Strategic Options for Pakistan on its Eastern and Western Fronts

Presented To: Sir Qamar Waince Presented By:
Mr Ikram Ullah…………….212 Mr Rizwan Nasir…………..236 Mr Umair Tahir…………….247 Mr Abdul Rauf……………..234

Department Of Business Administration GC University of Faisalabad

Qamar Waince.We dedicate this project to our Honorable Teacher. Mr. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . for his guidance in each and every step of this subject of risk management. We also dedicate this project to our loving Parents whose prayers are source of determination and motivation for us.

courage. We not only learned course with him but also the way to be disciplined and sincere with the profession. Contents: no Page . Also our special thanks to Respected Teacher Mr. which will prove to be very beneficial in our forthcoming practical lives Insha’Allah."EDUCATION HAS MADE THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEN AND MEN THEN MEN HAVE MADE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MAN AND BRUTE". to successful accomplish our uphill tasks and enabling us to do this project. quest and sanity to discharge our responsibilities. Qamar Waince whose guidance was always with us and who always motivated us to work hard. The development of this project has enabled us to get the practical experience. In order for an our humble gratitude and all thanks to Almighty Allah. who has been so kind in conferring His blessings upon us and providing us the energy .

Relations with India: 4 4. Historical relations of Pakistan on eastern front front: 3 3. Historical relations of Pakistan on western front: Afghanistan and Iran. SWOT analysis of Pakistan. Strategic future options: 17 11. 15 10. References: 19 . Role of super Powers. The role of STAN countries: 8 6. Introduction: 1 Pakistan’s strategic scenario and future challenges: 2. Importance of Gwadar: 9 (2).1. Geographic importance of Pakistan to China: 11 7. 5 5. Nuclear technology of Pakistan: 12 8. Geo-strategic importance of Pakistan: 9 (1). USA and China: 13 9.

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On one hand Pakistan having various issues with the surrounding countries and on another hand it has mutual corporations in various fields with some of them. which are finding their ways to landlocked countries of central Asia and Arabian Sea. Iran.Abstract Pakistan is strategically located in the most important region of Asia. Pakistan can get huge benefits by utilizing carefully constructed strategies regarding these countries. . Afghanistan and china on its eastern and western fronts. which enhanced its significance with reference to the neighboring countries like India.

The departure of the Soviet Union gave Pakistan the opportunity to think about collaboration for economic gains with Central Asia Republics as well as the founding member of the ECO. India.Introduction An overview of Pakistan’s strategic scenario and Future challenges The strategic environment of Asia remains fluid post-Cold War and the Gulf War. but this was short lived due to the latest complication in Afghanistan. the completion of KKH facilitated the consolidation of the geopolitical links between Pakistan and China and China seeks the importance of Gwadar port. who remained on the sidelines of the conflict. Pakistan’s main strategic security concern has always been due to the PakistanIndia relations and this is the major issue affecting the relation between all countries of the region. in waiting for a bigger role in the region. Pakistan remains in constant threat. not entirely due to the Arab-Israel conflict. Pak-US relations are broadly affected by the factor of nuclear non-proliferation. The known reality of the economic and military strength of its neighbor. Successive Pakistani governments have developed good relations with China on the basis of peaceful co-existence and believing that China has no aggressive ambition against neighboring countries. rather due to the American military intervention in Afghanistan and Iraq after the September 11 attacks in USA. Thus maintenance of the . America’s pursuit of Afghanistan and Iraq can now said to be a miscalculation that jumped into this disastrous military action in pursuit of its strategic interests. Pakistan’s support for the American war on terrorism has left the country in dire situation compared to its neighbor India. In 1978. where Pakistan regards its nuclear policy as its sovereign right and is unwilling to compromise with the US on this issue.

However. accrue benefits from the Central Asian Republics if peace comes to Afghanistan. Iran and Pakistan are neighbors culturally and historically bound together by visible bonds. Pak-Iran over the years has done better in bilateral cooperation. or a major Taliban/militant offensive in the Punjab. however. Political Instability. China is a power factor in the balance in Asia. For American to take that decision on their behalf is equivalent to an extension of the 'Monroe Doctrine' to Middle East’. long-term goal of Pakistan's great power politics. 2. energy crises. Pakistan can. (1) Pakistan today faces five main challenges: 1.Sino-Pakistan alliance is a constant. (2) . Threat of fragmentation and the loss of state control over various territories that undermine the integrity. Rebuilding the Pakistan Brand. 4. However the philosophy of foreign policy has to stem from the honest realities of life. primarily because of the US factor. They alone are competent to decide what constitutes threat to their security and the power from which it is likely to emanate. whose moral stature far. For its part China has stated that maintenance and development of bilateral relations is consistent with the interests of the two peoples and benefit peace and stability in the South Asian Region. 5. 6. heartland of Pakistan 3. Governance issues including corruption. In conjunction with the Middle East. outweighs its military strength. Central Asian States have opened new vistas for Pakistan and other regional countries. Economy. which is becoming a complicated affair after the military intervention of the US and allies. sovereignty and solidarity of the country. For. Security and terrorism throughout the country: Other unexpected challenges might be a war or near-war between Pakistan and India. inflation etc. both have a profound stake in defense of the region.

also has lukewarm relations with Pakistan. cultural. This leaves China to be the only trusted ally of Pakistan in the region since its independence. Diplomatic relations between the two are defined by the history of the violent partition of British India into these two states. 95% of the people living in South Asia practiced either Hinduism or Islam. however. especially India on the core issue of Jammu and Kashmir has brought Pakistan and India to war a number of times. because of Russian and Indian influence on Afghan foreign policy. though a Muslim country.Background of relations of Pakistan on its eastern and western fronts Since its independence. headed by Quaid e Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah. the two largest countries of South Asia. Much of South Asia came under direct control of Great Britain in the late 18th century. According to the theory. The Muslim League. while relations with Afghanistan always remain sore. and economic links between the Republic of India and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. proposed the Two Nation Theory in the early 20th century. geographic. (3) Eastern front: Historical relations of Pakistan with India Indo-Pakistani relations are grounded in the political. its relations with its neighbors. and numerous military conflicts and territorial disputes thereafter. but differ starkly in religious demographics. Iran. The British Raj over the Indian subcontinent lasted for almost 150 years. The two countries share much of their common geographic location. Muslims .

the Kashmir dispute between them has become an intractable one. India and Pakistan established diplomatic relations. The eastern wing split off as a new country named Bangladesh. The Partition of India in 1947 created two large countries independent from Britain: Pakistan as two wings in the East and West. (4) Major current issues: The followings are the major current issues with India which have their deep roots in the past.and others shared little in common. while the western wing continued as Pakistan. but have not resolved it the Indians and Pakistanis like Israelis and Palestinians make claims to the same territory. and the nations went to war four times. Geographically it has its utmost importance. Kashmir is located in the north side of Pakistan. The campaign gained momentum in early 1940s and by the end of World War II. Indus water treaty The Indo-Pakistani dispute over the sharing of the Indus River system has not been as contentious as one would expect it to have been. There have been some improvements in relations since the mid-2000s but relations soured slightly after the 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks by an alleged group partially consisting of Pakistani based militant. A serious dispute over . separated by India in the middle. Since the partition of British India into India and Pakistan in 1947. Subsequent years were marked by bitter periodic conflict. one for the Muslims and the other for the Hindu majority. for Pakistan it is an integral part. which he feared would suppress the Muslim minority. So. The issue of Kashmir: The major cause of worst relation between India and Pakistan is Kashmir. and 1999. They fought three wars over it in 1947. British India's partition looked inevitable. The war in 1971 ended in defeat and another partition of Pakistan. Soon after Independence. Most of the rivers which flow through Pakistan have their origin in Kashmir. and British India should be divided into two separate countries. 1965.

which then started a new period of nuclear arms race in South Asia. Lahore. The concern is most related to Pakistan’s agricultural sector. This “peer” competition between India and Pakistan took a turning point in 1974. India has sought to prevent the emergence of “peer” competitor on the subcontinent. termed India’s nuclear detonation as its grand strategy to intimidate Pakistan. and then all such activities make the relation between both the nations again crucial.” and “hegemony. Recently India has suffered from Mumbai Attack which it blames on Pakistan to be involved in that. and Pakistan’s then Prime Minister. A. Z. (5) Nuclear issue: The entire concept of security of South Asia is based on the principles of “security. India’s nuclear test was perceived in Pakistan as a threat to its security. to challenge its supremacy. Pakistan. Concern is growing in Pakistan that India is pursuing policies in an attempt to strangulate Pakistan by exercising control over the water flow of Pakistan's rivers. which required an appropriate response. Bhutto. when India halted water supplies to some Pakistani canals at the start of the summer irrigation season. Bombing in Samjhoota Express (India) or Blast in Meriot Hotel. Dehli.” As a result. (6) Background of relations on western front Historic relations with Afghanistan: . which would be greatly affected by the building of dams and by the external control of the waters of several rivers that flow into Pakistan Issue of Terrorism: Whenever the relationship between both the nations goes towards betterment. there happen some terrorist activities in India or in Pakistan such as Bombing in Calcutta. It immediately revived tensions in India-Pakistan relations.” “fear. Karachi. Wazeeristan crises (Pakistan) etc.the river waters occurred in 1948. when India conducted its first nuclear test.

religion. Both neighboring nations are Islamic republics and part of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. Afghanistan claimed that the Durand Line had been imposed by a stronger power upon a weaker one. they have been a painful. resulted from Afghanistan’s ambitions over certain areas in the North West of Pakistan. With the sole exception of the four years of Taliban rule (1997-2001) over Afghanistan.250 km common border formally known as Durand Line. (8) . Afghanistan’s aggressive attitude has added further in the fragile security environment challenging the very existence of Pakistan. With the Indian threat looming from the East. linguistic. Rather. Despite the support given by Pakistan during the jihad against the Soviet Union. culture. relations with Afghanistan have never been smooth. Afghanistan and Pakistan are usually described as inseparable states due to their sharing of similar history. These issues are at the heart of such hostile/unfriendly attitude and antagonistic relations. Pakistan and Afghanistan are immediate neighbors having 2. ethnicity and faith. as the legatee of the British in the region. the rise of the Taliban. A secure and friendly North-Western border has always been Pakistan’s desire and security requirement vis-à-vis India. On the other hand. Afghanistan was the only country to vote against Pakistan’s accession to the United Nations after its independence because of Kabul’s claim on the Pashtun territories located on the Pakistani side of the Durand Line. which could never get materialized because of Afghanistan’s hostile attitude. the present security issue in Afghanistan and the Issues of Pakhtunistan and Durand line On the one hand. (7) Major Issues: However. suspicion runs deep in the minds of leaders of both countries. as well as sharing of multiple trade and economic ties. successive governments in Kabul have displayed varying degrees of disaffection towards Pakistan. insisted on the legality and permanence of the boundary. the relationship between the two has been affected by the 1980s Soviet war.Afghanistan–Pakistan relations began in 1947 when British India was partitioned into the Republic of India and the state of Pakistan. and it favored the establishment of still another state to be called Pashtunistan or Pakhtunistan. Pakistan. Despite shared geography. and ethnic ties.

Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mehmood Qureshi. The transit trade agreement between Afghanistan and Pakistan was hailed as a significant success between Afghanistan and Pakistan during the last 50 years. India lost its territorial contiguity with Iran that it had shared for centuries. With the emergence of Pakistan as an independent State in 1947. Already a petition has been filed in Lahore High Court against the agreement between the two countries. Jul 19.” Business community in Pakistan criticizes the Government in Islamabad for the agreement. It established diplomatic relations with Pakistan in May 1948. 2010. He added it will bring terrorism in Pakistan. The Shah of Iran was the first head of state to pay a State visit to Pakistan in March 1950 and in the same month. The advocate who filed the petition says it will start smuggling of poppy and arms from Afghanistan to Pakistan. Islamic identity became an important factor in shaping the Iran-Pakistan relationship.Transit trade agreement: A new transit trade treaty agreement was signed between Afghanistan and Pakistan on Sunday. Afghanistan is permitted to send its goods to India through the Wagah border and whereas Pakistan will be able to export its goods to Central Asian countries through Afghanistan. already the “success” has been exposed. Despite Shia-Sunni divisions. The intense criticism compelled. a Treaty of Friendship was signed. especially after the Islamic Revolution in Iran in 1979 . (9) Historical relation with Iran: Pakistan’s political and strategic significance for Iran began with its emergence as an independent state following the Partition of India in 1947. Shah Jee saying “The transit trade agreement between Afghanistan and Pakistan will be cancelled if the parliament does not approve. But within five days. Iran was the first to extend recognition to the new State. According to this new trade treaty.

(10) Iran has also been under pressure from the US and Europe on its plans to acquire nuclear technology for possible weapons capability. and ECO. The geopolitical and internal uncertainties facing the two countries have the potential to recast the relationship along uncertain pathways. especially after the Soviet intervention in December that year. emerged as an important factor in consolidating their relationship. Pakistan is under pressure on the issue of transfer of nuclear technology to Iran.The break-up of Pakistan in December 1971 convinced Iran that its eastern border should be stable and its territorial integrity should be maintained. Libya and North Korea. where natural gas reserves are low and energy demand exceeds energy supply. The prospects for profit are especially high in South Asian countries like India and Pakistan. With the Islamic Revolution and the end of Iran’s close ties with the US. Externally. OIC. relations with Pakistan remained largely stable owing to their common concern about developments in Afghanistan. and the cooperation that they had built in nurturing anti-Soviet forces in that country through the 1970s. Pakistan has been facing ethnic. Iranian. especially in sensitive areas including nuclear technology. the Iranian government began increasing efforts to promote higher gas exports abroad. and Pakistani government officials continue to negotiate the possible . (11) Issue of Iran to India gas pipeline: Since the discovery of natural gas reserves in Iran's South Pars fields in 1988. Pakistan's main industrial port located at the Arabian Sea. In 1995. but Pakistani territory would be used as a transit route to export natural gas to India. In 2000. Indian. Pakistan and Iran signed a preliminary agreement for construction of a natural gas pipeline linking the Iranian South Pars natural gas field in the Persian Gulf with Karachi. sectarian. The two countries share perceptions on important regional and international issues and cooperate closely in multilateral fore including the UN. The deepening Iran-Pakistan defense cooperation. Not only would Pakistan benefit from Iranian natural gas exports. Iran later proposed an extension of the pipeline from Pakistan into India. and extremism problems.

routes. the 1. The dissatisfaction between the tribesmen and federal government is turning into violent attacks. The Baluchistan region in the Pakistan happens to be one of the poorest areas in the country. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. i. Kyrgyzstan. values and destiny. In the global politics. In terms of hydrocarbon resources.6 million square miles. (13) The role of STAN countries The Central Asian States (CAS). These negotiations indicate a significant shift in inter and intra-regional politics between the states.. culture. Central Asian Republics (CARs) has the status of second Gulf. religion.000 square miles (43% of the land mass) but holds only about 5% of the population. The vast energy resources of the region created a sense of competition among other . common history. and geopolitics of the Iran to India natural gas pipeline. (12) The Baluchistan province is located over 147. Pakistan-Central Asia relations are based on geographical proximity. The fear of the local Balochistani people and tribal lords is that they will be left out of the bargaining situation when this pipeline is implemented. traditions.e. the region is likely to play a key role in Asian and global geopolitics and geo-economics. with a total population of over 60 million spread over an area of about four million square kilometers. modes of transport. If this dissatisfaction of people of Baluchistan continues it will be destructive to IPI gas pipeline as well as this would result in severe condition of total boycott with the rest of Pakistan which would lead to separation. The region of Baluchistan has been considered “Pakistan’s Achilles heel” in the Iran-PakistanIndia pipeline project. The area is ruled by feudal lords and in the past has been mostly through a union. Pakistan recognized and established its diplomatic relations with CARs soon after their independence in 1991. Tajikistan. There are many natural resources in the area and most of the energy sources. Kazakhstan.

These STAN countries can provide a potential for industrial growth in obtaining regular supplies of surplus power through gas and electricity grid scheme or through future oil supplies from Tajikistan. The United States. The sea and land component thus add to the importance of Pakistan not only in the region. political. Kazakhstan. Pakistan's role in the war against terror has brought it in the forefronts of world politics. Land locked Afganistan now at the phase of Reconstruction.great powers as well as the neighbors of the CARs for establishing economic. (14) Geo strategic importance of Pakistan Pakistan is no doubt a strategically located country at the mouth of the most frequented trade and oil route of Persian Gulf and opening to the Indian Ocean. surrounded by some of the front line and most talked about countries like China in the north. and Uzbekistan. India in the east. and China became the three main forces competing besides some immediate and distant neighbours for influence in Central Asia. Gawader . Recently. Russia. Pakistan’s economic co-operation with the with CAS would have enhanced its standing by turning it into a major energy export route connecting different regions of Asia. is developing its southern provinces because its own port is 4500 km away from Sinkiang but Gawader is 2500 km away. (3) As Iran and Afghanistan are energy abundant while India and China are lacking of. China finds way to Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea through Korakaram. and military relationship. China with its fastest economic growth rate of 9%. Iran and Afghanistan in west and northwest respectively. These countries can provide a trade rout to other countries near Caspian sea and Russia. but in international relations and trade as well. Pakistan offers to central Asian republics the shortest route of 2600 km as compared to Iran (4500 km) or Turkey (5000 km). finds its ways through Pakistan. Turkmenistan.

(16) Gwadar port is located at the West of Karachi. Indirect non quantifiable benefits which the people of region will get and would accrue to the national economy from this port. and the Chinese Xinjiang region with access to the Arabian Sea’s warm waters. The new port of Gwadar will supplement Karachi Port and Port Qasim. in case of “exports to and from CARs” a peaceful and stable Afghanistan is must. the Gulf war and the emergence of the new Central Asian States has added to this importance. Afghanistan. Iraq and Iran. These countries may open their warehouses in Gwadar for export of goods and storing of imported goods for later shipment to their countries. Oman. UAE. (15) The importance of Gawadar port Located at the entrance of the Persian Gulf and about 460 kms from Karachi. Bangladesh. Gwadar has had immense Geostrategic significance on many accounts. Saudi Arabia. It will attract transit and trans-shipment trade from over twenty countries including Sri Lanka. The port . Pakistan needs to capitalize on them through better diplomatic ties with Arab states and CARs. Relevant importance with Landlocked countries of CAS Gwadar Port located in proximity of Arabian Gulf and Central Asian Republics provide it unique opportunity to serve both.port with its deep waters attracts the trade ships of China. CARs and South East Asian Countries. However. The port will also help in promoting trade with Gulf States possessing 63% of world’s oil reserves and will prove instrumental in promoting trans-shipment essentially of containerized cargo besides unlocking the development. Qatar. Because of its ideal location at the mouth of gulf and opposite strategic choke points of Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman the port is visualized to become a regional hub serving incoming and outgoing commercial traffic of Middle East and Gulf countries. (17) The port will provide the landlocked Central Asian republics. The continued unstable regional environment in the Persian Gulf in particular as a result of the Iran/Iraq war. It is therefore anticipated that oil reserves and other resources of CARs would gradually become the focus of world attention in coming years.

will also enable the transfer of Central Asia’s vast energy resources to world markets. Pakistan will also attract considerable investment into its most underdeveloped province. This regional highway network will directly link Gwadar to Xinjiang and the landlocked Central Asian Republics. while allowing China to diversify and secure its crude oil import routes and simultaneously gain access to the Persian Gulf. will cultivate the region’s vast and unexplored natural resources. Pakistan’s geography is as a Trade and Energy Corridor for China and other neighboring countries. (18) Geographical importance with reference to China Practically as China become more and more dependent on Gulf and Africa's oil. any further expansion of the line along with prospective linkages to Gwadar via the planned Ratodero-Khuzdar road would make it the shortest and most viable route connecting Gwadar to Western China. Baluchistan. Iran. It is of great strategic value as it augments Pakistan’s importance in the region. This manifests China’s attempt to exert its influence far beyond its borders in order to sustain its security interests. and Afghanistan. earning Pakistan significant profits in transit fees. These funds will allow for the construction of roads and rails linking the coastal region to the rest of Pakistan. considering that the existing Karakoram highway already connects Western China to Pakistan. Pakistan is indeed becoming more and more important to China. Gwadar Port & Karakoram Highway Gwadar port is strategically located to serve as a key shipping point in the region. and theoretically will allow for the socioeconomic uplift of the local Baluchis through various development projects. Under a MOU signed between China and Pakistan. as well . China is also to build a 90 km highway link connecting the Chinese side of the Karakoram highway to the Russian built highway network that already connects all the five Central Asian Republics. By making Gwadar the pivot of regional trade. The Karakoram highway and the coastal highway will both serve as vital trade routes and.

This doubtlessly is a cause for alarm and unease to both India and the US as the port will enable China to monitor its energy shipments from the Persian Gulf. (19).as consolidate its friendship with Pakistan through large scale collaborative projects. for example. Z. (20) Bhutto had forcefully advocated the nuclear option since the late 1950s and famously said in 1966 that if India acquired nuclear weapons capability. the port and the other supporting infrastructure will help integrate Pakistan into the Chinese economy by out sourcing low tech. In addition. while allowing it to closely monitor US naval activity and US. centered mainly on the state of Jammu & Kashmir.A. after the December 1971 defeat against India. Through the construction of the Gwadar port. making it into a giant factory floor for China. which instructed the country's nuclear establishment to build a nuclear device in three years. Nuclear technology of Pakistan The origins of Pakistan's nuclear program lie in its threat perceptions vis-à-vis India and reinforced by successive conflicts with New Delhi. Beijing also will gain considerable influence in the region. But the initial steps toward development of a nuclear program dated back to the 1950s. giving it a strategic entrance to the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean.Indian maritime cooperation. basic production and manufacturing jobs. with the inception of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) in 1957. Bhutto. "Even if Pakistan had to eat grass. while simultaneously offering it the option of a safer alternative passage for energy imports from Central Asia in the event of a hostile situation. we will make the bomb." (21) India's detonation of a nuclear device in May 1974 pushed Islamabad to accelerate its nuclear weapons pursuit although the PAEC had already a . A key point was the January 1972 directive by the then President of Pakistan.

Beijing provided Islamabad with various levels of nuclear and missilerelated assistance. Pakistan also received assistance from state actors. such as centrifuge equipment. The fear is that such developments increase the likelihood of scenarios in which Pakistan's nuclear security is put at risk. Subsequently. rather than complete units) and acquired a variety of equipment related to its highly enriched uranium program. components of various missile systems and technical expertise. • Role of Super Powers The interests of America and China with reference to Pakistan .constituted a group in March that year to manufacture a nuclear weapon. In May. highly enriched uranium (HEU). Several western companies cooperated with Pakistan in providing such equipment. especially China.Q. warhead designs. Since the late 1970s. buying individual components.g. Persistent political instability weakening nuclear command and control. Khan was at the forefront of Pakistan's nuclear program. Nuclear Security The security of Pakistan's nuclear weapons has been a key concern in recent years with the rise of terrorist and insurgent violence and the expansion of geographical areas under the control of the Taliban in the country.. by the late 1970s. nuclear scientist A. Pakistan exploited inadequate export controls and deployed various tactics to evade regulations (e. scenarios such as • Deliberate attacks on Islamabad's nuclear facilities. 1998 under the supervision of Dr A Q khan pakistan has conductded nuclear test in Nawaz shareef regime and since pakistan has become the first Islamic Atomic power in the world.

Stability of the (nuclear armed) Pakistani state itself given internal threats by extremists.The US has important interests in Pakistan since 2001. some of which existed earlier but which the 9/11 attacks highlighted is given below: • • Nuclear proliferation. the Pakistanis do not see their primary mission as one of helping the US make the Obama strategy work.Uygur autonomous region. whether it be for building an alliance against Soviet Communism in the 1950s or finding a way into Mao’s China in the early 1970s or defeating the Soviets in Afghanistan in the 1980s or fighting the global war on terrorism against Al Qaeda after 9/11. Moreover. in 1965 and 1971. Pakistan again is needed by the US to help it and the international community stabilizes Afghanistan. (19) . Now. (2) • • • China’s interest in Pakistan Deterioration in Sino-Indian relations. the tacking on of a hyphen to Pakistan is an example of one of the perennial features in the US attitude that views Pakistan as a means to achieve some other larger goal. with both military and economic assistance. Workable. and the construction of a road linking China’s Xinjian. However. provided further opportunities for Sino-Pak cooperation and in 1963 both countries signed an agreement on border relations. which culminated in the 1962 war. Their strategic partnership was initially driven by the mutual need to counter the Soviet Union and India. And herein lies the tension between the US and Pakistan. The military alliance led further to the creation of a Joint Committee for Economy. Trade and Technology. and China supported Pakistan in its two wars against India. A US interest in denying AQ and Afghan Taliban safe havens in Pakistan that can be used to launch attacks against US forces and allies in Afghanistan and against targets in Europe and the US. the northern areas of Pakistan.

.500 km from China and the port will be working the whole year because of its hot waters. and so on. Why the new emerging economic superpower China has invested heavily in Gwadar port? China doesn't have any port of hot waters. the push for Chinese investment in an array of economic sectors is much higher than it has been in the past. and technology. For Pakistan. which can be used the whole year.000 km away from Chinese industrial areas and sea travel takes an additional two to three months. The newer concerns on Chinese side are the security of Chinese personnel and assets in Pakistan. Gwadar port has strategic value as it augments Pakistan’s importance in the region. This costs them a lot in the form of taxes and duties as well. preventing the rise of militancy. securing Pakistan's nuclear arsenal. China have some fundamental interests in ensuring the stability of Pakistan also. media.China’s interests in Pakistan are on the following grounds: For China Karakoram Highway is the trade and energy corridor connecting Iran and Iraq is an important channel. avoiding direct conflict with India. Mumbai [attacks in 2008]. In times of crisis--Kargil [war in 1999]. China's decision to finance the construction of Gwadar port and coastal highway linking the port to Karachi will help its plans to develop western China. Pakistan's financial crisis [in 2008]–-cooperation has actually been quite effective. and the broader consequences of internal instability. justice. economy. Gwadar port is only at a distance of 2. The Shanghai port is approximately 16. Both sides also vowed to step up joint efforts against terrorism. while allowing China to diversify and secure its crude oil import routes and simultaneously gain access to the Persian Gulf. Compared to this. Two countries signed pacts on cooperation in agriculture. healthcare. China's economic activities in the country serve shared interests anyway.

As for China's plan to build two nuclear power reactors in Pakistan. Iran and Afghanistan in west and northwest respectively. surrounded by some of the front line and most talked about countries like China in the north.g. beaches. through which Pakistan can earn a lot of money by attracting for foreign travelers and visitors The low labor cost. meadows etc. it is likely Beijing will ignore international nonproliferation guidelines to go ahead with the deal. (22) SWOT analysis of Pakistan Strengths • Major Strengths of Pakistan are friendly people. decent social values. The authorities of Pakistan and Iran have been claiming that the Chinese have been showing interest in the extension of the proposed Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline to Xinjiang. snow-covered mountains. • • • • Weaknesses • Major weaknesses are political instability. (23) Natural resources (e. along with availability of workforce and other raw materials Pakistan is no doubt a strategically located country at the mouth of the most frequented trade and oil route of Persian Gulf and opening to the Indian Ocean. coal and salt) variety of places for tourism (deserts. terrorism and slow pace of development. greater family bond (people love their grandparents & parents).. world's finest cotton. . India in the east.

• • • Opportunities: • Pakistan has a considerable opportunity to meets its energy demand through IPI gas pipe line project. As far as transit trade agreement between Pakistan and Afghanistan is concerned.• • • • • • • The low labor productivity. which will ultimately contribute towards normalizing the major regional conflicts. Pakistan can get access in exchange to Central Asia through Afghanistan. Afghanistan. along with high-energy cost and subsequent high input costs are serious weaknesses lack of research & development Besides the poor infrastructure of the industrial sectors and the high utility expenses are also obstacles to proper growth. and national security issues. like Kashmir. There is also a lack of some coordination and synergy between the public and private sector. Low value added capability Political system: which is unstable and weak is causing the major threats to Pakistan that needs a strong political government Lack of committed leadership: with a clear vision and which can clearly make effective and long term policies Electricity and gas shortage further adds to the weakness in the industries productions runs Illiteracy and Extremism Poverty and Scarcity of Essential Goods. • . by giving rout to Afghanistan for trade with India. The economic and development benefits of IPI gas pipe line will help a lot to Iran-Pakistan and India to redefine their policies toward each other.

Currently Pakistan faces terrorism. Pakistan has an opportunity to earn foreign reserves through these resources. chromite and many more. These external forces have pushed Pakistan into deep crisis. Negative role of India. Iran in this conflict ridden area. Threats • Baluchistan and Waziristan conflicts are posing threats to any economic project like IPI gas pipeline. The basic purposes of these attacks are to destroy economic system of Pakistan. salt. Pakistan has unlimited natural resources like coal. gas. to weaken her so as to damage the nuclear assets of Pakistan. Instable governments in Pakistan have contributed in weakening the strong position.• • • There is a great opportunity for huge earning for Pakistan through Gwadar port. 9/11 attacks changing the world order and deeply impacting world. suicide bomb blasts. By creating strong ties with central Asian states. hatred in the citizen and divide them into different fictions. and present Pakistan as a terrorist State. • • • • . target killing. especially Muslim States. accelerating nuclear race in the South Asia. Kashmir is flash point. Terrorism: Pakistan’s role in the war on terror has led to “multidimensional” external security threats to the country. Joining the war on terror Pakistan faces many challenges which created instability within the territory. Pakistan can be a part of strong pool which will insure its support and safety at the time of needs. oil. US. (24) External powers direct and indirect involvement in Pakistan.

it will gain further credibility as a Muslim nation future. Tunnel farming can be developed as a solution for water shortage resulting from water issue with India. they could seek the good offices of the United Nations. Pakistan and India relations can never be normalized through bilateral talks only. 7. Water threat. If Pakistan packs out of the IPI pipeline now. USA. solar energy pumps. Pakistan must become wise and not spend money on arms that can well be spent on development. Third party intervention has been always successful in resolving the issues between the two countries. and Israel are using Afghan territory to intimidate Pakistan and generate insurgency. India. Pakistan needs to be visualized as a major Muslim country and IPI gas pipeline will encourage this role. Diplomatically. Outside intervention is not only feasible. And energy is needed for enhancement of production capacity. as in the case of brokering of Indus Water Treaty-1960 by World Bank. If Pakistan increases a working relationship with the country. 6. especially in prevention of a future war with India. 4. Iran has been known as a leader in the Muslim world. Self-agricultural strategies. Pakistan should develop regional forces to tackle the security threats from India. 2. India and Pakistan must renounce war as an instrument of foreign policy. They also use the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan for terrorist activities in Pakistan. The country will not be . The most important reason for supporting IPI gas pipeline is the energy needs in the country. For this purpose.• Different countries like Afghanistan. 3. • Future options for Pakistan 1. it is crucial for Pakistan to revive relations with Iran. For the IPI. its credibility will be at stake. 5. but absolutely necessary.

and above all US Caspian oil pipe dream. 9. working hand in hand with United Nation and OIC. (1) . Only peace in Afghanistan would allow down flow of oil and gas. So the relations with Afghanistan play a major role in this sense 11. Pakistan must be committed in transit trade agreement as it is helpful in maintain good relationship with Afghanistan. Pakistan should enhance politicoeconomic collaboration with China. Due to war against terror in Afghanistan there is a threat of security from terrorists. (1) 8. There is a need to establish check post where the security is concerned at Durand line. Afghanistan and Central Asian Republics. which will surely help Pakistan in getting access to central Asian states through Afghanistan. and national security issues. to Europe through Afghanistan. Afghanistan. It will be perceived as falling quickly under pressure from the United States. like Kashmir.taken seriously in consideration for similar efforts in the future. Tajikistan. Iran. 13. Indian involvement and Russian interests. In her pursuit to restore peace in Afghanistan Pakistan should be mindful of Iranian sensitivity. Pakistan needs a transit trade passage to connect with the rest of the world in west like Turkmenistan. In keeping with the long-term objective. The potential for economic and developmental gain from natural gas will force India. play its cards professionally without siding with any particular groups. and other raw material from CARs to the Arabian Sea. Pakistan should. 10. Iran. and Kazakhstan etc. 12. and Pakistan to reassess their roles and policies in regional conflicts. we must develop a Biometric system specifically for tribes.handed approach is unlikely to resolve the issue. therefore. A hurried and single . Normalization of internal turmoil in Afghanistan is in the interest of the entire region. which could only start to take place once the US and allies troops are out of their soil. Pakistan and Iran together could play an effective rule in restoring peace.

China has the necessary capacity and capability to offer Pakistan such opportunities. . The envisaged collaboration would be mutually beneficial for both the countries. 7. January 2010). through which Pakistan can earn a lot of revenue and use this revenue in existing projects and can initiate new development programs. In this regard. Pakistan should strongly concentrate on the development of Gwadar port. These steps will help in building strong ties with the people of Baluchistan. Aircraft industry. 30th April. Qurtuba University of Science & IT. 4. 2010) Strategic Security Options for Pakistan.14. Muhammad Anwar and Ebad Baig). Dept. (Dr. tank manufacturing and exchange of peaceful nuclear programs are some of the areas.Issue 14 (May. 16. 2009). 15. of IR & Political Science. 2. India-Pakistan Nuclear Rivalry). (Prospects for Pakistan by Jonathan Paris. (Mohib Ullah Durani. (Research Journal of Internatıonal Studıes . Defense collaboration should be expanded from exchange of visits and joint ventures in defense production especially with China and Iran. January 2005. (http://en. Peshawar Campus). (Indo-Pak relations by Ahmad Ali Ansari. Warship construction.wikipedia. 6. which should be vigorously pursued. 5. providing infrastructure support and development of universities and research institutes.wikipedia. giving them sufficient royalties. Zulfqar Khan. 2009).org/wiki/Afghanistan%E2%80%93Pakistan_relations) 8. Anti-Pakistan movement from Baluchistan can only be discouraged and cooperation from Baluchistan can only be achieved by providing the peoples of Baluchistan with adequate funds for developments. (http://en. 3. (Geo-Strategic Importance of Pakistan by Mansoor Ahmed May 13. Endnotes: 1. MPhil Research Scholar. which will remove their feelings of inferiority complex.org/wiki/Indo-Pakistani_relations).

. Spring 1999. and Pakistan’s Gwadar Port by Ziad Haider.com/2010/07/26/afg-pak-transit-trade- agreement/) 10. 13." International Security. (http://www.csseguide. (Reconciling Pak relationship with CARs by Dr Raja Muhammad Khan. "Pakistan's Nuclear Weapons Program: Turning Points and Nuclear Choices. 15. 2005). (Thursday. 16. 22. December 2004 by Shah Alam). (Intensifying China-Pakistan Ties by. (Baluchis. (Arooj. April 12. (http://www. 24. (George Perkovich. 20. 23. 21. July 1. (http://www. Vol. (Iran to India Natural Gas Pipeline: Implications for Conflict Resolution & Regionalism in India. (Samina Ahmed. 4. "Could Anything Be Done to Stop Them? Lessons from Pakistan's Proliferating Past.html). (Importance of Gwadar Port for Pakistan.atimes. 2010).multiply. June 2006). PA). Carlisle.asp?id=39162).net/201007/01/detailnews. (PAKISTAN-CHINA RELATIONS: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS (JAN-MAY 2006).9.com/atimes/South_Asia/HA13Df03. Sokolski (ed) Pakistan's Nuclear Future: Worries Beyond War. and Pakistan By Shamila N.com).wordpress.com/journal/item/39).php?t=279&p=442). No. 23. Jul 8th. 17. (http://jmk2b. 19. 2010. July 7. by Neelum Qureshi pakobserver. Beijing.com/showthread. Iran.faqs. (http://kabulperspective. Chaudhary)." in Henry D.html). June 6. Andrew Small. Urvashi Aneja Research Officer. 14.org/qa/qa-8942. 11. 12. 2010). 18. (1998: Strategic Studies Institute. 2010 by admin viewstonews.forum. Monday. IPCS. (Iran-Pakistan Relations: Political and Strategic Dimensions. 2008. Beyond Enemy Pipelines).

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