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Ppole005@uottawa.ca 3/30/2010 Martina Taverna 5714907

and Asia. the David Ben Guiron declared the state of Israel within the Palestinian borders. The land has been ruled by some of the most powerful empires. Houses are routinely demolished in order to make more room for the neighbouring Israelis. and on May 14 1948. Today Palestine is the centre for the one of the largest international conflicts. some will only indicate ³Occupied Palestine´. 2001) Mass immigration had already begun to the Israeli declared lands. It was once one of the richest Middle Eastern countries. Armies from . However. Following WWII England had decided to give the country its right to rule.Palestine has a very lengthy and rich history. Immediately the members of the Arab league launched an attack by entering into the allotted Arab land that was agreed upon in the partition plan by United Nations. Most maps do not place Palestine as a country. and one of the most dangerous hot zones in the world. There is no government. After dark the city comes alive with Hamas activity and young teens writing graffiti to rally more militants. and therefore no passports to allow movement from one country to another. It is the birthplace of Judaism. but impossible to have an identity outside the country. (Bell. The fight for the holy land began centuries ago. and Islam. there began a Zionist movement to allow for a solely Jewish country with its own right to govern itself. The debate over Palestine thus ensued. As documented in the film ³Death in Gaza´ it is apparent the psychological struggles that are faced daily by children and teens within the remaining Palestine. but this paper will focus on the warfare since the creation of Israel and the current occupation of a beautiful land once known as Palestine. Not only is it difficult to live within. Walls are built in order to keep Arabs contained. following the mass Genocide of millions of Jews. and a huge trade centre for cargo coming from Africa. On May 14 1948 the British mandate was terminated. Christianity. The life of a Palestinian is not an easy one. Europe. Palestine was occupied by the British Mandate from 1920-1948.

³The Arab League Secretary General Abdul Razzek Azzam Pasha declared the intent to rage a war of extermination and momentous massacre´. The conflict began on the night of October 12. the economics of Palestine are futile. (Butler. (Bell. 1953 when an Arab terrorist entered Israel by crossing the Jordan border and lobbed a grenade into a sleeping Jewish family`s home. The Arab League had an estimated population 40 million. 2009) At this point. 2009) Palestine had become an area of humanitarian crisis. Jordan. Egypt hoped to gain more territory on the West and South banks of Palestine. Each country had their own agenda for the outcome of the war. and Gaza was unable to keep up with the swelling population. and the influx of refugees into the Gaza strip made it impossible for Palestine to thrive. meanwhile the newly created state had only 600 thousand. killing the mother and two children. (Morris. and operation Qibya was born. (Butler. Transjordan was even willing to accept the Jewish state in return for territorial gains on the Eastern front of Palestine. 1996) Immediately the Israelis decided to take action. 1994) The battle was thought to be over before it had started. 2001) Numerous ceasefires were initiated and broken as the war raged on throughout 1948. (Tessler. 1953 Israeli regular military . Le#1banon. February 24. One main downfall of the Arab armies was the lack of unity between commanders. Almost 80% of jobs were lost following the war. The fertile lands had been seized by the new state of Israel. Syria. 2001) There are many plausible reasons that such a strong force could have been defeated so easily. (Bell. one of the most brutal massacres led by the Israeli army. 1949 Egypt signs an armistice agreement with Israel. Fighting and border raids continued in the following years after Israel`s independence. and also allows for Israeli gains. On the night of October 14th. This agreement places the Gaza Strip under Egypt¶s rule. However. and Iraq joined forces to eliminate the Jewish enemy. fighting escalated in 1953.Egypt.

The Arab League. the Palestine Liberation Organization was designated the ³The sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. With much territorial gains. at the seventh Arab Summit conference. and demolishing homes in a systematic fashion. The Suez Crisis was over in a matter of 10 days. gaining territory on all sides.200 Palestinians before withdrawing from the Gaza Strip´. (Morris B. and the town mosque and school ruined. On October 29th 1956 the Suez war is launched with France and Israel crossing into the Sinai to take control of the dam. establishes the Palestine Liberation Organization to mainly oversee the resurgence of Palestinian nationalism. 2009) In 1964 a very crucial organization was created to aid in the fight for Palestine. 2009) One faction of the PLO was an army. 2001) The war was quickly over with Israel the victor. shooting and killing inhabitants. However. 1967. stationed in Gaza with headquarters in Cairo. Israel continued its occupation of the Gaza strip for four months while launching a ³screening´ operation in search of terrorist Palestinians. killed. The initial belief was that the PLO was a terrorist organization. also came a . . mostly women and children. 1996) This began the retaliation directed towards Israeli army and police.´ (Madfai. (Butler. 2009) The PLO used military training and set up recruitment camps across Gaza to target young oppressed citizens desperate to make a change. in 1974. Israel once again occupied Gaza and West Bank. ³In all. (Bell. (Butler. the IDF (Israeli Defence Force) is estimated to have killed between 930 and 1. Syria and Jordan. 1993) On June 5th. (Morris B. . (Butler.surrounded and cordoned possible. Israel launched the Six Day War against Egypt. with the encouragement of Egyptian President Abdel Nasser. however. The devastation was 45 homes destroyed. over sixty villagers. 1993) Militants entered homes. Israel moved troops into the Gaza strip in order to aid in the war efforts.

Extremist organizations became more popular in the fight for independent government against the occupying state. 11. 2009) The occupation was dubbed the Palestinian Exodus as Israel swept through the Gaza strip and West Bank.refugee problem. and 116. Israel began to incorporate Palestine into its economics. (McDowall. marches on government offices. 1970) By December. approximately 245. 2009) Living Standards improved for Palestinians as Israel worked to incorporate the occupied terriyories. There was an immediate elimination of Egypt¶s bureaucratic jobs. (United Nations. The United Nations Special Committee heard allegations of over 400 villages being demolished during the occupation. Israel began a policy of economic integration which allowed Palestinians to work in the Israeli markets and provided cheap goods to Palestine.000 Palestinians and Syrians had fled the northern Golan Heights further into Syria. the loss of an export market to Egypt. In order to create security and to lessen the population. 2009) Economically. Palestine experienced soaring unemployment when a defeated Egyptian army was forced to leave the Strip. However. rounding up thousands of people to deport to Egypt. teacher protests against curriculum changes. and the decline in Egyptian tourist revenues. (Butler. 1989) ³The imposition of Israeli rule was met by student demonstrations. (Butler. 2009) After fighting settled. Israel was not equipped to deal with the swelling population. (Butler. .000 had fled from Gaza to Egypt. and the boycott of Israeli goods. Israel also integrated Gaza¶s water supply and hooked up the Strip to the national electricity grid. lawyers¶ boycotts of the military courts. Israel conducted mass sweeps to evict refugees and threats from the Palestinian Liberation Army members.´ (Butler.000 refugees had fled from Gaza and West Bank into Jordan. many radical nationalist were not happy with the overall acceptance of Israeli control.

and the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel. 1994) Sadly all hostages and gun men were killed in a show-down on the tarmac where hostage exchanges were to take place. Menachem Begin. They demanded the release of 200 prisoners Arab prisoners. Unfortunately Abdel Nasser died during the talks which nullified any agreements which had been earlier agreed upon. Anwar el Sadat. the King declared martial law. Abdel Nasser and other Arab representatives were meeting in Cairo. In 1978 a peace agreement was outlined to allow for more leeway for Palestine. Hussein. (Tessler. (Shlaim. Jimmy Carter. Germany killing 2 and taking 9 Israeli Olympic athletes hostage. and Israeli Prime Minister. In the meantime. Syria attempted to end the conflict and restore peace with little avail. Egyptian President.Palestine experienced a devastating blow in 1970 by Jordan. 2007) King Hussein finally agreed to treat both Jordanians and Palestinians as equals and to allow for the PLO to continue its operations within the state. 2007) The PLO had been granted somewhat of a diplomatic immunity inside Jordan which undermined the Jordanians. After 12 days of secret meetings between United States President. which later fuelled an extremist group with the same name who were responsible for the Munich attacks. Palestinian Guerrillas entered the Olympic Village in Munich. . Perhaps that is the cause of such a drastic policy to rid Jordan of the refugees. two peace agreements. 1990) Jimmy Carter called for the removal of Israel from the occupied states. 1970. The Framework for Peace in the Middle East. On September 16. (Shlaim. The deportation and exile of Palestinians continued until the end 1971. and the creation of a separate Palestinian entity. and immediately sent tanks to destroy known Palestinian Liberation Army camps and force refugees into Lebanon. launched an attack to eliminate Palestinian forces attempting to overthrow his Monarchy. The regretful events were called Black September. but not a separate state. The Hashemite King of Jordan. (Lenczowski. Hussein. On September 5th 1972. (Lenczowski.

Eventually policies were changed to allow for less force to be used against rioters and more preventative measures to be taken. (Mikel. (Tessler. (Mikel. 1994) The change allowed for the states to be more accepting and to even allow for negotiations to occur between them. grenades and hand guns. 2009) Intifada has been translated to mean uprising. Al-Aqsa. for before their policy was that the PLO should be treated as terrorists. . Molotov cocktails. But by 2000. 2003) The agreement led to a time of relative peace within the country as Palestine was finally given their rights. 2004) The demonstrations were low-grade and began within refugee camps.1990) Israel agreed to remove its army from Palestine and to allow for a small autonomous governing system in the territory. or the second Intifada began which has yet to officially end. The tactics used were rock throwing. yet in practicality there was little change. In theory Palestine was to receive more control. The United States and Israel both changed their stance on the PLO. (Butler. Later that year there were massive protests condemning the Camp David Accords and calling for new talks which would include the Palestine Liberation Organization. The first intifada refers to the years between 1987 and 1993 when local Palestinians revolted against Israeli forces. This led to the Madrid Conference in 1991 which allowed Palestine much more influence. talks at Camp David with Prime Minister Ehud Barak of Israel had dissolved and Palestinians were again growing wary. In 1993 the PLO and Israel were able to sign a negotiation called the Oslo Accord which granted Palestinians the right to self government on the Gaza Strip and the city of Jericho in the West Bank through the creation of the Palestinian Authority. 2004) The Israeli government was criticized for its harsh reactions to Palestinian rioting which left many dead. (Dershowitz.

Hate is bred as generations learn of bloodshed and destruction. and midnight terrorist activities. Hopefully in the near future the two sides can learn to live together in harmony. But there has yet to be a plausible solution to the painstaking question. Many cities are over run with tanks. . There are always ongoing peace talks between nations and councils and committees to end the violence. restrictions. but the inevitable ³Palestinian Question´ has yet to be answered. What was once a thriving merchant centre is now the centre of a crisis.Currently the state in which Palestinians live is a depressing one. Walls are littered with hate messages and bullet holes as children run vapid through the streets.

40-52. American Presidents and the Middle East. I. L. Gaza. Morris. J. Dershowitz. (2007). 1949-1956: Arab Infiltration. (1993). D. A/8389. Durham: Duke University Press. (1994). (1996). (1970. (2001). M. The Case for Israel. M.B. A Chronology. Israel`s Border Wars. Israeli Retaliation. 98-121. . Tauris. Shlaim. Lenczowski. B. (2004). F. and countdown to the Suez War. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Journal of Palestine Studies . B. 1974-1991. Morris. P. October 11). (2009). G. Madfai. United Nations. Butler. (1990). R. Jordan. A. Mikel. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. A. The Israeli Press and the Qibya Operation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Sunday Times . Lion of Jordan: Life of King Hussein in War and Peace. Indiana: Indiana Series of Arab and Islamic Studies. Oxford University Press . A. 1953. 4856. The Palestinian Intifada: An Effective Strategy? World Policy Journal . Journal of Palestine Studies . Palestine and Israel: the Uprising and Beyond.Bibliography Bell. London: Arnold. Tessler. (1993). 258-9. the United States and the Middle East Peace Process. The World since 1945: An International History. McDowall. (1989). (2003).

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