# PROJECT FILE OF MATHEMATICS

TOPIC: - VARIOUS METHOD TO FIND RANK
SUBMITTED
MANMEET SINGH ROLL NO. - R249A26 SECTION- R249 REGT. NO. - 10801620

BY: -

SUBMITTED TO:LECT. SONAM DEVGUN

Various Method of Finding Rank
INTRODUCTION

Rank (linear algebra)
The column rank of a matrix A is the maximal number of linearly independent columns of A. Likewise, the row rank is the maximal number of linearly independent rows of A. Since the column rank and the row rank are always equal, they are simply called the rank of A. It is commonly denoted by either rk(A) or rank A. The rank of an matrix is at most min(m,n). A matrix that has a rank as large as possible is said to have full rank; otherwise, the matrix is rank deficient.

Alternative definitions:
The maximam number of linearly independent columns of the mby-n matrix A with entries in the field F is equal to the dimension of the column space of A (the column space being the subspace of Fm generated by the columns of A). Since the column rank and the row rank are the same, we can also define the rank of A as the dimension of the row space of A. If one considers the matrix A as a linear map f : Fn → Fm with the rule f(x) = Ax

then the rank of A can also be defined as the dimension of the image of f (see linear map for a discussion of image and kernel). This definition has the advantage that they can be applied to any linear map without need for a specific matrix. The rank can also be defined as n minus the dimension of the kernel of f; the ranknullity theorem states that this is the same as the dimension of the image of f. Another equivalent definition of the rank of a matrix is the order of the greatest non-vanishing minor in the matrix.

Properties:
We assume that A is an m-by-n matrix over the field F and describes a linear map f as above. only a zero matrix has rank zero. f is injective if and only if A has rank n (in this case, we say that A has full column rank). f is surjective if and only if A has rank m (in this case, we say that A has full row rank). In the case of a square matrix A (i.e., m = n), then A is invertible if and only if A has rank n (that is, A has full rank). If B is any n-by-k matrix, then As an example of the "<" case, consider the product

Both factors have rank 1, but the product has rank 0. If B is an n-by-k matrix with rank n, then

If C is an l-by-m matrix with rank m, then The rank of A is equal to r if and only if there exists an invertible m-by-m matrix X and an invertible n-by-n matrix Y such that

where Ir denotes the r-by-r identity matrix. Sylvester’s rank inequality: If A and B are any n-by-n matrices, then Subadditivity: when A and B are of the same dimension. As a consequence, a rank-k matrix can be written as the sum of k rank-1 matrices, but not less. The rank of a matrix plus the nullity of the matrix equals the number of columns of the matrix (this is the "rank theorem" or the "rank-nullity theorem"). Rank of matrix and corresponding Gram matrix is equal: This can be shown by proving equality of their null spaces. Null space of the Gram matrix is given by vectors x for which ATAx = 0. If this condition is fulfilled, also holds 0 = xTATAx = | Ax | 2.

Computation:
The easiest way to compute the rank of a matrix A is given by the Gauss elimination method. The row-echelon form of A produced

by the Gauss algorithm has the same rank as A, and its rank can be read off as the number of non-zero rows. Consider for example the 4-by-4 matrix

We see that the second column is twice the first column, and that the fourth column equals the sum of the first and the third. The first and the third columns are linearly independent, so the rank of A is two. This can be confirmed with the Gauss algorithm. It produces the following row echelon form of A:

which has two non-zero rows. When applied to floating point computations on computers, basic Gaussian elimination (LU decomposition) can be unreliable, and a rank revealing decomposition should be used instead. An effective alternative is the singular value decomposition (SVD), but there are other less expensive choices, such as QR decomposition with pivoting, which are still more numerically robust than Gaussian elimination. Numerical determination of rank requires a criterion for deciding when a value, such as a singular value from the SVD, should be treated as zero, a practical choice which depends on both the matrix and the application.

Applications:
One useful application of calculating the rank of a matrix is the computation of the number of solutions of a system of linear

equations. The system is inconsistent if the rank of the augmented matrix is greater than the rank of the coefficient matrix. If, on the other hand, ranks of these two matrices are equal, the system must have at least one solution. The solution is unique if and only if the rank equals the number of variables. Otherwise the general solution has k free parameters where k is the difference between the number of variables and the rank. In control theory, the rank of a matrix can be used to determine whether a linear system is controllable, or observable.

Generalization:
There are different generalisations of the concept of rank to matrices over arbitrary rings. In those generalisations, column rank, row rank, dimension of column space and dimension of row space of a matrix may be different from the others or may not exist. There is a notion of rank for smooth maps between smooth manifolds. It is equal to the linear rank of the derivative.

What is rank? The maximal number of linearly independent columns of the m-by-n matrix A with entries in the field F is equal to the dimension of the column space of A (the column space being the subspace of Fm generated by the columns of A). Since the column rank and the row rank are the same, we can also define the rank of A as the dimension of the row space of A. If one considers the matrix A as a linear map f: Fn → Fm with the rule f(x) = Ax

Rank of a Matrix
The maximum number of linearly independent rows in a matrix A is called the row rank of A, and the maximum number of linearly independent columns in A is called the column rank of A. If A is an m by n matrix, that is, if A has m rows and n columns, then it is obvious that

What is not so obvious, however, is that for any matrix A,
• the

row rank of A = the column rank of A

Because of this fact, there is no reason to distinguish between row rank and column rank; the common value is simply called the rank of the matrix. Therefore, if A is m x n, it follows from the inequalities in (*) that

where min (m, n) denotes the smaller of the two numbers m and n (or their common value if m = n). For example, the rank of a 3 x 5 matrix can be no more than 3, and the rank of a 4 x 2 matrix can be no more than 2. A 3 x 5 matrix,

can be thought of as composed of three 5-vectors (the rows) or five 3vectors (the columns). Although three 5-vectors could be linearly independent, it is not possible to have five 3-vectors that are independent. Any collection of more than three 3-vectors is automatically dependent. Thus, the column rank—and therefore the rank—of such a matrix can be no greater than 3. So, if A is a 3 x 5 matrix, this argument shows that

in accord with (**).

The process by which the rank of a matrix is determined can be illustrated by the following example. Suppose A is the 4 x 4 matrix

The four row vectors,

are not independent, since, for example

The fact that the vectors r3 and r4 can be written as linear combinations of the other two ( r1 and r2, which are independent) means that the maximum number of independent rows is 2. Thus, the row rank—and therefore the rank—of this matrix is 2. The equations in (***) can be rewritten as follows:

The first equation here implies that if −2 times that first row is added to the third and then the second row is added to the (new) third row, the third row will be become 0, a row of zeros. The second equation above says that similar operations performed on the fourth row can produce a row of zeros there also. If after these operations are completed, −3 times the first row is then added to the second row (to clear out all entire below the entry a11 = 1 in the first column), these elementary row operations reduce the original matrix A to the echelon form The fact that there are exactly 2 nonzero rows in the reduced form of the matrix indicates that the maximum number of linearly independent rows is 2; hence, rank A = 2, in agreement with the conclusion above. In general, then, to compute the rank of a matrix, perform elementary row operations until the matrix is left in echelon form; the number of nonzero rows remaining in the reduced matrix is the rank. [Note: Since column rank = row rank, only two of the four columns in A— c1, c2, c3, and c4— are linearly independent. Show that this is indeed the case by verifying the relations

(and checking that c1 and c3 are independent). The reduced form of A makes these relations especially easy to see.]

Example 1: Find the rank of the matrix

First, because the matrix is 4 x 3, its rank can be no greater than 3. Therefore, at least one of the four rows will become a row of zeros. Perform the following row operations:

Since there are 3 nonzero rows remaining in this echelon form of B, rank of B is 3.

Example 2: Determine the rank of the 4 by 4 checkerboard matrix

Since r2 = r4 = −r1 and r3 = r1, all rows but the first vanish upon rowreduction:

Since only 1 nonzero row remains, rank C =1

The matrix has a zero determinant and is therefore singular. It has no inverse. If you look the matrix you see that it has two identical rows (and two identical columns). In other words, the rows are not independent. If one row is a multiple of another, then they are not independent, and the determinant is zero. (Equivalently: If one column is a multiple of another, then they are not independent, and the determinant is zero.) The rank of a matrix is the maximum number of independent rows (or, the maximum number of independent columns). A square matrix An×n is non- singular only if its rank is equal to n.

Determining Rank of Matrix

[a].One can determine the rank of even large matrices by using row and column operations to put the matrix in a triangular form. The method presented here is a version of row reduction to echelon form, but some simplifications can be made because we are only interested in finding the rank of the matrix. The foundation of this method is that the rank of a matrix is left invariant by the following operations: Permuting rows Permuting columns Adding a multiple of a row to another row multiplying a row by an invertible scalar .The last operation is really not needed, but it can be convenient. For instance, if some of the numbers in the matrix are huge, one may want to use this operation to keep the numbers in a reasonable range or, if one has a matrix of integers, one may want to cancel denominators so that one does not have to deal with fractions. These operations can be used to put the matrix in a triangular form; once this is done, all one has to do to determine the rank is count how many non-zero rows there are. A systematic way of going about this is as follows: If there are no rows or all the entries of the matrix are zero, you are done. Permute rows and columns so as to put a non-zero element in the position of the matrix.

Subtract multiples of the first row so as to put all the entries in the first column except the first one zero.

Repeat the process starting at step 1 with the sub matrix gotten by throwing away the first row and the first column. Let us illustrate this with the following matrix:

We interchange the first two rows to put a

in the

position:

We subtract the first row from the third and the fifth rows:

We now concentrate on the sub matrix gotten by ignoring the first column and the first row:

Since the position of this sub matrix is not zero, we do not need to do any permuting. Instead, we go to the next step and add the second column to the third and fifth columns:

We now narrow our focus to the submatrix gotten by throwing out the first and second rows and columns:

Since the entry of this submatrix is again not zero, we do not need to do any permuting. Thus, we move to the next step and subtract twice the third row from the fifth row:

We now narrow our focus to the submatrix gotten by throwing out the first, second, and third rows and columns:

Since the entry of this sub matrix is zero, we must make a permutation. We will swap the fourth and the fifth columns:

We add twice the fourth row to the fifth row: 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 2 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0

We narrow our focus to the sub matrix gotten by ignoring all but the fifth row and column:

Since the sole entry of this sub matrix is zero, we are done and have a triangular matrix. Since there are four non-zero rows, the rank is 4. In the presentation above, certain entries of the matrix have been shown in boldface. When using the method in practice, it is only necessary to write these entries -- the other entries can be ignored and need not be copied from step to step.

[b].The easiest way to compute the rank of a matrix A is given by the Gauss elimination method. The row-echelon form of A produced by the Gauss algorithm has the same rank as A, and its rank can be read off as the number of non-zero rows. Consider for example the 4-by-4 matrix We see that the second column is twice the first column, and that the fourth column equals the sum of the first and the third. The first and the third columns are linearly independent, so the rank of A is two. This can be confirmed with the Gauss algorithm. It produces the following row echelon form of A, which has two non-zero rows. When applied to floating point computations on computers, basic Gaussian elimination (LU decomposition) can be unreliable, and a rank revealing decomposition should be used instead. An effective alternative is the singular value decomposition (SVD), but there are other less expensive choices, such as QR decomposition with pivoting, which are still more numerically robust than Gaussian elimination. Numerical determination of rank requires a criterion for deciding when a value, such as a singular value from the SVD, should be treated as zero, a practical choice which depends on both the matrix and the application

[c]. (Row rank of a Matrix) the number of non-zero rows in the row reduced form of a matrix is called the row-rank of the matrix. By the very definition, it is clear that row-equivalent matrices have the same row-rank. For a matrix to denote the row-rank of we write ` '

EXAMPLE:

Determine the row-rank of

Solution: To determine the row-rank of

we proceed as follows.

The last matrix in Step 1d is the row reduced form of

which

has non-zero rows. Thus, This result can also be easily deduced from the last matrix in Step 1b.

Determine the row-rank of Solution: Here we have

From the last matrix in Step 2b, we deduce

Let

be a linear system with equations and unknowns. Then the row-reduced echelon form of agrees with the first columns of and hence

The reader is advised to supply a proof. Consider a matrix After application of a finite number of elementary column operations. The matrix we can have a matrix, say following properties: The first nonzero entry in each column is which has the

A column containing only 0’s comes after all columns with at least one non-zero entry. The first non-zero entry (the leading term) in each non-zero column moves down in successive columns. Therefore, we can define column-rank of as the number of non-zero columns in It will be proved later that

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