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Enrollment no 09BS0002756

**Lakshami Through Sarasawati
**

Summary: This study is an interpretation of employee data. This study reveals those education level and job categories are gender biased. It is found that among all the employees, females are less educated. On the other hand, it reveals that more education level is needed for better jobs. People do job to satisfy their different needs by earning the money (Lakshami) .As per the research, more educated (Sarasawati) people are getting better job. Hence we can conclude it is not Lakshami Vs Sarasawati, Instead it is ³Lakshami Thorough Sarasawati´. ________________________________________________________________________________________

1. Introduction of Data

Employee data has been interpreted and result has been explained in this report. This data is having nine attributes those attributes are gender, birth day, education level (Year), Job category, current Salary, Beginning salary, Month since hire, Previous experience and Minority classification. Some new attribute is derived from above nine attribute like male (binary value for gender that may be 0 or 1) and age (derived from date of birth).

2. Analysis

2.1. It¶s a need to test weather female are less educated then male i.e. is education level gender biased? (Refer: Appendix I) a. Hypothesis:

H0: Ha:

Male = Male

female (Null Hypothesis is that mean of education level is same for male and female) female (Alternate hypothesis is mean of education level is not same for male and female)

Significance Level

!0.05

(i.e. Rejection Region - Reject the null hypothesis if p-value 0.05)

b. Nature of Data and appropriate statistical tool: In this case, attribute ³education level´ and ³gender´ need to be interpreted from the employee data. Here ³education level´ is a continuous variables and ³gender´ is a categorical variable. By Q-Q plot (Figure 1 , Appendix I), it is found that the continuous variable ³educational level´ is normal is nature since observed values in Q-Q plot is approximately on expected values. Also we

Vivek Kumar

Enrollment no 09BS0002756

found that skewness and Kurtosis of ³education level´ is -0.114 and -0.265 which is acceptable region to say data is approximately normal to proceed for independent sample t-test. Also we need to identify the outlier for education level. A box plot is drawn to remove the outlier but we did not identified any outlier for education level (number of year of education) c. Independent sample t-test: Discussion of Result

Now to proceed with independent sample t-test (Appendix I), it is mandatory to check the variance of ³education level´ for male and female. By ³Levene¶s Test of equality of variance´ (Table 2, Appendix I), we can see significance level is less than 0.05 i.e. it can be interpreted that variance for educational level for both the category is not significantly equals. Since variance is not equal for male and female, we need to see significance level for t-test under ³Equal variance not assumed´. Significance level for t-test under ³Equal variance not assumed´ is .000 (less than .05) and hence null hypothesis is rejected. Hence we can conclude that education level for male and female is not equal. Now the mean of education level for male and female are 14.43 and 12.37 (Table 1: Appendix 1) respectively. Since mean of education level for female is lower than the same of male hence we can say female are less educated than male. 2.2. It¶s a need to test weather more education gives better Job (Refer Appendix II) a. Hypothesis: H 0:

Clerical

=

Custodian=

Manger

(Null Hypothesis that mean of all category are equal)

**Ha: Not all the Mean are equal (Alternative hypothesis)
**

Significance Level = 0.05

(i.e. Rejection Region - Reject the null hypothesis if p-value

0.05)

b. Nature of Data and appropriate statistical tool: In this case attribute ³education level´ is a continuous variable and job category is a categorical variable which has more than two categories (i.e. Custodial, Clerical and Manager). For the normality check of variable ³education level´ is explained in previous section of this report and it is found that education level is

Vivek Kumar

Enrollment no 09BS0002756

approximately normal. Since here more than two groups for variable ³job category´ is available we need to apply ANOVA instead of independent sample t-test. c. ANOVA : Discussion of Result Null hypothesis will be rejected since by ANOVA test we found that F=68.49 and p=.000 (which is less than .05). Rejections of Null hypothesis conclude that education level for all category of job is not equal. Now we have calculated the mean of education level for all three categories. We found mean for manager, clerical and custodian is 17.25, 12.87 and 10.87 respectively. It shows maximum educational level is required for manager and least is required for custodian.

2.3.

It¶s a need to test weather job category is gender biased (Refer: Appendix III) H0: Job category is independent of gender Ha: Job category is NOT independent of gender Significance Level

a. Hypothesis:

!0.05

(i.e. Rejection Region - Reject the null hypothesis if p-value 0.05)

b. Nature of Data and appropriate statistical tool: Here we need to test

relationship between two categorical variables; those are Job category and gender. To make the relationship between two categorical variables we should go for a chi-square test. In SPSS, Chi-square test can be done through Cross tab. Also we need to test one more requirement to proceed for chi-square test, that is in contingency table expected frequency should not be less than five.

c. Chi-Square : Discussion of Result - The result indicated that there is no

statistical significant relationship between the type of job and gender

with

significance level of 0.05 (chi-square with two degree of freedom = 79.277, p=0.000)

**3. Conclusion: This study is an interpretation of employee data. This study reveals
**

those education level and job categories are gender biased. It is found that among all the employees, females are less educated. On the other hand, it reveals that more education level is needed for better job.

Vivek Kumar

Enrollment no 09BS0002756

**Appendix I : Independent Sample t-test
**

Group Statistics Gender Educational Level (years) Male Female N 258 216 Mean 14.43 12.37 Std. Deviation 2.979 2.319 Std. Error Mean .185 .158

Table 1 : Group Statistics, From Independent sample t-test

Table 2 : Independent Sample t-test

Figure 1 : Q-Q plot for "Education Level" to check the normality

Vivek Kumar

Enrollment no 09BS0002756

**Appendix II : ANOVA for education level and Job Category
**

ANOVA Educati

Table 3 : ANOVA for Education level and Job Category

Educational Level (years) Employment Category Clerical Custodial Manager Total Mean 12.87 10.19 17.25 13.49 N 363 27 84 474 Std. Deviation 2.333 2.219 1.612 2.885

Table 4: Mean for Job category, from ANOVA

**Appendix III : Cross Tab
**

Gender * Employment Category Crosstabulation Employment Category Clerical Gender Female Count Expected Count % within Gender Male Count Expected Count % within Gender Total Count Expected Count % within Gender 206 165.4 95.4% 157 197.6 60.9% 363 363.0 76.6% Custodial 0 12.3 .0% 27 14.7 10.5% 27 27.0 5.7% Manager 10 38.3 4.6% 74 45.7 28.7% 84 84.0 17.7% Total 216 216.0 100.0% 258 258.0 100.0% 474 474.0 100.0%

Table 5 : Contingency table ,From Cross Tab

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Vivek Kumar

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Enrollment no 09BS0002756

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Table 6 : Chi-square Test, from Cross tab

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UsefulNot usefulAnalysis of Employee Data of SPSS demo. Key Word SPSS ,Chi SQure, ANOVA, T-Test,Market Research, Lakshami Through Sarasawati

Analysis of Employee Data of SPSS demo. Key Word SPSS ,Chi SQure, ANOVA, T-Test,Market Research, Lakshami Through Sarasawati

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