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Project Management Professional PMP

Memo No (

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Projects Communications Management using Projects Management Software ‫أدارة األتصاالت وههارات التعاهل للوشروعات بأستخذام الحاسب‬
by

Dr. Abdalla ElDaoushy
Nov, 2010

Abdalla ElDaoushy, Institute of National Planning, Cairo, EGYPT

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Contents
Page Theoretical Part  Introducing Projects Communication Management. 1. 2. 3. 4. Communications Planning . Information Distribution . Project Performance Reporting Administrative Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5,9 6, 14 7, 18 8,25 28 31 33

 Key Terms .  Summary  Self Test . .

Practical Part Using Primavera Expedition in Projects Communications Management, Course 202A . . . . .

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Lesson 1: Introduction to Primavera Expedition, Course 202A . Lesson 2: Setting up the Contact Directory, Course 202A Lesson 5: Reporting Project Events, Course 202A . Lesson 6: Tracking and Statusing Submittals Lesson 7: Communicating Project Information.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-1 2-1 5-1 6-1 7-1 46

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Theoretical Part

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Projects Communications Management
 Communication is the most important Skill the Project Manager must have.  Project Managers spend about %90 of their time communicating: Meetings, Phone Calls, Memos, E-Mails, Reports, Presentations, etc…  A Project Manager is a Communicator.  Projects Communications Management centers on determining who needs what information and when --- and then produces the plan to provide the needed information.  Project Communication Management includes the processes required to insure timely, collection, dissemination (distribution), and storing Communication.  Projects Communications Management provides the critical links among People, Ideas, and Information that are necessary for success.  Everyone involved in the Project must be prepared to send and receive communications, and must understand how the communications in which they are involved as Individuals affect the Project as a whole.

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In this memo, we discuss the following major Processes:

1. Communications Planning --- Determining the Information and Communications Needs of the Stakeholders; specifically who needs what Information, when they will need it, and how it will be given to them. 2. Information Distribution --- Making Needed Information available to Project Stakeholders in a timely manner. 3. Project Performance Reporting --- Connecting and disseminating Performance Information. This includes Status Reporting, Progress Measurement, and Forecasting Project Conditions. 4. Administrative Closure --- The Project Manager will need a Routine of Documentation, Communication, and Information Distribution to close out a Phase or Project. These Processes interact with each other and with the Processes in the other knowledge areas as well. Each Process may involve effort from one or more Individuals or Group of Individuals based on the Needs of the Project.

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In brief,

1. Communications Planning
1.1 Inputs to Communications Planning
1.1.1 Communications Requirements 1.1.2 Communications Technology 1.1.3 Constraints & Assumptions

1.2 Tools & Techniques to Communications Planning
1.2.1 Stakeholders Analysis

1.3 Outputs from Organizational Planning
1.3.1 Communications Management Plan

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2. Information Distribution
2.1 Inputs to Information Distribution
2.1.1 Work Results 2.1.2 Communications Management Plan 2.1.3 Project Plan

2.2

Tools & Techniques for Information Distribution
2.2.1 Communications Skills 2.2.2 Information Retrieval Systems 2.2.3 Information Distribution Methods

2.3

Outputs from Information Distribution
2.3.1 Project Records 2.3.2 Project Reports 2.3.3 Projects Presentations

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3. Project Performance Reporting
3.1 Inputs to Project Performance Reporting
3.1.1 Project Plan 3.1.2 Work Results 3.1.3 Other Project Records

3.2 Tools & Techniques for Project Performance Reporting
3.2.1 Performance Reviews 3.2.2 Variance Analysis 3.2.3 Trend Analysis 3.2.4 Earned Value Analysis 3.2.5 Information Distribution Tools & Techniques

3.3 Outputs from Project Performance Reporting 3.3.1 Performance Reports 3.3.2 Change Requests
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4. Administrative Closure
4.1 Inputs to Administrative Closure
4.1.1 Performance Measurement Documentation 4.1.2 Product Documentation 4.1.3 Other Project Records

4.2 Tools to Administrative Closure
4.2.1 Performance Reporting Tools & Techniques 4.2.2 Project Reports 4.2.3 Project Presentations

4.3 Outputs from Administrative Closure
4.3.1 Project Archives 4.3.2 Project Closure 4.3.3 Lessons Learned

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In details,

1.

Communications Planning
Communications Planning involves determining the Information & Communications Needs of Stakeholders. (Who needs what information? When they will need it? How it will be given to them and by whom? ). While all Projects share the need to communicate Project Information, the Informational Needs and the Methods of Distribution vary widely. Identifying the Informational Needs is an important factor for Project Success. On most Projects, the majority on Communications Planning is done as part of the earliest Project Phases. However, the results of this process should be reviewed regularly throughout the Project and revised as needed to ensure continued applicability.

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1.1 Inputs to Communications Planning
1.1.1 Communications Requirements Stakeholders will need different types of Information depending on their interest in the Project. The Project Manager will need to complete an analysis of the Identified Stakeholders to determine what Information they actually need --- and how often the Information is needed. The Project Manager & Project Team can identify the demand for Project Communication Requirements on the basis of the following: o Project Organization and Stakeholders Responsibility Relationships. o Disciplines, Departments, and Specialties involved in the Project. o Logistics of how many Individuals will be involved with the Project and at which Locations. o External Communication Needs (i.e., communicating with the media).

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1.1.2 Communications Technology The Technologies or Methods used to transfer Information back and forth among Project Stakeholders can vary significantly (from brief conversations to extended meetings, from simple written documents to immediately accessible online schedules and databases). Communications Technology Factors that may affect the Project include:  The Closeness of the Need for Information.  The Availability of Technology.  The Expected Project Staffing --- Are the proposed Communications Systems compatible with the experience and expertise of the Project Participants, or will extensive Training and Learning be required?  The Length of the Project --- Is the Available Technology likely to change before the Project is over?

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1.1.3 Constraints & Assumptions Every Project usually has Constraints and Assumptions. Constraints are any force that limits the Project’s Options. A Project Constraint (such as Contractual Obligations) may require extensive Communications. The requirements for the Contract should be evaluated against the demands of the Project Staff to determine if extra Resources will be needed to handle the Communications. Assumptions can also affect Communications. Consider a Project operating under the assumption that Communications with Management can happen only through e-mail. This false assumption can impose time demands the Project Manager had not expected.

1.2 Tools & Techniques to Communications Planning
1.2.1 Stakeholders Analysis The Information Needs of the various Stakeholders should be analyzed to develop a precise and logical view of their Information Needs and Sources to meet those Needs. The Analysis should consider Methods and Technologies suited to the Project that will provide the Information Needed.
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1.3 Outputs from Communications Planning
1.3.1 Communications Management Plan A Communications Management Plan is a Document that provides: o A Collection & Filing Structure that details what methods will be used to gather and store various types of Information. Procedures should also cover collecting and disseminating (distributing) updates and corrections to previously distributed Materials. o Details of how Needed Information flows through the Project to the correct Individuals. The Communication Structure Documents where the Information will originate, to whom the Information will be sent, and in what Modality the Information is acceptable. o Schedules of when the various types of Communication should occur. Some Communication (such as Meetings) should happen on a regular Schedule; other Communications may be prompted by conditions within the Project. o Methods to retrieve Information as needed. o Instructions on how the Communications Management Plan can be updated as the Project progresses.
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2. Information Distribution
Information Distribution involves making needed information available to project Stakeholders in a timely manner.

2.1

Inputs to Information Distribution
2.1.1 Work Results Work Results (good or bad) serve as inputs to Information Distribution because they show progress (or lake of progress), Quality Issues, and other relevant Information. 2.1.2 Communications Management Plan This Plan serves as a guide on how to communicate on Project Issues within the Performing Organization. 2.1.3 Project Plan The Comprehensive Project Plan may have Information, Requirements, or Described Conditions that are integrated with Communications.

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2.2

Tools & Techniques for Information Distribution
2.2.1 Communications Skills Communications Skills are used to exchange Information. The Sender is responsible for making the Information clear (explicit and complete) so that the Receiver can receive it correctly and for confirming that it is properly understood. Communicating has many dimensions: o Written and Oral – Listening and Speaking o Internal (within the Project) and External (to the Customer, the Media, the Public, etc.). o Formal (Reports, Briefings, etc.) and Informal (Memos, Ad hoc (unplanned) Conversations, etc.) o ‫شاهذ الفيلن الوعني بأألتصال‬ 2.2.2 Information Retrieval Systems Information can be shared by Team Members and Stakeholders through a variety of methods including Manual Filing Systems, Electronic Databases, Project Management Software (Oracle Primavera Expedition), and Systems that allow access to Technical Documentation such as Engineering Drawings, Design Specifications, Test Plans, etc.

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2.2.3 Information Distribution Methods Project Information may be distributed using a variety of methods including Project Meetings, Hard-Copy Document Distribution, and Shared Access to Networked Electronic Databases, Faxes, Electronic Mail, Voice Mail, Videoconferencing, and Project Web Site.

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2.3

Outputs from Information Distribution
2.3.1 Project Records Project Records may include Correspondence, Memos, E-Mails, and Documents describing the Project. These Records are important to secure and organize the Information throughout the Project for future reference. The Information should be stored as part of the Project Archives.

2.3.2 Project Reports Reports are Formal Communications on Project Activities, Project Status and/or Conditions. Management, Customers, and Policies within the Performing Organization may have different requirements for when Reports are required. 2.3.3 Projects Presentations Presentations are useful in providing Information to Customers, Management, the Project Team, and other Stakeholders. The Project Team provides information formally (or informally) to any or all of the Project Stakeholders.

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3. Project Performance Reporting
Project Performance Reporting is the Process of collecting and distributing Performance Information to provide Stakeholders with Information about how Resources are being used to achieve Project Objectives. Performance Reporting should generally provide information on Scope, Schedule, Cost, and Quality. Many Projects also require Information on Risk and Procurement. This Process includes: o Status Reporting --- Describing where the Project now stands --for example, the status related to Schedule and Budget of the Project. o Progress Reporting --- Describing what the Project Team has accomplished --- For example, Percent Complete to Schedule, What is completed versus What is in progress. o Forecasting --- Predicting future Project Status and Progress. Will this Project end on Schedule? Will the Project be on Budget? How much longer will the Project take? and how much money will this Project need to finish? o Scope --- How is the Project meeting the Project Scope? o Quality --- What are the Results of Quality Audit, testing, and Analysis? o Risks --- What Risks have come into the Project and what has been their affect on the Project?
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3.1 Input to Project Performance Reporting
3.1.1 Project Plan The Project Plan contains the various baselines that will be used to assess Project Performance. 3.1.2 Work Results Which Deliverables have been fully or partially completed? What Costs (and/or Resources) have been incurred or committed*, etc. are an output of Project Plan Execution. Work Results should be reported within the framework provided by the Communications Management Plan. Accurate, Uniform Information on Work Results is essential to useful Performance Reporting. 3.1.3 Other Project Records In addition to the Project Plan and Project’s Work Results, other Documents often contain information pertaining to the Project Context that should be considered when assessing Project Performance. ---------------------------- The Budgeted Cost Amount usually between the General Contractor & Owner, while the Committed Cost Amount usually between the General Contractor & Subcontractors… [See Primavera Expedition for more details…]
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3.2 Tools & Techniques for Project Performance Reporting
3.2.1 Performance Reviews Performance Reviews are meetings held to assess (evaluate) Project Status and/or Progress. 3.2.2 Variance Analysis Variance Analysis involves comparing actual Project Results to Planned or Expected Results. Cost and Schedule Variances are the most frequently analyzed, but Variances from Plan in the areas of Scope, Resource, Quality, and Risk are often of equal or greater importance. 3.2.3 Trend Analysis Trend Analysis involves examining Project Results over time to determine if importance is improving or worsening. 3.2.4 Earned Value Analysis Earned Value Analysis in its various forms is the most commonly used method of Performance Measurement. It integrates Scope, Cost (or Resources), and Schedule Measures to help the Project Management Team assess Project Performance.

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Earned Value (EV) involves calculating 3 key values for each Activity: 1. Planned Value (PV), previously called Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS), is that portion of the Approved Cost Estimate planned to be spent on the Activity during a given period. 2. Actual Cost (AC), previously called the Actual Cost of work Performed (ACWP), is the total of costs incurred in accomplishing work on the Activity during a given period. 3. Earned Value (EV), previously called the Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP), is the Value of Work Actually Completed. These 3 Values are used in combination to provide measures of whether or not Work is being Accomplished as Planned. The most commonly used measures are: Cost Variance (CV): CV = EV – AC Schedule Variance (SV): SV = EV – PV Cost Performance Index (CPI): CPI = EV/AC The Cumulative CPI (the sum of all individual EV budgets divided by the sum of all individual ACs) is widely used to forecast Project Costs at Completion. The Schedule Performance Index (SPI = EV/PV) is sometimes used in conjunction with the CPI to forecast the Project Completion Estimates.
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3.2.5 Information Distribution Tools & Techniques Performance Reports are distributed using the Tools & Techniques described above (Tools & Techniques for Information Distribution).

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3.3 Outputs from Project Performance Reporting
The goal of Performance Reporting is to share Information regarding the Project Performance with the appropriate Stakeholders. Of course, Performance Reporting is not something done at the end of the Project or after a Project Phase, but is rather done on a regular Schedule, as detailed in the Communication Plan, or as Project Conditions warrant. Outputs of Performance Reporting include: 3.3.1 Performance Reports Performance Reports organize and summarize the information gathered and present the results of any analysis. Reports should provide the kinds of information and level of detail required by various Stakeholders as documented in the Communication Management Plan. Common formats for Performance Reports include BarCharts, S-Curves, Histograms, and Tables 3.3.2 Change Requests Analysis of Project Performance often generates a Request for a Change to some aspect of the Project. The Change Requests should flow into the Change Control System for consideration and Approved or Rejection.

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Performance Reports and Change Requests are an input to the following Change Control Processes: o Integrated Change Control o Scope Change Control o Schedule Change Control o Cost Change Control

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4. Administrative Closure
The Project or Phase of the Project (after either achieving its objectives or being terminated for other reasons) require closure. Administrative Closure consists of documenting Project Results to formalize acceptance of the product of the Project by the Sponsor, or Customer. Administrative Closure includes collecting Project Records; ensuring that they reflect final Specifications; Analyzing Project Success, Effectiveness, and Lessons Learned; and archiving such information for future use. Administrative Closure Activities should not be delayed until Project Completion. Each Phase of the Project should be properly closed to ensure that the important and useful information is not lost. In addition, Employee Skills in the Staff Pool Database should be updated to reflect new Skills and Proficiency Increases.

4.1

Inputs to Administrative Closure
4.1.1 Performance Measurement Documentation All Documentation produced to record and analyze Project Performance must be available for review during Administrative Closure. 4.1.2 Product Documentation Documents produced to describe the Product of the Project (Plans, Specifications, Technical Documentation, Drawings, Electronic Files, etc.) must also be available for review during Administrative Closure. 4.1.3 Other Project Records

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4.2 Tools to Administrative Closure
4.2.1 Performance Reporting Tools & Techniques 4.2.2 Project Reports 4.2.3 Project Presentations (all of these are discussed before)

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4.3 Outputs from Administrative Closure
4.3.1 Project Archives A Complete Set of Indexed Project Records should be prepared for archiving by the appropriate Parties. Any Project-Specific or Historical Databases pertinent to the Project should be updated. When Projects done under Contract, or when they involve significant Procurement, particular attention must be paid to archiving of Financial Records. 4.3.2 Project Closure Project Closure means that there is a Formal Confirmation that the Project has met all Customer Requirements for the Product of the Project. 4.3.3 Lessons Learned As the Project moves through its phase, the Project Manager and Project Team should be completing the “Lesson Learned” for future reference. At the end of the Project Closure, the Lesson Learned Documentation should be archived as well for future use.

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Key Terms
Encoder: Part of the communications model; the device or technology that packages the message to travel over the medium. Decoder: This is a part of the communications model; it is the inverse of the encoder. If a message is encoded, a decoder translates it back to usable format. Receiver: Part of the communications model: the recipient of the message. Bull's eye: Creates limits to the acceptable earned value metrics. Any variances within the preset values automatically prompt communication to management. Schedule Performance Index (SPI): This reveals the efficiency of work. The closer the quotient is to 1, the better: SPI=EV/PV Schedule Variance: The difference between the planned work and the earned work. Scope statement: A document that describes the work, and only the required work, to meet the project objectives. The scope statement establishes a common vision among the project stakeholders to establish the point and purpose of the project work. It is used as a baseline against which all future project decisions are made to determine if proposed changes or work-results are aligned with expectations. Scope Verification: The process of the project customer accepting the project deliverables. Scope verification happens at the end of each project phase and at the end of the project. Scope verification is the process of ensuring the deliverables the project creates are in alignment with the project scope. Scoring Models (also called weighted scoring models): These models use a common set of values for all of the projects up for selection. Each value has a weight assigned values of high importance have a high weight, while values of lesser importance have a lesser weight. The projects are measured
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against these values and assigned scores according to how well they match the predefined values. The projects with high scores take priority over projects will lesser scores. Secondary Risks: Risks that stem from risk responses. For example, the response of transference may call for hiring a third party to management an identified risk. A secondary risk caused by the solution is the failure of the third party to complete its assignment as scheduled. Secondary risks must be identified, analyzed, and planned for just as any identified risk. Sender: Part of the communications model: the person or group delivering the message to the receiver. Simulation: This allows the project team to play 'what-if' games without affecting any areas of production. Single Source: A specific seller that the performing organization prefers to contract with. Stakeholders: The individuals, groups, and communities that have a vested interest in the outcome of a project. Examples include the project manager, the project team, the project sponsor, customers, clients, vendors, and communities. Statement of Work (SOW): This fully describes the work to be completed, the product to be supplied, or both. The SOW becomes part of the contract between the buyer and the seller. The SOW is typically created as part of the procurement planning process and is used by the seller to determine whether it can meet the project's requirements. Supporting Detail: Any information that support decisions, including logic employed and rationales, and the project plan as a whole. Supporting detail can include books, articles, web sites, vendor information, results of testing, historical information, and many others information sources. Cost Performance Index (CPI): An index that measures how well the project is performing on cost: CPI=EV/AC.

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Cost variance: The Cost Variance (CV) is the difference between the Earned Value (EV) and the Actual Costs (AC). Cost-Reimbursable Contracts: A contract that pays the seller for the product. In the payment to the seller, there is a profit margin the difference between the actual costs of the product and the sales amount.

Trend Analysis: Trend analysis is taking past results to predict future performance.

Earned Value (EV): The value of the work that has been completed and the budget for that work: EV=%Complete X BAC. Earned Value Management: Earned value management integrates scope, schedule, and cost to give an objective, scalable point-in-time assessment of the project. EVM calculates the performance of the project and compares current performance against plan. EVM can also be a harbinger of things to come. Results early in the project can predict the likelihood of the project's success or failure. Effective Listening: The receiver is involved in the listening experience by paying attention to visual clues by the speaker and to paralingual intentions and by asking relevant questions. Paralingual: The pitch, tone, and inflections in the sender's voice affect the message being sent. Nonverbal Communication: Approximately 55 percent of oral communication is non-verbal. Facial expressions, hand gestures, and body language contribute to the message.

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Summary:
Planning for Communication
Communication centers on who needs what and on when and how you are going to give it to them. Communication Requirements are set by Stakeholders. Communication Planning is accomplished early in the Planning Processes. Communications are linked to the organizational structure of the Performing Organization. Constraints and Assumptions can affect the Communications Planning.

Communications Management Plan
Provides Instructions on how to gather and disseminate Project Information. Provides Instructions on the Communications Methods, such as Hard Copies, Reports, and E-Mail. Includes a Schedule of Expected Communications, such as Reports and Meetings. Provides a Method to access Needed Information between regularly Scheduled Communications.

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Performance Reporting
Status Reporting provides current Information on the Project. Progress Reporting provides Information on what the Team has accomplished? and may include Information on what is yet to be accomplished. Forecasting Reporting provides Information on how the remainder of the Project or Phase is expected to go. Variance Analysis Reporting examines the reason why Cost, Schedule, Scope, Quality, and other factors may vary from what was planned. Trend Analysis Reporting is the study of Trends over time to reveal patterns and expectations of future results. Earned Value Analysis is a series of formulas that reveal and predict project performance. Change Requests may stem from Performance Reports.

Administrative Closure
Administrative Closure is the formal Documentation, Organization, and Archival Aspects of a Project or Phase Acceptance. Administrative Closure should also happen when the Project is terminated. The Project Archives include the Complete Index of all Project Records, Documents, Product Specifications, and any relevant Documents. The Project Archives will serve as Historical Information for future Projects. The Project Team and the Project Manager complete the Lessons Learned Documents throughout the Project Phases.

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Self Test (Reference No 2)
1. Of the following, which one is not an example of formal communications? A. Presentations to groups B. Ad hoc conversations C. Contractual agreements D. Presentations to management
(B. Ad hoc conversations, while often effective, are not examples of formal communications, as they are unplanned meetings.)

2. Of the following, which one is an example of informal communications? A. Memos B. Presentations to groups C. Briefings D. Speeches 3. You are the project manager for the LKH Project. Management has requested that you create a document detailing what information will be expected from stakeholders and to whom that information will be disseminated. Management is asking for which one of the following? A. Roles and responsibilities matrix B. Scope Management Plan C. Communications Management Plan D. Communications worksheet
(C. Management is requesting a Communications Management Plan, which details the requirements and expectations for communicating information among the project stakeholders. A. is incorrect; a roles and responsibilities matrix depicts who does what and who makes what decisions. B. the Scope Management Plan is also incorrect; this plan explains how changes to the scope may be allowed depending on the circumstances. D. is not a valid choice for the question.)

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4. Which one of the following will help you, the project manager, complete the needed Communications Management Plan by identifying the stakeholders and their communication needs? A. Identification of all communication channels B. Formal documentation of all communication channels C. Formal documentation of all stakeholders D. Communication matrix
(D. A communication matrix is an excellent tool to identify the stakeholders and their requirements for communication. A communication matrix is the best tool to identify stakeholders’ requirements for communication.)

5. You are the project manager for the JGI Project. You have 32 stakeholders on this project. How many communications channels do you have? A. Depends on the number of project team members. B. 496 C. 32 D. 1
(B. Using the formula N(N-1)/2, where N represents the number of stakeholders, there are 496 communication channels.)

6. You are the project manager for the KLN Project. You had 19 stakeholders on this project. You have added three team members to the project. How many more communication channels do you have now than before? A. 171 B. 231 C. 60 D. 1
C. This is a tough question, but typical of the PMP exam. The question asks how many more communication channels exist. You’ll have to calculate the new value, which is 231 (22*21/2), and then subtract the original value, which is171(19*18/2), for a total of 60 new channels.)

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7. A memo has been sent to you, the project manager, project team members, and the project customers from the project sponsor. In this instance, who is the encoder? A. Project sponsor B. Project manager C. Project team members D. Project customers
(A. The project sponsor is the source of the memo, as this is the sender of the message. B, C, and D are all recipients of the memo, not the sender, so they cannot be the source of the message.)

8. Which one of the following can use EVM in its preparation for management? A. Status reports B. Trend reports C. Performance reports D. All of the above
(EVM --- Earned Value Management)

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9. What does the following figure mean?

A. It is a control chart to manage communications between the project manager and the project sponsor. B. It is a control chart to management communications between the project manager and Management. C. It is a variance chart to manage communications between the project manager and Management. D. It is a bull’s eye to manage communications between the project manager and the Management.
(D. The figure is called a communications bull’s eye and is used to trigger communication needs to management when EVM results fall within the identified ranges.)

10. Of the following, which term describes the pitch and tone of an individual’s voice? A. Paralingual B. Feedback C. Effective listening D. Active listening
(A. Paralingual is a term used to describe the pitch and tone of one’s voice. B, feedback, is a request to confirm the information sent in the conversation. C, effective listening is the ability to understand the message through what is said, facial expressions, gestures, tone and pitch, and so on. D, active listening is the process of confirming what is understood and asking for clarification when needed.)

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11. You are the project manager of the KMH Project. This project is slated (scheduled) to last eight years. You have just calculated EVM and have a CV of -$3500. What type of report is needed for management? A. Progress report B. Forecast report C. Exception report D. Trends report
(C. An exception report is typically completed when variances exceed a given limit. Progress Reports describe the progress of the project or phase. Trends Report is an analysis of project trends over time.)

12. In your Communications Management Plan, you have detailed administrative closure. At what point will administrative closure take place? A. When the project is archived B. At the completion of each phase C. Only when the project is complete or cancelled D. As management sees fit 13. You are the project manager for OOK Project. You will be hosting project meetings every week. Of the following, which one is not a valid rule for project meetings? A. Schedule recurring meetings as soon as possible B. Allow project meetings to last as long as needed C. Distribute meeting agendas prior to the meeting start D. Allow the project team to have input to the agenda 14. The three basic elements needed for communication in project management are A. Words, sentences, paragraphs B. Proper grammar, spelling, ideas C. Verbal, nonverbal, action D. Sender, receiver, message

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15. Which one of the following is the method of analyzing project performance preferred in government projects? A. Communications management B. Management by walking around C. EVM D. Variance analysis
(C. EVM is all about analyzing project performance. A. communications management focuses on managing communications, not performance. B. management by walking around is an effective management style, but it does reflect project performance. D. variance analysis focuses on the root causes of variances within the project, but not solely on the project performance.)

16. What percentage of a message is sent through nonverbal communications, such as facial expressions, hand gestures, and body language? A. Greater than 50 percent B. 30 to 40 percent C. 20 to 30 percent D. 10 to 20 percent 17. Which one is not a filter for receivers of communication? A. Culture B. Conflict C. Knowledge D. Language
(B. Conflict is not a filter of communication. It is a communication hindrance (difficulty). Culture, Knowledge, and Language are filters for receivers)

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18. You are finalizing project completion. You will gather, generate, and disseminate project information. This is known as which one of the following? A. Project closure B. Project postmortem C. Administrative closure D. Operational transfer
(C. Administrative closure is the process of generating, gathering, and disseminating project information. A and B are incorrect, as project closure and project postmortem involve more than just generating, gathering, and disseminating project information. D. Operational Transfer is the process of moving the project deliverable into operations.)

19. Often in project management you will have to negotiate. Negotiations work best in which environment? A. Caution and yielding B. Sincerity, honesty, and extreme caution C. Mutual respect and admiration D. Mutual respect and cooperation

20. You are the project manager for the PMU Project. Your project has 13 members. You have been informed that next week your project will receive the 7 additional members you requested. How many channels of communications will you have next week? A. 1 B. 78 C. 190 D. 201
[N(N-1)/2]; N is the number of Identified Stakeholders in the Communication Channels

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21. Which one of the following will result in the most productive results when negotiating? A. Yielding B. Forcing C. Collaborating D. Compromising
(C. Collaborating is the ideal method when negotiating. The goal of negotiations is to work together for the good of the project. A. Yielding is not working for the good of the project. B. forcing, exerts power over one party without properly negotiating. D. Compromising, calls for both parties to give up something without necessarily working together for the good of the project.)

22. Which one of the following is an output from performance reporting? A. Trend analysis B. EVM C. Variance analysis D. Change requests
(D. Of all the choices, change requests are the only acceptable answer. Incidentally, there are two outputs of performance reporting: change requests and performance reports. A. Trend analysis is the study of project performance results to determine if the project is improving or failing. It is a tool used as part of performance reporting, but it is not an output of performance reporting. B and C are also tools used in performance reporting, but they are not an output of the process.)

23. The process of sending information from the project manager to the project team is called which of the following: A. Functioning B. Matrixing C. Blended communications D. Transmitting

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24. George is the project manager of the 7YH Project. In this project, George considers the relation between himself and the customer to be of utmost important. Which one of the following is a valid reason for George’s belief in the importance of the relationship between the customer and himself? A. The customer will complete George’s performance evaluation. A poor communication model between George and the customer will affect his project bonus. B. The customer is not familiar in project management. George must educate the customer on the process. C. The customer is always right. D. The communication between the customer and George can convey the project objectives more clearly than can the language in the project contract. 25. Which one of the following means that communications occur? A. The transfer of knowledge B. The outputting of knowledge C. The presence of knowledge D. The transmission of knowledge
(A the transfer of knowledge is evidence that communication has occurred. B and C do not necessarily mean the knowledge has originated from the source and been transferred to the recipient. D is incorrect; messages are transmitted, but knowledge is transferred.)

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Practical Part

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Using Primavera Expedition in Projects Communications Management Course 202A
Lesson 1: Introduction to Primavera Expedition, Course 202A . Lesson 2: Setting up the Contact Directory, Course 202A o Contacts Log . . . o Adding a New Company . .  Entering Company Data .  Adding Contact Data .  Copying Addresses . .  Contact role Configuration  Project preferences .  Contacts Tab . .  Copying Contacts . .  Log . . . .  Forms . . .  Reports . . .  Printing Contact Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 2-1 2-2 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-10 2-10 2-11

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Lesson 5: Reporting Project Events, Course 202A . o Meeting Minutes . . .  Printed Meeting . . o Adding Meeting Minutes .  Meeting Minutes Log .  Adding Business Items .  Adding Attendees . . o Creating Agendas using Generate o Daily Reports . . . o Creating Daily Reports . . o Adding a New Daily Report . o Copying Daily Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-11 5-13 5-14 5-19

Lesson 6: Tracking and Statusing Submittals

.

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

6-1 6-26 6-26 6-26 6-28 6-28 6-28 6-29 6-30 6-32 6-32 6-37

o Correspondence . . . .  Correspondence Received .  Correspondence Sent . .  Re-Submit . . . .  Returned Date . . .  Forwarded Date . . .  New revision Cycle . . .  Distribution . . . .  Distribution List for Submittal .  Tracking Multiple Reviewer . o Using Dunning Letters with Submittals

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Lesson 7: Communicating Project Information. o Letters. . . . . o Request for Information (RFI) . o Generating Documents . .

. . . .

. . . .

. . . .

7-1 7-2 7-10 7-12

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References

1. PMBOK Guide, A Guide to the Project Management of Knowledge Project Management Institute, Four Campus Boulevard, Newtown Square, PA 19073-3299 USA 2. Joseph Phillips, Project Management Professional – Study Guide McGraw Hill 3. Using Primavera Expedition for Contract Administration, Course 202 A, Training Manual. 4. Contract Management with Primavera Expedition, Course 202 B, Training Manual. 5. Dr. Abdalla El Daoushy, Projects Time Management & Controlling using Projects Management Software, Memo No. 971, Institute of National Planning, Cairo, Egypt, 2008 6. Dr. Abdalla El Daoushy, Projects Cost Management – Computer Software Oriented, Memo No. 973, Institute of National Planning, Cairo, Egypt, 2009

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