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EML4930: Senior Design 1

Electric Motorcycle Design


Deliverable 3: Product Specification and Project Plan

Due Date: February 9th 2010


Date Submitted: February 9th 2010

Group Members
Broderick Epperson
Michael Franck
Michael Grgas
Ryan Thor
Table of Contents

Introduction..............................................................................................3
Product Specifications.............................................................................3
Components.............................................................................................3
Motor........................................................................................................3
Battery Stack............................................................................................4
Motor Controller......................................................................................6
Charger.....................................................................................................6
Cost Breakdown.......................................................................................7
Conclusion...............................................................................................8

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I. Introduction
The purpose of this project is to design and build a small electric motorcycle. Upon
completion, the motorcycle must be able to travel for five miles on a single charge, as
well as recharge its batteries in less than eight hours. It must also reach a minimum top
speed of twenty-five miles per hour on level ground. The goal is to build a more
environmentally friendly version of the same internal combustion engine motorcycle for
less than 1500 dollars.

II. Product Specifications


In order to meet the goals listed above, power consumption of the vehicle needed to be
determined. From [1], the total tractive power for accelerating a vehicle from rest to some
final velocity equation was used.

δM v 2 2 2 1 3
Pt  ⎛ V  Vb ⎞  M v g frVf  ρaCd A f Vf
2t a ⎝ f ⎠ 3 5

Equation 1: Total Tractive Power

The equation takes into account the vehicle mass factor δ, which is estimated at 1.0425 [1].
Mass of the motorcycle alone is approximately 75 kg, and rider weight is 80 kg.
Combined, these make up total motorcycle weight Mv. An acceptable acceleration time
(ta) of 10 seconds was chosen to reach the top speed. Final velocity (V f) is 25 mph (11.17
m/s), while initial velocity (Vb) is 0 mph. For motorcycles with properly inflated tires, the
coefficient of rolling resistance (fr) is approximately 0.0055. Air density (ra) is 1.2 kg/m3
for standard atmospheric conditions. The drag coefficient (Cd) for the motorcycle was
estimated at 0.95 [1]. Frontal area of the motorcycle (Af) was measured. A 6’1” tall rider,
seated upright on the motorcycle displaces a frontal area of 0.445 m^2.

Tractive power was calculated to be 1.212 kW or 1.62 hp. After estimating for a 25% loss
of efficiency from the battery stack, motor, driveline and control electronics; the final
necessary tractive power was found to be 1.515 kW or 2.03 hp.
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Pt  1.212  10 W

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Pt 1.25  1.515  10 W

III. Components
i. Motor
Several motors were found that meet the power requirements listed above. A decision
matrix was use to narrow motor selection to option one, a General Electric motor, model
number 5KCR49RN2042Y. An obvious winner, due to its superior power to weight ratio,
competitive price, and compact packaging.

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Max Voltage Current Wt. Price Dimensions
Manufacturer Model Hp
RPM (V) (A) lbs $ LxWxH
183.3 11.1 x 4.88
1. GE 5KCR49RN2042Y 2 3450 115/130 34
8 x7
2. Leeson 116512 2 3450 115-230 179 n.a.
208- 14.1x 7.5 x
3. WWEM WWE2-18-145T 2 1800 2.7 142
230/460 n.a
21.2- 347.7
4. Leeson 5KC48TN2169 2 3450 115/230 39 n/a
10.6 2
391.3 14.1x 7.5 x
5. Leeson 5KCR49WN0270 2 1725 115/230 45
5 n.a.
269.9 14.1x 7.5 x
6. Leeson 5BC58JBS6341 2 1750 208/230 5.8 39
9 n.a.
Table 1: Available Electric Motors

Row Normalized
Criteria Power Weight Dimension Price
Total Weight
Power n.a. 1 1 1 3 0.5
Weight 0 n.a. 1 1 2 0.3
Dimension 0 0 n.a. 1 1 0.2
Price 0 0 0 n.a. 0 0.0
Table 2: Normalized Weights of Motor Qualities

Table 3: Motor Decision Matrix


Overall
Model Power Weight Dimension Price
Weight
1 5 5 3 4 4.7
2 5 0 0 5 2.5
3 5 0 1 5 2.7
4 5 3 0 2 3.5
5 5 1 1 1 3.0
6 5 3 1 3 3.7

ii. Battery Stack


Battery selection is based on a number of factors including (in order of importance)
voltage, current rating, cost, weight, and geometry. From theoretical calculations it was
determined that in order to meet the customers expectations, a battery of at least 48 volts
and 32 amp-hours will be required to provide the proper power and current to the motor.
Due to budget limitations, lead acid batteries are the only realistic option for a power
source. Though heavy and bulky, they are capable of providing the performance
necessary to meet the objectives. Ideally, a smaller, more efficient power source such as

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nickel cadmium, nickel metal hydride, or lithium-ion batteries would have been selected,
but the cost of doing so would have been well over budget. After narrowing the selection
to lead acid batteries with current ratings between 50 and 32 amp-hours, a nominal amp-
hour rating was decided on. The decision was based on the amount of time that will be
required to charge the batteries as well as the total weight of the batteries. Explained in
the chargers section, a 6 amp 48 volt charger was selected. In order to charge a 51 amp-
hour rated battery with a 6 amp charger would require 8.5 hours. Higher amp-hour rated
batteries require more cells and are in turn bulkier and weigh substantially more. To
reduce charge time and decrease total weight, a 32 amp-hour rated battery was selected
yielding a charge time of 5.3 hours and weight of 104lbs. Because these bulky batteries
have to be mounted to a motorcycle frame with a limited capacity, the battery’s geometry
should also be taken into account. The battery configuration chosen consumes a net
volume of 266 cubic inches which is the least when compared with the other batteries. A
battery box will be designed to weatherproof the system. The configuration shall be
placed on the bike so as not to hinder the riders comfort while operating the vehicle.

Table 4: Available Battery Options

Product Price/ Net Wt


Supplier Qty V A-Hr Dimensions Total Price
# Unit (lbs.)

12V34T4 7.76 x 5.16


4 12 34 $96.85 116 $319.80
1. ABS 2
LT x 6.14

SLA- 7.63 x 5.13


4 12 35 $59.95 120 $239.80
2. ABS2 12V35 x 6.5

12V45T4 7.80 x 6.54


4 12 45 $108.95 133.2 $435.80
3. ABS 2
LT x 6.73

4. Bty. GEL-8G- 9.375 x 5.5


4 12 51 $122.95 160 $491.80
Mart3 22NF x 9.25

8.313 x 5.13
5. Bty. GEL-8G- 4 12 32 $73.95 104 $295.80
x 7.25
Mart3 01

Table 5: Normalized Weights of Battery Qualities


Amp- Row Normalized
Criteria Weight Voltage Dimensions Price
hours Total Weight
Weight n.a. 0 0 1 1 2 0.2
Amp-hours 1 n.a. 0 1 1 3 0.3
Voltage 1 1 n.a. 1 1 4 0.4
Dimensions 0 0 0 n.a. 0 0 0
Price 0 0 0 1 n.a. 1 0.1

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Table 6: Battery Decision Matrix
Amp- Row Weighted
Model Weight Voltage Dimensions Price
hours Total Total
1 4 3 5 3 3 18 4
2 3 3 5 3 4 18 3.9
3 2 4 5 2 1 14 3.7
4 1 5 5 2 1 14 3.8
5 5 3 5 3 4 20 4.3

iii. Motor Controller


Due to the modest power requirements of the project, a small AC motor controller was
selected from Curtis Instruments; model number 1236-53, which operates between 36-48
volts and 350 amps. The team is waiting to hear back from the manufacturer for a price
quote.

iv. Battery Charger


The previous battery charger used to recharge the motorcycle proved to be insufficient
and will not recharge the batteries within eight hours. It was a twelve volt, variable
amperage charger and required each of the four batteries to be recharged individually.
The team must acquire a forty-eight volt battery charger that can provide enough amps to
achieve a quick and sufficient recharge. A lightweight charger will be ideal. Space is
limited on the motorcycle; the charger will most likely be placed in a small area behind
the rider. Compared to the rest of the motor and battery stack, the weight of the charger
was a low priority. Due to the limited budget, a compromise between power and
dimensions was sought out. After careful consideration, the best possible choice for the
battery charger that meets all the client’s needs is the Soniel 48V, 6A constant current
charger. The Soneil unit will take approximately 5.3 hours to recharge the batteries from
a completely drained state. Draining the batteries to less than thirty percent of a full
charge is not recommended as it can cause permanent damage. The only drawback of the
Soneil battery charger is that it can only operate at constant current, which infers that the
current does not change during charging applications. While under these constraints the
batteries can not recharge faster than 5.3 hours.

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Table 7: Available Battery Chargers

Charge
Model Price Dimensions Weight
Manufacturer Amps Time Vendor
Number $ (L x W x H) (lbs)
(hrs)

Son4808 Batterystuf 6.9" x 3.7" x


1. Soniel 3.5 9.1 149 1.7
SRF f.com 1.9"

INTLS48 Batterystuf 6" x 6.5" x


2. Leneage 5 6.4 169 13
5 f.com 5.25"

SON481 Batterystuf 8.5" x 4.25"


3. Soniel 6 5.3 159 2
2SR f.com x 2.25"
JAC1548
Batterystuf 11.25" x 7.0"
4. Schauer H0891- 15 2.1 309 11
f.com x 6.375"
112
Batterystuf
5. Dual Pro E4815 18 1.7 386 8" x 7" x 8" 29
f.com

Table 8: Normalized Weights of Charger Qualities


Row Normalized
Criteria Charge Time Dimensions Price Weight
Total Weights
Charge
n.a. 1 1 1 3 0.5
Time
Dimensions 0 n.a. 1 1 2 0.333
Price 0 0 n.a. 1 1 0.167
Weight 0 0 0 n.a. 0 0

Table 9: Battery Charger Decision Matrix


Charge Overall
Models Price Dimensions Weight
Time Weight
1 1 5 4 5 2.667
2 2 3 3 3 2.501
3 3 4 5 4 3.833
4 5 1 1 2 3.000
5 5 1 1 1 3.000

Cost Breakdown
Item Quantity Total Cost
Batteries 4 295.80
Motor 1 183.38
Charger 1 159.00
Controller 1 *
Total: 638.18
*Awaiting price quote from manufacturer

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Conclusion
After weighing the available options, and selecting the best components for the specified
customer’s needs, the team is pleased with the initial cost structure and is well below
budget. This document is pending review by the team’s technical advisor, Bruce Thigpen.

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Appendix
Frontal Area of Motorcycle (Af):

Tractive power equation for 25 mph:

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δ 1.0425
kg
ρa 1.2
M v 155kg 3
m
t a 10s
Cd 0.95
m
Vf 11.17
s 2
A f 0.445m
m
Vb 0
s m
g  9.807
2
fr 0.0055 s

δM v 2 2 2 1 3
Pt  ⎛ V  Vb ⎞  M v g frVf  ρaCd A f Vf
2t a ⎝ f ⎠ 3 5

3
Pt  1.212  10 W

3
Pt 1.25  1.515  10 W

Tractive power equation for 15 mph:


m
Vf2 6.7
s
δM v 2 2 2 1 3
Pt2  ⎛ V  Vb ⎞  M v g frVf2  ρaCd A f Vf2
2t a ⎝ f2 ⎠ 3 5

Pt2  430.541W

Pt21.25  538.176W

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Works Cited

1. Ehsani, Mehrdad, Yimin Gao, Sebastien E. Gay, Ali Emadi. Modern Electric, Hybrid
Electric, and Fuel Cell Vehicles. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2005

2. BatteryMart.com. 8 February 2010 <http://www.batterymart.com/>.

3. Advanced Battery Systems, LLC. 8 February 2010


<http://www.advancedbattery.com/>
4. Emotors Online.8 February 2010
<http://www.e-motorsonline.com>

5. Electric motor superstore 8 February 2010


<www.emotorstore.com/>

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