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Assignment 1 — Solutions 1/8/04
Problem 1.1
(a) If there is net charge inside the conductor, the electric field (being somehow proportional to charge) will be nonzero there. A nonzero electric field means there is a net force on any charge in that region so the charges will move. We know from experience that [non-super-] conductors at equilibrium don't have currents running around in them, hence the charges must rearrange themselves in such a way that no more movement is possible, i.e. the electric field and thus the charge density inside the conductor must vanish. Of course we still have a bunch of charges around, and the only place they can go is to the surface. (b) Consider two Gaussian surfaces S1 in the interior and S2 in the exterior of a closed hollow conductor (shaded in the example). If the charges are all outside, S1 encloses no charge and so by Gauss' law the total E -field flux through it is zero. Now choose S1 to be an infinitesimally small surface containing any point within the interior, so the flux is approximately equal to the E -field at the point [times some constant]. Since the flux vanishes, so must the E -field. On the other hand if all the charges are inside, choosing S2 to enclose the conductor and applying Gauss' law shows that the flux through S2 is not zero, i.e. there must be some electric field somewhere on the surface, thereby proving the second claim.
(c) Consider an infinitesimally small patch of the surface of the conductor with area dA. Choose a "pillbox" Gaussian surface S with end caps infinitesimally close to the exterior and interior of the conductor surface, and sides perpendicular to the surface (example of a cross section shown in the figure). In (a) we argued that there is no electric field inside the conductor, so the flux through S must come solely from the "top" (the exterior end cap) and sides. The contribution from the sides is due to the component of the E -field parallel to the surface (determined by the normals of the sides of S ), but if this is nonzero there will be a net flow of charge along the surface, which cannot be. So the E -field must be perpendicular to the surface and the only contribution to the flux is from the top, which is approximately E dA . The charge enclosed is approximately s dA . By Gauss' law we conclude E = s ê e0 .
q e-a r ar q e-a r a FHrL = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ J1 + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ N = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ J ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + ÅÅÅÅÅ e-a r N Å Å Å Å 4 p e0 r 2 4 p e0 r 2

S2 S1

S

σ

Problem 1.5

Use equation (1.28) in Jackson, but be careful in calculating the Laplacian since “2 H1 ê rL = -4 p dHrL from equation (1.31). It's easiest to do this in two steps:

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Ä É Å Ñ q 1 ∑ Å i 1 ∑ ∑F z ∑ 1 a2 e-a r yÑ Å j j zÑ r = -e0 “2 F = -e0 ÅÅÅÅ2ÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ i 2 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ y = - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅ2ÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ År2 j-a ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + e-a r ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅ - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ e-a r zÑ Å Ñ Å Å Å z jr Å Ñ 4 p r ∑r Å k r ∑r k ∑r { r ∑r r 2 Å Ñ {Ñ Ç Ö Ä É 2 Å Ñy Å q 1 ∑ i -a r Å ∑ 1 a 2 Ñz Ñz j Å-a r + r2 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅ - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r Ñ Å Ñ = - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅ2ÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ je Å Å Å Ñ 4 p r ∑r k ∑r r 2 Ñ{ Å Ñ Ç Ö É Ä -a r 2 Ñ Å Ñ Å q e ∑ ∑ 1 a ∑ 1 i Å j-a Å-a r + r2 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅ - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r2 Ñ - a + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ r2 ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅ - a2 ry z Ñ z Ñ = - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ j Å Å Å Ñ 4 p r2 k Å ∑r ∑r r 2 Ñ ∑r r Ñ Å { Ö Ç q -a r i a3 a3 1 a2 y q -a r i a2 y j ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ + “2 ÅÅÅÅÅ - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ z = - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ e j ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ - 4 p dHrLz z j j z = - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ e 4p 2 r { r 4p k r k 2 { q a3 -r a Å = q dHrL - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ e 8p

In the last step I've taken the liberty to set e-a r Ø 1 in the term containing the d-function. We see that r is a point charge q at the origin plus a spherically symmetric, exponentially decaying charge density of opposite sign (assuming a > 0).

Problem 1.10
Use equation (1.36) with r = 0 and V a sphere of radius b centered about the origin, so that in spherical coordinates ” ” R = †x - x '§ = r and ∑ ê ∑n' = ∑ ê ∑r: ÷” ÷” ÷” ` The first term vanishes by application of the divergence theorem since òS E ÿ r a' = ŸV “ ÿ E 3 x = ŸV Hr ê e0 L 3 x = 0. The second term is the average of F over the surface S of the sphere as promised. Clearly a translation of coordinates ” ” ” is all it takes for this to hold for points not at the origin, i.e. we have proven FHxL = XF\sphere centered at ÷x for any x . The system has n surfaces Si , 1 § i § n with charge density si and total charge Qi = ŸS si ai on the ith surface. For
i

É Ä 1 ∑F Å 1 ∑ 1 Ñ 1 ÷” ` 1 F 1 Ñ Å Ñ Å FH0L = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ® Å ÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ - F ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ J ÅÅÅÅÅ NÑ a ' = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ® ÅÅÅÅÅ E ÿ r a' + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ® ÅÅÅÅ2ÅÅ a ' Å Ñ Å Å r ∑r Ñ Å 4p S r ∑r r Ñ 4p S r 4p S Ç Ö 1 1 ÷” ` = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ® E ÿ r a' + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ® F a' Å Å 4pb S 4 p b2 S

Problem 1.15

convenience define the collection of all surfaces S ª ‹n Si . The electrostatic energy of the system is according to i=1 (1.53):
1 1 ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” W = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ rHx L FHx L 3 x = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ sHx L FHx L a 2 V 2 S

where r Ø s ª ⁄n si since the only charges around are those on the surfaces. Consider the change in energy due to a i=1 change in fields F Ø F ' = F + dF and charge configuration s Ø s' = s + ds:
1 dW = WHs + ds, F + dFL - WHr, FL = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ Hds F + s dF + ds dFL a 2 S

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Applying Green's reciprocation theorem (problem 1.12) with no volume charges and F, F', s, s' as given above:
‡ s HF + dFL a = ‡ Hs + dsL F a ï ‡ s dF a = ‡ ds F a
S

Now suppose that F§Si = Fi = constant on each surface. ŸS ds F 3 x = ‚ Fi ŸS dsi 3 x = 0 since ŸS dsi 3 x is the i i i=1 (zero) total change in charge on the ith surface, so the first term vanishes. Surface charge density is related to the ÷” ” ` ` ” ” potential by sHxL ê e0 = Hlim+ -lim- L E HxL ÿ n = Hlim+ -lim- L ∑FHxL ê ∑n (1.22) where n is the unit surface normal and the ≤ ” on the surface from above/below. So rather schematic notation lim means to take the limit approaching the point x
n

1 dW = ‡ Jds F + ÅÅÅÅÅ ds dFN a 2 S
S

S

S

The last is possible because potentials are continuous across surface charge distributions, so lim+ dF = dF = lim- dF and we would be smart to do the integrals above/below the respective surfaces (where the integrands are well-behaved) and then take the limit approaching the surface, instead of vice versa. This is important because the divergence theorem ÷” ÷” ÷” ` ÷” Ÿ “ ÿ A 3 x = ò A ÿ n a holds only for continuous vector fields A . There is another hitch —  in the theorem must be a closed surface containing , but our S may be the union of a set of disjoint surfaces. To get around this let's consider the integral over the ith surface Hlim+ -lim- L òS f a. If Si is closed then everything is fine, otherwise Define the closed surfaces Si+ /Si- with one boundary just above/below Si and such that Si+ and Si- share almost all of three other boundaries (purple in the example sketch). We can write ÷” ` ÷” ` ÷” ` Hlim+ -lim- L ŸS A ÿ n a = lim+ òS+ A ÿ n a - lim- òS- A ÿ n a since the integrals over the extra
i i i

∑HF + dFL s' = s + ds = e0 Hlim+ -lim- L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ÅÅÅÅÅÅ = e0 Hlim+ -lim- L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ∑n ∑HdFL ÷” ` ds = e0 Hlim+ -lim- L ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ = e0 Hlim+ -lim- L “ HdFL ÿ n Å ∑n 1 e0 ÷” ` dW = ÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ ds dF a = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ dF Hlim+ -lim- L “ HdFL ÿ n a = 2 S 2 S

∑ F' ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Å ∑n

e0 ÷” ` ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Hlim+ -lim- L ‡ dF “ HdFL ÿ n a 2 S

÷” ` To get around this let's consider an integral over the ith open surface, Hlim+ -lim- L ŸS A ÿ n a.
i i

Si + Si Si

boundaries either cancel or vanish in the limit. For a closed surface Si we can simply take Si+ /Sito be the closed surfaces infinitesimally close above/below Si . Then we can apply the divergence theorem after all with Vi≤ being the volume enclosed by Si≤ :
÷” ` Hlim+ -lim- L ‡ dF “ HdFL ÿ n a = lim+ ®
Si

“2 HdFL is the change in volume charge distribution, because if there were some volume charge r (which does not include the surface charges) we would have r + dr = e0 “2 HF + dFLïdr = e0 “2 HdFL. However dr = 0 everywhere, so the second term vanishes and we're left with a manifestly nonnegative quantity. Since Vi+ contains Vi- , the quantity 2 2 ÷” ÷” lim+ ‡ °“ HdFL• 3 x - lim- ‡ °“ HdFL• 3 x is the integral of a nonnegative quantity over a volume Vi+ - Vi- and so + Vi Vi

Vi≤

÷” ÷” “ ÿ AdF “ HdFLE 3 x = ‡

= lim+ ‡
Vi≤

Si+

2 ÷” °“ HdFL• 3 x + ‡ Vi+

÷” ` dF “ HdFL ÿ n a - lim- ®
Vi≤

÷” ÷” “ ÿ AdF “ HdFLE 3 x - lim- ‡
Si-

dF “2 HdFL 3 x

÷” ` dF “ HdFL ÿ n a
Vi-

÷” ÷” “ ÿ AdF “ HdFLE 3 x

must also be nonnegative. Thus after much ado

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e0 e0 ÷” ÷” ` ` + + dW = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ Hlim -lim L ‡ dF “ HdFL ÿ n a = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ „ Hlim -lim L ‡ dF “ HdFL ÿ n a 2 2 S Si
n i=1 n

¥ 0

Hence this equipotential configuration F is a minimum-energy configuration, as was to be shown. Note that this is a proof of F being a global minimum because dF was completely arbitrary, not necessarily a small variation from F.

2 3 2 3 y 2 e0 e0 n i + ÷” ÷” ÷” j z °“ HdFL• 3 x = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ „ jlim ‡ °“ HdFL•  x - lim ‡ °“ HdFL•  xz = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‚ ‡ j z 2 2 i=1 Vi+ -ViVi+ Vik { i=1

Problem 1.16
Like in 1.15, let the system have n surfaces Si bounding volumes Vi , 1 § i § n with charge density si and total charge Qi = òS si ai on the ith surface. The collection of surfaces S ª ‹n Si bounds an external volume V + V0 (shaded in the example). i=1 Call the potential F. Since the surfaces are conductors F§Si = Fi = constant on each ÷” ` ` surface, and si = e0 “ Fi ÿ ni where ni is the outward normal of the Si (you proved this in terms of the E -field in problem 1.1c). Keeping in mind that the electric field vanishes inside all the conductors, the system has electrostatic energy
i

V1 V V2

V0
Vn

After the introduction of an uncharged insulator with surface S0 bounding volume V0 , the potential and charge densities change to F£ = F + dF , Fi£ = Fi + dFi , and si£ = si + dsi (1 § i § n). The total charge remains fixed so ÷ ”£ ÷ ” òS dsi a = 0, and the new conductor is at equipotential F£ §S0 = F£ = constant with E = “ F£ = 0 inside [V0 ]. The 0
i

e0 e0 e0 ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” W = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ “ F ÿ “ F 3 x = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ “ F ÿ “ F 3 x + ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ “ F ÿ “ F 3 x 2 all space 2 V 2 V0

electrostatic energy is now

As in the previous problem, “2 HdFL is the change in volume charge distribution which is zero in V (note that this is bounded by S + S0 ). The conductors must still be equipotentials, so Fi£ = constant, which means dFi = Fi - Fi£ is also constant (being the difference of two constant quantities). The new charge distributions must still also satisfy ÷” ÷” ÷” ` ` ` si£ = e0 “ Fi£ ÿ ni = e0 “ HFi + dFi L ÿ ni , so dsi = e0 “ dFi ÿ ni for 1 § i § n. Thus

e0 ÷” ÷” W £ = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ “ HF + dFL ÿ “ HF + dFL 3 x 2 V e0 e0 ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” 3 ÷” 2 3 £ 3 dW = W - W = ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ “ dF ÿ “ dF  x + e0 ‡ “ dF ÿ “ F  x - ÅÅÅÅÅÅÅ ‡ °“ F•  x 2 V 2 V0 V

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i÷ ” y 3 ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” j z 2 3 3 j ´¨¨¨¨ dFz ‡ “ dF ÿ “ dF  x = ‡ j“ ÿ IdF “ dFM - dF “ ¨¨≠¨¨¨¨Æz  x = ‡ “ ÿ IdF “ dFM  x j z V k V 0 { V
n

÷” ÷” ` ` dF “ dF ÿ n a = „ dFi ® dsi a + ® HF0 - F£ L “ dF0 ÿ n a 0 = ® S+S0 Si ¨ S0 ´¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨≠¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨Æ i=1 ÷” ÷” ` ` = - ® F0 “ dF0 ÿ n a - F£ ® “ dF0 ÿ n a 0 S0 S0 ¨ ´¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨ ≠¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨Æ ¨
0 0 V

Similarly

÷” 2 3 ÷” ` ® F0 “ dF0 ÿ n a = - ‡ °“ dF•  x § 0
S0

i÷ ” y 3 ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” ÷” 3 j z 2 3 j ´¨¨¨¨ dFz ‡ “ dF ÿ “ F  x = ‡ j“ ÿ IF “ dFM - F “ ¨¨≠¨¨¨¨Æz  x = ‡ “ ÿ IF “ dFM  x j z V k V 0 { V
n

We have shown that the first and second terms of dW are nonpositive, and the third one is already manifestly so. Hence dW § 0, i.e. introduction of the new conductor lowers the electrostatic energy.

÷” ` = ® F0 “ dF0 ÿ n a § 0
S0

÷” ÷” ` ` F “ dF ÿ n a = „ Fi ® dsi a + ® F0 “ dF0 ÿ n a = ® S+S0 Si ¨¨¨≠¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨Æ S0 ´¨¨¨¨¨¨¨¨ i=1
0