To many individuals , I am indebted good connsel and assistance in various ways. In this respect one of my sincerest thanks to Ms.Kirandeep Kaur(lecturer) of Lovely Professional University, for their kind cooperation and guidance I owe a deep since of indebtedness of my pureness that have been source of inspiration of every work of my life. I deeply express our ineptness and thanks to all my faculty members of B.Tech intg. M.Tech IT for their valuable guidance which enable me to presentable manners.

1)Introduction 2)Different types of sensors 3)Application of sensors 4)Bibiliography

Contact temperature sensors measure their own temperature. One infers the temperature of the object to which the sensor is in contact by assuming or knowing that the two are in thermal equilibrium, that is, there is no heat flow between them. Many potential measurement error sources exist, as you can appreciate, especially from too many unverified assumptions. Temperatures of surfaces are especially tricky to measure by contact means and very difficult if the surface is moving. It is wise to be very careful when using such sensors on new applications. The Measurements (or Applications) page can lead you to many well-known solutions or examples of ones possibly similar to the one you are trying to solve. Why re-invent the wheel? Two excellent reference by Baker et al. are listed in the References page and worth reading to get an idea of the complexities that can arise, how to test and get around them. Surface temperature measurent problem can be solved in many cases through the use of non-contact sensors; they are almost ideal for those types of applications and are in use in many industrial plants worldwide in great numbers. However, all sensors have their own set of complexities. It is an imperfect world, after all, but many imperfections can be expertly improved upon and overcome if one is diligent and resourceful.  Thermocouples Thermocouples are among the easiest temperature sensors to use. They are widely applied in science and industry. They are based on the Seebeck effect that occurs in electrical conductors when they experience a temperature gradient along their length. NB: They do NOT measure at either the hot or cold junction!  Thermistors Thermistors are tiny bits of inexpensive semiconductor materials with highly temperature sensitive electrical resistance. They are used in many applications where they are never seen because they are buried inside something else, There are also a special group of very precise thermistors that are used as the sensors in Electronic thermometers for taking the temperature of people.  Liquid-In-Glass Thermometers
The thermometer that checked your fever when you were young was a specialized version of this oldest and most familiar temperature sensor.

 Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs)
RTDs are among the most precise temperature sensors commercially used. They are based on the positive temperature coefficient of electrical resistance.

 Filled System Thermometers In the USA, most home thermal cooking ovens are controlled by little temperature

sensors that look like small metal tubes with bulges on the end-filled system thermometers-much like liquid-in-glass-but different.  Bimetallic Thermometers The simple mechanical sensor that works in most "old-fashioned" thermostats based on the fact that two metals expand at different rates as a function of temperature.  Semiconductor Temperature Sensors Commercial temperature sensors have been made from semiconductors for a number of years now. Working over a limited temperature range, they are simple, linear, accurate and low cost devices with many uses.  Labels, Crayons, Paints, Tabs (Phase Change Devices) What can people use to do a quick, inexpensive check on a process or experimental temperature?. Often the answer is some simple phase change device.  Other Temperature Sensors Temperature measurement occasions often seem to stretch the capabilities of existing sensors and inventive minds continue to create new and/or better ways to measure those temperatures. There's quite a list of them, the "Other" devices, already and it's sure to grow. The uses of noncontact temperature sensors are many; the understanding of their use is, in general, relatively poor. Part of that complication is often the need to deal with emissivity, or more precisely with spectral emissivity. In many industrial plants noncontact sensors are not yet standardized to the extent that thermocouples and RTDs are. In spite of this, there are numerous showcase uses of them and they more than pay their way in process plants such as steel, glass, ceramics, forging, heat treating, plastics, baby diapers and semiconductor operations, to name just a few. More recently the medical world has adopted the IR ear thermometer (it has its own set of standards) that is basically a single waveband radiation thermometer. However, we believe that limited standardization is hampering wider use in process and related areas. Standards have been developed that aid the user in specifying, buying and maintaining such devices, but they are not widely used. More training and education of the user community is an obvious need that until now has been provided mostly by equipment vendors. The advent of the Focal Plane Array, a significant improvement in Thermal Imaging, is drawing the formerly seperate areas of Thermal Imaging and noncontact spot temperature measurement closer together. It is likely that the active training community developed to support Thermal Imagers will begin to provide more organized, in depth training for all infrared temperature sensors, in addition to imagers for Thermographers.

Just to be sure we are addressing the subject you are seeking, please be aware that these devices are called by a bewildering variety of names. They all work, or are based on the same law of physics, Planck's Law of the thermal emission of radiation. Here's just a few of the names used in current technical and popular literature (never mind the unprintable names these devices are often called when the temperatures they report defy all logic-that happens a lot-see our E-missivity Trail section for a partial understanding of this latter phenomenon): ir thermometer, radiation thermometer, ir pyrometer, infrared thermometer, spot thermometer, spot radiometer (our favorite technical misnomer), line scanner, radiation pyrometer, single waveband pyrometer, dual waveband pyrometer, ratio pyrometer, 2 color thermometer, 2 colour thermometer, two color thermometer, two colour pyrometer, radiometer, spectral radiometer, IR thermocouple, total radiation pyrometer, fiber optic pyrometer, disappearing filament pyrometer, quantitative thermal imager, dfp, optical pyro, multiwavelength pyrometer, and on and on. It seems that whenever a new technical or marketing person comes into the "business" a new product name is coined either out of ignorance of the device history or as an effort to be technically "pure" (whatever that is) or as a way to differentiate their product from others. The names used here, as far as we know, do not include the trademarked names or commonly used product line names. There isn't enough room on this page for all of them! We shall try to follow the most often used terminology, that fostered in the excellent work of DeWitt & Nutter in their 1988 book "Theory & Practice of Radiation Thermometery". The complete citation can be found on the references page.

Radiation Thermometers
Includes Pyrometers, Infrared Thermal Imaging Cameras (with temperature measurement capability), line-measuring thermometers (most of the time they're called line scanners-but all don't scan) and infrared radiation thermometers, or, perhaps the most-misused term, spot radiometers (Note: radiometers are calibrated in units of power, such as microwatts, watts, kilowatts, temperature measurement devices are calibrated in units of temperature). The noncontact temperature sensors with many names and many shapes, sizes, prices and capabilities are well and flourishing. Based on Planck's Law of the thermal emission of electromagnetic radiation; many industries could not produce goods as efficiently or quickly were it not for them. More recently the medical world has adopted the IR ear thermometer (it has its own set of standards) that is at heart a single waveband radiation thermometer The majority of devices in use are single waveband thermometers (they measure a portion of the received thermal radiation in a single waveband, or portion of the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum). However, the number of ratio thermometers (two color pyrometers) on the market has grown considerably in the past ten years, or so. Single waveband radiation thermometers are usually designed to measure the true temperature when they receive all the radiation from an object that has an emissivity effectively of 1.0, or under blackbody conditions. This occurs most often when the devices are being calibrated, since they are calibrated under simulated blackbody conditions. The accuracy of the simulation bears much on the uncertainty of the calibration of the device. When these devices are used under effectively blackbody conditions, and their emissivity correction is set at 1.0, they can measure very accurately, indeed. Few people seem to appreciate that blackbody conditions occur regularly in many process applications, such as in portions of furnaces that are close to thermal equilibrum, such as glass melters & forehearths, steel mill soaking furnace zones or when a radiation thermometer is correctly sighted into a closed isothermal cavity, such as a miniature cavity on the end of a sapphire light pipe or quartz fiber optic.

Thermal Imagers
Quantitative thermal imagers are a special sub-class of these thermal imaging devices, they measure radiation temperature distributions as well as shown a false color thermal image. They are basically single waveband radiation thermometers that measure a two dimensional space instead of just radiation from a single spot. These are used so widely that they are described in more detail in a seperate section of this site that is all about thermography or thermal imaging. 1.

The topic of emissivity is also a broad and complex one. One cannot mention radiation thermometry without mentioning emissivity. Some fundamental understanding of it is essential to successful use and application of any temperature measuring radiation thermometer. It might be limited to just the details of one specific application; that's enough in many cases. It is not magic, it is not unknowable, otherwise all advanced thermal processes in the world would be running at lower efficiencies than they are. There are many people who underated the subject and can explain it. This is our part in that educational direction. We started a section on this site devoted to helping people better understand some of the basics of the subject from an applications perspective. Pardon our cynicism, but the section was initiated after this site author attended a "Seminar" on Infrared Thermometry a few years ago. The topic of emissivity came up many times and it was clear that the company representative giving the presentation had little to no understanding of the subject, unless the purpose of the talk was to confuse matters. Most people came away, we believe, with a poorer understanding of the subject at the end than at the beginning. It's sad when those apparently helping do not do their job competently. 2.

Ratio Thermometers
The ratio pyrometer, ratio thermometer or two color pyrometers (or two colour thermometers, if you prefer) are unique devices, touted imprecisely by all too many vendor marketing people as being emissivity independent when they are nothing of the sort. They measure in two separate wavebands and internally create the ratio of signals (usually that of the shorter waveband in the numerator to avoid the complication of dividing by zero-because usually the shorter waveband signal drops out as a function of received radiation, before the longer waveband signal).

The ratio of radiances in two wavebands has been shown to be a function of temperature and a function of the ratio of the spectral emissivity in the two wavebands as well (So much for the emissivity independence, guys!) When measuring objects that have an emissivity ratio of 1.0, they can have their emissivity ratio correction set to 1.0, just like a single waveband thermometer does when measuring under blackbody conditions; in this latter case one is said to be measuring under graybody (greybody) conditions. 3.

Optical Pyrometers
The old and trusty Optical Pyrometer not only refuses to go away, there's even a new version on the market. Check out our page and learn about the two USA companies that still make these devices.(Just between us: These things are really just another variation of the Planck's Law-based Radiation Thermometers described above, albeit one of the tried and accepted versions..But these darn things garnered so much fame and fans over the years that some people just won't settle for anything else. No matter that the technology can and does produce better devices, but snake-oil salesmen who can't produce better results with their new devices foster this sort of conservatism on the part of an undereducated user community.) 4.

Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors
There's enough uses and varieties of fiber optic-related temperature sensors these days to require a separate hyper-link category for them, To complicate matters a little more, there really are two groups of them contact and noncontact fiber optic thermometers. They're all covered on this one page. One of the fabulous uses for these thermometers is to actually provide a temperature limit signal for operating jet engines in flying aircraft. It's not all that new, either. Rolls-Royce engines in some European military planes have been flying for about 20 years using this technology. 5.

Other Temperature Sensors
Temperature measurement occasions often seem to stretch the capabilities of existing sensors and inventive minds continue to create new and/or better ways to measure those temperatures. There's quite a list of them, the "Other" devices, beginning with line scanners, two wavelength radiation thermometers, hybrid systems and multiwavelength pyrometers, already and it's sure to grow.

Need help making a temperature measurement, selecting a sensor or choosing a sensor vendor?

The process is rather straight forward, providing you know what you need.

First, you start with the measurement requirements. Often these are sketchy, inappropriate or incomplete, so many times you need to reexamine them and question those involved until reason prevails.

Temperature Sensor
Uses, Measurements or Applications

Many people have trodden these paths before you and there is a wealth of information on successful use of temperature sensors under a great many

1) 2) 3)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful