Wax Melting | Casting (Metalworking) | Building Materials

Wax Melting & Centrifugal Casting An Introduction To Casting Lost wax casting is the most accurate and reliable method

of producing fine detail and complex shapes over a production run. Sometimes known as investment casting, vacuum casting, centrifugal casting or cire perdue, it is one of the oldest methods of casting in the world dating back more than 5000 years. Some of the earliest examples found are dated about 2500BC from the Royal Tombs at Ur in Mesopotamia. Although this method has been used in many parts of the world since those early times, it is only in the last 40-50 years that it has been more commonly used in this country. Today, it is confined almost exclusively to the jewellery and dental trades, whose wide use of noble metals requires the accurate reproduction of the original pattern. Whilst our website is directed towards the jewellery trade, we also supply the dental trade and other outlets. Related Products Step By Step Operations Of Wax Melting &

Centrifugal Casting Main Steps 1. Original Pattern Making 2. Rubber Mould Making 3. Wax Pattern Making 4. Investing 5. Burnout 6. Casting 7. Cleaning 8. Finishing

The Eight

Illustrated on the left are the basic steps involved in the fascinating lost wax casting process. Any questions or queries you may have about our equipment and its uses can be answered by our knowledgable personnel in our London, Birmingham or Beckenham showrooms.

Centrifugal casting
Centrifugal casting is a method of casting parts having axial symmetry. The method involves pouring molten metal into a cylindrical mold spinning about its axis of symmetry. The mold is kept rotating till the metal has solidified. As the mold material steels, Cast irons, Graphite or sand may be used. The rotation speed of centrifugal mold is commonly about 1000 RPM (may vary from 250 RPM to 3600 RPM). A centrifugal casting machine is schematically presented in the picture:

Centrifugal casting is carried out as follows:

The mold wall is coated by a refractory ceramic coating (applying ceramic slurry, spinning, drying and baking). Starting rotation of the mold at a predetermined speed. Pouring a molten metal directly into the mold (no gating system is employed). The mold is stopped after the casting has solidified.

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Extraction of the casting from the mold.

The casting solidifies from the outside fed by the inner liquid metal. Non-metallic and slag inclusions and gas bubbles being less dense than the melt are forced to the inner surface of the casting by the centrifugal forces. This impure zone is then removed by machining. Resulted structure of the centrifugal castings is sound. Centrifugal casting technology is widely used for manufacturing of iron pipes, bushings, wheels, pulleys bi-metal steel-bronze bearings and other parts possessing axial symmetry. Introduction Centrifugal casting as a category includes Centrifugal Casting, Semi-Centrifugal Casting and Centrifuging. Centrifugal Casting: In centrifugal casting, a permanent mold is rotated about its axis at high speeds (300 to 3000 rpm) as the molten metal is poured. The molten metal is centrifugally thrown towards the inside mold wall, where it solidifies after cooling. The casting is usually a fine grain casting with a very fine-grained outer diameter, which is resistant to atmospheric corrosion, a typical situation with pipes. The inside diameter has more impurities and inclusions, which can be machined away.

Only cylindrical shapes can be produced with this process. Size limits are upto 3 m (10 feet) diameter and 15 m (50 feet) length. Wall thickness can be 2.5 mm to 125 mm (0.1 -

5.0 in). The tolerances that can be held on the OD can be as good as 2.5 mm (0.1 in) and on the ID can be 3.8 mm (0.15 in). The surface finish ranges from 2.5 mm to 12.5 mm (0.1 - 0.5 in) rms. Typical materials that can be cast with this process are iron, steel, stainless steels, and alloys of aluminum, copper and nickel. Two materials can be cast by introducing a second material during the process. Typical parts made by this process are pipes, boilers, pressure vessels, flywheels, cylinder liners and other parts that are axi-symmetric. Semi-Centrifugal Casting: The molds used can be permanent or expendable, can be stacked as necessary. The rotational speeds are lower than those used in centrifugal casting. The center axis of the part has inclusion defects as well as porosity and thus is suitable only for parts where this can be machined away. This process is used for making wheels, nozzles and similar parts where the axis of the part is removed by subsequent machining. Centrifuging: Centrifuging is used for forcing metal from a central axis of the equipment into individual mold cavities that are placed on the circumference. This provides a means of increasing the filling pressure within each mold and allows for reproduction of intricate details. This method is often used for the pouring of investment casting pattern.

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