weight bars and/or skirt) Delay time of 1 hour minimum is recommended for safe operation of system. The mechanical metering hydraulic-delay firing head is conveyed on a slickline or electric line. tool weight above the piston.44 (3. The tool is designed with a 1/2 gallon fluid chamber below a weighted piston. Once in place and released. (cm) 46. Mechanical Metering HydraulicDelay (MMHD) Firing Head Mechanical Metering Hydraulic-Delay (MMHD) Firing Head Assembly Specifications Maximum OD in. After the guns have fired.45) Maximum Stroke Length in. Delay time can be adjusted from 1 to 6 hours.79) Maximum Operating Pressure (differential) psi (bars) 13. this system greatly reduces the chance of accidental or premature firing of guns.50 (118. • Safety—With the ability to run the firing head and the guns separately. or simply pulled up the hole to a safe distance and secured to await detonation. the firing head starts to meter. Delay time of 6 maximum hours is dependent on temperature. and the adjustments can be made by running one or two fluid metering jets or by changing the amount of fluid. The piston meters downward until it travels into a larger bore which allows it to free-fall and initiate a mechanical firing head. The running tools can either be pulled into the lubricator. (cm) Dependent on centralizers Stinger Fishing Neck in. (cm) 54.89) Assembly Weight lb (kg) 152 (68.11) Overall Length* (Extended) ft (m) 12. For more information.34) Maximum Metering Stroke* Length (Available for Delay) in.

Features and Benefits • Saves rig time—If for any reason the firing head needs replacement. • Safety—Guns can be run separately from the firing head adding a safety feature for the guns at the surface. The firing head latches onto the guns and provides a positive indication that it is attached. or using an auto-release firing mechanism. • Positive engagement—When the firing head is run separately. • Flexibility—Guns can be run separately or attached. It can be run with either a mechanical drop firing head. The firing head can be retrieved by relatching to the firing head and jarring up. the operator can tell when the firing head is latched onto the guns. It can be run attached to the guns. It is designed so that 80% of the parts are used in all three applications allowing for more flexibility with less inventory. it comes in contact with the J-slot stinger. separately from the guns. The running tool is latched to the firing head at surface and run in on wireline/slickline. or a pressure-operated firing head such as the 1 11/16 timedelay firer (TDF).Slickline-Retrievable Mechanical Firing Head The slickline-retrievable mechanical firing head (SLRMFH) is designed to give customers flexibility in completing a well. The system can be run with either a mechanically operated firing head or a pressure-operated firing head. If the firing head does not actuate. Operation The SLRMFH was designed for 3 1/2and 2 7/8-in. The running tool is released by jarring down and the slickline is pulled out of the well. As the firing head is lowered. tubing strings. Unlimited number of runs can be made to replace firing head if needed. An overpull is applied to give a positive latch indication. The skirt on the firing head then automatically latches into position connecting the firing head with the J-slot stinger. The jarring action shears the brass screws freeing the firing head from the J-slot stinger. The top gun is assembled with the J-slot stinger. The guns are fired by pressure or mechanical means. another firing head may be run as many times as required. the guns remain in the hole and the firing head can be retrieved. The guns are run into the well on tubing and then correlated on depth. The SLRMFH can be retrieved if the firing head needs to be replaced. Slickline-Retrievable Mechanical Firing Head (SLRMFH) 5-20 HAL6560 Firing Heads .

05 (6.56 (3.11) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 8.96) 1.000 (13 600) 30.000 (1170) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 250 (17.56 (3.Slickline-Retrievable Mechanical Firing Head (SLRMFH) Specifications Minimum Operating Pressure Auto Release psi (bars) Maximum Differential Pressure Auto Release psi (bars) Tensile Strength of FH Body lb (kg) 30. w/ Model III-D Mechanical FH w/ Pressure Actuated FH w/ Model III-D Mechanical FH and Auto Release Minimum Overall Maximum ID Length OD (No-Go) (Max) in.05 (6.000 (13 600) 4.000 (1800) 4.4) Burst and collapse pressures are determined by tubing.11) 20.31 (5.11) 8.87) 1. (cm) in.000 (550) 250 (17.000 (1800) 120 (54.4) 100 (45.000 (550) 17. For more information. Temperature rating is determined by explosives.87) 1.87) 2.96) 20.200 (150) Weight lb (kg) 120 (54.000 (690) 30. consult your local Halliburton representative. These ratings are guidelines only.2) 1.500 (100) 10.31 (5.2) 2. Firing Heads 5-21 .05 (6.96) 20.000 (1800) SAP No.4) 101226902 N/A N/A 101227170 N/A N/A 101227212 2. (cm) ft (m) 2.56 (3.31 (5.000 (13 600) Maximum Sustained Force Required to Shear Two Lugs lb (kg) 4.

(mm) 3.000 (1590) The assembly certification sheet which specifies the batch number and pin values is supplied with each assembly.38 (85.85) Minimum ID (No-Go) in. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. It can also be retrieved on slickline.03) 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in.000 (1170) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 2. Slickline-Retrievable Time-Delay Firer (TDF) Firing Head Specifications SAP No. TDF firing head. 100155952 Thread Size and Type in. 100155739 Maximum OD in.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × 2 7/8 (73.80) Makeup Length with 2-ft Sub ft (m) 5.Slickline-Retrievable Time-Delay Firer Firing Head The slickline-retrievable time-delay firer (TDF) firing head is a combination of two assemblies: the slickline-retrievable firing head and a 1 11/16-in. (mm) 1.000 (1380) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) None Tensile Strength (FH Body) lb (kg) 238.37 (1.37 (34.27) Temperature Rating °F (°C) 425 for 100 hours (218 for 100 hours) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 17. (mm) 1. Vann™ Jet Stinger Specifications SAP No.17) Additional Length per Fuse ft (m) 0.87 (0.200 (150) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 23.000 (107 900) Weight with 2-ft Sub lb (kg) 73 (33) Burst and collapse pressures are determined by handling sub.64) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20. It is a pressure-actuated firing head with a built-in pyrotechnic time-delay assembly. which allows a reduced actuating pressure for the firing head.688 (42.83 (1. 5-22 Firing Heads HAL15434 . 3 3/8-in. HAL15385 Slickline Retrievable Time-Delay Firer (TDF) Firing Head Stinger Assembly 1 11/16-in.88) Overall Length (1 fuse) ft (m) 3. This assembly can be run in on slickline and attached to the firing head after the tubing is in the hole. This assembly allows the operator to run guns in the hole on the end of tubing without a firing head. Temperature rating is determined by explosives. Features and Benefits • Allows the guns to be run in the hole without any type of firing mechanism installed • Allows the retrieval and reinstallation of a malfunctioning firing head without pulling the guns • Allows greatly reduced actuating pressures of the firing head because the firing head does not have to be in place when the guns are run Operation This firing head does not have to be run until after all pressure testing has been done and the heavy fluids have been displaced.

consult your local Halliburton representative.5) 3.10 (0.000 (89 300) 270.000 (1725) 25. time-delay firer (TDF) firing head. 100005229 100009426 Thread Size and Type in. Firing Heads 5-23 .375 (85. the 1 11/16-in. Each delay fuse lasts six minutes at 70°F. For more information. (mm) 2 (50. They are installed between the firing head and the guns.73) Makeup Length ft (m) 1. The modular delays are used primarily with the multiactiondelay firing head.34) 1.000 (122 400) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 30.03) 6P Acme Box × Pin Maximum OD in.5 (62. Extended and modular delay fuses add time between the actuation of the firing head and the actual detonation of the guns.10 (0.000 (2070) 30.000 (2070) These ratings are guidelines only. Features and Benefits • Increases delay time when nitrogen is used to actuate the firing head to give additional time to bleed the nitrogen pressure down to the desired level • Allows time for necessary actions to take place downhole such as increasing pressure to open a pressure-actuated vent assembly Operation The extended delay assemblies contain one delay fuse and can be run with any other firing assembly. The modular delays are assembled with the firing head in one housing and become an integral part of the firing system.8) 6P Acme Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.Extended Delay Fuses A delay fuse is an explosive device with a slow-burning fuse.34) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 25. and the slickline-retrievable TDF firing head. HAL15383 Extended Delay Fuses Assembly Extended Delay Fuses Specifications SAP No.000 (1725) Temperature Rating Delay Fuse °F (°C) 425 (218) for 200 hours 425 (218) for 200 hours Tensile Strength lb (kg) 197. (mm) 2.

The perforation assembly is detonated by use of a special fluted bar dropped from surface. Special consideration must be given to job set-up and execution to ensure that this tool functions properly.) The bar strikes the stinger with sufficient force to shear the brass screws and drive it into the firing pin. This system will allow the operator the flexibility to run the gun assemblies independently of the firing system. are not limited to any specific depth and/or hydrostatic pressure beyond the tool specifications. Once the guns are in place. The firing pin and hammer are pressure balanced. Features and Benefits • Safety—With the ability to run the firing head and the guns separately. The tool is actuated by dropping a specifically designed drop bar fitted for the proper casing. Applications The modular mechanical firing head is designed to be run on slickline and set on the top gun in a monobore completion by use of a JDC hydraulic running tool. HAL8325 Modular Mechanical Firing Head 5-24 Firing Heads . the firing head is set on the top module and released. The two shear screws are rated at 875 lb each. and another one run without interfering with the rest of the bottomhole assembly. The system is designed with the hammer held above the firing pin with brass shear screws. and therefore. • Retrievability—In the event of a mechanical malfunction. (Do not use a standard 1 1/4-in. this system helps to greatly reduce the chance of accidental or premature firing of the guns.Modular Mechanical Firing Head The modular mechanical firing head is designed to be a retrievable firing system utilizing a standard mechanical firing head with a specialized drop bar for detonation. The most common application for this system is to be run with the modular guns in a monobore completion. the firing head can be pulled. drop bar.

5 (11. (mm) 72.8) 100010177 5.0) 2.80-8. (mm) N/A 3.5) 3. (mm) 2 (50. Temperature rating is determined by explosives.950 (125. 120021629 *Will vary with skirt Maximum OD dependent on centralizers used. (mm) N/A 2.090 (103.8) Centralizer OD in.42) Maximum Stroke Length in.50 (63. (mm) 1.3) 100014297 3.000 (896.1) 100156225 101228625 2 3/4 (69.75 (44.5 (63.43 / 4.97 / 7. (mm) 7.50 (88.441 (62.3) 4.00 (76.75 (95.75 (95.4) 101207193 3.000 (26 762) Overall Length* in.12) 5 / 15-18 (12. Weight dependent on centralizers and skirts.9) 4.2) 101207187 101201882 2.5) 3.7) 4.2 (8. 101207195 Skirt OD in.00 (10.9) 101201884 3 1/8 (79. N/A 101227709 120125486 101227719 101227720 Casing and Tubing Size and Weight in.5-23 (13.8) 4.4) Firing Heads 5-25 .700 (771) SAP No.15) Shear Rating For Brass lb (kg) 1.16) 100156785 4. (mm) 2.38 (35.4 (7.43) Casing ID in.Modular Mechanical Firing Head Specifications Stinger Fishing Neck 2-in.30 / 2. (mm) 1.30 (1836.7) Total Bar OD in.9) 100014299 3.6) 101213087 3.7 / 6. Stinger in.125 (104./lb (cm/kg) 2 7/8 / 6.50 (88.89 / 4.45) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 13.75 (146.75 (95.3-6.40 (111.05) Stinger Fishing Neck 2 1/2-in.4) 101205671 4 5/8 (117. Stinger in.5) 100156224 5.3) 100009581 101226987 3 3/8 (85.25 (82.17) 4 1/2 / 9.992 (76.6) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 59.408 (111.16) 5 1/2 / 15.9) 101207198 3.0) 4.88 (200.9) 4.61 (142.5-13.875 (98.50 (114.3) Skirt-Centralizer Selection Chart SAP No. Drop Bar Options SAP No.9) 3 1/2 / 9.03-10.

The HalSonics firing head is also ideal for applications where extremely long delay times are required with traditional delay type firing systems.HalSonics® Firing Head The HalSonics® firing head system is designed to actuate tubing conveyed perforating guns and may be conveyed by tubing. this system can be utilized when extensive well fluid manipulations are required or where multiple pressure cycles are performed prior to perforating. slickline. This system can overcome obstacles in jobs where bar-drop or pressure actuated firing heads are not technically feasible or economically practical to detonate the downhole perforating assembly. Features and Benefits • Zone 1 rated • Designed to eliminate detonation at the surface • Precisely controlled signal sequence • Remote actuation of TCP guns • Can be run offshore or on land • Can transmit through nitrogen or air cushion • Can be run above or below the guns • Ideal for highly deviated wells • Ideal for wells with existing perforations • Wells where nitrogen is cost prohibitive • Selective perforation intervals • Wells with casing pressure limitations • Small surface equipment footprint • Can utilize redundancy to actuate the gun system HAL14603 HalSonics® Firing Head 5-26 Firing Heads . or electric line. In addition.

(mm) N/A Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 15. Powered by the hydrostatic pressure.33) These ratings are guidelines only. the pressure pulse unit then sends a coded signal to a downhole receiver. the piston strikes the firing pin. Once the signal has been decoded.000 (1030) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 250 (17) Temperature Rating °F (°C) 300 (150) Downhole Battery Life 200 hr Depth Range ft (m) Tested to 17. the surface control unit sends the pressure pulse unit a precisely controlled signal sequence. HalSonics® Firing Head Specifications Maximum OD Thread Size and Type in. the controller begins pulling an actuating rod. (mm) 2 7/8 in. allowing hydrostatic pressure to act on the piston. Using air or nitrogen. (mm) in.000 (9100) Downhole Tool Overall Length ft (m) 15 (4. actuating the TCP guns. When the actuating rod has retracted.7 (93.98) Minimum ID in.000 (5100) Designed for 30. the pressure pulse unit is easily attached to the wellhead. For more information.Operation With the guns at depth. EUE 8RD × 3 3/8 Gun Connection 3.57) Downhole Tool Weight lb (kg) 230 (104. consult your local Halliburton representative. retaining lugs are released and a pressure port opens. Firing Heads 5-27 . On the operator’s command.

Side-Pocket Mandrel) 101306060 Thread Size and Type (Long string side) in.00284 (7-in. the slickline operator jars down.79 (1.92) N/A Overall Length ft (m) 2.625-in. • Helps provide safety because the firing head is designed to eliminate detonation • Offers economical value Operation The model III-D mechanical firing head is made up on the short string side of the side-pocket mandrel.926 (48. The firing piston is forced into the initiator by the hydrostatic pressure in the tubing string to detonate the VannGun® assembly.26) EUE 10 Rd Pin × 2 3/8 (60.85) 5. A modified model III-D mechanical firing head is attached to the short string side of a side-pocket mandrel.926 (48.Side-Pocket Mandrel Firing Head The side-pocket mandrel firing head (SPMFH) is designed for well conditions that preclude the use of a pressure-actuated firing head run with a Y-block.7 lb OECO-B Box × Box 3 1/2 CJ Hydril Maximum OD in. The kickover tool hits the releasing pin on the model III-D.62 (168. the operator runs a kickover tool down the long string on slickline. After the kickover tool is located in the side-pocket mandrel. consult your local Halliburton representative.20) Minimum ID in.92) 1. The side-pocket mandrel firing system is used on single-string. Side-Pocket Mandrel) 221.15) 8.72) 6. The firing head is detonated with a kickover tool run on slickline.33) 6P Acme Box 2 3/8 (60. Features and Benefits • Selectively fires multiple intervals • Eliminates the need for nitrogen • Allows maximum underbalance for low-pressure formations Side-Pocket Mandrel Firing Head (SPMFH) Specifications SAP No.33) 4.00 (203. (mm) 1.36 (0. 5-28 HAL15453 Firing Heads . (mm) N/A 1.7 lb OECO-B Box × Box 2 3/8 (60. For more information.33) 4.72) 5. (mm) 2.76) N/A Side-Pocket Mandrel Firing Head (SPMFH) These ratings are guidelines only.00285 (9.90 (48. multizone completions and standard dual completions.79 (1.54 (140. 100155737 (Firing Head) 221.75 (69.76) 5. When the perforating assembly is ready to be detonated.

For more information.0 (127) Minimum ID Non-fullbore Non-fullbore Flow Area in.40 (2.76) 12. Ported Sealing Sub Tubing HAL15449 Time-Delay Firer HAL15448 VannGun® Assembly Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly (APCA) Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly (APCA) Specifications Thread Size and Type in.65) Minimum Makeup Length ft (m) 9. (mm) 3.33) EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8 (73.000 (1100) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 190. These ratings are guidelines only.42) 5.87) Overall Length ft (m) 12.75 (30. 100014175 100155786 Maximum operating pressure is determined by tubulars.52) 4. Firing Heads 5-29 .03) EUE 8 Rd Maximum OD in.25 (14. the pressure on the annulus can be increased to actuate a pressure-actuated firing head. This assembly is compatible with retrievable packers of all types and sizes.79) 9. Once the packer has been set.Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly The annulus pressure crossover assembly (APCA) allows the use of annulus pressure to actuate any one of several firing heads.000 (1100) 16. Features and Benefits • May be used as the annulus firing system on wells with non-full-opening test tools and a partially filled drillstring • May be used as the annulus firing system on horizontal wells • Allows the use of below-packer venting devices along with this assembly Annulus Pressure Crossover Assembly Packer Note: Not recommended for mud environment Operation The APCA creates a pressure chamber above the firing head that is equalized with the pressure in the casing annulus.000 (86 200) 270.15 (2.000 (122 400) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 27.35 (3.56 (90.² (cm²) 2. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. Temperature rating is determined by explosives. consult your local Halliburton representative.000 (1100) 16.000 (1515) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 16.84) Maximum Differential Pressure psi (bars) 16.60 (3. The pressures in the annulus and the tubing can also be manipulated to create the differential pressure necessary to actuate a differential-type firing head.000 (1100) SAP No.000 (1860) 22.

Several pressure operations can also be performed on the well including tubing testing. packer setting and packer testing prior to firing the perforating guns. The firing head is cycled by applying pressure at the tool to overcome a nitrogen-charged chamber which operates the cycling piston back and forth until the entire release rod has been pulled from the piston collet. and firing piston with firing pin initiator assembly.EZ Cycle™ Multi-Pressure Cycle Firing Head The EZ Cycle™ firing head is a pressure-operated tool that can be cycled several times prior to firing the perforating guns. cycling grapple piston. Features and Benefits • Ideal for completions and drillstem testing • Time-delay elements can be used as needed for delay time • Can be used in underbalanced or overbalanced perforating jobs • It is a surface-safe firing head because it requires pressure to energize the firing piston • Operates at low pressure • Can be deployed connected to the gun assembly or run separate on slickline or coiled tubing • Allows the retrieval and reinstallation of a malfunctioning firing head without pulling the guns • Can be used when equipment or well conditions will not permit the use of high pressures EZ Cycle™ Firing Head Assembly 5-30 HAL14095 Firing Heads . Each EZ Cycle firing head assembly includes a nitrogen chamber. the EZ Cycle firing head should not fire until it has completed all of the preset cycles. Even if pressure operations are higher than the operating pressure of the firing head.

(cm) Minimum ID in.62) N/A 400 (204.741378.com if conditions exceed this value.0325) 6P Acme Box 77.000 (18 143) 40. (cm) Makeup Length in. the bottomhole pressure will drive the firing piston into the firing pin detonating the initiator and the guns. After positioning gun on depth and all operations prior to firing guns have been completed. (cm) Lower Thread Size and Type in. the firing head is cycled to detonate the perforating guns. Releasing the applied pressure will allow the nitrogen charge to move the cycle piston and traveling grapple down engaging another 0.4) 1. (cm) Temperature Rating °F (°C) Tensile Rating* lb (kg) Burst Pressure* psi (bar) Collapse Rating* psi (bar) Operating Pressure Range psi (bar) Low Pressure Assembly High Pressure Assembly 5. 3.000 (1379) 40.875) 2 3/8 (6.95) 2.74) 100. Firing Heads 5-31 . (cm) Maximum OD in.32 (83. of the release rod.00020.Operating the EZ Cycle™ Firing Head The tool is run in hole with a pre-charged nitrogen chamber. At this point.375 in.375 in.000 (1379) * Call your local Halliburton representative or email us at perforatingsolutions@halliburton.000 (68.000-5.36) 3.375 in. Multi-Pressure Cycle Firing Head Assembly Specifications Upper Connection (External Fishneck) in.00 in.00 (7. These steps are continued until the release rod is completely retrieved from the firing piston collet.95344.313 (5. pulling the release rod up 0.000 (344. Pressure applied at the tool will move the cycle piston and traveling grapple up 0. which is set according to the maximum bottomhole pressure.

5-32 Firing Heads .

Isolation Sub-Assembly (page 6) The isolation sub-assembly (ISA) is live well intervention technology designed to provide extreme flexibility in well completions. For high volume testing and production. Shearable Safety Sub (page 9) The shearable safety sub is designed to provide a gap in the explosive train which could be severed at surface with the shear rams. ISA allows completion or recompletion of the well without killing it. It is most commonly used in live well intervention. the auto-release gun hanger allows a zone to be perforated and tested with virtually no downhole restrictions. The guns are deployed downhole in a single trip and placed across the perforating zone supported by a gun hanger or plug. The well can be producing before. It also allows perforating with all production equipment in place. Detach™ Separating Gun Connector (page 15) The Detach™ separating gun connector allows operators to deploy long gun sections into the well. know the well. the Halliburton ratchet gun connector system is ideal for reperforating producing wells since the well does not have to be killed and can be left on production. which allows them to be retrieved in manageable sections or left in the hole. eliminating the need for wireline perforating in many cases. Halliburton perforating specialists know the equipment. which allows perforating in any direction. Modular Gun System (page 10) Through a special arrangement of perforating equipment. during. The guns are fired when desired and then. Auto-Release Gun Hanger (page 12) One of the main features of the modular gun system is the auto-release gun hanger. Setting Tools for Auto-Release Gun Hanger (page 14) The running and retrieving tools for the modular gun system and the auto release gun hanger gives customers flexibility in the conveyance of these tools in the well. irrespective of the gun’s position relative to the casing. The DrillGun system allows running and setting the squeeze packer and perforating gun in one run.Special Applications Special Applications DrillGun™ Perforating Systems (page 3) The DrillGun™ perforating system combines rugged. reliable Halliburton perforating components with the versatility of drillable materials. Halliburton’s patented modular gun system permits the optimum number of guns to be removed via slickline or E-line so larger intervals can be perforated simultaneously. Special Applications 6-1 1 . and know the best techniques to fit your particular application. and after the guns are deployed in or out of the well. AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector (page 7) The AutoLatch™ release gun connector joins VannGun® assemblies and enables VannGun sections to be run in and out of new or live wells. The system provides the ability to perforate multiple zones individually during a single trip. Select Fire™ Systems (page 5) The Select Fire™ system lets you perforate zones in any order selected. G-Force® Precision Oriented Perforating System (page 16) The G-Force® system features an internal orienting charge tube assembly and gun carrier. Ratchet Gun Connector (page 8) In addition to perforating new wells. will automatically separate.

fishing concerns. Roller Tandem Assembly (page 20) Roller tandem assemblies are used to reduce the friction between the perforation guns and the casing. without the need for human intervention. etc. PerfStim™ is a trademark of Oryx Energy Company. Eccentric Orienting Tandem (page 19) Eccentric subs allow perforating guns to be oriented in situations where the fin system is not ideal due to restrictions in the casing. self-aligning drillpipe thread that allows automatic or manual make-up. Centralizer Tandem (page 21) For operations where it is desirable to centralize the guns and other tools in the casing. Pump Through Firing Head (page 30) The 1 11/16-in. PerfStim™ Process (page 26) The PerfStim™ process combines perforation and stimulation operations in one step by driving a fluid spear into the formation at high flow rates and pressures the instant after perforating. pump through firing head is designed to be run on coiled tubing and is used for breaking the ceramic flapper valve disk on a one-trip coiled tubing operation. a process of Marathon Oil Company. This method is coupled with the release of an erosive agent at the moment of VannGun® detonation to clean and scour near-wellbore damage and enhance conductivity of fractures created by extreme overbalance perforating. TCP gun assemblies can now be picked up by the rig equipment and properly made up using iron roughneck equipment. With these connectors. The StimGun assembly is a process that combines perforating and perforation breakdown with a propellant in a single tool and operation. 6-2 Special Applications 2 Special Applications 2 . POWR*PERF. In some cases.Explosive Transfer Swivel Sub (page 18) The explosive transfer swivel sub allows two sections of guns to rotate independently of one another. POWR*PERF is a service mark/trademark of Marathon Oil Company and licensed by Halliburton. making the system selfcontained and totally safe. welding concerns. is licensed by Halliburton. Such independent rotation is important on long strings that must be oriented in a specific direction in horizontal wells. Explosive transfer occurs through a web. or openhole sections when it is not desirable to add perforations. Patented by Oryx and licensed by Halliburton. Halliburton has designed a full range of centralizers for all gun sizes. StimTube™ and StimGun™ are trademarks of Marathon Oil Company. slotted liners. Quick Torque™ Connector (page 28) The Quick Torque™ connector consists of connectors that cover both ends of each gun section to enclose the assembly. StimGun™ Assembly (page 22) The StimGun™ assembly has been used with great success in conventional underbalanced perforating to obtain benefits of both extreme overbalance from propellants and the surging effect from maximum underbalance. It simplifies the process and saves time by eliminating assembly of the components on the rig. the frictional drag can be reduced by as much as 90%. POWR*PERFSM Perforation/Stimulation Process (page 27) POWR*PERFSM perforation/stimulation process is a completion process that uses proven extreme overbalance perforating techniques. StimTube™ Assembly (page 24) The StimTube™ assembly process uses the same solid propellant technology employed by StimGun to simulate existing perforations. The connectors have a common.

DrillGun™ Perforating Systems Halliburton has developed the DrillGun™ assembly to be a drillable perforating system that provides reliable. Components of the drillable perforating system are the drillpipe conveyed to the zone of interest. quality performance while lowering overall wellsite costs by: • Eliminating the high costs associated with wireline services • Eliminating the need to switch to a mud system for workovers The DrillGun perforating system is a new method that combines rugged. reliable Halliburton perforating components with the versatility of drillable materials. After perforating. And. thereby eliminating mobilization or demobilization charges normally associated with wireline units. The drillable perforating system is ideal for: • Single-trip perforating. disposable system that helps save you two of the most valuable commodities at the wellsite—time and money. Once in place. the firing head is actuated by pressure applied through the tubing. Now. since no mud system is needed. packer placement. with the DrillGun perforating system. It is this type of innovative design that has made Halliburton the leader in perforating charge performance and delivery systems. you have a drillable. clear fluids can remain in place for workover operations. and cementing on tubing • Cementing and perforating in underbalanced conditions • Plug-to-abandon operations • Workover cementing with clear fluids • Plugback set on wireline • Limited entry drill stem testing Components of the drillable perforating system include: • Aluminum perforating gun • High-performance. perforating charges • Halliburton’s industry-proven EZ Drill® SVB packer HAL12056 DrillGun™ Assembly Special Applications 6-3 3 . the gun can be drilled out with conventional drilling methods.

40 (1. needed to perform a squeeze job on a South Texas well. The resulting estimated economic value to the customer is $24. the setting assembly was pulled out of the hole.03 mm EUE 8 Rd SAP No.03 mm EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8-in. EUE 8 Rd 73. However. perforated and performed the cement job at 4. The well fluid was 10 ppg brine water.400 ft to 14. The bottom zone was then squeezed. The customer estimates that this procedure saved $52. an operator in Chambers County. By using the Halliburton DrillGun system.95 (1.9)* Maximum Overall Length ft (m) 4. 2.500 (241) 3. it would not be necessary to change the well fluid to 15. Halliburton's solution—To meet this challenge.8) 3.6) 7. This procedure saved rig time and the expense of a fluid change for a total economic value to the customer of $20. Plug-to-Abandon Operator's challenge—To plug a well before abandoning it. (mm) 4.625 (92.00 (101. Halliburton recommended its DrillGun system. respectively.500 (1000) 3.1) Maximum Operating Minimum Operating Pressure Pressure psi (bar) psi (bar) 14.230 psi underbalanced. The customer had already switched to a lighter drilling fluid and did not want the high cost of changing to a mud system.89 °C).9)* 300 (148. Block Squeeze Application Operator's challenge—An operator working in the Permian Basin had to perform three block squeezes in a 7 5/8 in. and 350 ft. 101288693 Aluminum 101288692 Aluminum 101292015 Composite Maximum OD in. Texas needed to perforate six zones.000. EUE 8 Rd 73. The next day.500 (1000) 14. consult a Halliburton representative.200.341) 4.615 ft.000.590 ft. Economic value created—As a result. Carrizo was able to perform the squeeze job without having to replace the lighter drilling fluid with an expensive mud system. Halliburton's solution—Halliburton recommended using its DrillGun rather than employing electric-line perforators which would normally be selected for the project.500 (241) Temperature Rating °F (°C) 300 (148.00 (177. After the procedure was completed. As a result. there was 15. so instead of cement behind the casing. A primary cement job had not been possible.500 (241) 3. the total job would have taken up to six days. DrillGun™ Assembly Specifications Thread Size and Type 2 7/8-in.500 (1000) 14.500 ft. Economical Solution For Perforating In Unusual Conditions.9)* 300 (148. consultants.5 ppg drilling mud. and fluid standby time.DrillGun™ Perforating System .40 (1. Economic value created—The three aluminum perforating guns added only one hour each to the drill-out time. Economic value created—All six stages were completed in 2 1/2 days. liner from 14. Inc.341) 3. 6-4 Special Applications 4 Special Applications 4 . Halliburton's solution— Halliburton logged the first DrillGun system on depth. For the next two DrillGun system runs. An additional savings was realized by using the perforating DrillGun system instead of more expensive electric-line charges.03 mm EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8-in.204) * For use in wells above 300°F (148. If electric-line perforators had been used. It went back in with the second stage.Quick. Savings on Rig Time Operator's challenge—Carrizo Oil & Gas. and the job was performed at 8. the operator saved four days of rig-associated costs. the final four jobs were run at 5. 500 ft.050 ft. the well would have to be perforated underbalanced.800 ft. The first DrillGun system was started in the well on Sunday evening and was set the next day at a depth of 13. we tagged the first retainer and located it on depth to perform the squeeze. EUE 8 Rd 73.5 ppg drilling mud to cement.

VannGun Assembly ® Air Chamber Pressure may now enter into the air chamber. and evaluating multiple zones in one trip.Select Fire™ Systems The Select Fire™ system offers flexibility in perforating. Air Chamber VannGun Assembly ® Features • Perforating and testing several individual zones — one at a time • Selecting the order zones are perforated • Customizing gun configurations for various applications • Available for all VannGun® assemblies 2-in. the explosives train is continued to the Select Fire™ Sub. and larger TDF Firing Head Pressure Isolation Sub Benefits • Helps develop essential information about the reservoir — potentially saving hundreds of thousands of dollars • Saves rig time and tool charges to help multiply profits Sealed Initiator Before Firing A I R C H A M B E R Select Fire™ Sub When gun #1 fires. (Note: the isolation sub is used to prevent pressure from going upward from the Select Fire Sub). which fires a shaped charge downward. testing. The Select Fire system saves rig time and tool charges to help multiply profits. HAL10537 P R E S S U R E HAL10586 Select Fire™ Tubing Conveyed Perforating System Select Fire™ Sub Operation Special Applications 6-5 5 .

68) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 10. The ISA incorporates a threaded connection that is manually connected and disconnected.000 (689) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 64. consult your local Halliburton representative. The ISA is a lower cost alternative to other live well intervention assemblies.8 with 38.33) 2 7/8 6P Acme 2G (73. (mm) 2 with 1 1/2 (50.74) 2.765 (70. The well can be producing before. The ISA allows completion or recompletion of the well without killing it.73 with 50.1) 2 3/4 with 2 (69.395 (86.Isolation Sub-Assembly The isolation sub-assembly (ISA) is live well intervention technology designed to provide extreme flexibility in well completions. (mm) 1 11/16-in.400 (86 800) SAP No.8) Maximum OD in. For more information. (mm) 2.015 (51.69) 2.03) OD Isolation Sub-Assembly with OD Ram Lock in.28 (0.000 (689) 10. 8P Stub Acme 2G (42. and after the guns are deployed in or out of the well. coiled tubing. during.22 (0.23) 3.8) 3 3/8 with 2 (85.85 with 50.42 (0. or wireline • Can run VannGun sections to perforate a new well or add perforations to existing zones • Do not have to kill well to run or retrieve guns • Can perforate underbalanced or overbalanced Isolation Sub-Assembly Sealing Initiator Sealing Area Benefits • Low cost • Provides extreme flexibility in well completions Sealing Initiator Isolation Sub-Assembly Specifications Thread Size and Type in. 101228396 Gun HAL6151 101222274 Isolation Sub-Assembly 101226330 Temperature rating is determined by explosive.18) 2.000 (49 000) 191. These ratings are guidelines only.23) Overall Length ft (m) 2.000 (689) 10.500 (29 250) 108. 6-6 Special Applications 6 Special Applications 6 .86) 2 3/8 6P Acme 2G (60. Gun Features • Can run VannGun® assemblies on hydraulic workovers.

000 (1380) 20.33) 2 7/8 6P Acme Box × Pin (73. (mm) 2.625 (92.AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector The AutoLatch™ release gun connector is designed to join VannGun® assemblies and enables VannGun sections to be run in and out of new or producing wells.03) Maximum OD in.47 (1. making this connector ideal for snubbing guns into and out of the wellbore with coiled tubing or a hydraulic workover (HWO) unit. The VannGun assemblies can be run in sections (limited by the weight rating of the wireline) and then.88 (73.000 (56 800) OD Seal Area SAP No. These ratings are guidelines only. HWO.15) 3. 101205866 Temperature rating is determined by explosives.000 (35 000) 125. consult your local Halliburton representative AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector Special Applications HAL8662 100155775 Pressure Isolation Configuration 6-7 7 . • Can be designed to accommodate different BOP configuration Stop/Release Pads Spring Housing Operating Spring Shear Screws Stinger Assembly Collet Fingers Collet Retainer Housing AutoLatch™ Release Gun Connector Specifications Thread Size and Type in. Using the AutoLatch system. For more information. or wireline • Can retrieve VannGun assemblies without killing a producing zone • Can perforate in underbalanced or overbalanced conditions • May be used for monobore completions • Can be used when oriented perforations are required • Sections are quickly connected for time savings. VannGun assemblies are connected without rotation and can be operated with standard blowout preventer (BOP) rams. Features and Benefits • Can be used to perforate new or existing wells • Can snub VannGun assemblies into and out of the well • Utilizes standard BOPs • Can be used with coiled tubing.46 (1.06) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20.36) 3. (mm) 2 3/8 6P Acme Box × Pin (60. retrieved in sections.00) Makeup Length ft (m) 4. This system reduces the number of wireline runs to perforate longer intervals.000 (1380) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 80. The AutoLatch connector can also be used to run VannGun assemblies on wireline when the length of the perforating assembly is limited by the lubricator length.

For more information.69) (0. It also allows perforating with all production equipment in place.64) (896) (45 360) (60.375 2. consult your local Halliburton representative.000 Box × Pin (59.11 13.33) 2 7/8 6P Acme 3. (mm) Makeup Length ft (m) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 2 3/8 6P Acme 2.000 100.Ratchet Gun Connector In addition to perforating new wells. Upper Ratchet Gun Connector Assembly Features and Benefits • Can be snubbed into and retrieved from a live well • Utilizes standard BOPs • Can perforate long and multiple intervals in a single trip • Does not have to kill producing zone to run or retrieve guns • Perforates new wells • Reperforates producing wells with all production equipment in place • Perforates underbalanced or overbalanced assemblies • VannGun® sections are quickly connected together.03) Temperature rating is determined by explosive.000 220. These ratings are guidelines only. 6-8 Special Applications 8 Special Applications 8 .000 Box × Pin 101000793 (85. Halliburton’s ratchet gun connector system is ideal for reperforating producing wells since the well does not have to be killed and can be left on production.11 13. 101000794 Thread Size and Type Maximum OD in. • Can be used with HWO Seal Ram Slip Area Lower Ratchet Gun Connector Assembly Shear Pins Left-Hand Connection Ratchet Sleeve Firing Pin Sealed Initiator HAL10487 Ratchet Gun Connector Ratchet Gun Connector Specifications SAP No. Connections are made inside the lubricator using a left-hand quick connect locking mechanism.73) (0.35 2.64) (896) (100 000) (73. (mm) in.

wireline.000 psi) = 306. • Uses standard explosives • Contains standard 3 3/8-in. gun connections above and below Benefits • Can be run with tubing. if the well conditions become dangerous and the shear rams need to be activated.Shearable Safety Sub The shearable safety sub is designed to provide a gap in the explosive train. The shearable safety sub provides two levels of defense against wellbore pressures. 10k safety head • Piston diameter of 14 in.000 lb Features • Continues the explosive train without use of continuous explosives • Isolates pressure from below • Allows a smooth sealing area for the pipe rams to seal against Shearable Safety Sub Shearable Safety Sub Specifications Thread Size and Type 2 7/8-in.375 (85.73) Makeup Length Minimum ID ft (m) N/A 2. coiled tubing. (mm) 3. it provides a sub with a smooth profile that is utilized by closing the sealing rams to control pressure when the gun connection is made up or broken out.000 (1380) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) N/A Tensile Strength lb (kg) 200.76) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20. which could be severed at surface with the shear rams. First.6) Temperature rating is determined by explosive. Acme Box x Pin Maximum OD in.2) • Sheared at 2. Secondly.2) (2.50 (0.4 (24. Special Applications HAL15454 6-9 9 . The most common application is in the use of live well intervention. it provides an area in the gun assembly that does not contain explosives and can be safely severed by the shear rams. (153 in.000 psi • Force required to shear tool = (153 in. and modular applications • Can be sheared independently of the guns firing • Can be redressed at minimal cost This tool has been successfully sheared during testing using the following: • Shaffer shear 7 1/16-in.000 (90 700) Weight lb (kg) 54.

know your well. Wide range of gun sizes (2. as well as with conventional tubing or drillstring. • The modular gun system can be deployed via coiled tubing.366. OD) permits deployment over a wide range of casing. Auto-Release Gun Hanger HAL6093 Stinger Centralizer – Modular Gun System Configuration • No rig is required—the system is ideal for rigless completions. • Proven VannSystem® guns and firing heads are used in the modular gun system. the modular gun system is backed by Halliburton’s worldwide network of technical support. In fact.Modular Gun System Through a special arrangement of perforating equipment. • Several features make the modular gun system your best choice for perforating under a wide range of conditions. the modular gun system is so innovative. or slickline. and innovative performance—all of which are ready to go wherever and whenever needed. *US Patent Number 5. from 3 1/2 to 9 5/8 in. you are able to stack an optimum number of guns downhole for perforating the maximum interval. reliable equipment. Halliburton’s patented modular gun system permits the optimum number of guns to be removed via slickline or electric line so larger intervals can be perforated simultaneously. The system allows perforating in either underbalanced or overbalanced conditions over the entire interval. • The modular gun system allows a zone to be perforated and tested with no downhole restrictions below or above the packer. proving once again our commitment to bring the latest technology to the wellsite. Retrievable Firing Head (Wireline Conveyed) Wireline Running Tool Features and Benefits Stinger Skirt • Ideal for monobore completions • With the modular gun system. The modular gun system is run by Halliburton perforating specialists who know the equipment. – – The guns are retrievable or can be left at the bottom of the hole.014 6-10 Special Applications 10 Special Applications 10 .to 7-in. and know the best techniques to fit your particular application. electric wireline. Halliburton has patented* this unique system. And of course.

automatically released to the bottom of the hole where they can later be retrieved or left in the hole. The modular gun system allows the guns to be retrieved in sections without having to kill the well. The gun modules are deployed downhole individually and stacked on each other at the perforating zone until the appropriate length is achieved with the lowermost gun module being supported by the gun hanger. the modular gun system is the preferred method for perforating. Rigless Completion On wells where the completions are installed with wireline or coiled tubing.The Modular Gun System Process The modular gun system allows operators to deploy multiple gun sections to perforate long intervals. The modular gun system is ideal for use in wells with rathole length restrictions and rigless completions. The guns are fired. via a pressure-actuated firing head. HAL15458 Stinger Assembly Rathole Length Restriction In this application. HAL15457 Skirt Assembly Special Applications 6-11 11 . This method avoids any gun length restrictions caused by the lubricator. No rig is required. saving both time and money. The auto-release gun hanger positions the perforating assembly and allows it to remain adjacent to the desired interval. insufficient rathole length causes the uppermost gun modules to remain adjacent to the perforated interval after they are fired—where they may interfere with production from the well. and are then.

can be performed without pulling production equipment. the production tubing and permanent packer are installed before running the monobore perforating assembly. • Maximum desired underbalance or overbalance can be used.Auto-Release Gun Hanger One of the main features of the modular gun system is the auto-release gun hanger. The auto-release gun hanger is deployed and set at the desired perforating depth. For high volume testing and production. • Production tubing can be run and tested independently from other tools. • Lower gun firing pressures can be used since all production equipment is pressure tested prior to deploying guns in the well. wireline. • Additional perforations may be added through the tubing at a later date. The remaining guns are then lowered and stacked. • In BigBore™ monobore completions. The lowermost gun is then lowered in the well where it is supported by the gun hanger. The entire perforating assembly can be positioned and retained adjacent to the desired interval until the guns are fired. the auto-release gun hanger allows a zone to be perforated and tested with virtually no downhole restrictions. or slickline. Silicone Fluid Chamber Benefits • No tubing is required between the guns and the packer. There is no need to exceed previous test pressures. • No wireline is required to drop the assembly. • Remedial work. The assembly is then automatically released to the bottom of the well. and running coiled tubing. HAL10542 Slip Cone Automatic-J Mandrel Primacord Slip Assembly Time-Delay Firer Crossover Auto-Release Gun Hanger 6-12 Special Applications 12 Special Applications 12 . • The gun hanger and guns are run on a workstring. such as setting bridge plugs. adding perforations.

Approximately 4 minutes later. 23. Weight was slacked off to release the running tool.2 lb/ft liner polished bore respectable at 12. The well immediately began unloading 10-lb brine.500 ft and included a bottomhole temperature of 370°F and 10-lb brine fluid in the well. A 300-lb weight was installed on the bottom of the gun hanger to permit running on electric wireline. the detonation was both felt and heard at the wellhead. The running tool was then pulled out of the well. The entire deployment. A decrease in wireline weight at the surface verified that the hanger had set. Gun CCL Running Tool Stinger Skirt Stinger Air Chamber Auto Release Gun Hanger Auto-J Weight Run 1 Run 2 Five days later. a running tool was installed onto the gun module firing head handling stinger. Crossover subs were used to adapt the running tool threads to the electric wireline. Pipe included 7 5/8-in. Next. casing collar locator (CCL). bore drillable packer set inside the 7 5/8-in. After reaching the approximate setting depth. loaded 4 spf. gun hanger position was verified by checking the casing collars with the CCL. casing with 5-in. took about 5 hours. There were no problems encountered during the entire operation. The gun hanger was set by up and down movement of the wireline.000 ft. from the time the first running tool was lowered into the well until the last running tool was removed. perforating guns. The gun module assembly was lowered to the top of the gun hanger and the casing collars were again checked with the CCL to verify hanger position. and the entire assembly was run into the well. CCL Wireline Running Tool Stinger Ported Sub Firing Head 3 3/8-in. Halliburton was called to the wellsite to fire the guns. The customer was very pleased with the efficiency of the operation and the performance of the Halliburton crew. Total depth was 14. Perforating equipment consisted of 3 3/8-in. Five minutes later the tool released from the gun hanger. The top of the liner was isolated with 4-in. indicating that the guns had fired. with 32-gram PYX charges and 100-grain PYX aluminum clad prima cord. This caused oil to meter through an orifice in the hydraulic running tool. The hanger was fitted with an auto-J-latch to allow setting and unsetting with the wireline. Preparations included dressing the tool with PYX explosives and using water in place of silicone oil inside the hanger. Tubing was pressured to 7. This gun hanger was adapted for hostile environment use. The running tools were used to deploy the gun hanger and gun module. The gun hanger was attached with a modular stinger onto the running tool. Additional weight was then slacked off.000 psi and released back to zero.On-the-Job Performance A customer wanted to perforate a 46-ft interval in a well in central Texas. and electric wireline and run into the well. Wireline Special Applications HAL15461 6-13 13 . Decrease in weight at the surface verified that the running tool had separated from the gun module. casing. A weighted slickline run was made to verify that the gun module and auto-release gun hanger had dropped into the rathole. The CCL and electric wireline were attached into the running tool.

hydraulic. and rotational set. hydraulic. and retrieving modules.Setting Tools for the Auto-Release Gun Hanger Running and Retrieving Tools The running and retrieving tools for the modular gun system and the auto-release gun hanger gives customers flexibility in the conveyance of these tools in the well. jar down. There are many tools that can be used with the modular system. Most of the tools are for wireline and slickline deployment of the systems. and rotational set. Application The running and retrieving tools are used for setting gun hangers in position. All of these tools are reusable with a minimal amount of redressing. jar down and jar up. This manual has been written for the tools specially designed for the modular gun system or those recognized as a usable tool. OD for Baker # 20 Setting Tool 6-14 Special Applications 14 Special Applications 14 . The on/off tool requires rotation to operate and is limited to tubing conveyed applications. There are four basic running tools that have been run with these systems: explosive set.12 in. • Explosive set –Adapter kit for Baker #10 setting tool –Adapter kit for Baker #20 setting tool • Jar down –Otis® SB and RB shear release and running tool –Camco JDC and JUC • Hydraulic –Hydraulic JDC running and retrieving tool • Rotational set –Right hand release on/off tool HAL15778 Running Tool Assembly Modular 3. The tools break down into four categories: explosive set. running modules.

will automatically separate. • Allows perforating in either underbalanced or overbalanced conditions over the entire interval HAL11525 Rigless Completion On wells where the completions are installed with wireline or coiled tubing. the explosives train continues through the tool and detonates two shaped charges that punch holes in the vent sub.Detach™ Separating Gun Connector The Detach™ separating gun connector allows operators to deploy long gun sections into the well.85) Minimum ID N/A N/A Makeup Length ft (m) 2. The guns are fired when desired and then. The guns are deployed downhole in a single trip and placed across the perforating zone supported by a gun hanger or plug.74 (0.450)-6P Acme Pin 2 7/8 (73. *Verification testing Special Applications 6-15 15 .03)-6P Acme Box × Pin Lower Thread Size and Type in.75 (69.000 (69) Tensile Rating lb (kg) 80. Advantages • Can deploy entire gun assembly to cover the zone of interest in a single trip and retrieve in manageable gun sections without killing the well • Guns can be retrieved or left at bottom of the hole. insufficient rathole length causes the uppermost gun modules to remain adjacent to the perforated interval after they are fired where they may interfere with production from the well. (mm) 2 3/8 (60.850) 3. gun sections can be removed from the perforated interval without having to kill the well.000 (36 300)* 110. and allowing the gun sections to separate.450)-6P Acme Box 2 7/8 (73.03)-6P Acme Box Maximum OD in. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. wellbore pressure is allowed to enter the assembly and move the mandrel lock piston upward. The Detach separating gun connector is ideal for use in monobore wells with rathole length restrictions and in rigless completions.000 (1379) SAP No.86 (0. Rathole Length Restriction In this application.000 (1379) 20. which allows them to be retrieved in manageable sections or left in the hole. releasing the stinger. the preferred method for perforating.000 (49 800) Burst Pressure N/A N/A Collapse Pressure psi (bar) 20. the Detach separating gun connector or modular gun system is HAL12070 Detach™ Separating Gun Connector Detach™ Separating Gun Connector Specifications Upper Thread Size and Type in. (mm) 2. At this point. allowing the retaining dogs to move inward.83) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 1.87) 2.000 (69) 1. Operation When the firing head detonates the detonating cord initiator. 101363724 101286871 Temperature rating is determined by explosive.38 (85. With the Detach separating gun connector. No rig is required—saving both time and money.

oriented perforating was attempted via external orienting devices and weights (external to the gun and exposed to the casing environment). the accuracy range is ± 5°. slickline. ratchet connector. wireline. • Able to run through tubing and orient in casing • No need for fin tandems. eccentric tandems. In the externally oriented systems. and swivel subs • Increased orientation accuracy: the operating range will be for wells of 25° deviation and greater. and the modular gun system • Gun assemblies can be centralized in the casing. adverse factors that can significantly decrease the ability to orient the guns in a desired direction could be overcome. • Can be deployed on coiled tubing. It was conceived that if the rotating device could be taken inside the protective environment of the carrier. there is added friction created by the guns moving axially down the casing wall. doglegs and other discontinuities during the deployment can cause loss of orientation. • Compatible with live well intervention systems such as the AutoLatch™ connector. For deviated wells. In addition. Halliburton's G-Force® system is comprised of an internal orienting charge tube assembly and gun carrier. Features and Benefits • Able to go through restrictions not possible with older systems • Since the orienting mechanism of the internal orienting system is contained within the gun carrier.G-Force® Precision Oriented Perforating System Historically. the fundamental orienting design is unaffected by potential restrictions in the completion string. HAL12019 G-Force® System 6-16 Special Applications 16 Special Applications 16 . which allows perforating in any direction irrespective of the gun's position relative to the casing. or jointed pipe • No external weight bars required means no gaps between loaded sections and no lost shots. which can significantly work against the orienting mechanism. if not completely eliminated.

95) Tandem Tensile Load lb (kg) 563.50 (215.375 (85. (mm) 3.375-in.625-in.000 (255 372) Survival Test Medium Fluid G-Force® Charge Performance Data Size 3 3/8 SPF 4 Phasing G-Force Explosive Type HMX HMX RDX HMX HNS HNS Part No.69 (118. (mm) 2 7/8 6P Acme (73. 101233817 101366678 100005322 101210636 101210636 101287306 Charge Type Millennium™ Millennium DP Millennium Millennium Millennium Explosive Load 15 21 32 39 39 39 Casing Size 4 1/2 4 1/2 7 7 7 7 5/8 Target Strength 6000 5671 5117 5518 7559 6349 EHD 0. 101305067 SAP No.33 0.00 6P Acme (101.000 (1378.00 43. (mm) 8.000 (107 954) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 25. (mm) 4.12) Maximum Diameter after Detonation in.7) Maximum Shot Density 4 spf (13 spm) Shot Phasing 180° Perforation Planes 2 Vertical Shot Spacing in. G-Force® System Specifications Thread Size and Type in.8 (71.625 (117. 101300078 Tensile Load lb (kg) 238. (mm) 2.42 (86.000 (161 025) Survival Test Medium Fluid 4. (mm) 4.60 31.000 (1725) Tandem Tensile Load lb (kg) 355. 101300078 SAP No.60 Acme) Gun OD in.87) Distance from Top End of Gun to First Shot in.73) Length ft (m) 22 (6.87) Distance from Top End of Gun to First Shot in.90) SAP No.48) Length ft (m) 22 (6.12) Maximum Diameter after Detonation in.20 30.7) Maximum Shot Density 4 spf (13 spm) Shot Phasing 180° Perforation Planes 2 Vertical Shot Spacing in.26 0.50 (215.90) SAP No. (mm) 8.35 0.07 32.42 0.000 (182 783) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 20.03 6P Acme) Gun OD in.20 4 5/8 4 G-Force Special Applications 6-17 17 .8 (71. G-Force® System Specifications Thread Size and Type in.29 Total Target Penetration 24. 101305067 Tensile Load lb (kg) 403. (mm) 3.39 0. (mm) 4. (mm) 2.57 27.3.

60) 6P Acme Box × Pin 4.000 (188 694) 410.353) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 20.Explosive Transfer Swivel Sub The explosive transfer swivel sub allows two sections of guns to rotate independently of one another.000 (27 216) 60.000 (14 515) 40.353) 1.420 (112.05) Makeup Length ft (m) 1.16 (0.000 (27 216) *Maximum operating tensile load is the point at which the ball bearing race will start to deform.344) 1. In other words.16 (0.000 (27 216) 60.18) 5. This independent rotation is important on long strings of guns in horizontal wells when they must be oriented in a specific direction. It is easier to orient several short sections of guns.27) 6P Acme Box × Pin 5 1/8 (130.000 (1379) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 108. rather than one long section.03) 6P Acme Box × Pin 4.000 (150 593) 416. (mm) 2 3/8 (60.625 (117. and the tool will not function as designed.13 (0.344) 1.13 (0.18) 6P Acme Box × Pin Maximum OD in. 101271529 101271553 101271546 101284187 101278821 Thread Size and Type in. Features and Benefits • Useful in horizontal wells when shots need to be oriented in a specific direction to the wellbore • Bidirectional.75 (69. this sub passes on the explosive transfer to the next gun. (mm) 2.750 (146.47) 5.13 (0.344) 1.125 (130.000 (86 183) 332.000 (1379) 20.375 (85.000 (1379) 20.000 (48 988) 190.000 (1379) 20.00 (101.000 (1379) 20.85) 3. Temperature rating is determined by explosive. 6-18 Special Applications 18 Special Applications 18 .73) 4. HAL10513 Explosive Transfer Swivel Sub Assembly Explosive Transfer Swivel Sub Specifications SAP No. allowing firing from either direction Operation This swivel sub can be run as a connector between two guns to allow them to rotate independently without breaking the explosive train.000 (185 973) Maximum Operating Tensile Load* lb (kg) 32.000 (18 144) 60.33) 6P Acme Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.

The eccentric tandems allows for a greater degree of accuracy with an overall smaller profile.Eccentric Orienting Tandem For several years. The eccentric tandem works on the same principle as the fins. fishing concerns. Several tests and wells have been perforated using this new technique in the North Sea area and the Gulf of Mexico. which makes it possible to orient the shots in the casing to a predetermined direction • Tensile strength of the eccentric sub equivalent to the standard gun connectors • Available for most gun sizes Benefits • Eliminates the use of welded fins on the connectors Special Applications HAL15456 6-19 19 . the natural tendency is for the fin to orient to the high side of the wellbore. • Built with an adjustable ring. Now. Halliburton successfully ran oriented perforating jobs using a fin welded to a gun connection every 30 ft in conjunction with swivel assemblies. a second method for orienting perforations referred to as eccentric subs has been developed. etc. The eccentric sub is run in place of the finned tandem still in conjunction with a swivel assembly. The eccentric tandem works on the same principle. welding concerns. As the guns are run into the well. and transition from a vertical to deviated position occurs. Eccentric Orienting Tandem Features Eccentric subs allow perforating guns to be oriented in situations where the fin system is not ideal due to restrictions in the casing.

000 (187 787) 444. In some cases.76 (95. 120021632 100155770 100155771 101313551 Size in.70 (195.000 (63 503) 246. Applications • Running guns on coiled tubing in horizontal and highly deviated wells • Dropping the guns into the rathole in highly deviated wells • Can be deployed in conjunction with the modular gun system HAL10567 Roller Tandem Assembly Roller Tandem Assembly Specifications SAP No.80) Effective OD in. (mm) 2 3/4 (69. the frictional drag can be reduced by as much as 90%. of Rollers 6 (2 rows of 3) 8 (2 rows of 4) 8 (2 rows of 4) 8 (2 rows of 4) Roller Phasing 60° 45° 45° 45° Tensile Strength lb (kg) 140.28) No.Roller Tandem Assembly Roller tandem assemblies are used to reduce the friction between the perforating guns and the casing.20 (208.000 (201 395) Makeup Length in.04) 7.72) 3.63 (143.06 (77.25 (234.21) 6-20 Special Applications 20 Special Applications 20 .95) 15.58) 9. (mm) 3.000 (111 584) 414. (mm) 6.52 (394.50) 5.97 (177.85) 3 3/8 (85.47) 7 (177.00) 8.72) 4 5/8 (117.

Halliburton has designed a full range of centralizers to meet this requirement for all gun sizes. HAL15986 Centralizer Tandem Special Applications 6-21 21 . When perforating with big hole charges. Centralizer 2. the size of the exit holes will vary according to the clearance from the gun to the casing. it is recommended to centralize the guns to ensure that the exit holes in the casing will all be of a consistent size. Centralizer Application Two of the primary applications for the centralizers are: Guns 1. and to maximize the flow area around the centralizers. Contact your Halliburton representative for a list of available centralizers. it is necessary to centralize the gun modules to obtain a reliable explosive transfer between modules. If the guns are not centralized. it is desirable to centralize the guns and other tools in the casing.Centralizer Tandem In certain types of TCP operations. In modular gun completions. The centralizers are designed to minimize the possibility of “hanging up” while running or pulling the guns. This can cause problems with sand control operations.

Radioactive Marker Safety Joint Operation The StimGun assembly consists of a cylindrical sleeve of gas-generating propellant-potassium perchlorate that slides in place over the outside of a conventional hollow steel carrier perforating gun. When the guns are detonated. Retrievable Packer Fill Disk Firing Head Centralizer Benefits • Improved production or injectivity with greater uniformity in the perforation breakdown • Improved connectivity to the undamaged reservoir matrix by extending fractures past damage induced by either drilling or completion practices • Improved conventional underbalanced perforating by combining benefits of extreme overbalance in one operation • Stimulation of near-wellbore on zones that cannot be treated conventionally with acid or hydraulic fracturing due to undesirable production from nearby gas cap or water contact Fast Gauge Recorder 6-22 Special Applications 22 HAL15417 StimGun™ Assembly Special Applications 22 . breaks through any damage around the perforation tunnel. and creates short fractures near the wellbore. StimGun sleeves are similar to PVC pipe and must be protected and positioned on the gun with an oversized retaining collar that is secured to the gun scallop. Additional sleeve protection is achieved through centralization of the gun sections at the tandems. The StimGun assembly has a propellant sleeve over a conventional Halliburton VannGun® perforating gun assembly. coiled tubing. resulting in lower breakdown pressures and horsepower requirements on location. This gas enters the perforations.StimGun™ Assembly The StimGun™ assembly is a process that combines perforating and perforation breakdown with propellant in a single tool and operation. StimGun is a trademark of Marathon Oil Company and is licensed to Halliburton by Marathon. The StimGun assembly can be conveyed on either wireline. instantly producing a burst of high-pressure CO2 gas. or in a conventional perforation configuration. the gas in the formation surges back into the wellbore carrying with it damaging fines. As the gas pressure in the wellbore dissipates. • Excellent pre-hydraulic fracture treatment assists in keeping perforations open and minimizes tortuosity effects. the propellant sleeve is ignited. The StimGun assembly has been used with great success in conventional underbalanced perforating to obtain the benefits of both extreme overbalance from propellants and the surging effect from maximum underbalance.

45 (163.11 (78.95 (176.75 (2419.15 (207.12) 4.67) 1.21 (1425.96 (125.53) 3.34) 3.36 (85.02 (102.175 (131.32) 6.33) 5.21 (132.76) 5.97) 6. 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 1/8 3 3/8 12 spf 3 3/8 4 4 5/8 5 1/8 5 3/4 7 OD in.63 (143.00) 6.37) 3.44) 5.02 102. *The StimGun sleeve is an oxidizer that is bonded with a resin or plastic.11 (78. including acids. 58179 58190 58193 58195 58196 57514 101240496 215347 58159 Sleeve OD in.28) 5.98) 3.25 (209.55) Flow Area through Collar in.45 (163.87) 4.95 (176.10) 4.05 (153.47) 3.55) Propellant Mass** lb/ft (kg/m) 2.33 (3.82) 7.71 (119.21 (780.StimGun™ Assembly Specifications Gun Size in.00) 6.97) 6.01 (2.43) StimGun sleeves are manufactured in standard 3 ft (0.32) 2.10 (709.13 (104.21 (81.82 (147.88 (200.01 (10.81 (71.32) 2.10) 4.68 (6.99) 2.15 (741.97) 7.27 (108.12) 3.71 (1103.40 (111.12) 5.68 (5.50) 4. 101233588 101233598 101233215 101240387 101222271 101233163 101227396 101239368 101303748 101292913 Gun Size in. (mm) 3.40 (111. 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 1/8 3 3/8 4 4 5/8 5 1/8 5 3/4 7 Sleeve SAP No.85) 3.77) 3.10) 4.63) 5.64) 1.20) 4.85) 4.81 (147.15) Sleeve ID in. making it quite brittle.02 (102.90) 4.13 (104.38 (85.90) 4. (mm) 3.50) 4.43 (87.51 (89.81 (147.22) 1.06 scf per kg of material at standard conditions.01 (2.69 (119.70 (170.93) 1.88 (200.75 (69.06 (103.05 (102.45) 4.71 (1103.09 (129.02 (102.98) 5.67) 6. consult your local Halliburton representative.19 (131.48) 4.96) 3.80) 2.28) 5. Special Applications 6-23 23 .76 (95.18 (156.67 (3.63 (143.02) 2.08) Minimum Centralizer OD* in.05) 7. (mm) 3.93) 3.76) 4.88) 5.99) 3. (mm) 3. **CO2 gas generated from a propellant burn is estimated at 7.25 (209.50 (88.83) 7.53) 8. it is required that the perforating gun be centralized to this minimum OD to provide protection when the assembly is in the wellbore.33 (4.63 (92.82) 5.12) 4.09 (180.18 (156.10) 4.71 (119.70 (1741.43 (87.50 (63.27 (108.2 (mm2) 1.45) 4.83) 7.72 (119.72 (94.99) 2.50) 2.50 (139.38 (85.01) ID in. (mm) 2.22) 2.53) 8.46) 2.91 m) lengths and are rated for a service temperature of 350°F (177°C).63) 6.34) 3. therefore.85) 3.15) 3.48) 4.72 (94.40 (111.70) 6.57) Sleeve OD in.00 (1290. For more information.94) 4.18 (80.56 (65.09 (129.18) 8.90) 3.36 (85.35) These ratings are guidelines only.75 (146. The sleeves are non-reactive to most commonly used oilfield fluids.21 (132. (mm) 3. Retaining Collar Assembly Specifications SAP No.99) 3.33) 5.07 (179.76) 5.76 (95.99 (5.00 (1290.63) 5.15) Minimum Centralizer OD in. (mm) 2.

the StimTube assembly is run inside a vented hollow steel carrier. When deployed on coiled tubing or threaded pipe. the gas in the formation surges back into the wellbore. and instantaneous ignition over the entire length of the StimTube assembly. Radioactive Collar On/Off Connector PLS Packer Benefits • Improved production or injectivity with greater uniformity in the perforation breakdown • Improved connectivity to the undamaged reservoir matrix by extending fractures past damage induced by either drilling or completion practices • Stimulation of near-wellbore on zones that cannot be treated conventionally with acid or hydraulic fracturing due to undesirable production from nearby gas cap or water contact • Excellent pre-hydraulic fracture treatment assists in keeping perforations open and minimizes tortuosity effects resulting in lower breakdown pressures and horsepower requirements on location. The StimTube assembly can be conveyed on either wireline. StimTube™ Assembly 6-24 Special Applications 24 HAL11842 Special Applications 24 . reliable. or openhole sections when it is not desirable to add perforations. When the detonating cord is ignited.StimTube™ Assembly The StimTube™ assembly is a process that uses the same solid propellant technology employed by the StimGun™ assembly to stimulate existing perforations. This gas enters the perforations. The StimTube assembly is a hollow rod with propellant molded onto it and standard detonating cord run through the ID of this rod to provide the ignition system. slotted liners. As the gas pressure in the wellbore dissipates. PulsFrac is a trademark of John F. which assists in achieving consistent results without compromising safety or wellbore integrity. coiled tubing. carrying with it damaging fines. creating short fractures near the wellbore. Schatz Research and Consulting. breaking through any damage around the perforation tunnel. arming. Inc. • Selective stimulation of long openhole horizontal sections StimTube and StimGun are trademarks of Marathon Oil Company and are licensed to Halliburton by Marathon.) and lengths to accommodate most commonly used completion configurations. Vent Firing Head StimTube™ Assembly Fast Gauge Recorder Operation The StimTube assembly consists of a solid stick of gas-generating propellant-potassium perchlorate that is molded onto a hollow rod with detonating cord run through the inside of this rod. The StimTube assembly is available in a wide range of sizes (1 1/2 to 3 in. StimTube assembly jobs are designed using Halliburton’s PulsFrac™ simulator. the solid propellant breaks up into many smaller pieces. or threaded pipe. The industry standard detonating cord provides consistent. Standard perforating safety. allowing it to burn very rapidly and producing CO2 gas. and firing procedures are used.

1 1/2 1 11/16 2 2 1/2 3 Minimum Centralizer OD* in. These ratings are guidelines only. (mm) 1.52 m) sections that can be connected with collars for required job parameters.15) 2. For more information.40) 1.63 (66.66 (0.19 (6.53) 2. **CO2 gas generated from a propellant burn is estimated at 7.to 5-ft (0.55) Propellant Mass lb/ft (kg/m)** 0.23) StimTube™ assemblies are manufactured in lengths from 1.97 (1.25 (57.10) 4.StimTube™ Assembly Specifications Tool Size in.44) 1.70 (2.25 (82. consult your local Halliburton representative.98) 0.94 (49. it is required that the assembly be centralized to this minimum OD to provide protection when the assembly is conveyed in the wellbore on wireline. making it quite brittle. The propellant is rated for a service temperature of 350°F (177°C) and is non-reactive to most commonly used oilfield fluids including acids.63 (41.80) 3. *The StimTube assembly is an oxidizer that is bonded with a resin or plastic.27) 2.76 (4. Special Applications 6-25 25 . therefore.06 scf per kg of material at standard conditions.30 to 1.

the pressure drives a fluid “spear” into the perforation at velocities exceeding 3. The tubing conveyed system helps to allow for the highest possible bottomhole pressures. PerfStim is a trademark of Oryx Energy Company. 6-26 Special Applications 26 HAL15387 Special Applications 26 . Benefits • Gets production flowing quickly • Saves rig time • Helps develop negative skin factors • Gives an early evaluation of a well’s potential • Uses less horsepower than full scale stimulations Operation In the PerfStim process. When the perforating gun fires. Packer Firing Head VannGun Assembly ® Halliburton’s VannSystem® toolstring is used in typical PerfStim™ procedures. A small volume (usually no more than a 300-ft column) of nondamaging fluid is placed above the gun.4 psi/ft (31 bar/m). The process not only produces cleaner perforations in lowpressure formations. The VannGun® perforating assembly can remain attached to the toolstring or dropped into the rathole after the guns have been fired. it also initiates fractures in the formation. reducing stimulation costs. The PerfStim process is licensed to Halliburton by Oryx Energy Company. If needed. Crushed zone damage is removed and small fractures are created—improving initial production and treatment results. an extreme overbalanced condition is created—pressure gradients of at least 1. then pressured with nitrogen. a liquid can be bullheaded on top of the nitrogen column.000 ft/sec (900 m/sec) and at rates that can exceed 140 bbl/min.PerfStim™ Process The PerfStim™ process uses an extreme overbalanced condition to simultaneously perforate and stimulate a well.

70) 492 (223. the tubing is energized with nitrogen gas to create a pressure gradient of no less than 1. Special Applications 6-27 27 .17) 684 (310. A non-damaging fluid is added to the tubing to serve as a medium for carrying the bauxite into the formation.71) 16 (4. This method is coupled with the release of an erosive agent at the moment of VannGun® detonation to clean and scour near-wellbore damage and enhance conductivity of fractures created by extreme overbalance perforating.4 psi/ft (31 bar/m).88) 22 (6.61) 599 (271. These ratings are guidelines only.000 (1724) 19.39) 95 (43. and to further enhance the fractures created by extreme overbalance perforating.09) 95 (43.76) 407 (184.71) 16 (4.11) 140 (63. consult your local Halliburton representative. erode.88) 22 (6. After the assembly has been positioned across the producing zone.04) 323 (146. A model KV-II firing head. For more information. high permeability wells • Can be a useful pre-frac evaluation tool • Applicable to both new wells and wells with nearby water or gas • Compatible with all casing sizes and tubulars Retrievable Packer Operation The POWR*PERF tool is run as a normal part of the completion KV-II Firing Head POWR*PERF POWR*PERF Carrier Sizes in.40) 344 (156.71) 16 (4.51) 447 (202.88) 22 (6. The combination of fluid and bauxite serves to fracture.26) Collapse Pressure psi (bar) 20. Features and Benefits • Overcomes skin damage in low pressure.POWR*PERFSM Perforation/Stimulation Process POWR*PERFSM perforation/ stimulation process is a completion process that uses proven extreme overbalance perforating techniques.71) Assembly Weight lb (kg) 250 (113. (mm) 3 1/8 (79) 3 3/8 (86) 4 (102) 4 1/2 (114) SM Perforation/Stimulation Process Specifications Bauxite Capacities lb (kg) 56 (25.000 (1310) 18. assembly.50) 200 (90. The fluid “spear” is driven ahead of the expanding nitrogen gas into the formation at velocities that can exceed 140 bbl/min.40) 80 (36. POWR*PERF is a service mark/trademark of Marathon Oil Company and licensed by Halliburton. The bauxite material is ejected into the fluid stream at the moment of detonation by specially designed shaped charges. which has been pre-set to function at the desired bottomhole pressure.29) 67 (30. and scour all of the perforations.000 (1241) Minimum Ratio Interval to POWR*PERF Carrier 1:1 1:1 1:1 1:1 VannGun® Assembly HAL15314 POWR*PERFSM Perforation/Stimulation Process Maximum operating pressure is determined by tubulars.09) 170 (77.000 (1379) 25.72) Proppant Carrier Available Lengths ft (m) 16 (4. detonates the VannGun assembly and opens flow ports to allow the fluid and nitrogen to rush toward the formation.88) 22 (6.

and a 3 3/8-in. TCP gun assemblies can now be picked up by the rig equipment and properly made up using iron roughneck equipment. making the system self-contained for added safety. without the need for human intervention. The connectors have a common. automated system saves rig time • Allows venting of any built-up pressure during shipping • No exposed explosives • Q125 material. It can be used with 4 5/8-in. sour service > 175° F Operation This system can be used on any rig with automatic or manual pipe handling equipment. standard or 4 5/8-in. self-orienting TCP gun systems. all subsequent steps can be automated • Efficient. With these connectors.Quick Torque™ Connector The Quick Torque™ connector consists of connectors that cover both ends of each gun section to enclose the assembly. self-aligning drillpipe thread that allows automatic or manual make-up.-OD or smaller firing head. Explosive transfer occurs through a web. Features and Benefits • Standard NC38 thread make-up procedure • Redressable • Self-contained system increases personnel safety on the rig floor—no human intervention is needed • Once the thread protectors are removed. HAL14398 Gun Sub-Assembly Firing Head Sub-Assembly 6-28 Special Applications 28 Special Applications 28 HAL14399 . It simplifies the process and saves time by eliminating assembly of the components on the rig.

848) Limited by 4 -6 Acme Pin Thd 398.75 (. NC38 Pin x Acme Pin Firing Head Connector Assy.19) 101351885 4. OD in (mm) 4. 101351984 Thread Connection Pin Connector Assy.65) 20. NC38 Box x Double Acme Pin Tool Max.500 (223. Firing Head on Bottom.65) 20.848) Limited by 4 -6 Acme Pin Thd 493.59) Modified NC38 Box x 4-6 Acme Pin 101354907 4. NC38 Box x Acme Pin Crossover.500 (223.000 (1379) Determined by explosives and elastomers 23.56 (.75 (120.75 (120.75 (120.65) Maximum Operating Pressure* psi (bar) 20.65) 20.000 (1379) 7.65) 20.34) NC38 Box x Modified NC38 Pin 101381170 4.08 (.Quick Torque™ Connector SAP No.848) Limited by 4 -6 Acme Pin Thd 493. (mm) 6.08 (.848) Limited by 4-6 Acme Pin Thd 101352042 4.000 (1379) 13.75 (120.000 (1379) Temperature Rating* °F (°C) Determined by explosives and elastomers Determined by explosives and elastomers Determined by explosives and elastomers Determined by explosives and elastomers Makeup Length in.000 (1379) 23.500 (223.530) Limited by NC38 Box 493. Special Applications 6-29 29 .59) Modified NC38 Box x 4-6 Acme Pin x 2 7/8-6 Acme Pin * Maximum Operating Pressure and Temperature Rating based on the elastomers.61 (.75 (120.17) End Connections 4-6 Acme Pin x Modified NC38 Pin 2 7/8-6 Acme and Pin x 4-6 Acme Pin x Modified NC38 Pin Tensile Rating lb (kg) 493.500 (223.000 (180. NC38 Pin x Double Acme Pin Box Connector Assy. Standard NC38 Box x Modified NC38 Pin Firing Head Connector Assy.

Pump Through Pump-Through Firing Head Specifications Thread Size and Type Maximum OD Minimum ID* in.200 (1600) Overall Length in. and then shooting into the disk to allow access below.000 ± 10% at 70°F (207) Flow Area (before firing) in. and then shoot into the barrier to break it up.42) (11. (mm) in.315 NU-10RD Pin 2.77) Temperature Rating As per explosives Axial Load Rating lb (kg) 54. Burst Pressure is not applicable. Application The pump-through firing head can be used to circulate debris off of a barrier.32) Mass lb (kg) 16.397) 6-30 Special Applications 30 HAL15777 Special Applications 30 . (mm) 1. (mm) in. This function is primarily developed toward circulating sand and other debris off of a ceramic disk in a production well. and an outer tube is incorporated to allow fluid circulation to the bottom of the tool.700) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 23. pump-through firing head is designed to be run on coiled tubing and is used for breaking the ceramic flapper valve disk on a one-trip coiled tubing operation. pressure actuated pressure firing head. 44 (33.2 (mm2) 0.9 (7. which seats in the assembly to allow a pressure differential to actuate the firing head and shape charge. A miniature shaped charge is set in the bottom of the firing head to shoot into the ceramic disk.40 (58. The components were hardened to withstand pumping erosion. Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 3.400 (24. The assembly is actuated by dropping a ball through the coiled tubing.15 (96.Pump-Through Firing Head The 1 11/16-in.69 (576. such as a ceramic disk.3 0.68) Maximum Flow Rate bbl/min (m3/min) 2. (mm) 22. The firing head originates from proven technology in the 1 11/16-in. Firing Head Assembly 1 11/16-in.5 (0.18) NU-10RD Pin) *Through ball seat Minimum Operating Pressure is not applicable.

relative to the perforating event. Ported BIT assemblies replace the fill disk assembly and are used in place of a perforated sub. The first is to verify proper propellant burn as well as determine the fracturing response of the formation by analyzing post-job data with the pre-job model done with the PulsFrac™ modeling software. Balanced Isolation Tool (page 12) The ported balanced isolation tool (BIT) assembly is used in situations when venting devices cannot be utilized because of packer selection or well conditions. The perforating assembly can be positioned and retained adjacent to the desired interval. Once surface equipment is installed. Pressure is balanced across the glass barrier through equalizing ports in the piston. The pressure profile collected is used for two important objectives. Annular Pressure-Control Line Swivel Sub (page 15) When run in conjunction with the annular pressure control line (APF-C) firing head. for the engineering and design of downhole tools. The drillpipe or tubing is then removed. Inc.Ancillary Equipment Ancillary Equipment Automatic-Release Gun Hanger (page 4) Automatic-release gun hangers (ARGH) allow perforating and testing of a zone without downhole restrictions. Schatz Research and Consulting. Annular Pressure-Control Line Vent (page 14) Annular pressure control line (APF-C) vent devices isolate the tubing from annulus fluid or pressure. These assemblies are custom-made according to casing ID. APF-C tubing release assembly (APF-C TR) provides a mechanical method of releasing the APF-C firing head and VannGun® assembly from the tubing string. PulsFrac is a trademark of John F. Ancillary Equipment 7-1 . Fast Gauge Recorder (page 10) The fast gauge recorder is a downhole gauge that records important pressure and temperature data in high-pressure. and gun size. the APF-C swivel sub provides a swivel point between the guns and packer when it is desired to have the guns rotate freely as when orienting shots in a deviated well. Y-Block Assembly (page 9) The Y-block assembly is used in dual and single selective completions to attach or hang guns from the long string. tubing size and type. Emergency Release Assembly (page 8) The emergency release assembly is designed to run in conjunction with the ARGH. which helps prevent debris from setting on the firing head. guns are automatically detonated and released in the bottom of the well. severe shock/vibration environments. The BIT helps prevent contamination of the fluid below it from the fluid above it through the glass disk. Annular Pressure-Control Line Tubing Release Assembly (page 16) The 2 7/8-in. The emergency release is run between the gun hanger and guns to serve as a “weak point” in case the hanger gets stuck while running in hole. The vent is actuated by rathole pressure after the perforating assembly is detonated and then provides a flowpath for the formation fluid into the tubing string. The second objective is to provide important information.

After the packer is set. pressure to the tubing or annulus to rupture a disk and close the valve. the predetermined amount of fluid is added to the tubing. the vent opening creates communication between the tubing and rathole. The automatic release (AR) allows perforating guns to immediately drop after firing. It is designed to achieve a differential pressure between the formation and the tubing string. Surface pressure applied to the annulus is transmitted through the APCA to a closed chamber below the vent device and above a pressure-responsive firing head. Below-Packer Vent Device (page 18) The below-packer vent device (BPVD) was developed for use with the annulus pressure crossover assembly (APCA). Vann™ Circulating Valve (page 21) The Vann™ circulating valve (VCV) can be used as a circulating valve for displacing well fluids before setting a packer. Mechanical Tubing Release (page 24) The mechanical tubing release (MTR) provides the option of keeping or releasing the VannGun® assembly from the tubing string. The tool helps to safely allow differential pressure in wells with existing open perforations or in unperforated wells. 7-2 Ancillary Equipment .Bar Pressure Vent (page 17) The bar pressure vent is an internal sliding sleeve tool actuated by pressure in the tubing and run between the packer and the guns. Pressure-Operated Vent (page 20) The pressure-operated vent (POV) design helps achieve a differential pressure between the formation and tubing string and provides a way to open the vent and test the packer before guns are fired. The vent is opened by breaking the plug inside the tool and allowing the sleeve to uncover the ports. The MTR mechanism is operated by a standard shifting tool. When guns are positioned and the packer set. Running the vent allows for running of the tubing in the well with no hydrostatic pressure in the tubing. Adding the fluid into the tubing causes the vent to open and helps create proper pressure differential before firing. After fluid is displaced. The MTR is usually run above the firing head and below the production ports below the packer. Automatic Release (page 22) Maximum Differential Bar Vent (page 19) The maximum differential bar vent (MDBV) is a vent run between the perforating guns and packer. The vent can be set to work before or after the perforating assembly is detonated.

Fill Disk Assembly (page 30) The fill disk assembly (FDA) is used in place of a perforated sub and replaces the balanced isolation tool in wells with reasonably clean fluids. the guns can be detonated either with wireline or a pressure-activated firing head.and singlestring completions. gun guides help maintain proper orientation of guns attached to the short string. or packers. Gun Guides (page 31) The gun guides are used with Y-blocks in dual. In a dual completion. Once the guns drop away. while pressure is equalized across the glass disk. bridge plugs. The advanced design includes slips that remain retracted within slip housing until the tool is set. After the perforating event. A modified version is used to fire perforating guns using a model III-D firing head. With its built-in sensor and memory capabilities. it can record and store downhole temperature and pressure data that can be used by the slickline specialists to program firing parameters. Also. the pressure-actuated tubing release (PATR) is used to separate the guns from the toolstring. safe. Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating (page 29) Conveying perforating guns to the zone of interest with coiled tubing has been effectively used for many years since faster run-in times occur when compared to conventional methods. The slickline version of the DPU unit uses batteries to provide the energy to the motor and timing circuits. If desired.Pressure-Actuated Tubing Release (page 26) When mechanical or slickline devices are not desirable. The guns drop off of the production tubing when separated. EZ Pass™ Gun Hanger (page 32) The EZ Pass™ gun hanger runs with Halliburton’s modular gun system. slips return to the running position and the tool auto-releases. SmartETD® Advanced Electronic Triggering Device (page 28) The SmartETD® tool is an advanced electronic triggering device that provides an accurate. and reliable method to run and fire downhole explosive tools using slickline. circuits. An electric-line version without the timer. The glass disk helps prevent debris from settling on the firing head. Ancillary Equipment 7-3 . the hanger can be fished with a standard pulling tool and retrieved from the well. The FDA is run between the firing head and packer. DPU® Downhole Power Unit (page 27) The DPU® downhole power unit is an electromechanical device that is designed to produce a linear force for setting (or pulling) wellbore tools such as Monolock® locks. other tools and operations have no restrictions through the end of the tubing. The housing attached to the string has a greater ID than the tubing. Hydraulic Metering Release Tool for the Single Trip System (STPP™-GH) (page 34) The hydraulic metering release tool is one component of the single trip system that allows us to perforate and frac-pack a zone of interest in a single trip. and batteries is also available.

the operator picks up the string. the explosive train is continued to the ARGH. the guns are detonated and then released automatically into the bottom of the well. The ARGH and perforating assembly are then released automatically and fall to the bottom. A righthand release on/off tool is made up on the top of the bottomhole assembly (BHA).Automatic-Release Gun Hanger—Rotational Set For high volume testing and production. Two shaped charges are detonated into a sealed fluid chamber. • No restrictions are left in the casing below the packer. • Lower gun-firing pressures can be used since all production equipment is pressure-tested before the guns are installed in the well (no need to exceed previous test pressures). • No wireline work is required to drop the assembly. adding perforations. the operator continues to turn the workstring to the right to release the on/off tool. the production tubing and permanent packer are installed before running the ARGH perforating assembly. and slacks off weight on the ARGH. • The ARGH and guns are run on the workstring. After all surface equipment is installed. The perforating assembly can be positioned and retained adjacent to the desired interval. • Remedial work can be performed without pulling production equipment (such as setting bridge plugs. With weight still on the BHA. • In BigBore™ monobore completions. This action eliminates the support to the slip assembly. The ARGH should be set at this point. Silicone Fluid Chamber Slip Assembly Auto-Release Gun Hanger Rotational Set 7-4 HAL10516 Ancillary Equipment . running coiled tubing. turns it to the right. After the BHA is correlated on depth. • The maximum desired underbalanced pressure can be used. etc. the automatic-release gun hanger (ARGH) allows perforating and testing of a zone without imposing downhole restrictions. As the guns are detonated. • Production tubing can be run and tested independently from other tools. Shaped Charges Features and Benefits With the ARGH: • No tubing is required between the guns and packer. Primacord Operation The ARGH is made up on the bottom of the perforating assembly.). • The risk of presetting the packer is reduced. The drillpipe or tubing is then removed.

7) 7 (177.000 (18 140) Ancillary Equipment 7-5 .2) Length ft (m) 3.7) 9 5/8 (244. (mm) 2.000 (18 140) 40.75 (95.49) 5.7-10.3) 5 (127) 5 1/2 (139.5 (14.3-53.33 (1.14-20.300 (5580) 40.48-15.34-38.16) Minimum Tensile Rating lb (kg) 25.000 (54 400) Minimum BHA Weight lb (kg) 150 (68) 300 (136) 500 (227) 600 (272) 600 (272) Maximum Gun Weight lb (kg) 12.88 (1.09) 11.9) 4 1/2 (114.69) 17-38 (25.54) 20-39 (29.76-58.80) 6.84) 7.2) 8.92 (1.Automatic-Release Gun Hanger—Rotational Set Specifications Casing OD in.000 (54 400) 120.02) 4.25) 4.3) 5.2 (8.3-56. (mm) 3 1/2 (88.75 (69.5 (114.000 (38 500) 120.5-13.85) 3.04 (1.000 (18 140) 40.000 (11 300) 85.5-18 (17.61) Maximum OD in.03) 29.18) 9.5) Casing Range lb/ft (kg/m) 5.5 (123.000 (54 400) 120.08 (2.6-79.11-26.000 (18 140) 40.78) 13-26 (19.8) 7 5/8 (193.0 (203.5 (43.

This action eliminates the support to the slip assembly. running coiled tubing. the automatic-release gun hanger (ARGH) allows perforating and testing of a zone without imposing downhole restrictions. • Remedial work can be performed without pulling production equipment (such as setting bridge plugs. the production tubing and permanent packer are installed before running the ARGH perforating assembly. The ARGH and perforating assembly are then released automatically and fall to the bottom. • The maximum desired underbalanced pressure can be used. Two shaped charges are detonated into a sealed fluid chamber. Automatic-J Mandrel Primacord Slip Assembly HAL10542 Time-Delay Firer Crossover Automatic-Release Gun Hanger (ARGH) Automatic-J Mandrel 7-6 Ancillary Equipment . coiled tubing. slickline. • Lower gun-firing pressures can be used since all production equipment is pressure-tested before the guns are installed in the well (no need to exceed previous test pressures). • No restrictions are left in the casing below the packer. or the workstring. slickline. After all surface equipment is installed. Upward and downward manipulation either sets or un-sets the hanger. Slip Cone Silicone Fluid Chamber Features and Benefits With the ARGH: • No tubing is required between the guns and packer. The drillpipe or tubing is then removed. coiled tubing. Rotation is not required to set the automatic-J gun hanger. • The automatic-J ARGH and guns are run on wireline. • No wireline work is required to drop the assembly.). The perforating assembly can be positioned and retained adjacent to the desired interval. As the guns are detonated. • Production tubing can be run and tested independently from other tools. the guns are detonated and then released automatically into the bottom of the well. adding perforations.Automatic-Release Gun Hanger—Automatic-J Mandrel For high volume testing and production. the explosive train is continued to the ARGH. etc. or the workstring. Operation The automatic-J mandrel can be run on wireline. • In BigBore™ monobore completions.

50 (88.75 (73.8) 7 5/8 (193.50 (63.27) 4 1/2 9.9 (22.87 (1.28 (2. (mm) 2.349-1.28 (2.87-5.75 (95.000 (11 300) 25.79-3.79-3.79-58.80) 7.5-13.7) 9 5/8 (244.95-9.18) 4 14.71-58.000 (54 400) Minimum BHA Weight lb (kg) 150 (68) 150 (68) 150 (68) 150 (68) 300 (136) 300 (136) 200 (91) 500 (227) 600 (272) 600 (272) 600 (272) Maximum Gun Weight lb (kg) 9. Temperature rating is determined by explosives.40-2.49-4.25 (57.000 (9072) 40.46-25.000 (54 400) 120.5) Casing Range lb/ft (kg/m) 6.06-34.59) 4.43) 9.34-67.4-6.40-17.000 (18 140) 40.28 (1.54) 7 5/8 24-39 (35.47-1.000 (1379) 20.000 (11 340) 85.40-2.3) 5.000 (18 140) 20.67) 3 1/2 5.16) Maximum Operating Pressure* psi (bars) 20.0 (203.80) 58.59) 53.78-20.69-19.26-10.000 (54 400) 120.25) 3.80-3.2) Length ft (m) 4.25) 3.29 (2.Automatic-J Mandrel Specifications Casing OD in.0) 2.000 (9072) 40.9) Slimhole 4 1/2 (114.000 (1379) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A *As total gun weight increases. the maximum operating pressure decreases.5 (43.47-1.56-15.3) Slimhole 5 1/2 (139.2-12.9) 4 (101.2) 5.340) 120.44 (2.08 (2.26-10.10) 9.7) 7 (177.000 (54 400) 120.75 (73.000 (18 140) 40.15) 15.31-10.0) 2.44 (2.75-10.2 (8.300 (5580) 20.78) 15.09) 5 15.14) 7.40 (21. (mm) 2 7/8 (73. For more information.000 (4050) 12.32-26.82) 7.000 (1379) N/A Tensile Rating lb (kg) 25.87-5.2) 2.0 (22.000 (11 300) 25.61) Maximum OD in.000 (11.50 (114.5 (123.29 (17.14) 9.2) 8. Ancillary Equipment 7-7 .5 (14.000 (38 500) 25.0-18.000 (18 140) 40.28 (1.000 (38 500) 85. These ratings are guidelines only.76-56.47) 4.1) 3 1/2 (88.52-9.000 (18 140) N/A 20.6) 3 1/2 (88.03) 29.5) 3.9) 4.1-16.95-9.000 (18 140) 40.5 (123.75 (95.47 (16.3-53.22) 7 20-38 (29.6-79.000 (11 300) 25.3) 5 (127) 4 1/2 (114.14-20.95 (13. consult your local Halliburton representative.50-23 (23.51) 9.50 (9.300 (5580) 12.000 (1379) 20.

When deploying the gun hanger on tubing or drill pipe. Pulling or jarring on the pipe will cause the emergency release assembly to shear. 101201127 OD Size in.600 lb per screw Temperature Rating Determined by explosives Pressure Rating psi (bar) 25.000 (1724) 7-8 HAL15987 Ancillary Equipment . the emergency release is run between the gun hanger and guns to serve as a weak point in case the hanger gets stuck while running in the hole. Shear Screws 8 steel shear screws rated at 5.Emergency Release Assembly The emergency release assembly was designed to run in conjunction with the automatic-release gun hanger assembly.73) No. the rope socket typically acts as the weak point. When deploying the gun hanger on wireline. (mm) 3 3/8 (85. allowing the retrieval of the guns and tubing from the well. Emergency Release Assembly Emergency Release Assembly Specifications SAP No.

In single selective completions. Non-Ported Ported Time-Delay Firer Retrievable Packer Sliding-Side Door® Y-Block VannGun® Assembly Hydraulic Packer HAL10578 Nipple Y-block assemblies are custom-made according to the casing ID. In the non-ported assembly. In dual completions. The Y-block assembly is available as a ported or non-ported assembly. the assembly allows for the elimination of the tail pipe between the dual packer and the gun. this installation is run either for selectively shooting and testing two zones or for production when the application requires the option of producing two zones separately through one tubing string. Consult your local Halliburton representative for ordering information.Y-Block Assembly The Y-block assembly is used in dual completions and single selective completions to attach or hang guns from the long string. The ported Y-block allows guns to be fired upon applying pressure to the long string. the tubing size and type. Vent Tubing Release Mechanical Firing Head VannGun Assembly HAL8139 Time-Delay Firer Y-Block Assembly Ancillary Equipment 7-9 . there is no communication between the long string and the short string. and the gun size.

Schatz Research and Consulting.seconds 7-10 Ancillary Equipment HAL15464 Perforation event .MPa Fast Gauge Recorder StimTube and StimGun are trademarks of Marathon Oil Company.02 0. The pressure profile collected is used to verify proper propellant burn as well as determine the fracturing response of the formation by analyzing post-job data with PulsFrac™ software.86 mm) OD gauge is its use as a “drop bar” to fire a propellant or perforating gun. and to make initial determinations of rock properties.01 0. The data can also be used to estimate fracture gradients. The programmable multi-speed feature allows flexibility in collecting pressure. to validate computer models. (42. Each gauge includes a shock mitigator which isolates the gauge from the tool. and vibration data at various sampling speeds and time intervals. With this feature. A special application of the 1 11/16-in.025 12. The gauge starts sampling at a slow speed and when a pressure pulse or acceleration/vibration event occurs. PulsFrac is a trademark of John F. Use of the shock mitigator lengthens the life of the recorder.005 0. Inc. battery. then back to an intermediate speed. This gauge is typically used with StimGun™ assemblies or StimTube™ tools. The data the fast gauge recorder collects can be used to determine whether or not the job was executed properly.Fast Gauge Recorder The fast gauge recorder is a downhole gauge that records important pressure and temperature data in high-pressure.000 g. The fast gauge recorder can perform within the rigors of perforating applications by withstanding shock loads of 100.000 Propellant burn gas expansion 10.000 Perforation breakdown and fracturing 8000 Pressure .psi 6000 Pressure . the gauge automatically switches to a high sampling speed. acceleration. The tool collects and records 115. Hydrostatic Head Time . and finally back to a slow sampling speed. and sensors. The gauge can be used with firing pin and fishneck attachments as the drop bar to trigger a gun firing head. the customer can retrieve pressure data from the gun and also determine if the gun actually fired. 80 70 60 50 40 30 4000 20 2000 10 0 0 0. reducing shock and vibration (up to a factor of 10) that occurs when the gun ignites.000 data points per second to give exceptionally accurate and reliable information. It can be left there as long as necessary to collect pressure flow data.015 0. The process can be repeated until the memory is full. severe shock/vibration environments.

and temperature Programmable low.048. OD × 50 in. vibration.000 (1034) continuous Data Resolution 12 bits @ 115.000 Hz Power Requirements 6 to 12 volts.000 g Current and internal/battery voltage readouts to verify proper gauge operation Internal temperature and battery data Selectable sampling rates up to 115.756 data points of memory Uses low-cost standard AA alkaline or lithium batteries Benefits • • • Computer programming and data readout Internal microprocessor control Automatic sensor testing and balancing • • • Fast Gauge Recorder Specifications Gauge Dimensions 1 11/16 in.000 data points/second Memory Capacity 1. acceleration. and acceleration/ vibration ranges Measures tool movement and acceleration/vibration up to ±50.000 points/second down to one sample every 10 seconds Temperature Range °F (°C) -40 to 248 (-40 to 120) Pressure Range psi (bar) 35. intermediate. with standard RS-232 Software Windows 98* Sensor Frequency Response 0 to 10.576 data points Ancillary Equipment 7-11 .Features • • • • • Shock-hardened design High sampling speed Records pressure. temperature. and high speeds and time intervals Can be used as drop bar pressure gauge • • • • • • Selectable pressure. (22 lb) Maximum Acceleration and Vibration ± 50.000 data points per second Auto stop/start recording modes Includes shock mitigator Up to 1.000 g Current Drain 500 uA sleeping 100 mA sampling Computer/ Communications 750 MHz or greater PC.048. AA alkaline or lithium cells *Windows 2000 or NT is recommended. Sampling Rate 115.000 (2413) peak 15.

Operation The basic components of the BIT are a floating piston with a glass disk. Features and Benefits • Allows mud and debris to be circulated off the glass barrier through the flow ports above the glass barrier • Allows displacement of the tubing with a lighter fluid or nitrogen before firing the guns • Allows swabbing of the tubing to achieve differential pressure • Allows stopping and circulating at any depth since flow ports are always open • Can be run with either a mechanical or pressure-actuated firing head Balanced Isolation Tool (BIT) 7-12 HAL15460 Ancillary Equipment . The BIT helps prevent contamination of the fluid below it from the fluid above it. Debris or solids in the fluid above should not pass through the glass disk that is in the floating piston. The glass disk helps prevent debris from setting on the firing head. The BIT assembly replaces the fill disk assembly and is used in place of a perforated sub.Balanced Isolation Tool The balanced isolation tool (BIT) assembly is used where either packer selection or well conditions preclude the use of a venting device. The glass barrier remains intact until the bar passes through it. As fluid enters or leaves the tubing through the ports. The upward travel of the floating piston is limited by the bottom of the top sub. The BIT assembly is run between the firing head and packer. A pressure increase below the glass barrier forces the piston to move up or forces fluid out of the bleeder ports. Pressure is balanced across the glass barrier through equalizing ports in the piston. A pressure increase above the glass barrier causes the piston to move down and forces fluid below the glass barrier out of the bleeder ports. The BIT is run with clean fluid below it. debris on the glass barrier is washed off.14 m). The piston moves up or down within its limits to help prevent the glass barrier from breaking. a ported lower housing. The recommended minimum distance from the BIT to the firing head is 30 ft (9. and a top housing.

80) 2.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 3 1/2 (88.000 (45 300) 155.64) 2.68 (30.14 (20.27) 4.000 (70 200) 200.62) 2.98) 3.41 (0. 120022203 101318220 100014322 100014323 100156936 Thread Size and Type in.90) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin Maximum OD in.000 (126 000) These ratings are guidelines only.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.07 (45.15 (0.25 (107.20) No.50) 2.0 (76. Ancillary Equipment 7-13 .44 (61. For more information. (mm) 2.10 (78.000 (49 800) 100.73) 2.25) 4.4) 3.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 3/8 (60.895 (73.89) 2.2 (cm2) 2. consult your local Halliburton representative.0 (50.61 (40.65) 2.73) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 110.Balanced Isolation Tool (BIT) Specifications SAP No. (mm) 1.50 (63.09 (0.60) Overall Length ft (m) 2.0 (50.96) 3.10) 3.09 (19.03 (13. of Ports 4 4 4 4 4 Total Flow Area in.80) 2.74) 3.02 (0.95) Minimum ID in. (mm) 1.000 (90 700) 280.19) 7.90 (48.26) EUE 10 Rd Box × Pin 2 3/8 (60.75 (95.41 (0.

000 (1035) These ratings are guidelines only.72) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. (mm) 3.Annular Pressure-Control Line Vent The annular pressure-control line (APF-C) vent is a device that isolates the tubing from annulus fluid or pressure.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × 2 7/8 (73.37 (0.63 (16. It then provides a flowpath for the formation fluid into the tubing string. When the perforating assembly is detonated.38 (85.000 (1380) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 150. 7-14 Ancillary Equipment .03) 6P Acme Box 2 7/8 (73.55) Nonfull-bore 5@1.74) 20. 120038049 101016565 3.34) 2.000 (1380) HAL15441 170. The vent is actuated by rathole pressure after the perforating assembly has been detonated. and ID of Ports in.000 (1035) 15. (mm) 4@1.97) Makeup Length ft (m) 2.2 (cm2) 2. (mm) Nonfull-bore No.0 (25.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × 2 7/8 (73.4) 3. Annular Pressure-Control Line (APF-C) Vent Annular Pressure-Control Line (APF-C) Vent Specifications Thread Size and Type in. gun pressure shifts an actuating piston into a power piston.000 (77 000) 15. Features and Benefits • Ideal for highly deviated or horizontal wells • Requires minimal pressure to operate • Eliminates nitrogen displacement or swabbing the tubing string to achieve desired underbalance Operation The APF-C vent is run directly on top of the APF-C firing head.03) 6P Acme Box Maximum OD in.43 (0. This shift opens the flow ports to the tubing. For more information.000 (1515) SAP No.000 (68 000) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 22.88 (98.4) Flow Area in.85) Minimum ID in.0 (25.93 (25.000 (1515) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 22. consult your local Halliburton representative.

APF-C Swivel Sub Annular Pressure-Control Line (APF-C) Swivel Sub Specifications SAP No. (mm) 2.30) Minimum ID in. (mm) 5.000 (90 718) Burst Pressure psi (bars) NA* Collapse Pressure psi (bars) NA* Make-up Length ft (m) 1. Features and Benefits • Compatible with APF-C firing head and control line • Can be run anywhere between the packer and the firing head • Transmits pressure through the control line while rotating Operation The APF-C swivel is made up in the string between the packer and the firing head.8) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 200.0 (50. Ancillary Equipment HAL10539 7-15 .13 (130.Annular Pressure-Control Line Swivel Sub When run in conjunction with the annular pressure-control line (APF-C) firing head. 101230619 Thread Size and Type in. Annulus pressure is transmitted from the packer. A section of control line is made up from the packer to the top of the swivel. A second section of control line is made up from the bottom of the swivel to the APF-C firing head. the APF-C swivel sub provides a swivel point between the guns and packer when it is desired to have the guns rotate freely as when orienting shots in a deviated well. (mm) 2 7/8 EU 8rd Box × Pin Maximum OD in. through the swivel to the firing head.39) *The APF-C swivel sub is not designed to operate with differential pressure.3 (0.

15) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 120.62 (117. Features and Benefits • Releasing the gun assembly opens the tubing for other tools such as production logging. APF-C Tubing Release (APF-C TR) Annular Pressure Control Line Tubing Release (APF-C TR) Specifications SAP No.03 mm EUE 8 Rd Pin) Makeup Length ft (m) 2.000 (758) 7-16 HAL10589 Ancillary Equipment . 87921 Upper Thread Size and Type 2 7/8 EUE 8 Rd Box (73. (mm) 4. annular pressure-control line tubing release assembly (APF-C TR) provides a mechanical method of releasing the APF-C firing head and VannGun® assembly from the tubing string.or 9 5/8-in. and treating • Low cost method to release gun assembly • Utilizes off-the-shelf shifting tools • No time limit on dropping the gun assembly • Leaves perforations uncovered and helps eliminate flow restriction Operation The APF-C TR is run between the APF-C firing head and the 7. The control line for the APF-C is attached to the control line housing.125 (53.03 mm EUE 8 Rd Box) Lower Thread Size and Type 2 7/8 EUE 8 Rd Pin (73.25 (57.000 (54 431) Burst Pressure psi (bar) 12. The second control line transfers the pressure down to the APF-C firing head.35) Minimum ID in. Releasing can be accomplished by the use of a standard Halliburton or Garret shifting tool.Annular Pressure-Control Line Tubing Release The 2 7/8-in.000 (827) Collapse Pressure psi (bar) 11.98).88 (47. or 2. 2. which transfers the pressure through the APF-C TR and out the finger sub to a second control line.68) Maximum OD in.24 (0. annulus pressure transfer reservoir (APTR). (mm) Latch Sizes – 1. testing.75).

000 (69) 1.26) 2.32) Makeup Length ft (m) 1. (mm) 2 3/8 (60.45) Flow Area in.000 (1240) 19.000 (1380) 15.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 3 1/2 (88.000 (550) 8. (mm) in. (mm) 3.000 (1310) 22.000 (1515) 17. dropping a special tube will open the vent and not fire the guns. uncovering the ports. The detonating bar continues downward to strike the firing head.40 (0.000 (1035) 15. and ID OD ID of Ports in. (mm) in.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 3/8 (60.06 (77.90) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin Maximum Minimum No. It is run between the packer and the guns.) Bar Pressure Vent (BPV) Bar Pressure Vent (BPV) Specifications Thread Size and Type in. 101201951 100155788 100010328 100155789 These ratings are guidelines only.000 (1655) 18. Ancillary Equipment 7-17 .40) 3.000 (69) 8.Bar Pressure Vent The bar pressure vent (BPV) is designed to achieve a differential pressure between the formation and tubing string.000 (1380) 22.30 (0.13 (28. it will pass through the tube and fire the guns. This action allows the pressure in the tubing to force the sleeve upward.000 (66 200) 160.48) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20.72) 3.000 (181 400) Burst Collapse Pressure Pressure psi (bars) psi (bars) 24.20) 3.0 (127. The BPV is activated when the detonating bar is dropped through the tubing and shears the hollow break plug.0) 1.2 (cm2) 1.98 (25.40) 1. The BPV is an internal sliding-sleeve tool actuated by pressure in the tubing. Operation The BPV consists of a ported housing and a sliding sleeve.57 (0.000 (1515) 20.77 (11.000 (550) 8.85) 4 @ 1. When the bar is dropped. For more information.15) 2.30 (0.000 (63 400) 146.40) 1. HAL10565 Features and Benefits • Offers an inexpensive way to create the necessary underbalance • Allows the hole to be totally contained at the wellhead before the surge • Allows the sleeve to lock in place once the port is opened • Can be run with any packer • Does not rely on tubing manipulation (Hydrostatic pressure in the tubing is the only force required.65) 5.000 (69) 1.50 (38.40) 4 @ 1.0 (25. If the vent must be opened before dropping the detonating bar. consult your local Halliburton representative.63 (92.000 (1240) SAP No.000 (72 500) 400.000 (1170) 18.70) 4 @ 1.75 (69.40) 4 @ 1.88 (98.0 (25.94 (38.000 (550) 8. A lock ring locks the sleeve open.000 (1035) Minimum Maximum Operating Differential Pressure Pressure psi (bars) psi (bars) 1.25 (57.90 (48.000 (550) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 140.75 (44. The sliding sleeve is isolated from the tubing pressure by a break plug with a hollow center.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.000 (69) 1.14 (20. This tool helps to safely allow a differential pressure in wells with existing open perforations or in unperforated wells.55) 5.10) 1.000 (1035) 15.27) 3.43) 1.

7-18 Ancillary Equipment HAL15451 .4) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 15.26 (0.55) Minimum ID in. This pressure then ruptures a disk in the lower housing of the BPVD.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin Maximum OD in. Features and Benefits • Does not require tubing hydrostatic pressure to operate • Can operate in highly deviated wells • Can be used in wells with low formation pressure • Eliminates nitrogen requirements • Helps allow maximum underbalance • Is compatible with several types of firing heads • Can provide reliable and accurate pressure response Operation To open the BPVD. 100155787 100014176 These ratings are guidelines only.000 (68 000) 170. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. The BPVD can be set to work before or after the perforating assembly is detonated.000 (69) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 150. For more information.000 (69) 1.4) 5 @ 1. Surface pressure applied to the annulus is transmitted through the APCA to a closed chamber below the BPVD and above a pressure-responsive firing head.38 (85.71) 2.88 (98. (mm) 4 @ 1.000 (1725) SAP No. consult your local Halliburton representative.000 (1725) 25.Below-Packer Vent Device The below-packer vent device (BPVD) was developed for use with the annulus-pressure crossover assembly (APCA).32 (0.0 (25.000 (1035) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 1. a predetermined annulus pressure is transmitted through the APCA to below the BPVD. HAL15450 Below-Packer Vent Below-Packer Vent Device (BPVD) Below-Packer Vent Device (BPVD) Specifications Thread Size and Type in.000 (1725) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 22. and ID of Ports in. (mm) Nonfull-bore Nonfull-bore Makeup Length ft (m) 2.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.0 (25.000 (1515) 25. This action establishes communication with the tubing string.000 (77 000) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 25.69) No.85) 3. (mm) 3. An actuating piston then forces the venting sleeve away from the production ports.000 (1035) 15.

Operation The maximum differential bar vent is held closed by a chamber of silicone fluid. the opening of the vent creates communication between the tubing and the rathole.0 (50.92 (25. Running the MDBV allows the operator to run the tubing in the well with no hydrostatic pressure in the tubing. The vent is opened by breaking the plug inside the tool and allowing the sleeve to uncover the ports.80) 2.2 (cm2) 3. the spring extends and opens the vent. (mm) 2 3/8 (60. (mm) 5 @ 1.000 (965) SAP No.81) Makeup Length ft (m) 2.20) 3. Once the break plug is broken. If the vent must be opened before dropping the detonating bar. (mm) 2.Maximum Differential Bar Vent The maximum differential bar vent (MDBV) assembly is run between the perforating guns and the packer.36 (92.70) 2. it will pass through the tube and fire the guns.45) Flow Area of Ports in.500 (1345) 19.29) 4. consult your local Halliburton representative.39 (0.58 (61.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 3 1/2 (88.13 (28.75 (0.15) 2.50 (114.7 (69.000 (100 200) 231. When the silicone fluid is released from the chamber.000 (895) 14.000 (965) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 16.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73. HAL15445 Features and Benefits • Operates with a minimum amount of fluid in the tubing • Helps allow maximum differential pressure when perforating in lowpressure formations • Does not depend on tubing hydrostatic pressure to operate • Assisted mechanically by an operating spring to help ensure full and complete opening • Can be used in wells with open perforations to achieve an underbalance when guns are fired to add new perforations Maximum Differential Bar Vent Maximum Differential Bar Vent (MDBV) Specifications Thread Size and Type in. If there is more than 1.0 (25.87) 9.95 bar) in the tubing regardless of rathole pressure.29 (0.000 psi (68.000 psi (68.95 bar) in the tubing. and ID of Ports in.85) No.84) Temperature Rating (Limited by silicone fluid) °F (°C) 350 (176) 350 (176) 350 (176) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 221.9) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin Maximum OD in. which keeps a spring compressed. After the packer is set.2 (57.55) 4. For more information. Ancillary Equipment 7-19 .000 (111 000) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 19. the silicone fluid drains into the tubing.500 (1135) 13.73) 2. (mm) 3.000 (1310) 14.75 (44. consider the bar pressure vent instead of the MDBV. and there is uncertainty about the rathole pressure.01 (27. 100005291 100005294 100156853 These ratings are guidelines only.88 (98. The MDBV will open with up to 1. When the bar is dropped.30) Minimum ID in. dropping a special tube will open the vent and not fire the guns.70) 4 @ 1.40) 4 @ 1.000 (104 700) 245.

Adding the fluid into the tubing causes the POV to open and creates the proper pressure differential before firing. Features and Benefits • Allows the vent to be opened without the guns being fired • Allows the packer to be tested before the guns are fired • Fills tubing automatically when run with Vann™ circulating valve Pressure-Operated Vent (POV) Pressure-Operated Vent (POV) Specifications Total Thread Size Maximum Minimum No. (mm) in. The amount of hydrostatic it takes to open the POV depends on how many shear pins are installed in the tool.000 (1515) 20. a sliding sleeve.75 4 @ 1. (mm) in.40) (20.40) (11.30 15.90) 5.50 4 @ 1.32) (0.85) (44.000 (1655) 18.000 (550) 8.000 (1310) 22.0 3.000 EUE 8 Rd (77.0 1.0) (69.000 1. When the pins shear.000 (550) 8. (mm) in.40) (0.27) (0. (mm) in.70) (25.000 (550) 8.57 15. The POV will open when the proper amount of hydrostatic pressure is applied to the shear pins.63 1.000 1. For more information.000 (66 200) 160.20) (48.000 (1380) 22. and a set of shear pins. 7-20 Ancillary Equipment HAL10538 .98 1. Nitrogen may also be used with or in place of the fluids to obtain the necessary hydrostatic pressure in the tubing.0 2. When the guns have been positioned and the packer has been set.000 100014177 EUE 8 Rd (92.48) (1035) (69) Box × Pin These ratings are guidelines only.000 (181 400) 24.Pressure-Operated Vent The pressure-operated vent (POV) is designed to achieve a differential pressure between the formation and tubing string and to provide a way to open the vent and test the packer before the guns are fired.000 1.77 1.2 (cm2) Makeup Length ft (m) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) Maximum Differential Pressure psi (bars) 8.88 2.25 4 @ 1. The pins are isolated from annular pressure and are only exposed to the tubing hydrostatic.000 1.03) 3.15) (28.26) (25.14 1.65) (0.90 4 @ 1.10) (25.40 15.75 5.000 100014178 EUE 8 Rd (98.33) 3.13 3. consult your local Halliburton representative.000 (1240) SAP No. which uncovers the flow ports. 101297298 2 3/8 (60.45) (38.000 (550) Tensile Burst Collapse Strength Pressure Pressure lb (kg) psi (bars) psi (bars) 140.000 10001479 EUE 8 Rd (127.06 1.40) (1035) (69) Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.94 1.40) (1380) (69) Box × Pin 2 3/8 (60.72) (38.000 (63 400) 146.43) (1035) (69) Box × Pin 3 1/2 (88.000 (1240) 19. the predetermined amount of fluid is added to the tubing. the hydrostatic pressure forces the sleeve upward.33) 3. and ID and Type OD ID of Ports Flow Area in. The sleeve is then locked into the open position.000 (1515) 17.55) (57.000 (1170) 18. The sleeve is held in the closed position by a variable number of shear pins. • Can be run with mechanical or pressure-actuated firing heads • Useful in highly deviated wells • Compatible with other packers Operation The POV consists of a ported housing.30 20.000 (72 500) 400.

2 (cm2) in.96 (0. After the fluid is displaced.000 (1035) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 1.60) 3.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin* Maximum OD in.38 (85.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.65 (188. (mm) 3.000 (1035) 15.000 (1250) 18.12 (53. forcing the sliding sleeve upward to cover the flow ports. and ID Flow Area of Ports Minimum ID of Ports in. a sliding sleeve.11) No.000 (1380) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 18.000 (1515) 20.99) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 15.85) 4.25 (0. Operating pressure can be pump-pressure applied after the VCV is at the bottom of the well or applied by hydrostatic pressure when the tool is run in the hole. HAL15447 Vann™ Circulating Valve (VCV) Vann™ Circulating Valve (VCV) Specifications Thread Size and Type in.000 (69) 1. the operator applies pressure to the tubing or annulus to rupture a disk and close the VCV.85) 4 @ 1.62) 2. (mm) 1. Once the disk ruptures. Ancillary Equipment 7-21 .0 (25.Vann™ Circulating Valve The Vann™ circulating valve (VCV) is designed to be used as a fill-up valve or as a circulating valve for displacing well fluids before setting a packer. (mm) 2 3/8 (60.71 (30.0 (25. consult your local Halliburton representative.39) Makeup Length ft (m) 1.14 (20. the hydrostatic pressure enters the lower air chamber through the ruptured disk.000 (1250) SAP No. For more information. The sliding sleeve. is open while the tool is run in the hole.26) 4.000 (102 000) 392. which must be ordered separately. which has two air chambers. The rupture disk is available for different pressure ratings as needed.4) 6 @ 1.4) 3. These ratings are guidelines only. and a rupture disk.000 (69) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 225. (mm) in.875 (47. The amount of hydrostatic pressure required to actuate the VCV depends on the rating of the rupture disk. Features and Benefits • Can be used as a circulating and shutoff valve • Often run with other venting or production devices • Economical and reusable Operation The VCV consists of a ported housing.000 (177 700) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 22. 101015372 120038456 *Optional connections are 2 7/8-IF and 3 1/2-IF.

Auto Release Firer. Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head Model II-D 3 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with 2 1/2 in. Auto Release with 2 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with Model II-D 4 1/2-in.Automatic Release The automatic release (AR) allows the perforating guns to drop immediately after firing. The releasing device is actuated by the pressure generated outside the perforating guns upon detonation. Auto Release Firer with 2 1/2 in. Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head 3 3/8-in. TDF 3 1/2-in. Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head Model II-D 3 3/8-in. Automatic Release (AR) Automatic Release (AR) Assemblies List SAP No. Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head 3 1/2-in. Auto Release-High Pressure with 2 1/2-in. The guns may be fired either mechanically or by pressure. Low Pressure with Model II-D 3 1/2-in. Auto Release-High Pressure with Mechanical Firing Head 3 3/8-in. TDF 7-22 HAL10512 Ancillary Equipment . Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head 2 3/4-in. Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head Model II-D 4 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with 2 1/2 in. so the guns are released as soon as they fire. Features and Benefits • Can be used with most mechanical and pressure-actuated firing heads • Allows for immediate release of the guns • Leaves the tubing fully open after the guns are released • Eliminates the need to run wireline to shift the guns • Reduces the chance of the gun’s sticking because of debris Operation The AR allows for dropping the perforating guns after they are fired. Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head Model II-D 3 3/8-in. TDF 4 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with 2 1/2 in. Auto Release with Mechanical Firing Head Model III-D 3 3/8 in. Auto Release Firer Low Pressure with Model II-D 4 1/2-in. TDF 3 3/8-in. TDF 3 3/8-in. 100005225 100005226 100005233 100005234 100155754 100005235 100014158 100010045 101313281 100005236 100156106 101205564 101294470 101313282 100155752 101294471 101213155 101357916 Description 2 3/4-in. TDF (3 1/2 NK3SB) 3 1/2-in.

Automatic Release (AR) Assemblies List
SAP No. 101313025 101310170 101313059 101357918 Description 5 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with Model II-D 5 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with Model II-D or III-D 5 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with 3 3/8 in. TDF 5 1/2-in. Auto Release Firer with 2 1/2 in. TDF

Automatic Release (AR) Specifications
Thread Size and Type in. (mm) 2 3/8 (60.33) EUE 8 Rd 2 3/8 (60.33) EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd 3 1/2 (88.90) EUE 8 Rd 3 1/2 (88.90) EUE 8 Rd 4 1/2 (114.30) OD Box Maximum OD in. (mm) 2.88 (73.15) 2.88 (73.15) 3.38 (85.85) 3.38 (85.85) 3.38 (85.85) 3.38 (85.85) 3.38 (85.85) 3.38 (85.85) 3.78 (96.01) 3.78 (96.01) 4.5 (114.30) ID After Release in. (mm) 2.125 (53.98) 2.125 (53.98) 2.72 (69.09) 2.72 (69.09) 2.72 (69.09) 2.72 (69.09) 2.52 (64.186) 2.52 (64.186) 2.99 (75.95) 2.99 (75.95) 3.67 (93.22) Makeup Length ft (m) 2.06 (0.63) 2.06 (0.63) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) 2.23 (0.68) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) 20,000 (1380) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bars) 1,500 (103) 1,500 (103) 1,500 (103) 1,500 (103) 1,500 (103) 1,500 (103) 500 (34) 500 (34) 1,500 (103) 1,500 (103) 1,500 (103) Maximum Differential Pressure psi (bars) 15,000 (1035) 15,000 (1035) 10,000 (690) 10,000 (690) 10,000 (690) 10,000 (690) 17,000 (1170) 17,000 (1170) 10,000 (690) 10,000 (690) 9,500 (655) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 49,500 (22 400) 49,500 (22 400) 68,000 (30 800) 68,000 (30 800) 68,000 (30 800) 68,000 (30 800) 68,000 (30 800) 68,000 (30 800) 68,000 (30 800) 68,000 (30 800) 115,000 (52 100)

SAP No. 100005225 100005226 100005233 100005234 100005235 100155754 100014158 100010045 100005236 100156106 100155752

These ratings are guidelines only. For more information, consult your local Halliburton representative.

Ancillary Equipment

7-23

Mechanical Tubing Release
The mechanical tubing release (MTR) provides operators with the option of keeping or releasing the VannGun® assembly from the tubing string. The MTR is usually run above the firing head and below the production ports below the packer. A standard shifting tool is used to operate the release mechanism in the MTR.

Operation
The MTR consists of three main components: the upper housing, a lower finger release sub, and a latch. The latch retains the finger release sub in the housing. To operate the MTR, the user must do the following: 1. Select the proper shifting tool and run it into the hole on slickline through the MTR. Pick back up to engage the latch and lightly jar the latch four or five times. Go back down to verify the release of the VannGun assembly.

Features and Benefits
• Frees the tubing for other tools and operations such as logging, production testing, and treating • Provides a low-cost way to release the gun assembly • Uses standard off-the-shelf shifting tools • Does not have a time limit on dropping the gun assembly • Leaves perforations uncovered to eliminate flow restrictions 2.

3.

Mechanical Tubing Release (MTR)

7-24

HAL15435

Ancillary Equipment

Mechanical Tubing Release (MTR) Specifications
SAP No. (without latch) Thread Size and Type in. (mm) Maximum OD in. (mm) Minimum ID (latch size) in. (mm) 1.50 (38.10) 2 3/8 (60.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 3.06 (77.22) 1.63 (41.40) 1.81 (45.97) 1.88 (47.75) 1.88 (47.75) 100005281 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 3.38 (85.85) 2.13 (53.98) 2.25 (57.15) 3 1/2 (88.9) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 5 (127) 15 lb (6.8 kg) New Vam Box × Pin 3.95 (100.33) 5.59 (142.01) 2.25 (57.15) 2.75 (69.85) 3.69 (93.68) 111,500 (50 576) 111,500 (50 576) 11,000 (760) 12,000 (825) 10,000 (690) 11,000 (760) 1.88 (0.57) 3.60 (1.10) 111,500 (50 576) 12,000 (825) 11,000 (760) 1.63 (0.50) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 111,500 (50 576) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 12,000 (825) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 10,000 (690) 1.50 (0.46) 111,500 (50 576) 12,000 (825) 11,000 (760) Makeup Length ft (m)

100005286

100005284

101236790

Mechanical Tubing Release (MTR) Shifting Tool and Key Number
Latch Size in. (m) 1.50 (38.10) 1.625 (41.28) 1.81 (45.97) Tool No. Key No. 42 B 108 42 B 0120 42 B 443 42 B 0121 42 B 0117 42 B 0237 42 B 0116 1.88 (47.75) 42 B 0117 42 B 0237 2.25 (57.15) 2.125 (53.98) 2.75 (69.85) 42 B 0118 42 B 0159 42 B 0147 42 B 80 42 B 37 42 B 681 42 B 153 42 B 37 42 B 681 42 B 287 42 B 46 42 B 387 42 B 348 Key Maximum Exp. OD in. (mm) 1.626 (42.275) 1.70 (43.18) 1.890 (48.006) 2.078 (52.781) 2.12 (53.85) 2.109 (53.569) 2.078 (52.781) 2.12 (53.85) 2.593 (65.862) 2.44 (61.98) 2.952 (74.981) Key Minimum OD in. (mm) 1.49 (37.85) 1.422 (36.119) 1.593 (40.462) 1.75 (44.45) 1.69 (42.93) 1.84 (46.74) 1.750 (44.45) 1.69 (42.93) 2.156 (54.762) 1.97 (50.04) 2.718 (69.037)

These ratings are guidelines only. For more information, consult your local Halliburton representative.

Ancillary Equipment

7-25

Pressure-Actuated Tubing Release
The pressure-actuated tubing release (PATR) is used to separate the guns from the toolstring when mechanical or slickline devices are not desirable. When separated, the guns drop off of the production tubing. Once the guns drop away, other tools and operations have no restrictions through the end of the tubing. In fact, the housing attached to the string has a greater ID than the tubing.

Features and Benefits
• Leaves the tubing string fully open • Ideal for use in remote areas where wireline is expensive or unavailable • Ideal for situations where wireline can cause a safety hazard • Provides access to the wellbore for production logging tools • Especially suited for releasing guns prior to stimulation treatments

Operation
The PATR consists of four main components: an upper housing, lower finger release sub, inner sleeve, and retaining latch. The PATR is pressure-balanced until the standing valve is dropped into the inner sleeve. Tubing pressure is applied to shear the retaining pins in the latch. Once the latch has been shifted, the finger release sub with the sleeve releases from the housing and drops the perforating assembly into the rathole.

HAL15442

Pressure-Actuated Tubing Release (PATR)

Standing Valve

Pressure-Actuated Tubing Release (PATR) Specifications
Thread Size and Type in. (mm) 2 3/8 (60.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 3 1/2 (88.9) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin Maximum OD in. (mm) 3.38 (85.85) 3.75 (95.25) 4.19 (106.43) Minimum ID Before Release in. (mm) 1.63 (41.40) 1.812 (46.02) 1.812 (46.02) Minimum ID After Release in. (mm) 2.31 (58.67) 2.828 (71.83) 3.5 (88.90) Standing Valve OD in. (mm) 1.76 (44.70) 1.86 (47.24) 1.86 (47.24) Makeup Length ft (m) 1.73 (0.53) 1.72 (0.52) 1.71 (0.52) Tensile Strength lb (kg) 90,000 (40 800) 120,000 (54 400) 130,000 (58 900) Burst Pressure psi (bars) 10,000 (670) 10,000 (670) 10,000 (670) Collapse Pressure psi (bars) 9,000 (620) 10,000 (670) 10,000 (670)

SAP No. 100156751 100156744 101015385

These ratings are guidelines only. For more information, consult your local Halliburton representative.

7-26

Ancillary Equipment

HAL10531

the DPU firing head activation sequence is stopped. When the DPU firing head rod contacts the pressure-assisted firing device. several parameters must be present.50 (64. a pin is sheared and perforating is activated.50-in. this type of perforating gun activation was run on tubing. 146DFH20 146DFH11 SAP No.66 OD DPU and 2. • Tool Movement: The DPU firing head has an accelerometer that detects tool movement. (mm) 3. The DPU firing head is run on slickline. For the DPU firing head to begin activation. • Downhole Temperature: The DPU firing head requires a precise surface-selected downhole temperature. If the accelerometer detects motion. • Pressure setting: The DPU firing head has a surfaceselected downhole pressure setting that must be met. DPU firing head can be converted to run either the Model II-D or the Model III-D pressure-assisted firing heads. the other operating parameters are inactive.DPU® Downhole Power Unit The DPU® downhole power unit firing head is an electromechanical device that is designed to produce a linear force that activates a pressure-assisted firing device. The pressure-assisted firing device was previously activated by dropping a device from the surface. DPU Power Rod Push Guide Model III Firing Head HAL15988 Fish Neck Pressure Temperature Switch Firing Head PC Board DPU® Downhole Power Unit DPU Power Rod ® Push Guide Model III Firing Head Adapter to Guns HAL15990 Adapter to Guns DPU® Downhole Power Unit Conversion Kits for DPU® Downhole Power Unit Assembly No.66 (93. Before the DPU firing head was used to activate the pressure-assisted firing device.50) Ancillary Equipment 7-27 . 00050531 00050462 Maximum OD in. Rod travel takes approximately 20 minutes before contracting the pressureassisted firing device. Any time the well pressure at the DPU firing head drops below the selected pressure setting. The 3. Any time the well temperature drops below the selected temperature setting. The pressure-assisted device fires the perforating guns. the DPU firing head activation sequence is stopped. After initial activation. the DPU firing head is activated and the rod begins to stroke out.96) 2. the DPU runs for 25 minutes and then turns off. If these four parameters are present. • Surface-Selected Timer: The DPU firing head has a surface-selected timer that is activated if the three previous parameters are present.

it can record and store downhole temperature and pressure data that can be used by the slickline specialists to program firing parameters. of Points (reading) yes yes 12k data sets yes (programmable) yes (programmable) yes (programmable) yes no yes yes Smart ETD® Tool HV Shooting Module Adapter Selectable Mechanical Pressure Switch Shock Absorber Detonator Sub/Explosives as required with STD 1 3/8-in. time (preset). and reliable method to run and fire downhole explosive tools using slickline.42) No-Blow. It is also capable of resisting detonation. and temperature (preset). pressure (preset).SmartETD® Advanced Electronic Triggering Device The SmartETD® tool is an advanced electronic triggering device that provides an accurate. The SmartETD tool can log memory settings for pressure and temperature readings up to 12k data sets. The SmartETD tool requires four parameters to be met prior to firing.93) 60 (1524) 300 (149) 15. After the SmartETD timer has remained motionless for a specific period of time and has simultaneously encountered the preset temperature and pressure windows. After the tool stops. GO™ Connection VannGun® Assembly SmartETD® Tool 7-28 Ancillary Equipment . (mm) Length in. With its built-in sensor and memory capabilities. The timing sequence begins when the tool is exposed to pressure.000 (103.690 (42. 146ETD14 Optional No-Blow No-Drop Assembly 1. safe. Pressure psi (bar) Top Shock/Centralizer Quick Lock Assembly Control Parameters Pressure Temperature Time Motion Tension Resist Detonation Capability HES RED® Capability Memory Logging Pressure Temperature No. HAL15398 SmartETD® Specifications Features 101038328 SAP No. No Drop Assembly Diameter in. as well as API RP-67-compliant devices. (mm) Max. it initiates the firing sequence. The SmartETD tool will fire the Halliburton rig environment RED® detonator. Temperature °F (°C) Max. any motion resets the electronic timer. These are motion.

A modular gun system is also available in which the perforating guns are loaded at the surface.Coiled Tubing Conveyed Perforating Conveying perforating guns to the zone of interest with coiled tubing has been effectively used for many years in a variety of applications. This method helps eliminate any gun length restrictions caused by the lubricator. Special features include an automaticrelease gun hanger. Correlation Tool Stack Ancillary Equipment 7-29 . Horizontal Well Perforating • Coiled tubing conveyed perforating could be deployed in horizontal portions of the well where conventional methods of perforating are impractical or impossible. avoiding damage to the coiled tubing. and stacked at the perforating zone. deployed downhole individually. Some of the applications include: Coiled Tubing Connector Swivel Back Pressure Valve Hydraulic Disconnect Swivel Circulating Valve Crossover Centralizer Back Pressure Valve Coiled Tubing Connector Perforating in Underbalanced Conditions • Underbalanced conditions occur when hydrostatic pressure in the well is lower than formation pressure. which helps clean the perforations and helps reduce nearwellbore damage.-6TTP Scalloped Guns Coiled Tubing Used as the Production String • The coiled tubing that conveys the perforating guns can also be used as the production tubing after well completion. HAL15399 Roller Centralizer Perforating Gun String *Pressure relief ports are added to the BHA for coiled tubing perforating jobs to help eliminate the possibility of a pressure increase due to thermal expansion in a closed chamber. which allows the coiled tubing to detach from the perforating guns before they are fired. Benefits include faster run-in times when compared to conventional methods. And the guns can be detonated either with wireline or a pressure-activated firing head. Battery Housing Memory Controller Pressure Casing Collar Locator (CCL) Gamma/Ray Temperature HAL15400 Hydraulic Disconnect Pressure Relief Ports* Coiled Tubing and Firing Head Crossover Firing Head with Circulating Ports 3 3/8-in. Perforation under these conditions allows increased flow from the formation.

Once the bar breaks through the disk. In mud systems or wells with a known debris problem.01 (76.20) Flow Area in. Operation The FDA consists of a ported housing with a glass disk installed in the ID across the lower set of ports.20 (106. This debris can be circulated off the disk. The FDA is run between the firing head and packer. it will be displaced out the ports by the detonating bar falling through it.0 (76.8) 14.21) 7-30 Ancillary Equipment .76 (0.68) Minimum ID in. the balanced isolation tool is recommended in place of the FDA. (mm) 3.000 (90 718) Makeup Length ft (m) 0. Any debris falling out of the tubing or fluid above the glass should land on the glass disk.54) 7.000 (68 039) 200. (mm) 2 3/8 (60.88 (50. Features and Benefits • Allows debris to be circulated off the glass disk through the flow ports above the glass disk • Acts as a perforated sub for circulating fluid displacement with nitrogen and swabbing • Can be run with either a mechanical or pressure-actuated firing head HAL8352 Fill Disk Assembly (FDA) Fill Disk Assembly (FDA) Specifications SAP No.Fill Disk Assembly The fill disk assembly (FDA) is used where either packer selection or well conditions preclude the use of a venting device.71 (0.15) 4. so pressure can equalize across the glass.22) 0.29) 2.45) 3.90) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin Maximum OD in. The disk is not sealed.51 (89. The recommended minimum distance from the FDA to the firing head is 30 ft.98) 3. or if it is not a large amount.23) 0.20) Number of Ports 8 8 8 Tensile Strength lb (kg) 120. it should fall in clean fluid all the way to the firing head. 100005295 100005297 100005299 Thread Size and Type in.28 (40.98 (50.69 (0. Pressure is equalized across the glass disk.000 (54 431) 150.44 (61.03) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 3 1/2 (88. (mm) 1.33) EUE 8 Rd Box × Pin 2 7/8 (73.² (cm²) 6. The FDA is used in place of a perforated sub and replaces the balanced isolation tool (BIT) in wells with reasonably clean fluids. The glass disk prevents debris from settling on the firing head.13 (91.

The delta-shaped or dual gun guide can be used when the casing ID is the same from top to bottom. If the casing at the top of the well is larger. then the wraparound guide must be used. Dual Hydraulic Set Packer Balanced Isolation Tool VannGun Assemblies Gun Guide VannGun Assemblies Gun Guide VannGun Assemblies Time-Delay Firing Head ® HAL10577 Dual Completion with Wraparound Gun Guide Permanent or Retrievable Packer Tubing Release Mechanical Firing Head HAL15395 VannGun Assemblies Time-Delay Firing Head HAL6190 Dual Completion with Gun Guides Dual Completion with Dual Gun Guide Ancillary Equipment 7-31 . Guides are available for most of the smaller size guns (3 3/8 in. The wraparound type may also be used in the wellbores with the same ID top to bottom. There are two types of gun guides. The gun orientation must be maintained so that the charges shoot away from the long string.73 mm and smaller) that are typically run on the short string side of a dual completion. or 85. Gun guides are also used with Y-blocks in dual-string and single-string completions.Gun Guides Gun guides were developed by Halliburton to maintain the proper orientation of guns attached to the short string in a dual completion.

the same power charge-type setting tools are used to set the hanger. The EZ Pass gun hanger is designed with a 2. the slips will return to the running position and the tool auto releases. Operation The EZ Pass gun hanger can be run independently or attached to the gun system. • Can be deployed on wireline. A releasing tool is needed to release the hanger and may be run on the bottom of the perforating assembly. If desired. or coiled tubing • One size sets in multiple casing ranges. HAL12794 EZ Pass™ Gun Hanger 7-32 Ancillary Equipment . the hanger can be fished with a standard pulling tool and retrieved from the well. This advanced design includes slips that stay retracted within the slip housing until the tool is set.EZ Pass™ Gun Hanger The EZ Pass™ gun hanger is designed to be run in conjunction with Halliburton’s Modular Gun System. This process allows the gun weight to be transferred to the inner mandrel. placing the hanger in the releasing position and forcing the slips away from the casing. After the perforating event. positioned. tubing. When activated.75 fishing neck and can be fished with a standard pulling tool. the releasing tool fires a shaped charge and breaches the top of the hanger. The slips will retract into the ID of the tool and helps allow it to be retrieved through a wellbore restriction. and then pressure would be applied to the wellbore to set the tool. No explosive components would be necessary for this operation. The assembly would be run in. After the setting tool is removed from the wellbore. Features and Benefits • Running and setting procedures are similar to common bridge plugs and sump packers—uses standard setting equipment • Can be set in larger ID after running through restrictions • Retrievable and redressable • May be configured to auto-release or stay set after gun detonation. If the gun hanger is run attached to the perforating assembly. the guns may be deployed as individual modules or as a complete assembly and are stacked on top of the hanger. it must be actuated using pressure. If the gun hanger is deployed and positioned similar to a wireline-set permanent or sump packer.

EZ Pass™ Gun Hanger Specifications
Tool Maximum OD (With Slips Retracted) in. (cm) 3.50 (8.89) 4.125 (10.5) 5.375 (13.65) Maximum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 18,000** (1241) 20,000** (1450) 20,000** (1450) Minimum Operating Pressure psi (bar) 500 (34.5) 500 (34.5) 500 (34.5) Overall Length (Maximum) ft (mm) 5.1 (1.55) 5.1 (1.55) 5.1 (1.55)

Casing Size and SAP No. 4 1/2 101320360 5 1/2 101315538 7 101321131

Casing Weights* lb 9.5 - 15.1 20 / 23 / 26 29 / 32 / 35

Range of Casing IDs* in. (cm) 4.09 - 3.826 (10.4 - 9.72) 4.778 - 4.548 (12.14 - 11.55) 6.184 - 6.004 (15.70 - 15.25)

Temperature Rating °F (°C) 400 (204.4) 400 (204.4) 400 (204.4)

Tensile Rating lb (kg) 74,000 (33 600) 74,000 (33 600) 74,000 (33 600)

Collapse Pressure psi (bar) 18,000 (1241) 20,000 (1450) 20,000 (1450)

Maximum Gun Weight lb (kg) 30,000 (13 600) 30,000 (13 600) 30,000 (13 600)

Weight lb (kg) 116 (52.6) 165 (74.8) 180 (81.7)

*Recommended **Maximum Operating Pressure based on hydrostatic pressure and applied gun weight. The EZ Pass hanger does not have minimum ID or Burst Pressure requirements. NOTE: The EZ Pass gun hanger is designed with specific features to enhance its retrievability; however, due to the uncertainty of the wellbore conditions created by the perforating event, the retrieval of this tool cannot be assured.

Ancillary Equipment

7-33

Hydraulic Metering Release Tool for the Single Trip System (STPP™-GH)
The hydraulic metering release tool is one component of the single trip system that allows us to perforate and frac-pack a zone of interest in a single trip. Numerous safety and economic benefits accompany this capability. These benefits become even more profound as well parameters become more severe. The ever-present goal is to reduce completion CAPEX and maximize net present value.

Plug

Features and Benefits
• Save rig time with reduced pipe trips for faster completions • Minimize fluid loss and formation damage • Minimize associated well control risks • Perforate under- or overbalanced • Perform the sand control option most suitable for your well (FP, HRWF, GP) • Complete deep, hot zones where fluid loss pills are not effective
Finger Release Silicone Fluid Floating Piston Metering Section

Stinger/Fishneck Shear Screws

Hydraulic Metering Release Tool

7-34

HAL15780

Ancillary Equipment

Hydraulic Metering Release Assembly (Low Temperature)
Upper Thread Size and Type Lower Thread Size and Type Overall Length in. (cm) Maximum OD in. (cm) Effective OD* in. (cm) 4.5 (11.43) 2 7/8 EU-RD N/A 45.47 (369.49) 4.5 (11.43) 5.5 (13.97) 7.5 (19.05) *Effective OD of the tool is dictated by the OD of the skirt to be used. **Maximum weight on gun hanger = gun weight + slackoff weight on hydraulic release tool. ***The tool is assembled with four shear screws of 3,400 lb each. 200 (93.33) 97,700 (44 315) 30,000 (13 607) 13,600 (6168) Yes 156.46 (70.96) Temperature Rating °F (°C) Tensile Rating lb (kg) Maximum Slack Off Weight on Tool lb (kg) Minimum Slack Off Weight on Tool lb (kg)

Redressable

Weight lb (kg)

Hydraulic Metering Release Assembly (High Temperature)
Upper Thread Size and Type Lower Thread Size and Type Overall Length in. (cm) Maximum OD in. (cm) Effective OD* in. (cm) 4.5 (11.43) 2 7/8 EU-RD N/A 45.47 (369.49) 4.5 (11.43) 5.5 (13.97) 7.5 (19.05) *Effective OD of the tool is dictated by the OD of the skirt to be used. **Maximum weight on gun hanger = gun weight + slackoff weight on hydraulic release tool. ***The tool is assembled with four shear screws of 3,400 lb each. 200-350 (93.33-148.88) 97,700 (44 315) 30,000 (13 607) 13,600 (6168) Yes 156.46 (70.96) Temperature Rating °F (°C) Tensile Rating lb (kg) Maximum Slack off Weight on Tool lb (kg) Minimum Slackoff Weight on Tool lb (kg)

Redressable

Weight lb (kg)

Ancillary Equipment

7-35

7-36

Ancillary Equipment

802 4.344 5.034 4.610 4.234.224.726.251 4.693.386 1.033 4.169.259.105.561 2.059 1.407 1.202.211 4.019 1.156 4.560 1.485 Patent Name Accelerated Downhole Pressure Testing Method for Controlling Subsurface Blowout Firing of Well Perforation Guns Bar Actuated Vent Assembly Releasable Coupling Perforating Gun Carrier and Method of Making Drill Stem Test and Perforating System Mechanically Initiated Tubing Conveyed Gravity Oriented Perforating Gun for Use In Well Completion Method and Apparatus Pressure Responsive Explosion Initiator with Time Delay and Method of Use Sidewall Core Gun Charge Holder Gun Firing Head Redundant Detonation Initiators for Use in Wells Borehole Devices Actuated by Fluid Pressure Annulus Pressure Firer Mechanism with Releasable Fluid Conduit Force Transmission Means Borehole Devices Disarmed by Fluid Pressure Tubing Conveyed Selective Fired Perforating Systems Differential Pressure Actuated Vent Assembly Firing of Well Perforation Guns Differential Pressure Actuated Vent Assembly Pressure Responsive Explosion Initiator with Time Delay and Method of Use Redundant Detonation Initiators for Use in Wells Shaped Charge Carrier Assembly Tubing Conveyed Perforating Assembly Safety Device Low Actuation Pressure Bar Vent Annulus Pressure Firer Mechanism with Releasable Fluid Conduit Force Transmission Means Annulus Pressure Operated Vent Assembly Automatic Drop-Off Device for Perforating Guns Control Line Differential Firing Head Method and Apparatus for Perforating Formation Collapsible Gun Assembly Method and Apparatus for Actuating a Tubing Conveyed Perforating Gun Firing Mechanism with Sliding Sleeve Vent Valve Firing Head For a Perforating Gun Assembly Dual Firing System For a Perforating Gun Variable Time Delay Firing Head Product Name Early Model 3D or 2D Pressure Op & Bar Vent Original TDF Redundant Firing Above & Original Shot Delay Signal.241.204.019 4.208. 1. EM Maximum Diff.911.759 4.189 4.214.228.732.544.053 1.194.201.836.109 4.224.570 1.905.771.314 4.201.827 4.062.139 1.034 4.040 1.917.042 1.Appendix Appendix United States Patents Patent No.655.969.138 4.516 1.558 1.901.379 1. Bar Vent APFC Release Device Annulus Pressure Operated Vent Automatic Release Redundant APFC Firing Head Y-Block Perforating Collapsible Gun Spacers Triple Actuated Mech Firing Pumping Well Bypass Assembly Multiaction Firing Head Dresser Redundant Ballistic Extended Delay Assembly Appendix 8-1 .233 4.211.235.632.525 5.196.007.269 1.201.780 1.004 2.673.259.376 1.576.614.058 1.

741 5.366.434.278 6.820.693 6.012.665 5.833 6.237.529.103.525 6.912 5.287.755 5.249 Patent Name Time Delay Perforating Apparatus Method and Apparatus for Completing Deviated and Horizontal Wellbores Well Completion Method and Apparatus Method and Apparatus for Disabling Detonation Eccentrically Actuated Perforating Guns Methods of Perforating and Testing Wells Using Coiled Tubing Tubing Conveyed Selective Fired Perforating Systems Air Chamber Actuator for a Perforating Gun Well Completion Method and Apparatus Methods of Perforating and Testing Wells Using Coiled Tubing Combined Pressure Testing and Selective Fired Perforating Systems Method and Apparatus for Perforating a Well Methods of Perforating a Well Using Coiled Tubing Apparatus for Releasing Perforating Gun Through Tubing Gun Hanger Apparatus and Method for Snubbing Tubing Conveyed Perforating Guns in and out of a Wellbore Bi-Directional Explosive Transfer Apparatus and Method Well Perforator Isolation Apparatus and Method Latch and Release Perforating Gun Connector and Method Latch and Release Tool Connector and Method Latch and Release Tool Connector and Method Firing Head with Metered Delay Latch and Release Perforating Gun Connector Method for Creating Leak-Tested Perforating Gun Assemblies Single Trip Perforating Gun Assembly and Method Collapsible Well Perforating Apparatus Pre-Drilled Casing Apparatus and Associated Methods for Completing a Subterranean Well Method and Apparatus for Adaptively Filtering Noise to Detect Downhole Events Positive Alignment Insert (PAI) With Embedded Explosive Orienting System for Modular Guns Adaptive Acoustic Channel Equalizer and Tuning Method-LICE Firing Head/Perforating Gun Latching System and Associated Methods Apparatus and Methods for Perforating a Subterranean Formation Internally Oriented Perforating Apparatus Detonation Transfer Subassembly and Method for Use of Same Bi-directional Explosive Transfer Subassembly and Method for Use of Same Apparatus for Absorbing a Shock and Method for Use of Same Electromagnetic Telemetry Actuated Firing System for Well Perforating Gun Apparatus and Method for Perforating a Subterranean Formation EDA between Guns Product Name Multizone Multi-Packer Y-Block Bottom Mounted Gun Hanger Detonation Interruption Device SPM Firing Head Perf & Test w/Coiled Tubing Select Fire System I Air-Chamber Actuation Firing PBR Monobore Gun Hanger Coiled Tubing Perfing Using Select Fire to Pressure Modular Gun System Running Guns w/Hanger on CT Dresser Auto-Release Through-Tubing Gun Hanger Ratchet Connector Bi-Directional Shooting Swivel Perf Gun w/Ratch Latch on Auto-Latch I Auto-Latch II SL Retrievable Hydraulic Delay Auto-Latch IV Gun Pressure Testing Method Collapsible Centralizer Collapsible Guns Pre-Drilled Casing Slickline Retrievable Mechanical Firing Head Use Propellant to Open Pre-Weakened Spots in the Casing String G-Force® Gun System Shearable Safety Sub Bi-Directional Knuckle Joint Shock Absorber with Shear Rings Telemetry Firing Head Expandable Casing with Expendable Plugs 8-2 Appendix .992.755.875 5.006.224.778.127 5.261 6.979 5.210 5.298.494.957.957 5.382 5.992.353.398.684.209 5.United States Patents Patent No.957 5.156.823.595.303.675.760 5.355.603.708.223.779 6.173.435.954 6.962 6.213 5.688 6.912 6.246.014 5.924 5.290 6.423.289 5.287.701. 5.266 5.078.772 5.379 5.084 6.295.915 6.458.896 6.761 6.301.196 5.523 6.545 5.

This technique involves pressuring the wellbore with nitrogen above the fracture gradient of the formation to initiate perforation breakdown and mild fracturing near the wellbore. leading to reduced injectivity or higher pressure drawdown for production. resulting in more efficient perforations. it may be necessary to perform some type of remedial step such as acidifying or fracturing to stimulate the near-wellbore area. • gather reservoir data including drawdown. How important is centralizing the guns when a gravel pack will be run? Extremely. effective permeability. How much does shooting out of scallop reduce performance? Testing on deep penetrating charges indicates a performance reduction of 10 to 15% depending on the charge and on gun size. The minimum underbalance can be estimated using Halliburton’s PerfPro® Process. casing can be perforated with phased shot densities up to 12 spf with a 0. there is no way to quantify the degree of loss without testing the specific charges under identical conditions.Frequently Asked Questions and Answers General Which is better—underbalanced or balanced perforating? It depends on completion objectives and well conditions. This method is especially effective when the reservoir pressure is insufficient to effectively surge the perforations clean. What volume should be flowed back after perforating? One gallon per perforation is often used as a guide for back flow volumes. hole without reducing crush resistance. Laboratory experiments and field observations have proven time and time again that when designed properly. Should the well be flowed after perforating? Yes. Appendix 8-3 . But. This fluid movement is what helps to remove crushed formation material and residual shaped charge debris. How much casing damage does perforating cause? Studies show that cemented 7-in. The concept of underbalanced perforating is to create a large pressure differential between the wellbore and the reservoir when the guns are fired to instantaneously move fluid through the newly created perforation tunnels. In some cases where balanced perforating is the only option. and 9 5/8-in. When proper underbalance pressure is not achieved. skin damage. Halliburton time and temperature charts are based on data from tests on explosives which performed at maximum levels after exposure to time and temperature. and productivity index. Your Halliburton representative can provide an analysis of the factors affecting your well. • collect reservoir examples for analysis. in order to: • remove perforation debris prior to gravel packing. the result can be perforations that are not cleaned up completely. either due to operational issues or lack sufficient formation pressure.76-in. Another alternative to underbalanced or balanced perforating is extreme overbalance perforating. The guns must be centralized to provide uniform hole sizes around the casing and to maximize charge performance. How is the optimum underbalance to yield clean perforations determined? The maximum underbalance without sand production can be estimated based on the density of the shales above and below the sand or on sonic travel time. Total flow area can be increased as much as 25% by centralizing the guns. in most cases. lower perforation skin is achieved through underbalanced perforating. How much performance is lost when charge time and temperature rating is exceeded? Charges begin to degrade immediately after time and temperature limits are exceeded.

Then. Halliburton’s FasTest® service can be used to analyze the data and produce reservoir pressure and permeability estimates. In tests. they have been found to be compatible in almost all configurations. usually without problems. Should 3 3/8-in. Halliburton normally includes a safety joint in the perforating string. It separates above the stuck packer allowing the accessory tools to be retrieved. Can the StimGun assembly be used in horizontal wells? Yes. A safety joint can also be run below the packer. What can be learned when gauges are run with the TCP string? If the well is perforated underbalanced and surged. It allows the accessory tools to be pulled. It is patented by Oryx and licensed by Halliburton. Halliburton’s policy is to recommend only gun sizes that can be washed over with standard washover pipe in any particular casing size. a process of Marathon Oil Company. The procedure has been very successful in horizontal wells. POWR*PERF is a service mark/trademark of Marathon Oil Company and licensed by Halliburton. PerfStim is a trademark of Oryx Energy Company. Maximum pull on the string and jarring usually frees the guns. is licensed by Halliburton. POWR*PERF. Then. StimGun sleeves.When should backup firing heads be included in the perforating string? Any time you want to minimize the risk of a misrun. and PYX. Then. provide the energy at the perforations so long intervals can be treated effectively. 8-4 Appendix . A chemical cut can be made in the tubing below the packer to retrieve the packer and accessory tools. on the other hand. How can stuck guns be retrieved? Several options are available. StimGun is a trademark of Marathon Oil Company and is licensed to Halliburton by Marathon. it usually has a 45 to 50% success rate. How compatible are Halliburton’s different types of explosives? Halliburton uses four standard explosive types—RDX. As a stand-alone stimulation tool. HNS. StimGun™ System FAQs How effective is the StimGun™ technique? The procedure usually has a 95% success ratio as a perforation breakdown tool. You can also spot a fluid loss pill across the formation after cycling the OMNI valve to its reversing position by applying annulus pressure. HMX. They are not practical treatments for long intervals. an overshot or spear and jars can be used to jar the packer and guns free. the entire system will have a time and temperature rating equivalent to the lowest rated explosive. Standard perforation breakdown treatments such as the POWR*PERFSM and PerfStim™ processes are limited by the amount of energy that can be delivered through the tubing. an overshot or a pin can be run in with jars. guns be run in 4 1/2-in. Include jars in the TCP workstring in areas where stuck guns are common. How can fluid loss be controlled when killing the well? Halliburton’s multi-position OMNI™ valve can be closed after perforating to hold completion fluids in the workstring. Any time more than one type of explosive is used in a system. an overshot/washpipe can be run so the fish can be washed over and retrieved. casing? Though this is done frequently.

Therefore. the recommendation is to run a StimGun retaining collar top/bottom of each 3 ft sleeve in addition to gun centralization. if the reservoir has good permeability and sufficient reservoir pressure. Otherwise. The service should not be considered as a stand-alone treatment in reservoirs with less than 2-md permeability. The StimGun sleeves are similar to PVC piping and are very brittle. When running the StimGun assembly. How much fluid should be run above the StimGun tool? The sleeves require 500 psi of hydrostatic pressure to ensure proper burn. and packers rated for at least 5. *PulsFrac is a trademark of John F. The Halliburton wellhead isolation tool protects topside equipment. The service also can develop data for pre-frac evaluations by fracturing the reservoir and producing fluid samples. Schatz Research and Consulting. not gas (nitrogen). The data and results can be valuable in future completion design work. It also is an excellent choice for reservoirs with adjacent water or gas zones. and strain data it records can be analyzed by the PulsFrac™ system and compared with the model’s preliminary output. should be used. What are the StimGun sleeve’s temperature limits? Standard sleeves can be used at temperatures to 250°F (52°C). The pressure. insufficient pressure is generated. What criteria are used to choose between an underbalanced TCP job and a POWR*PERF systems job? In general. acceleration. pop off valves to protect the annulus. enhancing the value of the data gathered. High-temperature sleeves can be used up to 360°F (182°C).Can the StimGunSM service be used with limited entry perforating? No. Can StimGun sleeves be used in acid? Yes. A Halliburton nitrogen pumper usually is the only pumping equipment required. Inc. it is necessary to protect the sleeves from being damaged. Appendix 8-5 . saving the costs of additional treatments. What are the primary applications for the POWR*PERF™ system? The system is excellent for cleaning up near-wellbore skin in low-pressure reservoirs with good permeability.000 psi differential. the data has shown that the reservoir is not viable. What can be learned by running the high-speed recorder? The recorder monitors the StimGun sleeve’s burn and pressure regime. In some cases. the well should be considered a POWR*PERF system candidate. it is a candidate for a natural (underbalanced) completion. Pressure can be held on the backside to reduce differential across the tubing. The system is not compatible with limited entry type perforating or 0° shot phasings. Shots can be oriented to the fracture plane. If information from offset wells and/or charts from Halliburton’s PerfPro® process brochure indicate reservoir pressures are not sufficient. standard oil country tubulars can be used. What sleeve sizes are available? Sleeves are available for all VannGun® tools. Is gun centralization important? Are special tubulars required? Yes. The sleeves are not acid reactive. What special equipment is required to run a POWR*PERF system job? Standard equipment for POWR*PERF system jobs includes Halliburton’s wellhead isolation tool. The POWR*PERF system was designed to be an integral part of the completion string. A minimum of 4 spf and at least 2 ft of perforations and a minimum of 3 ft of StimGun™ sleeve are required for a successful StimGun service. In the vast majority of cases. Fluid. No.

8-6 Appendix . For frac jobs in a number of wells. In tests at the velocities achieved in POWR*PERF service. What is the maximum interval length that can be effectively treated with the POWR*PERF process? The practical limit at this time seems to be 60 to 70 ft. a 1:1 ratio is sufficient. Jobs can be run with clear fluids instead of drilling fluids. However. and reduced horsepower requirements. What fluid velocities are produced during a POWR*PERF treatment? Fluid velocities of 3. aiding in dislodging debris from lowpressure reservoirs. which can create costly disposal problems. Why is sintered bauxite used? Bauxite offers excellent erosive qualities and high density. Marathon studies show that friction losses become excessive with higher fluid levels. The fluid can be acid. What ratio of POWR*PERF carrier to perforated interval should be used? For the smaller 3 1/8-in. The 6 spf increases flow area to the wellbore while 60° phasing aligns more perforations with natural frac planes. this minimum configuration eliminated tortuosity. lower sections of longer intervals do not benefit due to large pressure drops. More is better whenever possible with this process. Should Deep Penetrating or Big Hole charges be used? Halliburton recommends Deep Penetrating (DP) charges at this time. For 4-in. What is the minimum shot density and phasing for POWR*PERF system jobs? The POWR*PERF service requires a minimum of 6 spf and 60° phasing. This gradient helps overcome frictional losses and helps rectify frac gradient miscalculations. or any fluid that is compatible with the formation. The system can be configured to isolate the rathole from firing pressure when required. What cement retainer is used? The system includes Halliburton’s field-proven cement retainer EZ Drill® SVB Packer (EZSVB). a 2:1 ratio should be used. Halliburton often recommends pumping one tubing volume of nitrogen after the guns fire to energize the formation. According to industry studies. shearsleeve firing head.4 psi/ft— regardless of the reservoir’s frac gradient. frac sand shatters at the formation face. screenouts. DrillGun™ FAQs What advantages does the drillable gun system offer? The system eliminates a wireline perforating trip during squeeze cementing operations. What materials are used in the gun’s construction? The gun and firing head are made entirely of aluminum. Results from several jobs using Big Hole (BH) charges were unsatisfactory. brine. and 4 1/2-in. The squeeze-perforating DrillGun™ tool and cement retainer are run in a single trip. The POWR*PERF process does not require additional pumping. The gun’s design incorporates a pressure-activated. produced fluids.. which inhibit fluid injection and may not be desirable for Extreme Overbalance. which is very easy to drill.000 ft/sec and flow rates equivalent to 140 bbl/min per perforation occur at the moment of detonation. Studies indicate that BH charges may create more fines. OD carriers. Marathon studies show that pressure gradients of 100% to 200% over the frac gradient produce the best results. and 3 3/8-in. This system also allows squeeze cementing in underbalanced conditions. The pressure gradient should be a minimum of 1.What rules of thumb can be used in designing a POWR*PERF™ system job? A fluid column of no more than 300 ft should be run in the tubing above the POWR*PERF™ guns. All fluid in the tubing evacuates in less than 5 seconds. OD carriers. etc.

Does the AutoLatch Connector need to be centralized in the BOP stack? Yes. What inserts work best in the seal/slip rams with the ratchet gun connector? Stewart-Stevenson inserts with straight slips work well. and then. the Christmas tree’s high shear ram can be closed. The only requirement is that the spacing between the BOP rams fit the linear dimensions of the connector. and the connection is tested. extreme care must be taken when running pressure-actuated firing heads. What if a gun section will not break out? If the optional backup release sub is included in the string. Close and test the lower pipe ram.AutoLatch™ Gun Connector FAQs Are special BOPs required for the AutoLatch™ Connector? No. What if the BOP leaks? If the connection has not already been made and if the leak is not dramatic. The running tool must also be centralized in the BOP stack. rotating to the right will back off the sub. an overshot can be run.000 ft/lb. if the situation requires. In an emergency. connect with the short-catch overshot and lower the guns below the Christmas tree. Then. spacer spools can be inserted between the BOP rams. it cannot be determined if all explosive materials have been detonated until the gun is out of the hole. but gun sections can continue to be retrieved under pressure. However. Once it latches. the string is pulled up to the next seal sub in the seal-slip. How much right-hand torque can be applied to break out a gun section? Maximum torque is limited by the guns to 6. We have deployed single 22-ft gun sections and sections of up to three 22-ft guns. If required. What section lengths can be run? It depends on the equipment available to build the riser section. Appendix 8-7 . contingency procedures are followed. What if multiple sealed initiators begin to leak? Simply continue retrieving gun sections using the shortcatch overshot. If the leak is serious. Well pressures and well return must be constantly monitored. repair the leaking ram. How is a gun broken out should the sealed initiator develop a leak? A short-catch overshot and grapple is used. Can pressure-actuated firing heads be used or should only ball drop firing heads be used? Either type firing head can be used. The BOP rams must close equally on the seal area of the stinger in order for the retrieving tool to properly latch to the top of the stinger. can the BOP shear rams be closed on the gun? No. The procedure does require more time. never close the shear rams on guns. Even when the guns have been fired. However.

8-8 Appendix .

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