V.P. It distribute wires in different areas and this wire connect switching room and subscribers line. By the cable this one-one pair goes in the subscriber¶s phone and 10 connections can connect with one D. (distribution point). N. . (Vertical frame) 2. One V.F. 4.F. Pillar has different no.D. Selector. Color wires connect with subscribers by grounding path. of pair. 5. Module. is a media between switching network and subscriber¶s line. M.F.F. (number of equipments) 3.D.E.Main distribution frame:M. left side connect with switching room and back side connect subscribers color wire. This color wire connects with pillar. Distribution point has 5-10 pair of wire. (Vertical frame):V. It depends on phone connection in particular areas and after then pillar connect with D. Wire and Cable. has 100 pair of wire. has different parts as:1.P.F. has distribution of wire in 10-10 horizontal sequence. V.F.

Card of switch room connection depends only on N.E. For communication in modern banks. of module is directly proportional to no.F. which connects M.E. companies and their branches the help of modem is required.F Module: Module is a medium. It is a small hall. Find out the fault card of subscriber. No. frame is directly connected with switch room by this no. any fault in pillar pole and M.F.E. Selector: In the M. department an important work is long distance communication. This module is present in V.F. .D.F.F. no means that with the N.from subscriber. of pair.D.N.D.F. CONNECTION OF N. Many time no. no.F.Figure: . check the reconnection between subscriber and M. connect 100 module.D.E. Selector is old manner but advance selector is a modem. N.D. Selector of old manner work by help of a worker. Many frames have many branches in different cities.E. in M. (Number of Equipment): N.D.E. hotels. no of particular subscriber and check the fault. is present in V. then find out the N.E. Figure: . Main form call in main exchange and branch for communication.Vertical Frame in M.

American usage is vice versa. changing dozens of them every day. Cables to intermediate distribution frames terminate at the MDF. impregnated to make it slightly brittle and easy to remove neatly. Some urban central office MDFs are two stories high so they don't have to be more than a city block long. but the workers prefer to hang the jumper on a hook on a pole so their partner can pull it through the ring. The MDF usually holds central office protective devices including heat coils and functions as a test point between a line and the office. Middle 20th century jumper wires in the USA were 24 AWG single strand copper. active. and the indoors equipment on the vertical side. so most jumpers need not be long and shelves on either type of MDF do not become congested. This was reliable but slow and expensive. This database keeps track of all terminals and jumpers. repeaters and DSLAM. are single sided so one worker can install. There is a hoop or ring at the intersection of each level and each vertical. . a main distribution frame (MDF or main frame) is a signal distribution frame for connecting equipment (inside plant) to cables and subscriber carrier equipment (outside plant). For the first half of the 20th Century. termination blocks are arranged horizontally at the front of rack shelves. central MDFs. Late 20th century ones had a single. Jumpers lie on the shelves and go through a steel hoop to run vertically to other termination blocks that are arranged vertically. A fanning strip at the back of the termination block prevents the wires from covering each others' terminals. The MDF is a termination point within the local telephone exchange where exchange equipment and terminations of local loops are connected by jumper wires at the MDF. COSMOS and other computerized Operations Support Systems help by assigning terminals close to one another. In the early and middle 20th century these records were kept as pencil entries in ledger books.g. In order to automate the manual jumpering the Automated Main Distribution Frame (AMDF) becomes an important role. With disciplined administration the MDF can hold over a hundred thousand jumpers. On one side. In the 1960s wire wrap was introduced. one on each side. and some modern large ones. The shelves are shallow enough to allow the rings to be within arm's reach. Trunk cables may terminate on the same MDF or on a separate trunk main distribution frame (TMDF). with a soft polyethylene inner jacket and a cotton wrapper. Each jumper is a twisted pair. thicker coating of polyethylene. Installing a jumper requires two workers. for decades without tangling. Like other distribution frames the MDF provides flexibility in assigning facilities. all MDF jumpers were soldered. The adoption of distributed switching in the late 20th century diminished the need for large. A few are three stories. The most common kind of large MDF is a long steel rack accessible from both sides. All cable copper pairs supplying services through user telephone lines are terminated at the MDF and distributed through the MDF to equipment within the local exchange e. The later database method saves much labor by permitting old jumpers to be reused for new lines. remove or change a jumper.In telephony. Sometimes the MDF is combined with other kinds of distribution frame in a CDF The MDF in a private branch exchange performs functions similar to those performed by the MDF in a central office. By British custom the cables to the outside world are terminated on the horizontal side. cross-linked to provide the correct degree of brittleness. Smaller MDFs. and in the 1970s punch blocks. at lower cost and higher capacity than a patch panel.


It also provides the updated data to all other part of the exchange. As soon as the AC power supply is on. It is the case of E-10B exchange. CERS are provided by the exchange to avoid the problems that the users are facing the repairing of telephone. It mainly consists of the servers that are providing the different services. it is the interface between subscribers and exchange. then what is source? No one think on this that the telephone is always plays its role in the human life. INTERNET DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is the lat est service by the exchange. However. LOCAL DIRECTORY ENQUIRY is another services provided by the exchange. Charging. That is the first requirement of any organization is the input.to connect switch (exchange) with the external environment (Subscriber) i. 1. which gets connected to the main server at the internet room in the exchange and further to the main server in the computer room. . Computer unit: As the name specified it is the main part of the exchange that deals with the all services provided by the exchange to the customers with the help of computer. The customers are using the services of the exchange by using the internet also gets connected to the main server present this room via an internet room. the power is the main source or any organization. ii. In this system when the user enters its complained it gets directly entered to the server and user is allotted with an id number. Even if the power supply gone off. The main source of this exchange is AC supply.to maintain the continuous temperature + or ± 2 degree Celsius to the digital switch (exchange). The main servers of this room are:y y IVRS is used for the change number services provided by the exchange. we make use of the charging unit present in the power room. by using this. Batteries: -These are the instant sources of the power as soon as power is gone off.Discharging Unit: -The batteries we are using in the power room need timely charging. POWERPLANT: As we know that.it deals with additional services of the exchange to the customers with the help of computers. The main parts of the power room are: i. as soon as the power supply is gone off. 2. subscribers calls the particular number and gets the directory enquiry. Computer Unit: . AC Plant: .to feed proper power supply to exchange 3. Power Plant: . MDF: . 4. Thus there must be adjustment source of power. In this type of service makes it enquiry using the internet. y y 2.e.For smooth working of an exchange following unit are very important: 1. The server present in the main computer room provides this service.

E. 3. this room controls the supply of the engine. testing. The condenser liquefies the refrigerant gas by a heat exchange process. . centrifugal compressors are used. Compressor comes in various types. -It saves equipment from dust so to avoid malfunction of equipment¶s. iii. The refrigerant then passes through the evaporator coils. But sometimes we need the BOOSTER charging. Group testing. cooling system is basic requirement. The basic advantages of cooling systems are following:-It provides the thermal stability so that the temperature does not reach the tolerance limit of electronic equipment.The slowly charging of the batteries is known as the trickle charging. Inverter and Converter Unit: -The main use of this system is to change AC mains to DC and vice versa as required by the parts of exchange. MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME The primary function of MDF is: The fault of telephone number is removed in the MDF. The compressor is the heart of the AC system and the costliest. number of that particular telephone number. They are of 885 KVA. The capillary tube or the expansion valve pressurizes liquid refrigerant and meters it flows to the evaporator. AC Plant (central air conditioner):-For the function of electrical equipment. For removing the fault of telephone number.T. 4. which extract heat out of the ambience. For any type of testing firstly we need the vertical no. The basic unit of measurement used in the industry is known as ³ton of refrigeration´(TR) which is equivalent to the heat extracted in 24 hours for converting thousands kg of liquid to ice at zero degree. iv. we have an engine to generate the power supply. Thus. it is called as Fault Remove Section. In this type of charging awe take of the batteries from the load and charge separately. etc. we use the testing these testing are T. The main work of the discharging unit is to control the discharging of the batteries. For capacity more than 120 TR. or the live tester.Y. The most widely used is simple reciprocal type a cylinder and piston arrangement. The telephone numbers are also disconnected in the MDF because of some specific reason. Engine Room:-We know that the batteries are the instant source of supply but we cannot use it for much larger time. printer and computer test N. thus for this. It increases the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant gas coming from the evaporator coils by compressing it. -It protects equipment from excess humidity which can caused rusting of equipment. until it gets fully charged.

Here wedge works as insulator made of plastic. 2) VERTICAL SIDE:-The vertical aside connected to the underground cable. This cable is having 100 pairs. By interconnections at this frame with the help of jumper wires. . The EWSD and MDF connected by NE. These pair is distributed when we allot the telephone number to the subscriber. ‡ A convenient point of interception for locating of faults. Vertical side is again subdivided in two parts:One part is connected with the horizontal side and another with the Subscriber line by using 100 pair underground cable. ‡ A means for cross connecting the external circuits to the appropriate Internal circuits.On the rack. One rack is having eight Tags.The word NE stands for the µNUMBER OF EQUIPMENT¶. any subscriber in any area can be given any exchange number.ORGANISATION OF THE MDF PARTS OF THE MDF :1) Horizontal side 2) Vertical side 1) HORIZONTAL SIDE:-It is again subdivided in to two parts:A) Exchange side B) Line side Description of the horizontal side:RACK: . TAG: . the tags are situated. WEDGE:-If we want to disconnect any two numbers then we insert a wedge between subscriber side and exchange side. This is how the present day telephone system works.Each rack consists of eight tags. The MDF is properly earthed for the protection of the equipment.E. while connection from the equipment is done on the exchange side in a numerical order. Different exchanges have different architectures of switching call routing and other features. 1 tag = 4 core 1 core = 4 bunch 1 bunch = 2 line N. The external pairs are area wise terminated on the line side of the frame. The courting is done from up (0) to down (7). FUNCTION OF MDF: ‡ A fixed means of terminating the external cables.:. It is a 128 pair cable. ‡ A means for mounting the protective devices for incoming circuits. This MDF mounts Delay Fuses only.

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