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LESSON 1: PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS OF MANAGEMENT LESSON 2: MANAGING AND MANAGERS

Definition of Management How management totally reach their goals?


“Management must follow the activities of functions of
“Management is the art of getting things done through people “
managements”
 Mary Parker Follet
Activities to achieve goals
“Management is a process of planning, organizing, leading and
controlling the efforts of organization members and using all other
organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals.”

 James A. F. Stoner

Definition of management must not ignore the ideas of:

1. Function of manager
2. Scientific aspects of management
3. Human aspect and treat people as merely means of
getting things done
4. Role of internal and external Management
Functions of management:
MORE EFFECTIVE DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT: is a process of
planning, organizing, directing, and controlling activities of and using 1. PLANNING: choose appropriate organizational goals, and
resources of an organization for accomplishing the organizational course of action to best achieve those goals
goals efficiently and effectively in an ever changing Environment
2. ORGANIZING: arranging tasks, people and other resources
to accomplish the work
5 Ms of management
3. STAFFING: choose personnel with the knowledge, skills
and motivation to perform the roles effectively

4. LEADING: motivates, coordinate and energize individuals


and groups to work together to achieve organizational
goals

5. CONTROLLING: establish accurate measuring and


monitoring systems to evaluate how well the organization
has achieve its goals

Managers and workplace


Concepts/nature of management
- Having a vision created and implemented by individuals
committed to the organizations. These individuals are
1. Management is a combination of art and science called MANAGERS
2. Management is a multi disciplinary discipline
3. Management is intangible - Managers work in places called organization- it is defined
4. Management is pervasive at all times as a systematic arrangement of people brought together
5. It is an environment oriented activities- (external and to accomplish some specific purpose. It refers to an entity
internal environment) that has a distinct purpose, has people or members and
6. Management is optimally utilizing the resources has a systematic structure.

Importance of management Definitions of efficiency and effectiveness

 Efficiency
1. For effective utilization of resources
2. Development of resources - Getting the most outputs for the least inputs
3. To incorporation innovation - “doing things right”
4. For better coordination among various development
5. Provide a sense of security and oneness of employees  Effectiveness
6. To complete the task within the stipulated time frame
- Attaining organizational goals
- “doing the right thing”
 LOW EFFICIENCY/ HIGH EFFECTIVENESS -managers  Leadership skills
chooses the right goals to pursue , but does a poor job of
using resources to achieve these goals Three qualities associated with successful managers
 LOW EFFICIENCY / LOW EFFECTIVENESS – managers  Need to manage
choose wrong goals to pursue and make poor use of  Need for power
resources  Capacity for empathy
 HIGH EFFICIENCY/ HIGH EFFECTIVENESS – managers
chooses the right goal to pursue and makes good use of Managerial functions in management
resources to achieve these goals
 HIGH EFFICIENCY /LOW EFFECTIVENESS- managers
chooses inappropriate goals, but makes good use of
resources to pursue these goals

LESSON 3: LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT

 Leadership: the process through which leaders influence


the values, behavior and attitude of people
Managerial and organizational performance
Classification of leaders:
 MANAGERIAL PERFORMANCE – measures how efficient
and effective a manager is-how well , he/she determines  Leadership qualities can be either be innate or can also be
and achieves appropriate objectives acquired
 ORANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE- the measures how the  Leaders motivates the team member to perform well
organizations efficient and effective an organization is-  Leaders also motivates the member in case of a failure
how well it achieves appropriate objectives
Manager Vs Leader
Managerial skills
MANAGERS LEADERS
PROFFESOR ROBERT L. KATZ HAS POPULARIZED THE CONCEPT OF
“MANAGERIAL SKILLS“ WHICH WAS EARLIER DEVELOPED BY HENRI ARE SOMEONE WHO: ARE SOMEONE WHO:
FAYOL
Plans and budgets Shows direction
 TECHNICAL SKILL- the ability to use tools, procedure and
Organizing and allocates the Aligns and influences
techniques of specialized field
resources
 HUMAN SKILL- the ability to work with understand and
motivate people, either as individual or as groups Controls and solve problems Motivates and inspires
 CONCEPTUAL SKILL- a mental ability to coordinate and
integrate all of the organization’s interest and activities. it
MANAGER LEADERS
involves the managers ability to see the organizations as a
whole and to understand how its parts depend on each Administers Innovates
other
Is a copy Is an original

Focuses on system processes Focuses on people

Relies on control Inspires

Has a short range view Has a long range perspective

Accepts the status quo Challenges it

Does thing right Does the right thing

5 more skills can be stated


 Designed skills
 Administrative skills
 Decision skills
 Communication skills
Core values of a leader o Human Relations
o Empathy
 FAIRNESS- treating people fairly and giving equal o Objectivity
opportunities o Motivation
o Technical Skills
 FREEDOM- freedom of expressions of thoughts and ideas
o Good Communications
 COMMITMENT- commitment toward work o Social Skills

Five ways to lead 3. Behavioral Theory


 It says that leadership is shown by a person act more
than by trait
 It explains what leaders should do rather than what
leaders are

Leader should perform 2 major functions:


a. Task related functions- provide solutions to
the problems faced by the groups in
performing jobs
b. Group maintenance functions – actions of
mediating disputes and ensuring that
individuals feel valued
In orders to empower people, leader should:
4. Situational Theory
 Avoid competing for power and recognition
 Here the attention is given to the situation in which
 Entrust task to others
the leadership is exercised
 Builds and communicate a vision
 Guide people to work meticulously to achieve meaningful Factors affecting leadership effectiveness are:
goals 1. Leaders behavior- personality, attitude,
 Help people believe in their own worth and capabilities interest, position in the organization
 Devise a culture in which fear and intimidation are 2. Situational factor – organizational climate,
replaced by trust organizational culture, group norms , group
 Display willingness to support people relationships

LESSON 4: LEADERSHIP THEORY AND STYLE Leadership Styles


LEADERSHIP- is the ability to influence a group towards the 1. Autocratic Style (Authoritarian)
achievement of goals o “This is my decision and you must follow it”
 In management terms, it is the use of authority which is o usually do not listen to his team mates
inherent in the designated formal rank to obtain
compliance from a organizational members 2. Democratic Style
o “Let’s work together to solve this “
Theories of leadership o everybody will participate and they will come up with
a solution or best possible solution
1. Charismatic Leadership Theory
3. Lessez- Faire
 Known as “great man theory”
o “ I don’t want to be involved”
 it suggests that a leader is born and is not made
o “you two take care of the problem while i go”
 a leader has some charisma which acts as an o what able they decide , they will able to do it
influence
 charismatic leaders are those who inspire the 4. Relation/People Oriented
followers through their personal vision and energy  focus on organizing , supplement and developed the
2. Trait Theory people

 Refers to the qualities of an individual 5. Servant


 This theory believes that persons having certain traits  meeting the needs at his/ her team
could become successful leaders
6. Task Oriented
Certain traits identified in a successful leaders are:  focus on the job done
o Physical Features
o Intelligence 7. Transformational
o Emotional Stability  inspired team, with a share vision at the future
8. Transactional  MANAGEMENT CONTROL- is the process by which are
 punish if not meet the given pre-determined standard certain that resources are obtained and utilized effectively
in accordance with the attainment of the objectives of the
LESSON 5: PLANNING organization.
PLANNING—deals with selecting the mission and objectives and the
LESSON 6: ORGANIZING
actions to achieve them. It requires decision-making that is choosing
from among alternative future courses of action ORGANIZING—stems from the word “organisms” simple to create a
structure with fully integrated parts that are related to each other
“Planning is a process which begins with objectives, and defines and is governed by their relationship to the whole
strategies, policies and detailed plans to achieve them “
 GEORGE A. STEINER  The word organizing refers to structure or network of
relationship among individuals interacting with one
Nature of planning comprises: another. Organizing as a tool is an end itself but means of
achieving the objectives of the organization. Organization
 It’s contribution to purpose and objectives is the roles of the participants with appropriate authority
 Its primacy among the manager’s tasks and proper coordination in the organizational Structure
 It’s pervasiveness and
Process of Organizing
 The efficiency of resulting plans
 Planning promotes innovative ideas 1. Establishing the objectives of the organization
 Planning facilitates- decision making 2. Formulating the objectives of the organization
 Planning establishes standard for controlling 3. Identifying and classifying the activities necessary to
 Focuses attention on objectives of the company accomplish this
4. Grouping these activities in the light of human and
material resources available and under circumstances, the
Steps in the planning process
best way of using them
 Be aware of the opportunities 5. Delegating to the head of each group the authority
 Setting up of the objectives necessary to perform the activities
 Developing premises
Step by step process of organizing (by easymba)
 Listing the various alternatives for achieving the objectives
 Evaluation of different alternatives
 Selecting an alternatives
 Implement plan
 Follow up

Kinds of Plans

 MISSION OR PURPOSE PLAN- identifies the basic function


of the organization
 GOALS AND OBJECTIVES- are results or achievements
toward which effort is directed
 STRATEGY- involves a plan or series of maneuvers for Formal Vs Informal Organization
obtaining a specific goal.  FORMAL ORGANIZATION refers to the deliberate
 POLICIES- are basically general statements that guide or structure of roles in a formally structure of roles in a
channel the thinking of managers in decision making formally organized enterprise
 PROCEDURE PLAN- are plans spelled out in a detailed-
 INFORMAL ORGANIZATION refers to a network of
manner in which certain activities must be accomplished
personal and social relations not established or required
 RULES- are usually the simplest type of plan which spell
by the formal organization but arising spontaneously as
out specific required action or non-action
people associate with one another
 PROGRAM PLAN- are plans or schedules to be followed
 BUDGET PLAN- is an itemized estimate of expected Formal Organization Features
income and expense
 It is deliberately designed by the top management
Kinds of Planning  It places more emphasis on work to be performed then
interpersonal relationships among employees
 STRATEGIC PLANNING- is a process of deciding on the  It specifies the relationship among various job positions
objectives of the organization, the resources necessary to and the nature of their inter-relationship
accomplish these objectives , the policies that should  It lays down rules and procedures essencial for
govern the acquisition, use and the disposition of these achievement of objective
resources
 Efforts of various job position and the nature of their inter  The organization and its members operate in an “action-
relationship research” way
 It lays down rules and procedure essential for achievement
of objective Tools and techniques of organization
 Efforts of various department are coordinated, interlinked  TOOL- anything used in doing a certain piece of work
and integrated through the formal organization produce certain results requiring some degree of accuracy
and precision
Additional informations about formal organizations:  TECHNIQUE- is essentially a way of doing things ,methods
 Formal is well defined structure of authorized and of accomplishing a desired result
responsibility that defines delegation of authority and
relationship amongst various organizational members 1. RECORDS- furnishing useful information and provide for
 It works along pre-defined sets of policies, plans, the continuity of operation. When maintained very well
procedures , schedules and programmers over a period time, records reflect the organization
 Most of the decisions in a formal organization are based philosophy, growth and development: forms, workflow
on pre-determined policies processes, procedures for records management and use of
 Formal organization is deliberally designed structure with computers in systemizing and organizing company records
formal authority, responsibility, rules, regulation, and
channels of communication. 2. REPORTS- usually contain data and information about the
operation of the organization. Plans, proceedings, status
Informal Organization Features reports on a particular project, and accomplishments of
 Originates from within the formal organization as a result each department on a quarterly semi-annually or annual
of personal interaction among employees basis form the files of the enterprise
 The standard of behavior evolve from group norms
 Independent channels of communication without specifies 3. ORGANIZATION CHARTS- indicate the main responsibility
direction of flow of information are developed by group and upward movement of accountability. They reflect and
members formal organizational relationships among executives
 Emerges spontaneously and is not deliberately created by
the management Organizational structure
Organizational structures is the systematic arrangement of people
Additional informations about informal organizations: working for the organization in order to achieve certain goals. It is a
 Informal organization means a network of interpersonal framework of authority relationships among inidividuals and groups
relationship that arise when people associate with each in a organization
other
 Informal organization means natural grouping of people in 1. Line Type Organization
work situation  There is direct flow of authority from the top
 Informal organization is network of personal and social position to immediate subordinates levels. There
relations not established or required by the formal is superior- subordinate relationship where in a
organization but arising spontaneously as people associate superior delegates authority to another
with one another subordinates thus forming a line from the very
top the lowest level of the organizational
Characteristics of an organization structure
 The oldest and simplest form of organization
 The entire orgnization, the important subparts and
structure
individuals manage their work against the stated goals and
 Known as military, vertical, department and
objectives
hierarchal organization structure
 Communication laterally and vertically are very clear and
definitive  Authority flows from the top to bottom vertically
in a straight line manner
 The reward system is such that managers and supervisors
are rewarded for short term profit and production  Responsibility and accountability flows in an
opposite but equally direct vertical manner
performance, growth and development of their
subordinates; and for creating harmonious and viable
working groups Line organization in 2 types
1. Pure line organization
 The organization which is an open system relates itself
2. Departmental line organization
with very member of the system and with the larger
 Small scale organization
environment
 There is shared value and management strategy to  Organization with simple routine operations
support it and try to help each member in the organization  Organizations having automatic and continuous
to maintain his integrity and developed his loyalty to the production
enterprise  Organization having short chain of command
example: biscuit companies
 Organization having few subordinates at each 3. The Line And Staff Type
level  The line and staff type of organization is the line
combination of the best features of both the line
and functional types. It is considered as having
the advantages of both and with the
disadvantages of each removed or eliminated
 The line organization continues to be the basic
framework of the organization remains mostly
line. However, with the addition of “staff” , in
addition to the regular line personnel, experts or
specialist are added.
 The line and staff type officers a clear cut
divisions of efforts, separating the routine from
the non-routine work of production, separating
the planning from execution
 Is a modification over the baseline structure
 This structure combines staffs specialists/expert
2. Functional Type Organization
with the line managers
 Radically different from the line type and
 The vertical flow authority and responsibilities
evolved as an answer to the problems and
remain the same as in line structure
disadvantage where in the line type. The task
 Additionally staff specialists are associated with
management or supervision are divided in the
line managers
functional
 Staff specialists/expert are the
 This structure is based on the concept of
persons/departments who provide technical
functional foremanship
advice or service to the line managers
 In this structure the line authority is channelized
 Line managers may not use their specialized
through the staffs specialists
knowledge.
 Line authority runs through many functions
expert who have the authority to issue orders in
their areas of specialization
 For every department (finance , hr, marketing,
production..)
 Their exist an expert who has direct control over
that department
 There is multiplicity of commands instead of
unity of command

The line and staff type suitability


 It is most suitable for medium and large
organizations
 This structure is not suitable for small
organizations on account of high cost in it

4. Project Organization
 It is a temporary structure designed to accomplish a
specific task or project with the help of specialists
Characteristics of functional type organization drawn from different functional departments within
 Expertise or men trained for a particular kind of work are the organizations
employed instead of all around  It is lead by a project manager
 In the strict functional type, we have full application of the  He draws specialists from different functional dept
principle of division of labor, both mental and manual and assigns them activities necessary to accomplish
 The direct flow of authority from the head of the the project
organization down to the workers is eliminated  Project manager is responsible for the coordination of
all the personnel working on the project
report on some issue or master assigned to
them

LESSON 7: STAFFING
INTRODUCTION:
An organization structure is composed of various positions designed
to accomplish systems, goals and objectives. A variety of managerial
activities is essential to keep those positions staffed with personnel
who have the knowledge, the skills and the motivation to perform
the roles effectively
 STAFFING- is the process of supplying the organization
with the needed personnel to achieve the objectives for
which it has been established.
 PEOPLE - vital components for the effective operation of
Project Organization Suitability the organization. Managers often says that people are the
• Suitable for medium and large scale project most important assets
• Which needs to be completed within the specified time  Staffing affects leading and controlling. Well-trained
and cost managers should create an environment in which people
• Also suitable for projects involving technical activities working together in groups can achieve organizational
objectives and at the same time accomplish personal goals
5. Matrix Grid Organization
 It is a hybrid organization structure Factors affecting staffing
 It combines project organization structure and 1. Level of education
functional organizational structure 2. Prevailing attitudes toward work of people
 It is permanent organization structure designed 3. Laws
to accomplish a specific project by using team of 4. Regulations that directly affects the process
specialists drawn form different functional 5. Supply and demand for personnel outside the enterprise
departments within an organization 6. Organizational goal and objectives
 There are functional managers and projects 7. Organizational structure
managers 8. Task , technology the different kinds of personnel
 Team members are accountable to both employed in the organization
functional managers 9. Demand and supply for qualified person within the
 And project managers enterprise
10. Various policies

External Environment
Can be grouped into:
1. Educational
2. Socio-cultural
3. Political
4. Economic constraints
5. Opportunities
6. High technologies

Internal environment
 The internal factors concern staffing managerial positions
with personnel from within and determining the
responsibility for staffing and recognizing the need for top
Matrix/Grid Organization Suitability
management support in overcoming resistance to change.
• Suitable for complex task
• Suitable for projects with specified time and cost
• Suitable for aerospace, construction, advertising hospital LESSON 8: LEADING: DIRECTING
which have specified time and cost framework
Directing
6. Committee Organization  Directing is the process by which a manager communicates
 It is form of staff organization formed for with and influences other members of the organization in
giving specialized advice to line managers the pursuit of company objectives to achieve the desirable
 A committee is a group of two or more ends. It is the human aspect of management through
appointed nominated or elected person to which subordinates are motivated, persuaded and led to
consider, discuss , decide , recommend or contribute efficiently and effective their efforts toward
realizing the vision and mission for which the organization CONTROLLING as a management tool is the function of every
has been established. manager from president to supervisor. While the range of control
varies among managers meet at all levels have the responsibility for
Purpose of directing the effective implementation of plans
Human being that compose an organization function through the
continuous interaction and intercommunication among its The Control Process
members. Directing is perceived to be a process through which the Control is the process of assuring management that organizational
manager energizes the organization into action by way of motivation plans, objectives, programs and other specific tasks are carried out
and directing members to perform their respective duties and efficiently and effectively.
responsibilities. The basic control process involves three steps:
1. Establishing standards
Powers of Organization 2. Measuring performance against these standards
“POWER IS DEFINED AS THE CAPACITY TO INFLUENCE THE ACTION 3. Provide remedies for deviation from standards and
OF AN INDIVIDUAL IN THE DIRECTION DESIRED BY THE LEADER.” plans

1. Legitimate power- it is vested on a person by virtue of the Establishment of standard


authority he has in the organization Establishment of standards is a process by which criteria
2. Expert power it is the ability to influence of impress a are set against which actual performance can be
person which arises from his expertise of a particular measured. When formal control system is in place, the
knowledge. most common tool used by the management as a criterion
3. Reference power- power that comes by virtue of some is the budget. The budget is a quantitative expression of a
distinguishing characteristics of a leader which people plan of action. It is important that the master’s budget
identify with integrates the quantitative targets on different units
4. Rewards power- power that comes by virtue of an within the organization and shows the expected impact on
individual’s capacity to grant resources which are valued these on income, balance sheet and cash flows
by others
5. Punishment power(coercive power)- power which is Some critical control points and standards
closely related to reward poser which comes from the 1. PHYSICAL STANDARDS: are basically non- monetary
ability to deprive a person of something of value measurements and are common at the operating level
6. Relationship power- power which stems from a type of where materials are utilized , labor is employed, services
informal personal obligation which has been built up over are rendered and goals are produced
the years among people in a community 2. COST STANDARDS: refer to monetary measurements
which are attached to monetary values of specific aspects
Styles of Directing of operations which all the results of direct and indirect
 Task management: people in the organization are costs per unit produced, labor cost per unit , machine-
regarded as instruments of production. The relationship hours cost etc.
between a manager and his subordinates is based on the 3. CAPITAL STANDARDS: these have something to do with
exercise of authority and obedience the capital investments in the organization. They are
 Country-club management: the manager is perceived to primarily related to the balance sheet disclosed other
more of a big brother than the stern and intimidating boss. capital standards. These are current ratio, debt-equity
Friendliness , collegiality and harmony are evidently felt by ration, invetory turn over ., etc
the members 4. PROGRAM STANDARDS: it is one of the assigned tasks of
 Middle of the read management: workers spontaneously managers to follow the development of new products for
work and do as they are told if the reasons for doing so are improving the quality of sales team
clearly explained 5. REVENUE STANDARDS: these stem from monetary values
 Impoverished management: the manager or the passing to sales. these include standards such as bus-passenger –
the blame on other for his failure to absolve him from his per-kilometer, average sales per customers, sales per
responsibilities capital in a given market place
 Team management: the manager integrates management 6. INTANGIBLE STANDARDS: standards that are not
of production and people under conditions where expressed in either physical or monetary measurements
consultation and participation are given high premium as 7. GOALS STANDARDS: contemporary tendency for better-
keys for work planning and implementation. manage d organizations is to establish a network of
verifiable goals in every level of management. In large
organizations where program operation are complex ,
LESSON 9: CONTROLLING
modern managers are finding that, through research, it is
CONTROLLING is a managerial function of measuring and correcting possible to define goals that can be used as performance
performance in order to make sure that organizational objectives standards.
and plans that were deliberately devised to be attained are being 8. STRATEGIC PLANS: as a control points for strategic control.
accomplished Strategic control is a systematic monitoring at strategic
control point as well as modifying the organization’s
strategy on the basis of evaluation. Strategic plans require Communication process
strategic control. Since control facilitate comparisons of
intended goals with actual performance, they also provide
opportunities for learning, which in effect, may be the
basis for organizational change.

Major principles of management control


1. THE PRINCIPLE OF THE PURPOSE OF CONTROL- the
primary function of control is to ensure that plans succeed
by detecting deviation from plans and furnishing a basis
for tasking action to correct potential or actual existing
undesirable deviation Communication can be transmitted by:
2. THE PRINCIPLE OF FUTURE- directed control- for time lags A. Oral:
in the total system of control, the more control system is Examples
based on feed forward rather than simple feedback of 1. Television
information, the more managers have the opportunities to 2. Conversation
perceive deviations from plans before they occur and to 3. Telephone
take actions in time to prevent them B. Written:
3. THE PRINCIPLE OF EFFICIENCY OF CONTROLS: control Examples
techniques and strategies are said to be efficient if they 1. Memorandum
detected the nature and cause of deviations from plans 2. Telegram
with a minimum of costs 3. Television
4. THE PRINCIPLE OF CONTROL RESPONSBILITY- the 4. Computer
fundamental responsibility for the exercise of control
ultimately rents in the managers charged with the Flow of communication in the organization
performance of the particular plans involved 1. DOWNWARD COMMUNICATION- Flows people at higher
5. THE PRINCIPLE OF PREVENTING CONTROL: the higher the levels to those at lower levels in the organization hierarchy
position and the quality of managers in a managerial 2. UPWARD COMMUNICATION- Flows from subordinates to
system are. The less will be the need for direct controls. superiors and continues up the organization hierarchy
3. CROSSWISE COMMUNICATION: Comprise the horizontal
LESSON 10: COMMUNICATION flow of information among personnel on the same
organizational levels and the diagonal flow among
COMMUNICATION personnel at different levels who have no direct
relationship with one another
 Transfer of information from sender to the receiver with
the information being understood by the receiver
Types of communication
 Communication function is the means by which organized
activity is unified. It is looked upon as the means by which • WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: has the advantage of
social inputs are fed into the social system. it is the means proving records, references and legal briefs. its
by which behavior is modified , change is effected, disadvantage however , they create big file of paper or
information is made productive and organization goals and may be poorly expressed by ineffective writers and may
objectives are realized provide no immediate feedback
• ORAL COMMUNICATION: It occurs in face to face meeting
Purpose of communication of two person or in a manager’s presentation to a big
audience. It can be formal or informal and can be planned
 The primary purpose of communication is to effect
or accidental. The important advantage of this type is that
change- to initiate and influence action for the welfare of
it makes a speedy interchange of ideas with immediate
the organization. communication is important for the
feedback. People can ask questions and clarify points on
internal and external functioning of the organization
face to face interactions and the effect can be noted
because it integrates managerial functions
immediately. Oral communications has a disadvantage for
Communication is needed to:
it does always save time. This meetings can be costly in
 Organize human and other resources in the efficient and
terms of time and money
effective way
• NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION: what- individual says
 Establish and disseminate the goals of the organization
can be reinforced or contraindicated by non-verbal
 Develop plans for their achievement communications such as facial expressions and badly
 Select, develop and appraise members of the organization gestures. Basically non-verbal communication supports the
 Lead, direct, motivate and create a climate in which verbal, but it does not always do so.
people want to contribute and
 Control performance
LESSON 10: CLINICAL LABORATORY AND ORGANIZATION • Blood typing and cross matching
Tertiary Category
Common problems of communication: • Routine hematology, urinalysis, fecalysis and gram staining
• Routine chemistry
• Lack of planning
• Blood typing and cross matching, donor selection and
• Semantic distortion
blood collection for transfusion
• Poorly expressed message
• Special chemistry
• Communication problem in the international environment
• Special hematology
• Loss of transmission and poor retention
• Culture and sentivity testing
• Impersonal communication
• Poor listening
Classification of tests according to complexity
• Distrust, threat, fear
• Inadequate time for adjustment to change • Risk of harm to the patient
• Risk of an erroneous result
• Type testing method used
Clinical Laboratory
• Degree of independent judgement and interpretation
• Facility that perform chemical and microscopic
needed
examination of various body fluids like blood and tissues
• Availability of the particular test in question for homes
• Found variety of settings ; hospital or free standing I.E
use
clinics, groups practices, physicians’ offices, veterinary
• WAIVED TEST: Test cleared by the FDA for home use ,
offices, government agencies and military institution
employ simple methods , likelihood of erroneous result is
• May be large, offering sophisticated services and
negligible pose no risk or harm to the patient if the test is
employing many medical technologists and technicians or
performed incorrectly
may be a small facility having only few employees
• PROVIDER-PERFORMED MICROSCOPY: The examination
personally performed by a practioner; procedure
Classification of clinical laboratory according to functions
categorized as moderately complex, primary instrument
• CLINICAL PATHOLOGY: Include clinical chemistry, for performing the test is microscope, specimen, is labile,
hematology, microbiology, parasitology, clinical control materials are not available ; specimen handling is
microscopy, immunology and serology, blood banking, limited
endocrinology, and radioisotopes analysts • MODERATELY COMPLEX TESTS: Performs only waived test
• ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY: Includes surgical pathology, and one more tests designated as moderately complex by
immunopathology, cytology and post mortem examination the fda
• HIGHLY COMPLEX TEST: Performs one or more test
Classification according to institutional character specifically listed or more test specifically listed or
• HOSPITAL: Laboratory that operates within a hospital included in the waived or moderately complex categories
• FREE STANDING : (NONE HOSPITAL)- Does laboratory that
operates on its own or a start of an activity other than a Waived Test
hospital • Dipstick or table reagent analysis of ph, specific gravity ,
glucose, protein bilirubin, ketone , leukocyte, nitrite and
Classification according to service capabilities urobilinogen
Service extent and level; depending on the range of laboratory • Whole blood glucose using device approved by the fda
examination perform and the presence of certain manpower, specifically for home use
materials, and facilities required • Spun microhematocrit, hemoglobin by copper sulfate
• PRIMARY CATEGORY method
• SECONDARY CATEGORY • Fecal occult blood
• TERTIARY CATEGORY • Urine pregnancy test by visual color comparison
• Visual color ovulation test for human luteinizing hormones
Primary Category • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
• Routine hematology • Single analyte glucose and hemoglobin
1. Hemoglobin mass concentration • Single analyte cholesterol
2. Erythrocyte volume fraction Provide-performed microscopy
3. Leukocyte number concetration • Liver mout , including preparations of prostate, vaginal,
4. Leukocyte type number concetration cervical or skin specimen
• Routine urinalysis • Potassium hydroxide preparations
• Routine fecalysis • Pinworm examinations
• Gram staining • Poscoital direct, qualitative examinations of vaginal and
Secondary Category cervical mucus
• Routine hematology, urinalysis, fecalysis, and gram Moderately complex test
staining • HEMOTOLOGY
• Routine chemistry- blood glucose, urea, uric acid , 1. AUTOMATED ANALYSIS
creatinine , cholesterol, total protein 2. DUKE BLEEDING TIME
• MICROBIOLOGY medicine by having been certified by the Philippines Board
1. TEST FOR THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF BACTERIA, of Pathology, Clinical Pathology or Both
DERMATOPHYTES • Undergo 4 – 5 years residency training in both
2. DIRECT ACID FAST SMEARS anatomic and clinical pathology
3. GRAMS STAINS FROM URETHRAL AND ENDOCRINOLOGY • Anatomic pathologist: examine surgical
4. BLOOD BANKING METHOLOGY specimen which include frozen section, tissue
Highly complex test samples , autopsy specimen and Pap smear
Hemotolgy: • Clinical Pathologist: Supervise the performance
1. Manual methods for cell counts and coagualtion of common laboratory test done on blood and
2. Platelet aggregometry urine
3. Defferentials that include interpretation of typical cells • Associate Pathologists: a licensed physician and qualified
Microbiology in laboratory medicine as certified by the Philippines Board
1. All procedure requiring identifying of susceptibility who is under the direct supervision of the head
determination of organisms after transfer from primary • Supervisor or Manager: A Medical Technologists with
culture medium additional education and experience in administration;
2. Grams stains from sources other than urethral or must have expertise in medical, scientific and technical
endocervical origin areas as well as full understanding of regulatory matters
• Technical Manager: supervise the technical
Alternate sites of testing aspects of the facility(issues involving assay of
• CENTRAL LABORATORY TESTING : Traditional setting for analytes) including quality control programs, off-
performance of diagnostic testing located in a hospital site testing and maintenance of laboratory
where specimens from patients are sent to be tested instrument
• POINT OF CARE TESTING: Testing site away from • Business/ administrative Manager: Ensures that
traditional laboratory such as bed side in the operating all regulatory mandates are being followed by
rooms , or recovery areas or recory areas or even home the laboratory
testing • Laboratory Personnel
• Medical Technologist: Must be licensed duly
Clinical Laboratory Organization registered in the board of examiners for Medical
Technology who shall be under supervision of a
Pathologist, or a licensed physician
• Earned a bachelor of science degree in
Medical Technology; Registered
• Perform the following :
1. Laboratory Assay( including
troubleshooting)
2. Teach
3. Research
• Laboratory Technician: Must have at least 2
years of college with at least 12 training in
accredited laboratory, or without college work
but with at least 10 years training and
experience in a duly approved clinical laboratory
• Laboratory Aide : Should be at least high school
graduate and who shall assist the Medical
Technologist or Laboratory Technician but
Laboratory Personnel whose activities should be limited to non-
1. Pathologists technician procedures
2. Associate/ Assistant Pathologists • Phlebotomist: Person trained in blood collection
3. Medical Technologists- Chief, Senior, Junior essential to the health care team and provides
4. Laboratory Aides/Assistant the link between the patient and laboratory
5. Phlebotomist
6. Cytotechnologist
7. Histotechnologist
8. Chemist
9. Microbiologist

• Pathologists: the Head, Director, Chief or In charge a


licensed physician and registered with the Medical Board
of Examiners of the Philippines, qualified in laboratory